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  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 107 journals)
Showing 1 - 22 of 22 Journals sorted by number of followers
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Animal Welfare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Society and Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Social Choice and Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Learning and Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acrocephalus     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Animal Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Natural History Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
British Poultry Abstracts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
South African Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research Journal of Parasitology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pastoralism : Research, Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Botanical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Ilmiah Peternakan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
TRACE ∴ Finnish Journal for Human-Animal Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Science and Products     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Derecho Animal. Forum of Animal Law Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue de primatologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Animal Sentience : An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens     Open Access  
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access  
Human-Wildlife Interactions     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Peternakan Indonesia     Open Access  
People and Animals : The International Journal of Research and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Uluslararası Tarım ve Yaban Hayatı Bilimleri Dergisi / International Journal of Agricultural and Wildlife Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan     Open Access  
Translational Animal Science     Open Access  
Corpoica Ciencia y Tecnología Agropecuaria     Open Access  
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries     Open Access  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Rangifer     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  

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Animals
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.744
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 11  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2076-2615
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1910: Physical Traits and Reproductive
           

    • Authors: Megan S. Hindman, Brian Huedepohl, Grant A. Dewell, Troy A. Brick, Gustavo S. Silva, Terry J. Engelken
      First page: 1910
      Abstract: Developing and raising replacement heifers requires a large capital investment for producers. Therefore, it is imperative to discover traits and management practices to eliminate subfertile heifers prior to breeding and pregnancy determination. In this study, four years of data was analyzed from a centralized beef heifer development yard in the Midwest of the United States. The objective of this study was to analyze various heifer physical characteristics and management practices in order to quantify their impact on pregnancy and date of conception. Logistic regression models were built to investigate risk factors associated with conception to artificial insemination (AI), pregnancy by natural service after AI exposure, and pregnancy in the first 21-days of the breeding season. Age at entry, average daily gain from entry to breeding, pelvic width, and year were associated with AI pregnancy (p < 0.05). On the second model, average daily gain from entry to yearling weight, weight at breeding, weight at pregnancy diagnosis, and age at AI were significantly associated with pregnancy. There were no associations with reproductive tract score with any of the response variables analyzed. These results indicate there are physical measurements that can be used to improve the ability to select and develop heifers for improved reproductive performance.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151910
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1911: CYP19A1 May Influence Lambing Traits in
           Goats by Regulating the Biological Function of Granulosa Cells

    • Authors: Yan Zhang, Xiang Chen, Zhinan Zhou, Xingzhou Tian, Peifang Yang, Kaibing Fu
      First page: 1911
      Abstract: Abnormal expression of CYP19A1, a gene related to steroid hormone synthesis, causes steroid hormone disruption and leads to abnormal ovulation in granulosa cells. However, the exact mechanism of CYP19A1 regulation is unclear. In this study, we confirmed the localization of CYP19A1 in goat ovarian tissues using immunohistochemistry. Subsequently, we investigated the effects of CYP19A1 on granulosa cell proliferation, steroid hormone secretion, and expression of candidate genes for multiparous traits by overexpressing and silencing CYP19A1 in goat granulosa cells (GCs). The immunohistochemistry results showed that CYP19A1 was expressed in all types of follicular, luteal, and granulosa cells, with subcellular localization results revealing that CYP19A1 protein was mainly localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Overexpression of CYP19A1 significantly increased the mRNA levels of CYP19A1, FSHR, and INHBA, which are candidate genes for multiple birth traits in goats. It also promoted cell proliferation, PCNA and Cyclin E mRNA levels in granulosa cells, and secretion of estrogen and progesterone. However, it inhibited the mRNA levels of STAR, CYP11A1, and 3βSHD, which are genes related to steroid synthesis. Silencing CYP19A1 expression significantly reduced CYP19A1, FSHR, and INHBA mRNA levels in granulosa cells and inhibited granulosa cell proliferation and PCNA and Cyclin E mRNA levels. It also reduced estrogen and progesterone secretion but enhanced the mRNA levels of STAR, CYP11A1, and 3βSHD. CYP19A1 potentially influenced the lambing traits in goats by affecting granulosa cell proliferation, hormone secretion, and expression of candidate genes associated with traits for multiple births.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151911
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1912: Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria
           Isolated from Exotic Pets: The Situation in the Iberian Peninsula

    • Authors: Eleonora Muñoz-Ibarra, Rafael A. Molina-López, Inma Durán, Biel Garcias, Marga Martín, Laila Darwich
      First page: 1912
      Abstract: Literature related to antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria in exotic pets is minimal, being essential to report objective data on this topic, which represents a therapeutic challenge for veterinary medicine and public health. Between 2016 and 2020, laboratory records of 3156 exotic pet specimens’ microbiological diagnoses and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) results were examined. The samples were classified into three animal classes: birds (n = 412), mammalia (n = 2399), and reptilian (n = 345). The most prevalent bacteria in birds and mammals were Staphylococcus spp. (15% and 16%), while in reptiles they were Pseudomonas spp. (23%). Pseudomonas was the genus with the highest levels of AMR in all animal groups, followed by Enterococcus spp. By contrast, Gram-positive cocci and Pasteurella spp. were the most sensitive bacteria. Moreover, in reptiles, Stenotrophomonas spp., Morganella spp., and Acinetobacter spp. presented high levels of AMR. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria were isolates from reptiles (21%), birds (17%), and mammals (15%). The Enterobacterales had the highest MDR levels: S. marcescens (94.4%), C. freundii (50%), M. morganii (47.4%), K. pneumoniae (46.6%), E. cloacae (44%), and E. coli (38.3%). The prevalence of MDR P. aeruginosa strains was 8%, detecting one isolate with an XDR profile. Regarding antimicrobial use, many antibiotics described as critically important for human use had significant AMR prevalence in bacteria isolated from exotic pets. Under the One-Health approach, these results are alarming and of public health concern since potential transmission of AMR bacteria and genes can occur from exotic pets to their owners in both senses. For this reason, the collaboration between veterinarians and public health professionals is crucial.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151912
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1913: The Development of Equestrian Policies in
           China between 2015 and 2020

    • Authors: Jiaxin Li, Enrique López Adán, Alfonso de la Rubia Riaza
      First page: 1913
      Abstract: China competed in equestrian sports for the first time at the 2008 Beijing Olympics. China’s modern equine business has developed significantly over the past decade, and the lessons from the expansion between 2015 and 2020 are important considerations as China implements further legislation to aid in the development of its modern equestrian sports. Equestrian sports can propel the Chinese horse industry forward, and the horse industry is a unique business in that it integrates one, two, and three industries, with much growth potential. This paper assesses the development of equestrianism in China from four perspectives: the general sports economic environment; the development of equestrian activities; the economic industries driven by equestrian activities; and relevant equestrian policies. Equestrian sports within China are currently facing problems, and recommendations are given. This paper is a single case study. The research utilized a qualitative approach, collecting data from official and semi-official documents. Through understanding the data collated and its analysis, equestrian sports can improve the speed and quality of their development under the influence of better-informed policy-making and a relevant economic model. It is expected that the wider related horse industry in China will also undergo more significant development.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151913
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1914: Whole-Genome Survey Analyses Provide a New
           Perspective for the Evolutionary Biology of Shimofuri Goby, Tridentiger
           bifasciatus

    • Authors: Xiang Zhao, Yaxian Liu, Xueqing Du, Siyu Ma, Na Song, Linlin Zhao
      First page: 1914
      Abstract: The shimofuri goby (Tridentiger bifasciatus) is a small and highly adaptable goby, distributed along the coasts of China, the Sea of Japan, and the west coastal and estuarine areas of the Northwest Pacific. Next-generation sequencing was used to generate genome-wide survey data to provide essential characterization of the shimofuri goby genome and for the further mining of genomic information. The genome size of the shimofuri goby was estimated to be approximately 887.60 Mb through K-mer analysis, with a heterozygosity ratio and repeat sequence ratio of 0.47% and 32.60%, respectively. The assembled genome was used to identify microsatellite motifs (Simple Sequence Repeats, SSRs), extract single-copy homologous genes and assemble the mitochondrial genome. A total of 288,730 SSRs were identified. The most frequent SSRs were dinucleotide repeats (with a frequency of 61.15%), followed by trinucleotide (29.87%), tetranucleotide (6.19%), pentanucleotide (1.13%), and hexanucleotide repeats (1.66%). The results of the phylogenetic analysis based on single-copy homologous genes showed that the shimofuri goby and Rhinogobius similis can be clustered into one branch. The shimofuri goby was originally thought to be the same as the chameleon goby (Tridentiger trigonocephalus) due to their close morphological resemblance. However, a complete mitochondrial genome was assembled and the results of the phylogenetic analysis support the inclusion of the shimofuri goby as a separate species. PSMC analysis indicated that the shimofuri goby experienced a bottleneck event during the Pleistocene Glacial Epoch, in which its population size decreased massively, and then it began to recover gradually after the Last Glacial Maximum. This study provides a reference for the further assembly of the complete genome map of the shimofuri goby, and is a valuable genomic resource for the study of its evolutionary biology.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151914
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1915: Human Disturbance and Geometric Constraints
           Drive Small Mammal Diversity and Community Structure along an Elevational
           Gradient in Eastern China

    • Authors: Xiaoxin Pei, Xueyang Ren, Jiangxiao Hu, Kenneth Otieno Onditi, Yifan Xu, Min Zhang, Wenqing Chang, Zhongzheng Chen
      First page: 1915
      Abstract: Understanding the mechanisms influencing patterns and processes of biological diversity is critical to protecting biodiversity, particularly in species-rich ecosystems such as mountains. Even so, there is limited knowledge of biodiversity patterns and processes in the mountains of eastern China, especially about small mammals. In this study, we examined the taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity of small mammal distribution and community structure along the elevational gradient of Qingliang Mountain, eastern China. We then evaluated how they are influenced by space (area and mid-domain effect (MDE)), environment (temperature, precipitation, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)), and human disturbance. The results showed hump-shaped patterns of taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity along elevation gradients, peaking at 1000 m, unlike functional diversity, which peaked at lower elevations (600 m). The mean pairwise distance and mean nearest taxon distance of functional and phylogenetic variance (MFD and MPD, respectively) were also incongruent. The MFD and MPD showed hump-shaped patterns along elevations; however, unlike MFD, which peaked at lower elevations (600 m), MPD peaked at higher elevations (1200 m). The mean nearest functional taxon distance (MNFD) decreased, while the mean nearest phylogenetic taxon distance (MNTD) increased along the elevation gradient. The higher elevations were functionally more clustered, while the lower elevations were phylogenetically more clustered, suggesting that environmental filtering for traits was stronger at higher elevations. In comparison, phylogenetic conservatism of ecological niches had a stronger influence at lower elevations. The diversity and community structure indices were inconsistently explained, with human disturbance and MDE accounting for the biggest proportions of the model-explained variances. Overall, the results confirm that environmental filtering and human disturbance significantly influence small mammals’ diversity and community structure. These findings also emphasize the need for increased conservation efforts in the middle and lower elevation regions of Qingliang Mountain.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151915
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1916: Causes of Raptor Admission to the Wildlife
           Rehabilitation Centre in Abruzzo (Central Italy) from 2005–2016

