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Canadian Journal of Animal Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.403
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0008-3984 - ISSN (Online) 1918-1825
Published by NRC Research Press Homepage  [19 journals]
  • Note of appreciation

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      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2024-02-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0097
       
  • Evaluation of cool-season perennial forage varieties as monocultures and
           legume–grass binary mixtures under intensive grazing

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      Authors: Cassidy Sim, Diego Moya, Bill Biligetu, Gabriel O. Ribeiro, Daalkhaijav Damiran, Herbert A. Lardner
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      In Canada, new forage varieties need not undergo grazing trials before registration and sale. To evaluate the effect of grazing, six cool-season species including meadow bromegrass (Bromus riparius Rehmann), orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifoila Scop.), and three alfalfa varieties (Medicago sativa L.) were established in monocultures and grass–legume binary mixtures in Saskatchewan, Canada. Forage treatments were randomly established within each of three 3.5 ha paddock replicates. In Year 1, 69 Bos taurus crossbred steers, and in Year 2, 149 steers were homogenously allocated to the three paddocks for the grazing trials. Alfalfa monocultures had the greatest (p 
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2024-01-15T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0093
       
  • Effect of dietary nitrogen content and ammonium phosphate inclusion on
           lysine requirement for nitrogen retention in growing pigs

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      Authors: Miranda J. Buchinski, Michael O. Wellington, Carley M. Camiré, Josiane C. Panisson, Anna K. Shoveller, Daniel A. Columbus
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      Inclusion of a source of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) may improve essential amino acid (EAA) and nitrogen (N) utilization in N-limiting diets. Growing barrows (20.4 ± 0.5 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 10 dietary treatments (n = 9 pigs/treatment) in nine blocks. Diets contained no ammonium phosphate (NAP) or 1.7% ammonium phosphate (AP) to have an EAA-N:total N ratio of 0.36 and 0.33, respectively, with graded levels of dietary lysine (Lys; 0.8%, 0.9%, 1.0%, 1.1%, and 1.2% standardized ileal digestible (SID)). Following a 7-day dietary adaptation, a 4-day N-balance collection period was conducted. Blood samples were obtained on day 2 of the collection period. Nitrogen retention (NR) increased and urinary N output decreased with inclusion of NPN and increasing Lys (P 
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2024-01-05T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0111
       
  • An assessment of the environmental sustainability of beef production in
           Canada

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      Authors: Isaac A. Aboagye, Gayathri Valappil, Baishali Dutta, Hugues Imbeault-Tétreault, Kim H. Ominski, Marcos R.C. Cordeiro, Roland Kröbel, Sarah J. Pogue, Tim A. McAllister
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      This study assessed the environmental impacts of beef cattle production and their effects on the overall sustainability of Canadian beef production. Cradle to farm gate, cradle to processor’s gate, and cradle to consumer plate life cycle assessments were carried out to quantify greenhouse gases (GHG), resource use (i.e., water, land, and fuel), and potential water and air pollution (i.e., freshwater eutrophication, terrestrial acidification, and photochemical oxidants formation). Across the production chain, feed production had the greatest impact on most environmental indicators. The GHG intensity without dairy meat was estimated as 10.4 kg CO2-eq per kg of live weight (LW), corresponding to 32.8 kg CO2-eq per kg of consumed boneless beef. Including dairy meat reduced GHG intensity by 5.8% (0.6 kg CO2-eq kg LW–1) compared to when it was excluded. Other environmental metrics per kg of LW were 657 L, 38.7 m2 annual crop-eq, 0.4 kg oil-eq, 2.6 kg P-eq, 115.9 kg SO2-eq, and 8.7 kg NOx-eq for water use, land use, fossil fuel use, freshwater eutrophication, terrestrial acidification, and photochemical oxidants, respectively. Data provide benchmarks for use in future regional and national assessments that are designed to encourage the adoption of sustainable management practices that can lower the environmental footprint of Canadian beef production.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2024-01-04T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0077
       
  • Effect of dietary almond hull on growth performance, nutrient
           digestibility, fecal microbial, fecal score, and noxious gas emission in
           growing pigs

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      Authors: Golam Sagir Ahammad, Chai Bin Lim, In Ho Kim
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      In a 42-day study, 195 growing pigs (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) weighing 23.83 ± 1.95 kg were randomly divided into three treatments, each with 13 replicates and 5 pigs (3 barrows and 2 gilts) per pen. The treatments were control (CON)—basal diet, and basal diet with 3% and 6% almond hull as treatment (TRT) 1 and 2, respectively. The results show a significant increase (p < 0.05) in average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) for both treatment 1 and treatment 2 by week 6 when compared to the control group. This improvement in ADG and ADFI exhibits a consistent trend (p < 0.10) throughout the overall trial period in comparison to the control group. Additionally, there is a tendency for enhanced gain-to-feed ratio (G:F) at the end of week 6 (p  0.05). No significant impact (p > 0.05) on nutrient digestibility and fecal microbiota was observed. However, NH3 gas showed a tendency to decrease (p 
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-12-19T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0072
       