    • Authors: Ciro Cococcetta, Thomas Coutant, Tommaso Collarile, Alessandro Vetere, Francesco Di Ianni, Minh Huynh
      First page: 1916
      Abstract: The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the causes of morbidity and mortality in free-ranging raptors admitted to a wildlife rehabilitation center (WRC) in Abruzzo Italy from 2005 to 2016 and the associated risk factors. A total of 2496 free-ranging raptors were included in the study. We analyzed the raptors’ medical records, epidemiological information, bird characteristics, cause of admission, final diagnosis, and outcome. The prevalence rates of nocturnal and diurnal raptors were 49% and 51%, respectively. Nocturnal raptors showed trauma as the primary cause of admission (45.8%, 558/1219), followed by nestling (including birds on their first flight attempt or presumed abandoned by their parents) (39.2%, 478/1219), and starvation (5.6%, 68/1219). Diurnal raptors showed trauma (73.1%, 934/1277), starvation (12.1%, 155/1277), and nestling (5.8%, 74/1277) accordingly. A description of the dangers for wild birds of prey in the Abruzzo region was provided to assist in the planning of rescue and rehabilitation activities in the WRC. Finally, the cause of admission, GAP, and BCS can be used as prognostic factors during the bird entry process.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151916
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1917: The Effects of Providing Outdoor Access to
           Broilers in the Tropics on Their Behaviour and Stress Responses

    • Authors: Rubí E. Sánchez-Casanova, Luis Sarmiento-Franco, Clive J. C. Phillips
      First page: 1917
      Abstract: The effects of outdoor access, stocking density, and age on broiler behavior, stress, and health indicators in a tropical climate were assessed over two seasons, winter and summer. Two hundred and forty Cobb500 male chickens were allocated to one of four treatments, with six replicates of ten birds in each: low stocking density indoors with outdoor access (LO); high stocking density indoors with outdoor access (HO); low stocking density indoors without outdoor access (LI); and high stocking density indoors without outdoor access (HI). Scan sampling was used to record their behavior both indoors and outdoors. At 28 and 42 days old, blood samples were obtained to determine the heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio. At 42 days old, chickens were culled and inspected for footpad dermatitis (FPD), and bone quality was examined. Their spleens and bursas of Fabricius were collected and weighed, relative to carcass weight (RW). A factorial analysis was used to test the effects of season (winter or summer), outdoor access (with or without), stocking density (low: 5 animals/m2 or high: 10 animals/m2), and age (28 or 42 days) on the behavior and stress and health indicators. There were no major effects of providing outdoor access on behavior, except that resting was reduced by providing outdoor access to older birds and those at low stocking densities inside. Resting was also greater in indoor and high-density treatments during winter. The bursa of Fabricius was heavier in summer in outdoor birds. The tibia bones were shorter in the outdoor birds. Heterophil numbers were greater in the outdoor treatments in summer but not in winter. These results indicate that outdoor access can increase activity in some situations, and potentially increase bone strength, but it may also increase the risk of stress, particularly heat stress in summer.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151917
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1918: Towards the Identification of a Suitable
           Commercial Diet for Carpione (Salmo carpio, Linnaeus 1758): A
           Multidisciplinary Study on Fish Performances, Animal Welfare and Quality
           Traits

    • Authors: Basilio Randazzo, Matteo Zarantoniello, Giulia Secci, Filippo Faccenda, Francesca Fava, Giulia Marzorati, Alessia Belloni, Francesca Maradonna, Veronica Orazi, Roberto Cerri, Michele Povinelli, Giuliana Parisi, Elisabetta Giorgini, Ike Olivotto
      First page: 1918
      Abstract: Carpione (Salmo carpio, Linnaeus 1758) is an endangered precious endemism of Lake Garda (Northern Italy), the largest Italian lake. To date, several bottlenecks about its culture remain unsolved, including the identification of a proper growth-out diet. The aim of the present study was to test four different grossly isolipidic, isoproteic, and isoenergetic diets in which the main ingredients had a different origin. Specifically, a diet currently used by local farmers for carpione culture, largely based on marine ingredients, was used as control (CTRL), while the other three diets were formulated by partially replacing marine ingredients with plant ones (VEG) or with different percentages of processed animal proteins (PAP1 and PAP2). The feeding trial was run in triplicate, over a three-month period. No significant differences in growth performance among the experimental groups were observed. However, remarkable histological alterations and inflammatory markers upregulation were observed in VEG group, while PAP inclusion played a role in attenuating inflammation and improving nutrient uptake. Fillet analyses highlighted significant differences in marketable traits and flesh fatty acid composition among the experimental groups, including the reduction of polyunsaturated fatty acids related to PAPs inclusion. In conclusion, PAPs used in the present study promoted S. carpio gut health and absorption capacity, while further studies are required to maintain proper quality traits of the final product.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151918
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1919: Plateau Adaptation Gene Analyses Reveal
           Transcriptomic, Proteomic, and Dual Omics Expression in the Lung Tissues
           of Tibetan and Yorkshire Pigs

    • Authors: Peng Shang, Bo Zhang, Pan Li, Zulfiqar Ahmed, Xiaoxiang Hu, Yangzom Chamba, Hao Zhang
      First page: 1919
      Abstract: Elevated environments such as plateaus are often classified as low oxygen environments. The hypoxic adaptation mechanisms utilized by organisms in these conditions are not well understood. To address this, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in hypoxia adaptation were assessed using two pig breeds (Tibetan pig [TP] and Yorkshire sow [YY]). Genes related to lung tissue responses to hypoxia were assessed using transcriptomic (using RNA-seq) and proteomic (using iTRAQ) analysis. A total of 1021 DEGs were screened out. In the iTRAQ omics data, a total of 22,100 peptides were obtained and 4518 proteins were found after filtering. A total of 271 differentially expressed proteins [DEPs] were screened using the conditions of p < 0.05; FC ≤ 0.833; and FC ≥ 1.2. A total of 14 DEGs at the mRNA and protein levels were identified and found to be associated with regulation of the inflammatory response; blood particles; and MAPK cascade response regulation. Among the DEGs, six were associated with hypoxia adaptation function (mitochondria and glycolysis) in pigs. The results of this study identify novel candidate genes involved in porcine hypoxia adaptation mechanisms.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151919
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1920: Local and Regional Anaesthetic Techniques in
           Canine Ovariectomy: A Review of the Literature and Technique Description

    • Authors: Vincenzo Cicirelli, Matteo Burgio, Giovanni M. Lacalandra, Giulio G. Aiudi
      First page: 1920
      Abstract: Canine ovariectomy is an elective surgery with a moderate level of pain. Despite its relative simplicity, it requires surgical pain management. This study aimed to collect all recent information about local and regional anaesthetic/analgesic techniques in a review of the literature describing the technique utilised. The various procedures described in this review use local anaesthetics to improve analgesia in the routine systemic anaesthetic protocol. The approach described in this paper is called multimodal analgesia and is used in addition to the normal standard anaesthetic protocol. These techniques proved effective in minimising responses to the surgical stimulus and ensured adequate intraoperative and postoperative analgesia. The routine use of multimodal analgesia is considered a useful alternative for pain management in canine ovariectomy, in that it minimises patient suffering, improves the recovery of rescue analgesia, increases drug savings, and improves animal outcomes. In addition, the use of these local and regional techniques ensures satisfactory analgesic coverage that lasts for the first hours postoperatively.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151920
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1921: Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Free-Ranging
           Three-Toed Sloth (Bradypus variegatus)

    • Authors: Alex Junior Souza de Souza, Andreza Pinheiro Malheiros, Victor Lopes da Silva, Tereza Cristina da Silva, Bruno Cogliati, Lilian Rose Marques de Sá
      First page: 1921
      Abstract: The increasing interest of tumors in wildlife is important for biodiversity conservation and for monitoring environmental agents and/or contaminants with potential impact on human health. Here we described the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in noncirrhotic liver of a free-ranging three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus) from the Atlantic Forest biome in Brazil. The HCC showed a moderate mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate within the tumor tissue but with no inflammation and fibrosis in the adjacent liver tissue. Upon immunohistochemistry, neoplastic cells were diffusely positive for HepPar-1 and glutamine-synthetase presenting an irregular and random immunostaining pattern; β-catenin was positive in the cytoplasmic membrane of malignant hepatocytes; and cytokeratin 19 immunostaining was restricted to bile duct epithelial cells. The liver tissue was negative for HBV-like and HCV-like viruses assessed by molecular tests. The potential similarity of pathogenesis may reinforce the need for research on environmental and/or infectious agents associated with HCC that may contribute to the understanding of cancer in wildlife.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151921
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1922: Oxytetracycline Persistence in Uterine
           Secretion after Intrauterine Administration in Cows with Metritis

    • Authors: Rositsa Mileva, Manol Karadaev, Ivan Fasulkov, Nikolina Rusenova, Nasko Vasilev, Aneliya Milanova
      First page: 1922
      Abstract: Puerperal metritis in cows is often treated with antibacterial drugs. The prudent use of antibiotics in farm animals requires state-of-the-art knowledge of their pharmacokinetics and data from sensitivity tests of pathogenic bacteria. Changes in oxytetracycline levels in the uterine secretion over time after intrauterine administration in cows with metritis were evaluated in relation to the sensitivity of pathogenic bacterial isolates. Oxytetracycline levels in plasma, milk and uterine secretion were determined via LC–MS/MS analysis. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated and their sensitivity to oxytetracycline was determined. The concentrations of oxytetracycline in the uterine secretion were 433.79 (39.17–1668.76) µg·mL−1 six hours after the third application at a dose of 8 mg/kg and 84.33 (1.58–467.55) µg·mL−1 96 h after the last treatment. These levels were higher than the minimum inhibitory concentrations—namely, between 4 and 64 µg·mL−1—against pathogenic isolates Trueperella pyogenes, Streptococcus intermedius, Escherichia coli and Bacillus pumilis. Higher concentrations over time were measured in milk rather than in plasma, indicating the need to monitor the withdrawal time for milk. The intrauterine infusion of oxytetracycline for three consecutive days resulted in the successful treatment of metritis in terms alleviating inflammation and restoring the estrus cycle in cows.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151922
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1923: Relay Intercropping Winter Cover Crop
           Effects on Spring Forage Potential of Sweet Maize Stover and Yearling
           Cattle Beef Performance

    • Authors: Leonard M. Lauriault, Steven J. Guldan, Fernanda G. Popiel-Powers, Robert L. Steiner, Charles A. Martin, Constance L. Falk, Mark K. Petersen, Tammy May
      First page: 1923
      Abstract: Small landholders who grow sweet maize for the fresh produce market often also have cattle with little access to winter forage. Grazing cover crops with sweet maize stover can potentially increase the available nutritive value. A 3-year randomized complete block study with three replicates at New Mexico State University’s Alcalde Sustainable Agriculture Science Center compared sweet maize (Zea mays var. rugosa) with sweet maize relay intercropped at the V7–9 stage with cereal rye (rye: Secale cereale L.) or hairy vetch (vetch: Vicia villosa Roth) for early spring grazing. Intercropping the rye or hairy vetch into sweet maize did not influence the sweet maize stover biomass yield or nutritive value after the winter. The dry matter (DM) yield and crude protein (CP) concentration of hairy vetch biomass was greater (p < 0.01) than rye biomass (1.46 vs. 2.94 Mg DM ha−1 for rye and hairy vetch, respectively, and 145 vs. 193 g CP kg−1 for rye and hairy vetch, respectively). Average daily gains by yearling cattle were not different when grazing maize–rye or maize–vetch. Producers should consider the spring planting timing of the primary crop and the initiation of grazing in the winter or the spring to maximize the utilization of the previous crop’s residue (stover), as well as the cover crop itself.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151923
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1924: The ClassyFarm System in Tuscan Beef Cattle
           Farms and the Association between Animal Welfare Level and Productive
           Performance

    • Authors: Francesco Mariottini, Lorella Giuliotti, Marta Gracci, Maria Novella Benvenuti, Federica Salari, Luca Arzilli, Mina Martini, Cristina Roncoroni, Giovanni Brajon
      First page: 1924
      Abstract: In 2018, the Italian Ministry of Health introduced the ClassyFarm system in order to categorize the level of risk related to animal welfare. The ClassyFarm checklist for beef cattle is divided into four areas: Areas A “Farm management and personnel”; B “Structures and equipment”; C “Animal-based measures”; and “Emergency plan and alert system”. Answers contribute to the final Animal Welfare Score (AWS) and to the score of each area. The aim of this work was to assess the animal welfare level on 10 Tuscan beef cattle farms through the ClassyFarm checklist and to examine the relationship between the level of animal welfare on final weight (FW), carcass weight (CW), weight gain (WG), and average daily gain (ADG). The AWS was divided into four classes, and the scores for each area were divided into three classes. The analysis of variance was applied, and AWS class, sex, and breeding techniques (open and closed cycle) were included in the model. The AWS class and sex had a highly significant influence on all parameters, while the breeding technique did not significantly influence any parameter. Farms classified as excellent presented a higher FW (677.9 kg) than those classified as good and insufficient, and the same trend was found for the ADG. The classes obtained in Areas A and C had a highly significant influence on all the parameters investigated. The classes obtained in Area B significantly influenced FW and WG. In conclusion, the productive response of the animals seemed to benefit from the welfare conditions.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151924
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1925: Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation and Rate
           of Gain in Beef Heifers II: Effects on Concentration of Trace Minerals in
           Maternal Liver and Fetal Liver, Muscle, Allantoic, and Amniotic Fluids at
           Day 83 of Gestation

    • Authors: Kacie L. McCarthy, Ana Clara B. Menezes, Cierrah J. Kassetas, Friederike Baumgaertner, James D. Kirsch, Sheri T. Dorsam, Tammi L. Neville, Alison K. Ward, Pawel P. Borowicz, Lawrence P. Reynolds, Kevin K. Sedivec, J. Chris Forcherio, Ronald Scott, Joel S. Caton, Carl R. Dahlen
      First page: 1925
      Abstract: We evaluated the effects of vitamin and mineral supplementation (from pre-breeding to day 83 of gestation) and two rates of gain (from breeding to day 83 of gestation) on trace mineral concentrations in maternal and fetal liver, fetal muscle, and allantoic (ALF) and amniotic (AMF) fluids. Crossbred Angus heifers (n = 35; BW = 359.5 ± 7.1 kg) were randomly assigned to one of two vitamin and mineral supplementation treatments (VMSUP; supplemented (VTM) vs. unsupplemented (NoVTM)). The VMSUP factor was initiated 71 to 148 d before artificial insemination (AI), allowing time for the mineral status of heifers to be altered in advance of breeding. The VTM supplement (113 g·heifer−1·d−1) provided macro and trace minerals and vitamins A, D, and E to meet 110% of the requirements specified by the NASEM, and the NoVTM supplement was a pelleted product fed at a 0.45 kg·heifer−1·day−1 with no added vitamin and mineral supplement. At AI, heifers were assigned to one of two rates of gain treatments (GAIN; low gain (LG) 0.28 kg/d or moderate gain (MG) 0.79 kg/d) within their respective VMSUP groups. On d 83 of gestation fetal liver, fetal muscle, ALF, and AMF were collected. Liver biopsies were performed prior to VMSUP factor initiation, at the time of AI, and at the time of ovariohysterectomy. Samples were analyzed for concentrations of Se, Cu, Zn, Mo, Mn, and Co. A VMSUP × GAIN × day interaction was present for Se and Cu (p < 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively), with concentrations for heifers receiving VTM being greater at AI and tissue collection compared with heifers not receiving VTM (p < 0.01). A VMSUP × day interaction (p = 0.01) was present for Co, with greater (p < 0.01) concentrations for VTM than NoVTM at the time of breeding. VTM-MG heifers had greater concentrations of Mn than all other treatments (VMSUP × GAIN, p < 0.01). Mo was greater (p = 0.04) for MG than LG, while Zn concentrations decreased throughout the experiment (p < 0.01). Concentrations of Se (p < 0.01), Cu (p = 0.01), Mn (p = 0.04), and Co (p = 0.01) were greater in fetal liver from VTM than NoVTM. Mo (p ≤ 0.04) and Co (p < 0.01) were affected by GAIN, with greater concentrations in fetal liver from LG than MG. In fetal muscle, Se (p = 0.02) and Zn (p < 0.01) were greater for VTM than NoVTM. Additionally, Zn in fetal muscle was affected by GAIN (p < 0.01), with greater concentrations in LG than MG. The ALF in VTM heifers (p < 0.01) had greater Se and Co than NoVTM. In AMF, trace mineral concentrations were not affected (p ≥ 0.13) by VMSUP, GAIN, or their interaction. Collectively, these data suggest that maternal nutrition pre-breeding and in the first trimester of gestation affects fetal reserves of some trace minerals, which may have long-lasting impacts on offspring performance and health.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151925
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1926: Application of a Bio-Economic Model to
           Demonstrate the Importance of Health Traits in Herd Management of
           Lithuanian Dairy Breeds

    • Authors: Šarūnė Marašinskienė, Rūta Šveistienė, Barbara Kosińska-Selbi, Christin Schmidtmann, Jehan Frans Ettema, Violeta Juškienė, Morten Kargo
      First page: 1926
      Abstract: Assessing the economic importance of traits is crucial for delivering appropriate breeding goals in dairy cattle breeding. The aim of the present study was to calculate economic values (EV) and assign the importance of health traits for three dairy cattle breeds: Lithuanian Black-and-White open population (LBW), Lithuanian Red open population (LR) and Lithuanian Red old genotype (LROG). The EV estimation was carried out using a stochastic bio-economic model SimHerd, which allows the simulation of the expected monetary gain of dairy herds. The simulation model was calibrated for LBW, LR and LROG breeds, taking into account breed-specific phenotypic and economic data. For each trait, two scenarios were simulated with a respective trait at different phenotypic levels. To obtain the EVs, the scenarios were compared with each other in terms of their economic outcomes. In order to avoid the double counting of the effects, the output results were corrected using a multiple regression analysis with mediator variables. The EVs were derived for the traits related to production ECM (energy-corrected milk), fertility, calving traits, calf survival, cow survival and direct health. To demonstrate the importance of health traits in herd management, we provided reliable EVs estimates for functional traits related to herd health. The highest EV for direct health traits, caused by an increase in of 1 percentage point, were those found for mastitis (EUR 1.73 to EUR 1.82 per cow-year) and lameness (EUR 1.07 to EUR 1.27 per cow-year). The total costs per case of ketosis, milk fever and metritis ranged from EUR 1.01 to EUR 1.30, EUR 1.14 to EUR 1.26 and EUR 0.95 to EUR 1.0, respectively. The highest economic values of dystocia were estimated for LROG (EUR −1.32), slightly lower for LBW (EUR −1.31) and LR (EUR −1.23). The results of this study show the importance of health traits to the economic features of cattle herd selection of new breeding goal and this would improve the herd health. The economic evaluation of the functional traits analyzed in this study indicated the significant economic importance of the functional traits in Lithuanian dairy cattle breeds.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151926
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1927: The Replacement of Ground Corn with Sugar
           Beet in the Diet of Pasture-Fed Lactating Dairy Cows and Its Effect on
           Productive Performance and Rumen Metabolism

    • Authors: Juan Pablo Keim, Jonattan Mora, Sebastián Ojeda, Bernardita Saldías, Ulrike Bedenk
      First page: 1927
      Abstract: (1) Background: Sugars have a potential to provide great amounts of fermentable energy in the rumen. Feeding fresh sugar beet (SB) to dairy cattle to replace a portion of the grain in the ration has not received sufficient attention. This study determined dry matter intake (DMI), feeding behavior, rumen fermentation and milk production responses when replacing corn grain with increasing levels of SB in pasture-fed lactating dairy cow diets. (2) Methods: A total of 12 early-lactation cows were used in a replicated (n = 4) 3 × 3 Latin square design. The control diet consisted of 21 kg dry matter (DM) composed of 6.3 kg DM green chopped perennial ryegrass, 7 kg DM grass silage, 2 kg DM of concentrate, 1 kg DM soybean meal and 4.5 kg DM of ground corn. The other treatments replaced 50% or 100% of the ground corn with SB roots. (3) Results: The replacement of ground corn with sugar beet reduced DMI and milk yield (p < 0.05), but it increased milk fat concentration (p = 0.045), reduced feeding costs and increased margin over feed costs (p < 0.01). Urinary nitrogen was linearly reduced with SB supplementation (p = 0.026). (4) Conclusions: Using SB roots as energetic supplement can be a suitable alternative to ground corn in pasture-fed lactating dairy cows.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151927
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1928: Effects of DL and L-Methionine on Growth
           Rate, Feather Growth, and Hematological Parameters of Tetra-SL Layers from
           1–28 Days of Age