  • Impact of dietary zinc and copper levels on ileal and total apparent
           nutrient digestibility in growing pigs

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      Authors: Mohamed Ali Ketata, Marie-Pierre Létourneau-Montminy, Frédéric Guay
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) levels on their apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and total tract digestibility (ATTD) and that of calcium (Ca), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), phosphorus (P), and fiber in pigs. The experiment was carried out with six individuals fitted with a T-cannula. Pigs received one of four diets with two levels of Zn (100 [low] and 500 [high] mg/kg) and Cu (40 [low] and 80 [high] mg/kg). High Zn increased AID of Zn and Mn, but decreased that of Ca (p 
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-12-18T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0082
       
  • Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in calpastatin gene and the association
           with growth traits in Tibetan sheep (Ovis aries)

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      Authors: Zhanhong Gao, Sayed Haidar Abbas Raza, Boyan Ma, Fengshuo Zhang, Shengzhen Hou, Hessah Alshammari, Essam Eldin Abdelhady Salama, Waleed Al Abdulmonem, Yousef Mesfer Alharbi, Abdullah S.M. Aljohanih, Ahmed A. El-Mansi, Ayman Hassan Abd El-Aziz, Bandar Hamad Aloufi, Linsheng Gui
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      The calpastatin gene has been extensively studied as a candidate gene because of its regulatory function within muscle development of animals. However, little is known about the association between variation of the calpastatin gene and growth traits in Tibetan sheep. Using DNA sequencing, four single-nucleotide polymorphisms g.3844A>G, g.88874T>C, g.89126C>T, and g.89157A>C were identified in this study. An association analysis indicates that the g.3844A>G and g.89126C>T polymorphisms affected body weight (P C polymorphism was significantly correlated with body weight and chest circumference (P 
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-12-11T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0102
       
  • Dietary Bacillus subtilis- and Clostridium butyricum-based probiotics
           supplement improves growth and meat quality, and alters microbiota in the
           excreta of broiler chickens

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      Authors: Qianqian Zhang, Sungbo Cho, Sumya Kibria, In Ho Kim
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated the effects of the multi-probiotics consisting of Bacillus subtilis and Clostridium butyricum with varying doses (0%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2%) on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, meat quality, and cecal microbes of male broiler chickens. Seven hundred and twenty Ross 308, 1-day-old male broiler chicks were distributed into four dietary groups. Over 35 days of feeding, the average daily gain (ADG) was linearly elevated (P 
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-12-11T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0076
       
  • Prediction of ileal digestible phosphorus in broiler chicken diets
           supplemented with exogenous phytase

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      Authors: Jung Yeol Sung, Olayiwola Adeola
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      The objectives were to develop equations for predicting ileal digestible phosphorus (P) based on nonphytate P, phytate P, calcium to nonphytate P ratio, and exogenous phytase concentrations in broiler diets and to evaluate the accuracy of the models. The modified Michaelis–Menten model was used to predict apparent ileal digestible (AID) or standardized ileal digestible P in broiler diets. Two different methods were used to analyze 25 published ileal digestible P data to evaluate the accuracy of the equation for predicting AID P. The first method assessed mean and linear biases. While the mean bias was significant (P 
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-12-11T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0103
       
  • Performance and ruminal fermentation of second-trimester pregnant beef
           cows fed short-season high-moisture corn stover or barley greenfeed during
           winter in western Canada

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      Authors: R.E. Carey, H.A. Lardner, T.A. McAllister, G.B. Penner
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      This study evaluated performance and ruminal fermentation for cows fed short-season high-moisture shelled corn stover with corn dried distillers’ grains with solubles (COR) or barley greenfeed (BAR) that was either swathed (S-COR; S-BAR; Experiment 1) or baled (B-COR; B-BAR; Experiment 2) as winter-feeding systems. In Experiment 1, cows were randomly assigned to S-COR or S-BAR and fed for 52 days in the fields where crops were grown. Body weight (BW), subcutaneous rib and rump fat, and body condition score (BCS) were measured, with no differences detected between treatments (P > 0.05). However, S-COR had a lower estimated dry matter intake (DMI) than S-BAR (P ≤ 0.03). In Experiment 2, cows were assigned to B-COR or B-BAR for 42 days and fed in field paddocks. Cows fed B-COR had less (P ≤ 0.01) DMI, final BW, rib fat, rump fat, and BCS than B-BAR, with no differences (P > 0.05) for ruminal pH. Total SCFA concentration was greater (P ≤ 0.05) on day 21 for B-BAR than B-COR, but not on day 42. Under western Canadian conditions, COR may reduce DMI and the performance of pregnant cows, suggesting that additional preservation and supplementation strategies should be investigated.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-12-04T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0035
       
  • Effect of sodium sulfate concentration in drinking water for beef heifers,
           and the in vitro effect of bismuth subsalicylate on H2S production and
           fiber disappearance