    • Authors: James Kachungwa Lugata, János Oláh, Xénia Erika Ozsváth, Renáta Knop, Eszter Angyal, Csaba Szabó
      First page: 1928
      Abstract: The study was carried out to determine whether sources or levels of methionine (Met) affect the health status of Tetra-SL (TSL) chicks by examining growth performance, feather growth, and hematological parameters. A total of ninety-six (96) day-old (44.2 ± 0.18 g lw) TSL chicks were randomly allotted to six treatment groups (three levels for each DL and L-Met source) with four replicates of four chicks each. Chicks were fed ad libitum diets supplemented with 90, 100, and 110% of methionine requirements for four weeks after hatch. The parameters examined are bodyweight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), feather length (FL), and hematological parameters, including: red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb) concentration in the blood, hematocrit (Ht; %), number of white blood cells (WBC), platelet count, mean corpuscular volume of red blood cells (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), lymphocyte (LYM), mid-range (MID), and granulocyte (GRAN). There was no significant effect of Met sources and levels on BW, ADG, and FL of TSL chicks for the first four weeks of rearing. The RBC, Hb, Ht, WBC, LYM, MID, and GRAN values of TSL chicks were statistically influenced by dietary Met sources and Met levels (p < 0.05). Among the treatment groups, the number of white blood cells (WBC) on 90% DL–Met was the lowest. WBC, RBC, Hb, and Ht were higher from chicks that received 100% DL-Met than all other levels, regardless of the Met sources. The MCV, MCH, and MCHC values were not affected by either Met source or levels or their interactions. Met source and level interactively affected the Ht, WBC, LYM %, and GRAN values of TSL chicks (p < 0.05). The platelet number was affected by Met source only (p < 0.05) with chicks receiving L-Met source having more than twofold higher platelet values than DL-Met source. In conclusion, varying Met levels by ±10% of the requirement does not adversely affect the growth performance, feather growth, and hematological parameters of TSL chicks reared for up to four weeks of age. DL-Met increased the body weight and improved the white blood cells, red blood cells, and hematocrit at 28 days after hatch. DL-Met showed similar biological efficacy as L-Met for body weight and feather growth but not for the hematological parameters.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151928
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1929: Development of an Immunochromatographic Test
           Based on Rhoptry Protein 14 for Serological Detection of Toxoplasma gondii
           Infection in Swine

    • Authors: Yimin Yang, Yechuan Huang, Xianfeng Zhao, Mi Lin, Lulu Chen, Mingxiu Zhao, Xueqiu Chen, Yi Yang, Guangxu Ma, Chaoqun Yao, Siyang Huang, Aifang Du
      First page: 1929
      Abstract: Toxoplasma gondii, a worldwide distributed apicomplexan protozoan, can infect almost all warm-blooded animals and may cause toxoplasmosis. In order to provide a point-of-care detection method for T. gondii infection, an immunochromatographic test (ICT) was established. The proposed test uses recombinant T. gondii rhoptry protein 14 (ROP14) conjugated with 20 nm gold particles, recombinant protein A as the detection line and monoclonal antibody TgROP14-5D5 as the control line. The specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and stability of this new ICT were evaluated. rTgROP14 was specifically recognized by positive serum of T. gondii but not negative serum. mAb TgROP14-5D5 showed higher specific recognition of T. gondii antigens and was therefore selected for subsequent colloidal gold strip construction. The new ICT based on TgROP14 exhibited good diagnostic performance with high specificity (86.9%) and sensitivity (90.9%) using IHA as a “reference standard”. Among 436 field porcine sera, ICT and IHA detected 134 (30.7%) and 99 (22.7%) positive samples, respectively. The relative agreement was 87.8%. These data indicate that this new ICT based on TgROP14 is a suitable candidate for routine testing of T. gondii in the field.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151929
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1930: Growth Performance, Histological Changes and
           Functional Tests of Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Supplemented with Tribulus
           Terrestris Powder

    • Authors: Maged A. Al-Garadi, Hani H. Al-Baadani, Abdulmohsen H. Alqhtani
      First page: 1930
      Abstract: The current experiment aimed to investigate the effects of TT powder on performance parameters and functional tests, as well as on morphological and histological changes in the liver, kidney and ileum in broiler chickens. Commercial broilers (total = 168 females) were used, equally divided into three dietary treatments (C = 0.0, T1 = 0.75, and T2 = 1.5 g/kg diet). The growth performance (1–35 days of age), absolute and relative weight, liver and kidney functional tests, intestinal morphology (14 and 35 days of age), and histomorphology of the ileum (35 days of age) were evaluated. At 35 days of age, histopathological changes in the ileum, liver, and kidney were also examined. The results showed that the growth performance and absolute and relative weights of the liver and kidney had no negative effects when dietary supplementation with TT powder was given at 0.75 g/kg diet (T1), whereas a decrease was observed at T2 (p < 0.05). Liver and kidney functional tests showed no significant effects in all feed treatments (14 days), while T1 showed lower (p < 0.05) ALT and AST levels (35 days). T1 exhibited higher weights, lengths, and weight-to-length ratios of the small intestine, and relative lengths of the duodenum (p < 0.05). Histomorphometric measurements of the ileum were higher (p < 0.05) in chickens fed the 0.75 g TT/kg diet, and except for in the goblet cell count and epithelial thickness, there were no differences between treatments (p > 0.05). In T1, hepatocytes were more normal but hepatic sinusoids were dilated, whereas in T2, lymphocytes had infiltrated around the central vein and lining endothelial cells had been lost. The kidney was improved in T1 and T2 compared with the control group. Ileal villi were shorter in T2, and some villi fused with enterocyte necrosis and inflammatory cells accumulated in the lumen. We concluded that TT powder (0.75 g/kg feed) has a safe effect and is healthy for broilers.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151930
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1931: Household Rituals and Merchant Caravanners:
           The Phenomenon of Early Bronze Age Donkey Burials from Tell
           eṣ-Ṣâfi/Gath, Israel

    • Authors: Haskel J. Greenfield, Jon Ross, Tina L. Greenfield, Shira Albaz, Sarah J. Richardson, Aren M. Maeir
      First page: 1931
      Abstract: Most studies of ritual and symbolism in early complex societies of the Near East have focused on elite and/or public behavioural domains. However, the vast bulk of the population would not have been able to fully participate in such public displays. This paper explores the zooarchaeological and associated archaeological evidence for household rituals in lower-stratum residences in the Early Bronze Age (EB) of the southern Levant. Data from the EB III (c. 2850–2550 BCE) deposits excavated at the site of Tell eṣ-Ṣâfi/Gath, Israel, are illustrative of the difficulty in identifying the nature of household rituals. An integrated analytical approach to the architecture, figurines, foundation deposits, and domestic donkey burials found in lower-stratum domestic residences provides insights into the nature of household rituals. This integrated contextual perspective allows the sacred and symbolic role(s) of each to be understood and their importance for EB urban society to be evaluated.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151931
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1932: Serological Detection of Marine Origin
           Brucella Exposure in Two Alaska Beluga Stocks

    • Authors: Laura A. Thompson, Caroline E. C. Goertz, Lori T. Quakenbush, Kathy Burek Huntington, Robert S. Suydam, Raphaela Stimmelmayr, Tracy A. Romano
      First page: 1932
      Abstract: Among emerging threats to the Arctic is the introduction, spread, or resurgence of disease. Marine brucellosis is an emerging disease concern among free-ranging cetaceans and is less well-studied than terrestrial forms. To investigate marine-origin Brucella sp. exposure in two beluga stocks in Alaska, USA, this study used serological status as well as real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) and bacterial culture. In total, 55 live-captured–released belugas were tested for Brucella exposure in Bristol Bay (2008–2016) and 112 (8 live-captured; 104 subsistence-harvested) whales were tested in the eastern Chukchi Sea (2007–2017). In total, 73% percent of Bristol Bay live captures, 50% of Chukchi Sea live captures, and 66% of Chukchi Sea harvested belugas were positive on serology. Only 10 of 69 seropositive belugas were rtPCR positive in at least one tissue. Only one seropositive animal was PCR positive in both the spleen and mesenteric lymph node. All animals tested were culture negative. The high prevalence of seropositivity detected suggests widespread exposure in both stocks, however, the low level of rtPCR and culture positive results suggests clinical brucellosis was not prevalent in the belugas surveyed. Continued detection of Brucella exposure supports the need for long-term monitoring of these and other beluga populations.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151932
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1933: Behaviour and Welfare Impacts of Releasing
           Elephants from Overnight Tethers: A Zimbabwean Case Study

    • Authors: Ellen Williams, Natasha Clark, Jake Rendle-Worthington, Lisa Yon
      First page: 1933
      Abstract: Within the southern African elephant tourism industry, chaining or tethering elephants is still a relatively routine practice, despite the known negative impacts. Cited reasons for chaining include fear of aggressive interactions between elephants when handlers are absent, or a general increase in expression of aggressive behaviours (both to other elephants and to their human handlers). In Zimbabwe, concerns expressed include the danger of elephants escaping and entering human-inhabited areas. Four male semi-captive elephants at a Zimbabwe tourist facility were taken off overnight (~12 h) tethers and were placed in small pens (‘bomas’), approximate sizes from 110 m2 to 310 m2), as part of a strategy to improve elephant welfare. Behavioural data were collected from overnight videos from December 2019 to March 2020, between 18:00 to 06:00, using focal, instantaneous sampling (5-min interval). Data were collected for three nights at three time periods: (i) Tethered; (ii) approximately four weeks post-release; (iii) approximately eight weeks post-release. Behavioural change over these time points was analysed using general linear models with quasibinomial error structures. Behavioural changes indicative of improved welfare were observed following these management changes, and no significant increases in aggression were observed either between elephants, or towards their human handlers. Proportion of time engaging in lying rest was higher in the first month after release from tethering (mean ± SD, 50 ± 14%) than when elephants were tethered (20 ± 18%) (p < 0.05). Additionally, although not statistically significant, stereotypies were reduced when elephants were no longer tethered (4 ± 6% observations tethered compared to 2 ± 2% off tethers), and positive social behaviour also increased (1 ± 1% on tethers, 2 ± 2% off tethers), with the greatest improvements seen in the pair-housed elephants. To improve elephant welfare in southern African tourism facilities we strongly advocate that less restrictive management practices which enable greater choice and freedom of movement overnight are implemented.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151933
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1934: The Influence of Rotational Length, along
           with Pre- and Post-Grazing Measures on Nutritional Composition of Pasture
           during Winter and Spring on New Zealand Dairy Farms

    • Authors: Sagara N. Kumara, Tim J. Parkinson, Richard Laven, Daniel J. Donaghy
      First page: 1934
      Abstract: The quality of ryegrass–clover pasture was investigated between August (winter: start of calving) and November (spring: end of breeding) on pasture-based dairy farms (>85% of total feed from pasture) that had short (n = 2, Farms A and B; winter ~30 days, spring ~20–25 days) or long (n = 2, Farms C and D; winter ~35 days, spring ~25–30 days) grazing rotations to determine whether quality was affected by grazing rotation length (RT). Weekly assessments of pasture growth and herbage quality were made using a standardised electronic rising plate meter, and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Data were subjected to repeated measure mixed model analysis, in which herbage quality was the outcome variable. The highest pre-grazing dry matter (PGDM) and height, post-grazing dry matter (DM) and height, and number of live leaves per tiller (leaf regrowth stage, LS) were present in late spring. Neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), metabolisable energy (ME), and organic matter digestibility (OMD) were positively correlated to each other (r2 ≥ 0.8) whilst ADF and lipid, and ADF and OMD were negatively correlated (r2 ≥ −0.8; p < 0.01). Metabolisable energy content was negatively correlated with ADF and NDF (r2 = −0.7, −0.8, respectively), and was inversely related to PGDM. Metabolisable energy was higher (p < 0.05) in farms with shorter (overall mean: 11.2 MJ/kg DM) than longer (10.9 MJ/kg DM) RT. Crude protein was also inversely related to PGDM and was higher with shorter (23.2% DM) than longer (18.3% DM; p < 0.05) RT. Pre-grazing DM affected the amount of pasture that was grazed and, hence, the amount of DM remaining after grazing (post-grazing DM or residual), so that PGDM was correlated with post-grazing height and residual DM (r2 = 0.88 and 0.51, respectively; both p < 0.001). In conclusion, RT, LS, and PGDM during winter and spring influenced the herbage quality, therefore, better management of pastures may enhance the productivity of dairy cows.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151934
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1935: Harbour Porpoise Abundance in Portugal over
           a 5-Year Period and Estimates of Potential Distribution