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      Authors: M.G. Evans, G.O. Ribeiro, D.H. Henry, J.A. Johnson, J.R. Campbell, C. Waldner, G.B. Penner
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      This study evaluated the effects of (i) increasing the concentration of sulfate in drinking water on dry matter intake (DMI), water intake, ruminal fermentation, and apparent total-tract digestibility, and (ii) water sulfate concentration and bismuth subsalicylate (BSS) dose on in vitro ruminal fermentation. Eight ruminally cannulated beef heifers (382 ± 45 kg) were used in a replicated incomplete 3 × 3 Latin square design. Water treatments contained low (342 ± 29 mg/L; LS), medium (2785 ± 72 mg/L; MS), or high (4948 ± 163 mg/L; HS) sulfate. Ruminal digesta was collected to evaluate water sulfate and BSS dose (0.0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.6% dry matter) on ruminal H2S production in vitro. Water intake increased linearly as water sulfate concentration increased (p = 0.002), but DMI was not affected. Heifers drinking MS and HS had greater ruminal H2S at 10.5 h after water provision than LS (sulfate × time, p 
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-11-30T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0054
       
  • Estimation of digestible zinc and copper in pigs: a meta-analysis approach

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      Authors: Mohamed Ali Ketata, Marie-Pierre Létourneau-Montminy, Frédéric Guay
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of Zn and Cu supplementation and nutritional factors on the digestible content of these minerals using a meta-analysis approach. A database derived from 24 publications and describing 142 experimental treatments was compiled. A model showed that positive effects of chelated, (linear and quadratic, P 
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-11-21T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0064
       
  • The effects of raw and steam-pressure toasted faba bean seeds on the
           production performance in high-lactating dairy cows

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      Authors: María E. Rodríguez Espinosa, Víctor H. Guevara Oquendo, David A. Christensen, Peiqiang Yu
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      Introducing new feeds for feeding options requires reliable information to prove beneficial impacts on animal productivity. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of 10% inclusion of raw faba bean seeds (R-FBS) and steam-pressure toasted FBS (SP-FBS) on dairy production performance and metabolism. Snowbird FBS were processed by steam-pressure toasting at 121 °C for 0, 7.5, 15, and 30 min. Total mixed rations (TMRs) were prepared using R-FBS (FBS0) and SP-FBS (FBS7.5, FBS15, and FBS30). The TMRs were fed to cows (second and third lactation, 69 ± 15 days in milk, and 720 kg mean BW) for 120 days (November 2020 to February 2021). Data were analyzed using a repeated 4 × 4 Latin square design model with treatment as the fixed effect and cows as the random effect. Feed efficiency was linearly decreased as processing times increased (P = 0.02) from 1.63 with FBS0 to 1.52 with FBS30. Milk urea nitrogen decreased from 12.18 mg/dL with FBS0 to 11.10 mg/dL with FBS30 (linear P 
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-11-15T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0087
       
  • Centre pork chop colour classification using image analysis on the ventral
           surface of the loin

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      Authors: X. Wei, B. Bohrer, B. Uttaro, M. Juárez
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      Image analysis of ventral, anterior, and posterior ends of 550 pork loins was used to classify extreme-coloured centre chops. Only the ventral side was strongly correlated (r = 0.79) to the centre chop. Thresholds at 2.5th, 5th, and 7.5th percentiles of ventral surface pale pork were selected to classify centre chop pale pork (5th percentile). Increasing stringency increased accuracy in excluding pale samples. At the 7.5th percentile, prediction accuracy of pale (85.7%) and non-pale samples (89.5%) was balanced. This method can be adopted by commercial pork processors as a classification or pre-sorting approach.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-11-13T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0011
       
  • Inclusion of dietary Quillaja saponin and seaweed on growth efficiency,
           noxious gas emissions, and fecal score in weaning pigs

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      Authors: Sharif Uddin Khan, Jun ho Song, In Ho Kim
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to investigate the dietary effects of Quillaja saponin (QS) and seaweed (SW) on growth performance, fecal score, and gas emissions in weaning pigs. A total of 120, 21-day old crossbred ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc) weaning pigs were randomly assigned to three treatment groups. These dietary treatments consisted of (1) TRT1: CON (basal diet), (2) TRT2: CON + 200 mg/kg QS, and (3) TRT3: CON + 500 mg/kg SW. Pigs were raised in 10 replicate pens per treatment (two males per pen and two females per pen) for 5 weeks based on body weight and sex. The inclusion of QS significantly (p 
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-11-09T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0031
       
  • Probiotic complex supplementation to growing pig’s diet enhances daily
           growth and reduces fecal gas emission

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      Authors: Shanchuan Cao, Sungbo Cho, Jae Hong Park, Yangseon Kim, In Ho Kim
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      A total of 180 growing pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) with an initial body weight (BW) of 23.58 ± 0.8 kg were used in this experiment. According to initial BW and sex, pigs were randomly allotted three dietary treatments, 12 replicates (pen) per treatment, and five pigs per pen. The three dietary treatments were basal diet (CON) and basal diet supplemented with either 0.1% Bacillus and Saccharomyce s spp.-based probiotics complex (BS1) or 0.2% probiotics complex (BS2). The whole experiment lasted 42 days. The results showed that the BW of pigs fed the BS1 diet was significantly higher than those fed the CON diet on day 42 (P 
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-11-08T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0016
       
  • An evaluation of the effects of dietary mixed-species direct-fed microbial
           (probiotic) on growth performance, gas emissions, meat quality, nutrient
           digestibility, and fecal score in finishing pigs

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      Authors: Sumaya Tanzin Wahid, In Ho Kim
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined the effects of mixed-species direct-fed microbial (DFM) on growth performance, gas emissions, meat quality, nutrient digestibility, and the fecal score of finishing pigs. A total of 100 crossbred finishing pigs ((Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc) weighing 58.97 ± 3.12 kg were randomly assigned to one of two diets (5 pigs per pen (2 barrows and 3 gilts); 50 pigs per treatment) in an 8-week trial. Dietary treatments comprised of the basal diet without probiotics control or basal diet + (0.1%) mixed probiotics (DFM). Mixed DFM supplementation showed a tendency to increase (P = 0.093) the body weight of finishing pigs during day 56. Comparing mixed DFM with the control diet, mixed probiotics significantly improved average daily gain (ADG) during weeks 5–8 (P = 0.024) and overall (P = 0.013). DFM-supplemented diets reduced the emission of CH4 and NH3 significantly at weeks 4 and 8 compared with control. DFM supplementation did not affect H2S, methyl mercaptans, acetic acid, or CO2 emissions. Mixed DFM supplementation showed a tendency to increase (P = 0.07) nitrogen digestibility. Pigs receiving mixed DFM had improved ADG and reduced NH3 and CH4 emissions without affecting meat quality, nutrient digestibility, intestinal microbes, and fecal score.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-11-06T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0043
       
  • Supplementation of microencapsulated sodium butyrate on the performance,
           haemato-biochemical profile and intestinal microbiota composition of
           broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria spp.

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      Authors: Bárbara Fernanda da Silva Barbosa, Gabrieli Andressa de Lima, Gabriela Ventura, Bruna Abrahão Trevizan, Elis Omar Figueroa Castillo, Jéssica Tuane Bortoloto, Gustavo do Valle Polycarpo, Jaqueline Dalbello Biller, Alda Maria Backx Noronha Madeira, Valquíria Cação Cruz-Polycarpo
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of microencapsulated sodium butyrate (MSB) in substitution to antibiotics on performance, haematology, intestinal lesion scores, and oocyst count in the excreta of broilers challenged with Eimeria spp. A total of 1050 male Ross chicks were used, distributed in completely randomized design, with six treatments: unchallenged control diet (UC); challenged control diet (CCD); challenged and supplemented (CS) with 1000 mg/kg of MSB; CS with 1500 mg/kg of MSB; CS with 2000 mg/kg of MSB; and CS with avilamycin, with five repetitions. At 16 days of age (d.o.), the birds were inoculated orally with Eimeria spp. oocysts. Higher average weightgain (AWG) and average feed intake (AFI) were observed in the UC, and at the 42 d.o., better feed conversion ratio (FCR) and productive efficiency factor (PEF). The group that received the additives showed higher relative abundance of the phylum Bacteroidetes, as well as that of the unchallenged birds; however, the CCD had higher relative abundance of the phylum Firmicutes. It is concluded that MSB can be used as an alternative to antibiotics, assisting in the recovery of performance and gut microbiota biodiversity.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-10-24T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0002
       
  • Associations of cow-level factors with the risk of poor hygiene in cows
           housed in free-stall and tie-stall barns

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      Authors: I. Robles, D.F. Kelton, T.J. DeVries
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      The objective of this study was to identify cow-level factors associated with poor body hygiene. Cows (n = 2644) from 68 commercial dairy herds (free-stall (n = 43); tie-stall (n = 25)) in Ontario, Canada were enrolled. Cows were hygiene scored on each of three visits (7 days apart). Older cows were at higher risk of having a dirty udder and dirty upper legs and flanks in free-stall barns and younger cows were at higher risk of having dirty upper legs and flanks in tie-stall barns. Higher days in milk was associated with better hygiene for cows housed in both free-stall and tie-stall barns.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-10-19T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0084
       
  • Fish oil divergently enriches broiler meat with long chain ω-3
           polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCω-3PUFAs) by modulating the ratio of ω-3
           to ω-6 PUFAs without disrupting gut morphology and cardio-pulmonary
           morphometry