    • Authors: Andreia Torres-Pereira, Hélder Araújo, Fábio L. Matos, Jorge Bastos-Santos, Sara Sá, Marisa Ferreira, José Martínez-Cedeira, Alfredo López, Marina Sequeira, José Vingada, Catarina Eira
      First page: 1935
      Abstract: The Iberian porpoise population is small and under potentially unsustainable removal by fisheries bycatch. Recently, a marine Site of Community Importance (SCI) was legally approved in Portugal, but no measures ensued to promote porpoise conservation. Information about porpoise abundance and distribution is fundamental to guide any future conservation measures. Annual aerial surveys conducted between 2011 and 2015 show a low overall porpoise abundance and density (2254 individuals; 0.090 ind/km2, CV = 21.99%) in the Portuguese coast. The highest annual porpoise estimates were registered in 2013 (3207 individuals, 0.128 ind/km2), followed by a sharp decrease in 2014 (1653 individuals, 0.066 ind/km2). The porpoise density and abundance estimated in 2015 remained lower than the 2013 estimates. A potential distribution analysis of the Iberian porpoise population was performed using ensembles of small models (ESMs) with MaxEnt and showed that the overall habitat suitability is particularly high in the Portuguese northern area. The analysis also suggested a different pattern in porpoise potential distribution across the study period. These results emphasize the importance of further porpoise population assessments to fully understand the spatial and temporal porpoise habitat use in the Iberian Peninsula as well as the urgent need for on-site threat mitigation measures.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151935
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1936: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Used to Define
           the Optimum Needle Length in Pigs of Different Ages

    • Authors: Maren Bernau, Ulrike Gerster, Armin Manfred Scholz
      First page: 1936
      Abstract: Intramuscular injections result in tissue destruction and alteration. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the optimum injection point for intramuscular injections. As animals—especially pigs—vary in size and explicit information about injection depth is not available. To determine the predicted optimum injection depth, magnetic resonance imaging was used in pigs of different ages and weight groups. In total, 730 magnetic resonance images of 136 pigs were used to calculate the optimum injection depth for intramuscular injections. Four age groups were evaluated: <29 days of age, 29–70 days of age, 71–117 days of age and >170 days of age. For fattening pigs (71–117 days of age), the present study recommends a needle length of 20 mm (range: 40–58 mm). For younger pigs (<70 days of age), a needle length of 12 to 14 mm (range: 10–18 mm), and for older pigs (>170 days of age), a needle length of 30 mm (range: 25–37 mm) is recommended. However, more data are needed. Therefore, further studies are necessary, especially in the youngest (suckling pigs) and oldest (sows) age groups, as these are the groups mainly injected/vaccinated. Additionally, age and weight should be examined in more detail compared to fat distribution in the neck, genetics and the sex of the animal.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151936
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1937: ‘Can They Take the
           Heat'’—The Egyptian Climate and Its Effects on Livestock

    • Authors: Amira A. Goma, Clive J. C. Phillips
      First page: 1937
      Abstract: Egypt already has conditions in summer that cause heat stress for livestock, and predicted climate changes suggest that these will be exacerbated over the course of this century. As well, extreme climatic events make the mitigation of climate change difficult but important to understand. Apart from neonates, farm animals have upper critical temperatures in the region of 25–30 °C, whereas temperatures in summer regularly exceed 40 °C for prolonged periods. The temperature and humidity data were collected half hourly to calculate Temperature Humidity Indices and demonstrate that Egyptian livestock at two centers of livestock production in the country would experience heat stress in summer for extended periods of each day. The impact of rising temperatures on livestock in Egypt was reviewed, where extensive resources to mitigate the impact are not often available. It was found that, although there are some prospects to mitigate some heat stress, by using agroforestry systems of production for example, these are unlikely to have a major impact, and reduced food security may ensue over the course of this century.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151937
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1938: Preliminary Considerations for Crime Scene
           Analysis in Cases of Animals Affected by Homemade Ammonium Nitrate and
           Aluminum Powder Anti-Personnel Landmines in Colombia: Characteristics and
           Effects

    • Authors: Carlos Jaramillo Gutiérrez, Gustavo Farías Roldán, Krešimir Severin, Ubicelio Martin Orozco, Pilar Marín García, Víctor Toledo González
      First page: 1938
      Abstract: During the armed conflict in Colombia, homemade improvised antipersonnel landmines were used to neutralize the adversary. Many active artifacts remain buried, causing damage to biodiversity by exploding. The extensive literature describes the effects and injuries caused to humans by conventional landmines. However, there is considerably less information on the behavior and effects of homemade antipersonnel landmines on fauna and good field investigation practices. Our objectives were to describe the characteristics of a controlled explosion of a homemade antipersonnel landmine (using ammonium nitrate as an explosive substance), to compare the effectiveness of some evidence search patterns used in forensic investigation, and to determine the effects on a piece of an animal carcass. The explosion generated a shock wave and an exothermic reaction, generating physical effects on the ground and surrounding structures near the point of explosion. The amputation of the foot in direct contact with the device during the explosion and multiple fractures were the main effects on the animal carcass. Finally, it was determined that finding evidence was more effective in a smaller search area. Many factors can influence the results, which must be weighed when interpreting the results, as discussed in this manuscript.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151938
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1939: Clinical Assessment of Introducing
           Locoregional Anaesthesia Techniques as Part as the Intraoperative
           Analgesia Management for Canine Ovariohysterectomy in a Veterinary
           Teaching Hospital

    • Authors: Jaime Viscasillas, Ariel Cañón, Eva Hernández, Agustín Martínez, Reyes Marti-Scharfhausen, Pilar Lafuente, José Ignacio Redondo
      First page: 1939
      Abstract: This study compared four methods to provide intraoperative analgesia during canine ovariohysterectomy in a veterinary teaching hospital. A retrospective study was designed to assess the nociceptive response, cardiorespiratory stability, quality of recovery and complications of four analgesic protocols: epidural analgesia (EPIDURAL group), Quadratus Lumborum block (QLB group), Transversus Abdominis Plane block (TAP group), and just systemic analgesia (GENERAL group). Undergraduate students carried out all the loco-regional techniques under the direct supervision of a qualified anaesthetist. A total of 120 cases met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study and were distributed as follows: 22, 27, 32 and 39 cases with EPIDURAL, GENERAL, QLB and TAP groups, respectively. Data were analysed with statistical software R using different statistical methods. Significant differences among groups were defined as p < 0.05. Based on our results, all the groups needed the same number of rescue analgesia during the intra-operative period. The use of loco-regional techniques anticipated a better quality of recovery compared with the general group. The EPIDURAL group showed a statistically lower expired fraction of sevoflurane. No differences were found regarding complications. In conclusion, these four analgesic methods are suitable and safe to be performed for canine ovariohysterectomy, although loco-regional techniques might have some advantages.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151939
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1940: Dietary Protected Butyrate Supplementation
           of Broilers Modulates Intestinal Tight Junction Proteins and Stimulates
           Endogenous Production of Short Chain Fatty Acids in the Caecum

    • Authors: Gábor Mátis, Máté Mackei, Bart Boomsma, Hedvig Fébel, Katarzyna Nadolna, Łukasz Szymański, Joan E. Edwards, Zsuzsanna Neogrády, Krzysztof Kozłowski
      First page: 1940
      Abstract: Short chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate has various beneficial effects on the gut microbiota as well as on the overall health status and metabolism of the host organism. The modulatory role of butyrate on gut barrier integrity reflected by tight junction protein expression has been already described in mammalian species. However, there is limited information available regarding chickens. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to monitor the effects of protected butyrate on claudin barrier protein and monocarboxylate transporter 1 abundance in different gastrointestinal segments of chickens as well as the growth performance of broiler chickens. The effect of protected butyrate on the caecal microbiota was monitored by quantifying the concentrations of total eubacteria and key enzymes of butyrate production. Furthermore, intestinal SCFA concentrations were also measured. Based on the data obtained, protected butyrate increased the overall performance as well as the barrier integrity of various gut segments. Protected butyrate also positively affected the SCFA concentration and composition. These findings provide valuable insight into the complex effects of protected butyrate on broiler gut health, highlighting the beneficial effects in improving intestinal barrier integrity and performance parameters.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151940
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1941: Effects of Barley Starch Level in Diet on
           Fermentation and Microflora in Rumen of Hu Sheep

    • Authors: Zhian Zhang, Fei Li, Xiaowen Ma, Fadi Li, Zongli Wang
      First page: 1941
      Abstract: This study aimed to explore the effects of different levels of barley starch instead of corn starch on the rumen fermentation and microflora when feeding a corn-based diet to Hu sheep. Thirty-two male Hu sheep equipped with permanent rumen fistulas were selected and fed in individual metabolic cages. All sheep were randomly divided into four groups (eight sheep in each group) and fed with four diets containing a similar starch content, but from different starch sources, including 100% of starch derived from corn (CS), 33% of starch derived from barley + 67% of starch derived from corn (33 BS), 67% of starch derived from barley + 33% of starch derived from corn (67 BS) and 100% of starch derived from barley (100 BS). The experimental period included a 14 d adaptation period and a 2 d continuous data collection period. The results showed that the molar proportions of acetate, isobutyrate, butyrate and isovalerate and the ratio of acetate to propionate in the 67 BS and 100 BS groups decreased compared with the CS and 33 BS groups (p < 0.001), while the molar proportions of propionate and valerate increased (p < 0.001). The combination of 33% barley starch and 67% corn starch in the diet improved the production of TVFAs (p = 0.007). The OTUs and Shannon indexes of the CS and 33 BS groups were higher than the 67 BS and 100 BS groups (p < 0.001), and the Chao1 and Ace indexes were higher than the 100 BS group (p < 0.05). In addition, the 33 BS group had increased the relative abundances of Bacteroidetes, Prevotella and Ruminococcus and the abundances of Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Streptococcus bovis, Selenomonas ruminantium and Prevotella brevis relative to the CS group (p < 0.05). These results indicate that the substitution of 33% of the CS with BS did not change the rumen fermentation pattern relative to the CS group, and increased the richness and diversity of the rumen microbes in Hu sheep compared with other two starch substitute groups.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151941
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1942: Estimation of Dairy Cow Survival in the
           First Three Lactations for Different Culling Reasons Using the
           Kaplan–Meier Method