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      Authors: Md. Emran Hossain, Goutam Buddha Das, Priunka Bhowmik, Kona Adhikary, Md. Nahid Sultan, Shilpi Islam, Nasima Akter
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      A trial was conducted for 35 days to investigate if replacement of soybean oil (SO) for fish oil (FO) influenced average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), final live weight (FLW), feed efficiency (FE), haemato-biochemical indices, carcass traits, cardio-pulmonary morphometry, gut morphology, nutrient digestibility, and fatty acid profile of the broiler chicken. A total of 350, day-old Ross-308 male broilers were distributed in a completely randomized design into five dietary treatment groups designated as FO0% (diet without FO, i.e., 100% SO), FO25% (diet containing 25% FO + 75% SO), FO50% (diet containing 50% FO + 50% SO), FO75% (diet containing 75% FO + 25% SO), and FO100% (diet containing 100% FO). Each treatment was replicated seven times containing 10 birds per replicate. Results indicated that complete replacement of SO for FO increased 4.7% FLW, 12.4% ADFI, 3.9% ADG, 16.2% HDL, and 8.6% CP. Although, FO contained 471.1% more ∑LCω-3PUFAs than SO, the FO-supplemented breast meat was enriched with net increment of 45.0% ∑LCω-3PUFAs and 81.0% ∑ω-3: ∑ω-6 at the expense of 7.1% FE and 26.8% MDA. Complete replacement of SO for FO did not compromise net profit. Hence, replacement of SO for FO may be commercially plausible.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-10-06T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2022-0143
       
  • Silybum marianum seed extract as a potential phytogenic feed additive for
           improving growth performance and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs

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      Authors: Md Mortuza Hossain, Sung Bo Cho, In Ho Kim
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      Silymarin is the flavonoid extracted from Silybum marianum seed. It has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, and it supports liver health. The growth performance parameters, nutrient digestibility, and blood profile in growing pigs fed the dietary Silybum marianum seed extract were analyzed in this study. A total of 196 crossbred growing pigs ((Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc) were allocated into three dietary groups: CON: basal diet; TRT1: basal diet with 0.05% Silybum marianum seed extract; and TRT2: basal diet with 0.10% Silybum marianum seed extract. Results showed that pigs fed with Silybum marianum seed extract up to 0.10% increased average daily gain (p 
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-10-06T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0053
       
  • Quantification of biogenic amines and adaptation of an index as a quality
           indicator of rendered pig meals

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      Authors: Cristiéle Lange Contreira, Larissa Rossett Corezzolla, Gizelle Cristina Bedendo, Everton Luis Krabbe, Edenilse Gopinger, Valdir Silveira de Avila, Fernando Rutz
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      The objective of this study was to quantify biogenic amines and to adapt equations for the calculation of the biogenic amine index (BAI) in rendered pig carcass meals (RPCM). Samples of RPCM from three different origins were evaluated: Group 1—experimentally produced meal; Group 2—meal produced in a plant dedicated to rendering pigs dead on the farm due to non-infectious causes; and Group 3—meal produced in commercial rendering plants. Group 1 meals were produced from sow carcasses that were stored either under environmental temperature (ET = 25 °C) or refrigeration temperature (RT = −6 °C), and their biogenic amine contents were analyzed at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h of storage. The levels of the biogenic amines phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine, and spermine of all meals were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and their BAIs were calculated. Group 1 meals stored at ET presented higher phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine contents compared with those stored at RT after 24 h storage, whereas spermidine and spermine contents decreased after 24 h of storage at ET. The adapted BAI can be used as a quality indicator of RPCM.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-09-29T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0029
       
  • Comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analyses provide insights into
           the key genes involved in muscle growth in the large Diqing Tibetan pig

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      Authors: Jingru Nie, Bo Zhang, Li Ma, Dawei Yan, Hao Zhang, Ying Bai, Shiyi Liu, Xinxing Dong
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      Pig growth involves multiple genes and coordinated regulatory mechanisms. The large Diqing Tibetan pigs (TPs) are a unique plateau pig breed in China. Data on the mechanisms of muscle growth and development in TPs are limited, and its transcriptional regulation mechanism remains unclear. This study identifies important genes and proteins involved in muscle growth in TPs. We obtained transcriptomic and proteomic data from the longissimus dorsi muscle tissues of TPs and Duroc pigs (DPs) via RNA-seq and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation analyses, respectively. Comparative analyses of TPs and DPs yielded 557 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 56 differentially abundant proteins (DAPs). Functional annotation of these DEGs and DAPs was enriched in metabolic processes, metabolic pathways, cytoskeletal protein binding, AMPK signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway, PPAR signaling pathway, and other related pathways. Ten genes were identified as key candidate regulators (FASN, PPARG, PCK1, ACTA2, TXN, SNU13, APOA1, ATP8, ALDH2, and IGFN1) that may play important roles in the muscle growth traits of TPs. This study provides a reference for analyzing the genetic regulation mechanism underlying muscle growth in pigs and improving the meat yield of TPs via molecular marker-assisted selection.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-09-20T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2022-0073
       
  • Effects of Chinese herbal plant extracts on diarrhea rate, intestinal
           morphology, nutrient digestibility, and immunity of weaned piglets

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      Authors: Shuo Li, Mingjing Sui, Fengyang Wu, Xiang Chen, Baojiang Chen, Langqun Yao
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      This experiment aimed to establish the effects of Chinese herbal plant extracts compound (Astragalus root, Eucommia bark, Honeysuckle, and Quassic) to replace antibiotics on diarrhea rate, intestinal morphology, nutrient digestibility, and immunity of weaned piglets. In a 21 day experiment, 180 weaned piglets were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments, including a basal diet supplemented with 0 + 250 g/t oxytetracycline calcium and 50 g/t virginiamycin (control), 400 (T1), 500 (T2), and 600 (T3) g/t Chinese herbal plant extracts compound. The results showed that diets supplemented with Chinese herbal plant extracts significantly increased the number of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in feces of weaned piglets, the villus height and ratio of villus height to crypt depth of jejunum and ileum, the levels of immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin M, interleukin-2, interleukin-4, total protein, albumin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and the apparent digestibility of energy, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, calcium, and phosphorus (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with Chinese herbal plant extracts significantly reduced the number of Escherichia coli in feces and the diarrhea index (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation with Chinese herbal plant extracts compound preparation can improve intestinal morphology, feed apparent digestibility, and immunity and reduce diarrhea rate of weaned piglets.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-09-20T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0008
       
  • Assessing the methane mitigation potential of Canadian red seaweeds using
           in vitro batch culture

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      Authors: Stephanie A Terry, Vicky Garcia, Karen A Beauchemin
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      Seven red Canadian seaweeds (Callophyllis flabellulata, Graciliariopsis verrucosa, Mastocarpus papillatus, Mazzaella splendens, Mazzaella japonica, Palmaria mollis, and Prionitis lanceolata) and a positive control (Asparagopsis taxiformis) were selected to evaluate their chemical and elemental composition and their effects on in vitro fermentation and methane (CH4) production in an alfalfa hay or barley straw diet. The in vitro batch culture was conducted as a completely randomised design with a control (alfalfa hay or barley straw) and seven increasing concentrations of seaweed. Chemical and elemental composition varied greatly across seaweed genera. Increasing supplementation of A. taxiformis linearly decreased (P 
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-09-18T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0063
       
  • Bias and accuracy of body weight trait evaluations of an F2 chicken using
           single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (ssGBLUP)

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      Authors: Hamed Asadollahi, Saeid Ansari Mahyari, Rasoul Vaez Torshizi, Hossein Emrani, Alireza Ehsani
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      The objectives of this study were (i) to compare the accuracy and bias of estimates of breeding values for body weight (BW) at 2–7 weeks of age using pedigree-based best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) and single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP) methods, and (ii) to determine the best level of minor allele frequencies (MAFs) for pre-selection of SNPs for genomic prediction (GP). Records of 488 F2 broiler chickens obtained from crossbreeding of fast-growing Arian chickens and slow-growing Iranian native chickens at 2–7 weeks of age were used. Samples were genotyped using Illumina Chicken 60K BeadChip. To investigate the effect of MAFs on the accuracy of prediction, 48 379 quality-controlled SNPs were grouped into five subgroups with MAF bins 0.05–0.1, 0.1–0.2, 0.2–0.3, 0.3–0.4, and 0.4–0.5. Our results confirmed the superiority of ssGBLUP compared to traditional BLUP methodology. The average accuracy of GP improved by 59.03%, 220.34%, 0.46%, 5.61%, 0.45%, and 2.73% using ssGBLUP compared to BLUP for BW at 2–7 weeks of age, respectively. Depending on the age group, using a subset of SNPs with a specific MAF bin compared to all SNPs resulted in a remarkable improvement of GP accuracy for the observed traits.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-09-12T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0009
       
  • Effect of chemostat turnover rate and select antibiotics on Salmonella
           Typhimurium in the presence of porcine gastrointestinal tract bacteria

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      Authors: R.C. Anderson, T.L. Poole, T.C. Crippen, R.B. Harvey, S.C. Ricke
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      The effect of select antibiotics on Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 persistence in a porcine cecal continuous flow culture was examined under two different washout rates. Porcine continuous flow cultures were conducted in the presence or absence of gram-positive antibiotic carbadox. Carbadox eliminated chemostat anaerobes culturable on Brucella agar under 24 h turnover conditions, allowing Salmonella Typhimurium to persist for 15 days. Decreasing the culture dilution rate from a 24 to 48 h turnover time enabled Salmonella Typhimurium to maintain higher population levels more reflective of the theoretical washout rate when grown with than without added carbadox. This observation suggests that at the slower growth rate the presence of carbadox was antagonistic to the indigenous competitive exclusion potential of the mixed microbial population.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-09-12T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0019
       
  • Short-season high-moisture shelled corn, snaplage, or corn silage as a
           partial replacement for dry-rolled barley grain or barley silage in
           western Canadian beef cattle finishing diets