    • Authors: Wilhelm Grzesiak, Krzysztof Adamczyk, Daniel Zaborski, Jerzy Wójcik
      First page: 1942
      Abstract: The aims of the study were: (i) to compare survival curves for cows culled for different reasons over three successive lactations using the Kaplan–Meier estimator; (ii) to determine the effects of breeding documentation parameters on cow survival; (iii) to investigate the similarity between culling categories. The survival times for a subset of 347,939 Holstein-Friesian cows culled between 2017 and 2018 in Poland were expressed in months from calving to culling or the end of lactation. The survival tables were constructed for each culling category and lactation number. The survival curves were also compared. The main culling categories were reproductive disorders—40%, udder diseases—13 to 15%, and locomotor system diseases—above 10%. The survival curves for cows from individual culling categories had similar shapes. A low probability of survival curves for metabolic and digestive system diseases and respiratory diseases was observed in each of the three lactations. The contagious disease category was almost non-existent in the first lactation. The greatest influence on the relative culling risk was exerted by age at first calving, lactation length, calving interval, production subindex, breeding value for longevity, temperament, and average daily milk yield. A more accurate method of determining culling reasons would be required.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151942
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1943: Review of Associated Health Benefits of
           Algal Supplementation in Cattle with Reference to Bovine Respiratory
           Disease Complex in Feedlot Systems

    • Authors: Marnie Willett, Michael Campbell, Ebony Schoenfeld, Esther Callcott
      First page: 1943
      Abstract: Within the Australian beef industry bovine respiratory disease is considered one of the most common disease and costs the industry an average net loss of $1647.53 Australian dollars per animal death to bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD). This is due to the disease overwhelming the animal’s immune system during a period where they experience multiple stressors that consequently increase the animal’s susceptivity to disease. Research into the bioactive compounds commonly found in marine algae is rapidly increasing due to its positive health benefits and potential immune modulating properties. Algal supplementation within previous studies has resulted in improved reproduction potential, growth performance, increases antioxidant activity and decreased proinflammatory cytokine concentrations. Additional research is required to further understand the aetiology of BRD and complete analysis of the bioavailability of these bioactive compounds within marine algae to fully explore the potential of marine algae supplementation.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151943
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1944: The Application of 3D Landmark-Based
           Geometric Morphometrics towards Refinement of the Piglet Grimace Scale

    • Authors: Maria E. Lou, Samantha T. Porter, Jason S. Massey, Beth Ventura, John Deen, Yuzhi Li
      First page: 1944
      Abstract: Proper methods of assessment to objectively identify pain are essential for welfare improvements of piglets undergoing surgical castration on commercial farms. The Piglet Grimace Scale (PGS) is used to identify changes in facial expressions caused by acute pain in piglets undergoing tail docking and castration. However, subjective scoring methods are a concern for the validation of the PGS. The objectives of this study were to evaluate and refine the PGS through 3D landmark geometric morphometrics. Male piglets (n = 88) were randomly allocated to one of two treatments: castration and sham-castration. Piglet facial images were taken at four time points (before treatment, immediately post-treatment, 1 h post-treatment, and 4 h post-treatment) using a photogrammetry rig. Images were scored by four raters using five facial action units (FAUs): orbital tightening, ear position, temporal tension, lip contraction, and nose bulge/cheek tension. Three-dimensional facial models were generated and landmarked denoting 3 FAUs (orbital tightening, lip contraction, and nose bulge/cheek tension). Results suggest that orbital tightening and ear position may be reliable FAUs for the PGS. However, neither the PGS nor 3D landmark-based geometric morphometrics were able (both p > 0.10) to reliably identify facial indicators of pain in piglets undergoing castration.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151944
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1945: A Perspective of Molecular Cytogenomics,
           Toxicology, and Epigenetics for the Increase of Heterochromatic Regions
           and Retrotransposable Elements in Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) Exposed
           to the Parasiticide Trichlorfon

    • Authors: Maria dos Santos Costa, Hallana Cristina Menezes da Silva, Simone Cardoso Soares, Ramon Marin Favarato, Eliana Feldberg, Ana Lúcia Silva Gomes, Roberto Ferreira Artoni, Daniele Aparecida Matoso
      First page: 1945
      Abstract: Rex retroelements are the best-known transposable elements class and are broadly distributed through fish and also individual genomes, playing an important role in their evolutionary dynamics. Several agents can stress these elements; among them, there are some parasitic compounds such as the organochlorophosphate Trichlorfon. Consequently, knowing that the organochlorophosphate Trichlorfon is indiscriminately used as an antiparasitic in aquaculture, the current study aimed to analyze the effects of this compound on the activation of the Transposable Elements (TEs) Rex1, Rex3, and Rex6 and the structure of heterochromatin in the mitotic chromosomes of the tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). For this, two concentrations of the pesticide were used: 30% (0.261 mg/L) and 50% (0.435 mg/L) of the recommended LC50–96 h concentration (0.87 mg/L) for this fish species. The results revealed a dispersed distribution for Rex1 and Rex6 retroelements. Rex3 showed an increase in both marking intensity and distribution, as well as enhanced chromosomal heterochromatinization. This probably happened by the mediation of epigenetic adaptive mechanisms, causing the retroelement mobilization to be repressed. However, this behavior was most evident when Trichlorfon concentrations and exposure times were the greatest, reflecting the genetic flexibility necessary for this species to successfully adapt to environmental changes.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151945
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1946: Structural and Metabolic Changes in Bone

    • Authors: Agata Wawrzyniak, Krzysztof Balawender
      First page: 1946
      Abstract: As an essential component of the skeleton, bone tissue provides solid support for the body and protects vital organs. Bone tissue is a reservoir of calcium, phosphate, and other ions that can be released or stored in a controlled manner to provide constant concentration in body fluids. Normally, bone development or osteogenesis occurs through two ossification processes (intra-articular and intra-chondral), but the first produces woven bone, which is quickly replaced by stronger lamellar bone. Contrary to commonly held misconceptions, bone is a relatively dynamic organ that undergoes significant turnover compared to other organs in the body. Bone metabolism is a dynamic process that involves simultaneous bone formation and resorption, controlled by numerous factors. Bone metabolism comprises the key actions. Skeletal mass, structure, and quality are accrued and maintained throughout life, and the anabolic and catabolic actions are mostly balanced due to the tight regulation of the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. This activity is also provided by circulating hormones and cytokines. Bone tissue remodeling processes are regulated by various biologically active substances secreted by bone tissue cells, namely RANK, RANKL, MMP-1, MMP-9, or type 1 collagen. Bone-derived factors (BDF) influence bone function and metabolism, and pathophysiological conditions lead to bone dysfunction. This work aims to analyze and evaluate the current literature on various local and systemic factors or immune system interactions that can affect bone metabolism and its impairments.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151946
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1947: Screening of Microbial Fermentation Products
           for Anti-M. tuberculosis Activity

    • Authors: Aikebaier Reheman, Di Lu, Yifan Wang, Xi Chen, Gang Cao, Chuanxing Wan
      First page: 1947
      Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB), caused by M. tuberculosis (M.tb), is the leading infectious cause of mortality worldwide. The emergence of drug-resistant M.tb has made the control of TB more difficult. In our study, we investigated the ability of microorganism fermentation products from the soil to inhibit M.tb. We successfully identified four fermentation products (Micromonospora chokoriensis, Micromonospora purpureochromogenes, Micromonospora profundi, Streptomyces flavofungini) that inhibited the growth of M.tb in vitro and in intracellular bacteria at 25 μg/mL MIC. Importantly, the fermentation products decreased some essential gene expression levels for M.tb growth. Our data provide the possibility that microbial fermentation products have potential development value for anti-M.tb drugs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151947
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1948: Evaluation of a Numerical, Real-Time
           Ultrasound Imaging Model for the Prediction of Litter Size in Pregnant
           Sows, with Machine Learning

    • Authors: Konstantinos Kousenidis, Georgios Kirtsanis, Efstathia Karageorgiou, Dimitrios Tsiokos
      First page: 1948
      Abstract: The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of a numerical model, quantifying real-time ultrasonographic (RTU) images of pregnant sows, to predict litter size. The time of the test with the least error was also considered. A number of 4165 pregnancies in Farm 1 and 438 in Farm 2 were diagnosed twice, with the quality of the RTU images translated into rated-scale values (RSV1 and RSV2). When a deep neural network (DNN) was trained, the evaluation of the method showed that the prediction of litter size can be performed with little error. Root square mean error (RMSE) for training, validation with data from Farm 1, and testing on the data from Farm 2 were 0.91, 0.97, and 1.05, respectively. Corresponding mean absolute errors (MAE) were 2.27, 2.41, and 2.58. Time appeared to be a critical factor for the accuracy of the model. The smallest MAE was achieved when the RTU was performed at days 20–22. It is concluded that a numerical, RTU imaging model is a prominent predictor of litter size, when a DNN is used. Therefore, early routinely evaluated RTU images of pregnant sows can predict litter size, with machine learning, in an automated manner and provide a useful tool for the efficient management of pregnant sows.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151948
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1949: Detection of Giardia duodenalis Zoonotic
           Assemblages AI and BIV in Pet Prairie Dogs (Cynomys ludovicanus) in
           Bangkok, Thailand

    • Authors: Ketsarin Kamyingkird, Pornkamol Phoosangwalthong, Nutsuda Klinkaew, Alisara Leelanupat, Chanya Kengradomkij, Wissanuwat Chimnoi, Teerapat Rungnirundorn, Burin Nimsuphan, Tawin Inpankaew
      First page: 1949
      Abstract: Giardia is a flagellate protozoa that can be transmitted via direct contact and by consuming contaminated water. It is pathogenic in humans and various other animals, including exotic pets. Pet prairie dogs are popular in Thailand, but they have not been investigated regarding giardiasis. Giardia infection was measured, and genetic characterization was performed to investigate the zoonotic potential of Giardia carried by pet prairie dogs. In total, 79 fecal samples were examined from prairie dogs visiting the Kasetsart University Veterinary Teaching Hospital during 2017–2021. Simple floatation was conducted. Two Giardia-positive samples were submitted for DNA extraction, PCR targeting the Giardiassu rRNA, tpi and gdh genes was performed, and genetic characterization using sequencing analysis was conducted. Risk factors associated with Giardia infection were analyzed. Giardia infection was found in 11 out of the 79 pet prairie dogs (13.9%). Giardia infection was significantly higher in male prairie dogs (p = 0.0345). Coccidia cysts (12.7%), the eggs of nematodes (6.3%), and amoeba cysts (2.5%) were also detected. Genetic characterization of the two Giardia-positive samples revealed that they were G. duodenalis assemblage A, sub-genotypes AI and assemblage B, and sub-genotype BIV, the zoonotic assemblages. This was the first report of Giardia infection in pet prairie dogs in Bangkok, Thailand. The results revealed that these pet prairie dogs in Thailand were infected with zoonotic assemblages of G. duodenalis sub-genotype AI, which might have been derived from animal contaminants, whereas sub-genotype BIV might have been derived from human contaminants. Owners of prairie dogs might be at risk of giardiasis or be the source of infection to their exotic pets.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151949
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1950: Effect of Methionine Supplementation on
           Serum Metabolism and the Rumen Bacterial Community of Sika Deer (Cervus
           nippon)