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      Authors: R.E. Carey, G.O. Ribeiro, Z.D. Paddock, D. Moya, T.A. McAllister, G.B. Penner
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      The objective was to evaluate the replacement of barley-based ingredients with short-season high-moisture corn products on steer growth performance and carcass characteristics. Over 2 years, 320 beef steers (528 ± 36.2 kg initial body weight) were assigned to 32 pens (4 pens/treatment/year). Treatments were finishing diets that contained dry-rolled barley grain and barley silage (BGBS; control), barley grain and corn silage (BGCS), high-moisture shelled corn and barley grain with barley silage (HCBS), or snaplage (included as a silage and grain source) with barley grain (SNAP). Steers were fed for 99 days and 72 days in years 1 and 2, respectively. Steers fed BGCS did not differ (P ≥ 0.13) from BGBS for dry matter intake, average daily gain, gain:feed, or carcass characteristics. Steers fed HCBS had greater (P ≤ 0.05) hot carcass weight and dressing percentage than BGBS. A lesser (P = 0.02) proportion of steers fed SNAP had severe liver abscesses than BGBS. We concluded that corn silage can replace barley silage, 50% replacement of barley grain with high-moisture shelled corn may improve hot carcass weight, and replacement of barley silage and some barley grain with snaplage decreases the proportion of cattle with severe liver abscesses at slaughter.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-09-11T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0032
       
  • Trends in the risk of heat stress to Canadian dairy cattle in a changing
           climate

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      Authors: Andrew VanderZaag, Etienne Le Riche, Budong Qian, Ward Smith, Hambaliou Baldé, Veronique Ouellet, Édith Charbonneau, Tom Wright, Rob Gordon
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      Canada's climate is warming faster than the global average, but the warming is unevenly distributed. This study analyzes historical and future climate change in dairy-producing regions across Canada to better understand how Canada's dairy cows are affected. Historical changes (i.e., 1960–2019) were assessed using temperature and humidity data from 29 weather stations across the country. The temperature–humidity index (THI) was used as an indicator of dairy cattle at risk of heat stress, and three THI metrics evaluated the frequency, severity, and duration of potential heat stress. Future scenarios were investigated using five global climate models to project daily THI under three Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs). Projections were grouped into three time periods (2020–2049, 2040–2069, and 2060–2089). Historical climate trends show an increase in temperature, humidity, and THI exceedance in most west coast and eastern Canada locations, affecting 84% of the national dairy herd. Future scenarios project that 90% of the national herd will experience a large increase in the frequency, severity, and duration of THI exceedance under all but the most optimistic SSP. These findings highlight the need for Canadian dairy farmers to consider heat-stress adaptation strategies.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-08-22T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0040
       
  • Study of persistency of lactation and survival of Iranian Holstein dairy
           cattle using random regression model

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      Authors: Ali Ashrafian, Nasser Emam Jomeh Kashan, Mokhtar Ali Abbasi, Ali Asghar Sadeghi, Mohammad Rokouei
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this paper is to investigate whether characteristics of the first lactation (FL) curve of Iranian Holstein cows are associated with survival. Cows with least 10 test-days of milk production in their FL were used. The persistency of lactation (PL) and survival were estimated using a random regression model by restricted maximum likelihood with the ECHIDDNA software. We also used the Wood model to parameterize each individual lactation curve and then analyzed various curve characteristics using an animal model. The predicted breeding value (EBV) of the characteristics of the lactation curve of the cows from day 40 to 305 was predicted. The EBV of the production range (PR) and the slope of line in increasing phase (m40,Peak) of production curve of sires with higher survival EBV were lower than other sires (P 
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-08-03T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0007
       
  • Development of an efficiency ranking system for beef cows and effects on
           feed intake, ruminal fermentation, NDF turnover, and apparent total tract
           digestibility

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      Authors: J.J. Delver, H.A. Lardner, J.J. McKinnon, G.O. Ribeiro, M. Asai-Coakwell, G.B. Penner
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      Beef cows (n = 100) were ranked for efficiency based on cow rump fat thickness at calving, calving date, and calf weaning weight (% dam BW) over 2 years. The nine most (ME) and least efficient (LE) cows were used to compare feed intake and ruminal fermentation using four 26-day periods with decreasing dietary nutrient density. There were no phenotype × diet interactions for variables of primary interest. Rump fat and calf weaning weight were greater, and the calving date was earlier for ME cows than LE cows (P ≤ 0.032). The ME cows were lighter (P 
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-08-03T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0004
       
  • Feeding graded levels of camelina expeller meal up to 20% of dietary dry
           matter decreases feed intake and milk production but enhances
           concentration in milk fat of n-3 fatty acids in dairy cows

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      Authors: Timothy Mutsvangwa, Sarah Thomas, Rex Newkirk
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      Eight Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design study to determine the effects of feeding 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% camelina expeller meal (CEM) on production and milk fatty acid profiles. Dry matter intake (DMI) and milk fat content decreased linearly, whereas milk yield decreased quadratically, as CEM increased. Concentrations in milk fat of C18:2n-6 and cis-9, trans-11 C18:2 increased linearly, whereas those of C18:3n-3 and trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 increased quadratically as CEM increased. Results show that CEM levels up to 20% decrease DMI and milk yield but increase concentrations in milk fat of desirable n-3 fatty acids.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-08-02T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0014
       
  • Effect of mixtures of legume species on ruminal fermentation, methane, and
           microbial nitrogen production in batch and continuous culture (RUSITEC)
           systems

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      Authors: B.M. Kelln, G.B. Penner, S.N. Acharya, T.A. McAllister, J.J. McKinnon, A.M. Saleem, B. Biligetu, H.A. Lardner
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      The effect of cicer milkvetch (Astragalus cicer L.) and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) on ruminal fermentation, methane production, and microbial nitrogen synthesis was assessed in two experiments. Experiment 1 analyzed two legumes, cicer milkvetch and sainfoin at two stages (vegetative and late flower) incubated with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) at five inclusion rates 0:100; 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0 (as DM) in batch culture. Experiment 2 analyzed vegetative cicer milkvetch and alfalfa incubated in ratios of 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0 (as DM) in continuous culture systems (RUSITEC). In batch culture, increased dry matter disappearance (DMD), and propionate percentage (%total), and reduced methane (mg·g−1 DMD) occurred with vegetative cicer milkvetch inclusion. In RUSITEC, DMD linearly increased (P 
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-07-28T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2022-0095
       
  • Efficacy of aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaf against strongyle
           and coccidia infections in sheep

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      Authors: Issah Bagulo, Abdul-Rahman Ibn Iddriss, Mohammed Abubakari, Victor Asiedu Nsor, Joshua Katusime
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      Gastrointestinal parasites are developing resistance to various commercial anthelmintics. Hence, the need to explore the efficacies of herbal plants against gastrointestinal parasites. The study was therefore conducted to determine the efficacy of aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaf against strongyles and coccidia spp. in sheep. A total of 60 sheep were used for the study. The animals were randomly assigned to one of the four groups. Those in group A, B, C, and D were given albendazole (ABZ), 10% aqueous V. amygdalina extract (BL10), 20% aqueous V. amygdalina extract (BL20), and 10 mL distilled water, respectively. All four treatments were given orally, depending on the body weight of the animals, with the exception of the distilled water, which was constant (10 mL) for each animal. Faecal samples were collected from each sheep and examined using McMaster technique. The data were analyzed using R version 4.2. The study brought to light that the prevalence of strongyles in sheep was 70% in the study area at pre-treatment. BL10 had efficacies of 52.58% and 65.08% against strongyles and coccidia spp., respectively. BL20 produced similar anthelmintic effect against strongyles as ABZ. Strongyle spp. showed resistance against ABZ in the study area.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-07-18T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0021
       
  • Does the climate influence the variance of residual in litter traits of
           Taiwan Landrace sows'

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      Authors: Kai-Hsiang Lin, Ruei-Syuan Wu, En-Chung Lin
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      Heat stress adversely affects the litter traits of Landrace, the primary dam breed in Taiwan. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of heat stress during sow pregnancy with homogeneous and heterogeneous residuals to estimate the genetic parameters of the Taiwan Landrace. Performance records for 11 657 litters and weather data from 2008 to 2021 were collected. The climate effect was defined proportionally from cool to hot for climates 1 to 5. The homogeneous residual analysis showed that the heritabilities of the total number born (TNB) and number born alive (NBA) were 0.164 ± 0.014 and 0.111 ± 0.014 with residual variances of 10.338 and 9.164, respectively. The heterogeneous residual analysis showed that the residual variances for TNB and NBA were 8.934–11.113 and 8.196–9.810, respectively. For TNB, the residual variance in the herd–year–climate effect differed significantly in climate 1 from climates 3 to 5 (p 
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-06-23T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2022-0113
       
  • The effects of feeding hempseed cake on pancreatic and jejunal digestive
           enzymatic activity in finishing heifers

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      Authors: Md G.K. Mia, Thomas M. Winders, Eric M. Serum, Samat Amat, Bryan W. Neville, Carl R. Dahlen, David J. Smith, Kendall C. Swanson
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Ahead of Print.
      To evaluate the effects of feeding hempseed cake on digestive enzymes, crossbred heifers (n = 32; 494 ± 10 kg body weight) were fed diets containing 20% (dry matter basis) dried corn distillers grains plus solubles or hempseed cake for 111 days. There was greater (P = 0.05) pancreatic mass relative to body weight in heifers fed hempseed cake. No differences (P ≥ 0.19) in digestive enzyme activity in the pancreas (α-amylase, trypsin, and lipase) and jejunum (maltase, glucoamylase, and isomaltase) were observed between treatments. Our results suggest that feeding hempseed cake did not influence digestive enzyme activity.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
      PubDate: 2023-06-12T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjas-2023-0033
       
 
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School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


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