    • Authors: Yan Wu, Xiaolan Guo, Dehui Zhao, Chao Xu, Haoran Sun, Qianlong Yang, Qianqian Wei, Huazhe Si, Kaiying Wang, Tietao Zhang
      First page: 1950
      Abstract: Methionine is the first or second limiting amino acid for ruminants, such as sika deer, and has a variety of biological functions such as antioxidant activity, immune response, and protein synthesis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of methionine supplementation on antler growth, serum biochemistry, rumen fermentation, and the bacterial community of sika deer during the antler-growing period. Twelve 4-year-old male sika deer were randomly assigned to three dietary groups supplemented with 0 g/day (n = 4, CON), 4.0 g/day (n = 4, LMet), and 6.0 g/day (n = 4, HMet) methionine. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was found in the production performance between the three groups, but antler weight was higher in both the LMet and HMet groups than in the CON group. Methionine supplementation significantly increased the serum glutathione peroxidase activity (p < 0.05). The serum immunoglobulin G level was significantly higher in the HMet group than in the other two groups (p < 0.05). No significant effect was found on the apparent amino acid digestibility of the three groups, but cysteine and methionine digestibility were higher in the LMet group. The serum hydroxylysine level was significantly lower in the LMet and HMet groups, whereas the serum lysine level was significantly lower in the HMet group compared with the CON group (p < 0.05). The LMet group had the highest but a nonsignificant total volatile fatty acid content and significantly higher microbial protein content in the rumen than the CON group (p < 0.05). The phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were dominant in the rumen of the sika deer. The principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) results showed a significant change in the bacterial composition of the three groups (p < 0.05). The relative abundance of Prevotella and Rikenellaceae-RC9 was significantly higher in the LMet group compared with the CON group and CON and HMet groups, respectively. These results revealed that methionine supplementation improved the antioxidant activity and immune status, affecting amino acid metabolism and rumen microbial composition of the sika deer.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151950
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1951: Immune Response to Natural and Experimental
           Infection of Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1) in Juveniles of Caribbean
           Spiny Lobster

    • Authors: Cristina Pascual, Rossanna Rodríguez-Canul, Juan Pablo Huchin-Mian, Maite Mascaró, Patricia Briones-Fourzán, Enrique Lozano-Álvarez, Ariadna Sánchez, Karla Escalante
      First page: 1951
      Abstract: Experimental infections have been used to better comprehend the immune system of organisms, and to probe for additives that generate greater resistance and help reduce antibiotic use in aquaculture. We compared the immune response of juveniles of the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, infected naturally with Panulirus argus virus 1 (PaV1) versus organisms infected experimentally, to determine the analogy between both infectious processes. The immunological response was measured by hemagglutination activity, hemocyte count, and total phenoloxidase activity in plasma and hemocytes in 211 individuals that were either naturally infected (110), or had been injected with viral inoculum and followed for six months (101). The samples were classified into the following four groups according to the severity of the infection: 0, uninfected; 1, lightly; 2, moderately; and 3, severely infected), which was determined on the basis of PCR and histological criteria. A permutational MANOVA showed that both the origin (natural and experimental), and the severity of the infection contributed significantly to explain the variation in the immune response of lobsters. The lack of significance of the interaction term indicated that the immunological response changed with the severity of the infection in a similar way, regardless of its origin. The results of the present study suggest that the experimental viral infection of PaV1 produces a defense response similar to the natural pathways of contagion, and provides the bases to validate an immunological challenge protocol for the first time in crustaceans. The discussion includes the perspective of the conceptual models of immune response within an ecological context.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151951
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1952: Effect of Phytase Level and Form on Broiler
           Performance, Tibia Characteristics, and Residual Fecal Phytate Phosphorus
           in Broilers from 1 to 21 Days of Age

    • Authors: Jose R. Hernandez, Joseph P. Gulizia, John B. Adkins, Martha S. Rueda, Samuel I. Haruna, Wilmer J. Pacheco, Kevin M. Downs
      First page: 1952
      Abstract: The present study evaluated the individual and combined effects of coated and uncoated phytase on broiler performance, tibia characteristics, and residual phytate phosphorus (P) in manure. Two repeated studies were conducted using 240-day-old Cobb 500 by-product male broilers per trial. For each trial, birds were assigned to four treatments with four replicate battery cages per treatment (60 birds/trt) and grown for 21 days. Treatments included: (1) negative control (NC), (2) NC + 1000 phytase units (FTU) coated phytase (C), (3) NC + 1000 FTU uncoated phytase (U), and (4) NC + 500 FTU coated + 500 FTU uncoated phytase (CU). Data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA and means were separated using Tukey’s HSD. In the pooled data for both trials, all treatments with dietary phytase had a higher body weight (BW) and feed consumption (FC) than the NC on day 21 (p < 0.05). Similarly, a six-point reduction was observed for day 1 to 21 feed conversion (FCR) for U and CU (p < 0.05). All treatments with phytase inclusion differed from the NC in every evaluated parameter for bone mineralization (p < 0.05) and had significantly lower fecal phytate P concentrations compared to the NC (p < 0.05). Overall, bird performance was essentially unaffected by phytase form, indicating that combining phytase forms does not appear to offer any advantage to the evaluated parameters from day 1 to 21.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151952
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1953: Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a
           Nanoparticle-Assisted PCR Assay for the Detection of Cryptosporidium
           parvum in Calves

    • Authors: Qian Yao, Xin Yang, Yi Wang, Junwei Wang, Shuang Huang, Junke Song, Guanghui Zhao
      First page: 1953
      Abstract: C. parvum is an important diarrheal pathogen in humans and animals, especially in young hosts. To accurately and rapidly detect C. parvum infection in calves, we established a nano-PCR assay targeting the cgd3_330 gene for the specific detection of C. parvum. This nano-PCR assay was ten times more sensitive than that of the normal PCR assay by applying the same primers and did not cross-react with C. andersoni, C. bovis, C. ryanae, Balantidium coli, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Giardia lamblia, and Blastocystis sp. To further test the nano-PCR in clinical settings, a total of 20 faecal samples from calves were examined by using the nano-PCR, the normal PCR, and the nested PCR assays. The positive rates were 30% (6/20), 30% (6/20), and 25% (5/20) for the nano-PCR, the normal PCR, and the nested PCR assays, respectively, indicating that the nano-PCR and the normal PCR assays had the same positive rate (30%). Taken together, the present study could provide a candidate method for the specific detection of C. parvum infection in calves in clinical settings.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151953
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1954: KAT2B Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with
           Body Measure Traits in Four Chinese Cattle Breeds

    • Authors: Xiaoding Lin, Bo Li, Yuhan Chen, Hong Chen, Mei Liu
      First page: 1954
      Abstract: Identifying molecular markers related to growth characteristics or meat quality is significant for improving beef cattle breeds. K(lysine) acetyltransferase 2B (KAT2B) is a transcriptional co-activator regulating the acetylation modification of histones, which may be involved in the development and metabolism of muscle and adipose. However, investigations of KAT2B genetic variations in Chinese native cattle are still limited. This study aimed to identify crucial single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influencing the body measurements of Chinese native cattle. Biological evolution and conservation analysis showed that KAT2B was highly conserved among the ruminants. By qPCR assay, KAT2B gene expression was found to be spatiotemporally specific in bovine tissues such as adipose and liver. By the RFLP-PCR method, three SNPs of KAT2B (g.T61908C, g.T62131C, and g.C73406T) were identified in 827 individuals of four Chinese cattle breeds, including Qinchuan (n = 658), Fu (n = 52), Yak (n = 48), and Chaidam (n = 69) cattle. Association analysis between these KAT2B polymorphisms and the body measurements of Chinese native cattle revealed significant observations. The genetic effects of g.T61908C, g.T62131C, and g.C73406T on the associated phenotypes were illustrated in each breed. In Qinchuan cattle, g.T62131C was significantly associated with better body height, chest width, hip width, and withers height, for which TC and/or TT were the advantageous genotype. In Fu cattle, TT genotype of g.T61908C was associated to better body length, while individuals with TT or CC of g.T62131C showed higher circumference of cannon bone than those with TC genotype. In Yak, individuals with TT genotype of g.C73406T had heavier body weight. In Chaidam cattle, TC genotype of g.C73406T was associated to superior body weight, while CC genotype of g.C73406T was associated to superior chest girth and circumference of cannon bone. These findings suggest that KAT2B gene polymorphisms can be used as the molecular markers for the early molecular marker-assisted selection in beef cattle breeding programs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151954
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1955: Evaluation of High Doses of Phytase in a
           Low-Phosphorus Diet in Comparison to a Phytate-Free Diet on Performance,
           Apparent Ileal Digestibility of Nutrients, Bone Mineralization, Intestinal
           Morphology, and Immune Traits in 21-Day-Old Broiler Chickens

    • Authors: Beatriz Martínez-Vallespín, Klaus Männer, Peter Ader, Jürgen Zentek
      First page: 1955
      Abstract: The supplementation of feed with phytases enables broilers to utilize more efficiently phosphorus (P) from phytic acid (IP6), the main storage form of P in plants. The current study evaluated the addition of 500, 1000, and 3000 FTU of phytase per kg to a phytate-containing diet with low P level (LP) fed to broilers from 1 to 21 days of age and compared it to a hypoallergenic phytate-free diet (HPF). There was a linear improvement in performance parameters with increasing levels of phytase in the LP diet (p < 0.001). Apparent ileal digestibility of crude protein, P, and some amino acids, increased with phytase. Crude ash, P, and the calcium content of tibia bones linearly increased with increasing levels of phytase (p < 0.001). Crypt depth (related to body weight) in the jejunum epithelium linearly decreased with phytase addition (p < 0.001). Cecal crypt depth decreased with phytase supplementation (p = 0.002). Cecum tissue showed lower counts of CD3-positive intraepithelial lymphocytes in broilers receiving the phytase in comparison to LP (p < 0.001), achieving similar counts to HPF-fed broilers. Although results from the current study seem to point out some mechanisms related to the immune response and mucosal morphology contributing to those overall beneficial effects, no clear differences between different phytase doses could be demonstrated in these specific parameters.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151955
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1956: An Update on Applications of Cattle
           Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    • Authors: Barbara Merlo, Penelope Maria Gugole, Eleonora Iacono
      First page: 1956
      Abstract: Attention on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) research has increased in the last decade mainly due to the promising results about their plasticity, self-renewal, differentiation potential, immune modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties that have made stem cell therapy more clinically attractive. Furthermore, MSCs can be easily isolated and expanded to be used for autologous or allogenic therapy following the administration of either freshly isolated or previously cryopreserved cells. The scientific literature on the use of stromal cells in the treatment of several animal health conditions is currently available. Although MSCs are not as widely used for clinical treatments in cows as for companion and sport animals, they have the potential to be employed to improve productivity in the cattle industry. This review provides an update on state-of-the-art applications of bovine MSCs to clinical treatments and reproductive biotechnologies.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151956
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1957: L-Carnitine Supports the In Vitro Growth of
           Buffalo Oocytes

    • Authors: Avijit Kumar Modak, Md Hasanur Alam, Md Nuronnabi Islam, Nipa Paul, Ireen Akter, Md Abul Hashem, AKM Ahsan Kabir, Mohammad Moniruzzaman
      First page: 1957
      Abstract: This study aimed to determine the effect of L-carnitine on the growth and subsequent nuclear maturation of buffalo small growing oocytes (92–108 µm in diameter) in vitro. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes (OGCs) were dissected from early antral follicles of slaughtered buffaloes and cultured in in vitro growth (IVG) medium with the supplementation of different concentrations (0, 1.25, 1.875 or 2.5 mM) of L-carnitine for 6 days. The results revealed that L-carnitine increased the diameter of buffalo oocytes in vitro. The degeneration rate was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in 2.5 mM of L-carnitine-treated oocytes (10%) than others (55%, 45% and 32.5% in 0, 1.25 and 1.875 mM of L-carnitine-supplemented groups, respectively). The OGCs showed antrum-like structures significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the 2.5 mM of L-carnitine group (74.0%) than the 0- and 1.25-mM groups (34.6% and 38.1%, respectively). Furthermore, in vitro grown oocytes were placed in in vitro maturation (IVM) medium for 24 h to examine meiotic competence of in vitro grown oocytes with L-carnitine. The L-carnitine (1.875 and 2.5 mM) treated oocytes showed a higher rate of nuclear maturation up to the metaphase II (MII) stage and a lower rate of degeneration. In conclusion, L-carnitine enhances the growth, prevents degeneration, promotes the formation of antrum-like structures and supports nuclear maturation of buffalo oocytes in vitro.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151957
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1958: A KIT Variant Associated with Increased
           White Spotting Epistatic to MC1R Genotype in Horses (Equus caballus)

    • Authors: Laura Patterson Rosa, Katie Martin, Micaela Vierra, Erica Lundquist, Gabriel Foster, Samantha A. Brooks, Christa Lafayette
      First page: 1958
      Abstract: Over 40 identified genetic variants contribute to white spotting in the horse. White markings and spotting are under selection for their impact on the economic value of an equine, yet many phenotypes have an unknown genetic basis. Previous studies also demonstrate an interaction between MC1R and ASIP pigmentation loci and white spotting associated with KIT and MITF. We investigated two stallions presenting with a white spotting phenotype of unknown cause. Exon sequencing of the KIT and MITF candidate genes identified a missense variant in KIT (rs1140732842, NC_009146.3:g.79566881T>C, p.T391A) predicted by SIFT and PROVEAN as not tolerated/deleterious. Three independent observers generated an Average Grade of White (AGW) phenotype score for 147 individuals based on photographs. The KIT variant demonstrates a significant QTL association to AGW (p = 3.3 × 10−12). Association with the MC1R Extension locus demonstrated that, although not in LD, MC1R e/e (chestnut) individuals had higher AGW scores than MC1R E/- individuals (p = 3.09 × 10−17). We also report complete linkage of the previously reported KIT W19 allele to this missense variant. We propose to term this variant W34, following the standardized nomenclature for white spotting variants within the equine KIT gene, and report its epistatic interaction with MC1R.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151958
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1959: Virulence Genes of Pathogenic Escherichia
           coli in Wild Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    • Authors: Fabrizio Bertelloni, Giulia Cagnoli, Fabrizio Biagini, Alessandro Poli, Carlo Bibbiani, Valentina Virginia Ebani
      First page: 1959
      Abstract: Different pathotypes of Escherichia coli can cause severe diseases in animals and humans. Wildlife may contribute to the circulation of pathogenic pathotypes, including enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). This study analyzed 109 DNA samples previously extracted from fecal specimens collected from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) to detect E. coli virulence genes eaeA, hlyA, stx1, and stx2, that characterize the EPEC, STEC, and EHEC strains. Thirty-one (28.4%) samples were positive for at least one investigated virulence gene: eaeA gene was detected in 21 (19.2%) samples, hlyA in 10 (9.1%), stx1 in 6 (5.5%), and stx2 in 4 (3.6%). Nine DNA samples resulted positive for two or three virulence genes: five (4.6%) samples were positive for eaeA and hlyA genes, two (1.8%) for eaeA and stx1, one (0.9%) for hlyA and stx1, one (0.9%) for eaeA, hlyA and stx2. Red foxes seem to be involved in the epidemiology of these infections and their role could be relevant because they may be source of pathogenic E. coli for other wild animals, as well as domestic animals and humans.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151959
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1960: Characterization of Three Different
           Mediterranean Beef Fattening Systems: Performance, Behavior, and Carcass
           and Meat Quality

    • Authors: Denise Sánchez, Sònia Marti, Marçal Verdú, Joel González, Maria Font-i-Furnols, Maria Devant
      First page: 1960
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to characterize three different commercial dairy beef fattening systems for intensive Mediterranean fattening programs differing in gender, breed, nutrition, and days of feed in order to describe their performance, behavior, and carcass and meat quality when they were raised simultaneously under the same housing and care conditions. Treatments were three different production systems: (1) crossbred Holstein x beef breeds such as Charolais or Limousine heifers, slaughtered at 10 months of age (CBH10, n = 41); (2) Holstein bulls, slaughtered at 11 months of age (HB11, n = 42); and (3) crossbred Holstein x Angus bulls, slaughtered at 12 months of age (CAB12, n = 37). According to our results, moving from a production system based on Holstein bulls to the crossbred Angus production system has no technical support as no large production and meat quality improvements were observed, and only marketing strategies for meat differentiation and consumer trends could favor this decision.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151960
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1961: Temporal Activity Patterns of the Eurasian
           Beaver and Coexisting Species in a Mediterranean Ecosystem

    • Authors: Emiliano Mori, Giuseppe Mazza, Chiara Pucci, Davide Senserini, Roisin Campbell-Palmer, Marco Contaldo, Andrea Viviano
      First page: 1961
      Abstract: Analyses of temporal partitioning and overlaps in activity rhythms are pivotal to shed light on interspecific coexistence between similar species or prey and predators. In this work, we assessed the overlap of activity rhythms between the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber and its potential competitors and predators through camera trapping in an area in Central Italy. Interspecific overlaps of temporal activity patterns were estimated for the beavers, potential predators (the red fox Vulpes vulpes and the grey wolf Canis lupus), and a potential competitor, the coypu Myocastor coypus. The beavers showed a mostly crepuscular behaviour. Although high temporal overlap was observed between the Eurasian beavers and the red foxes and grey wolves, the activity of the beavers did not overlap with that of the predators. Accordingly, the beavers were more active on the darkest nights, i.e., avoiding bright moonlight.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151961
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1962: Effects of Intestinal Microorganisms on
           Metabolism and Toxicity Mitigation of Zearalenone in Broilers

    • Authors: Sifan Jia, Chenxi Ren, Ping Yang, Desheng Qi
      First page: 1962
      Abstract: Zearalenone (ZEN) is an estrogenic mycotoxin, and chickens are relatively insensitive to it. In this study, the effects of intestinal microorganisms on ZEN metabolism and toxicity mitigation in broilers were studied by two experiments. Firstly, in vitro, ZEN was incubated anaerobically with chyme from each part of the chicken intestine to study its intestinal microbial metabolism. Then, in vivo, we explored the effects of intestinal microbiota on ZEN by inhibiting intestinal microorganisms. Broilers were fed a control diet, 2.5 mg/kg ZEN diet, microbial inhibition diet or ‘microbial inhibition +2.5 mg/kg ZEN’ diet. In vitro, the results showed that the rates of ZEN degradation by microorganisms in the duodenum, ileum, caecum, and colon were 56%, 12%, 15%, and 17%, respectively, and the microorganisms could convert ZEN into Zearalenol (ZOL). After microbial inhibition in vivo, the content of ZEN and its metabolites in excreta of broilers increased significantly, and antioxidant damage and liver damage were aggravated. 16S rRNA sequencing results showed that antioxidant indices and the content of ZEN and its metabolites in excreta were significantly correlated with the relative abundance of Streptococcus, Lactococcus and Enterococcus, etc. In conclusion, the intestinal microorganisms of broilers play an important role in ZEN metabolism and ZEN-induced antioxidant and liver injury mitigation, among which the key bacteria include Streptococcus, Lactococcus and Enterococcus, etc.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151962
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1963: Environmental Enrichment as Part of the
           Improvement of the Welfare of Japanese Quails

    • Authors: Anastasiya Ramankevich, Karolina Wengerska, Kinga Rokicka, Kamil Drabik, Kornel Kasperek, Agnieszka Ziemiańska, Justyna Batkowska
      First page: 1963
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the indicators of the behavioural and physiological welfare of Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) as possible responses to the enrichment of the birds’ habitat. The study sample consisted of 280 Japanese quails (224 ♀ and 56 ♂, respectively). Birds of 5 weeks of age were randomly divided into seven equally sized groups and then divided into replication subgroups (four per group, 10 birds in each replication). Birds were maintained in 0.5 m2 cages with unrestricted access to water and food. The experimental factor was the presence or absence of enrichment of the birds’ cages: the nest box, scratcher, plastic corrugated pipe (tunnel), limestone cubes, sandbathing box and feeder box with a drilled cover. Quails were subjected to behavioural tests (tonic immobility and open field tests) and, after 6 weeks, blood samples were taken from them to determine their biochemical indices as well as their cortisol and corticosterone levels. An additional element was the assessment of fertility indices. The presence of enrichment was shown to reduce behavioural disturbances in Japanese quails. This study also found that the colour and shape of an object were very important regarding the birds’ interest in it. Additionally, individuals kept in enriched cages, who were allowed to exhibit their natural behavioural patterns, had lower stress levels.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151963
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1964: Immunohistochemical Expression of p62 in
           Feline Mammary Carcinoma and Non-Neoplastic Mammary Tissue

    • Authors: Gian Enrico Magi, Francesca Mariotti, Lorenzo Pallotta, Alessandro Di Cerbo, Franco Maria Venanzi
      First page: 1964
      Abstract: The p62 protein, also called sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1), is a ubiquitin-binding scaffold protein. In human oncology, although the interest in the function of this protein is recent, the knowledge is now numerous, but its role in tumorigenesis is not yet clear. This preliminary study aims to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of p62 in 38 cases of feline mammary carcinoma with different grades of differentiation and in 12 non-neoplastic mammary gland tissues, to assess the expression level and a possible correlation with malignancy. The expression of p62 was statistically higher in carcinoma compared to non-neoplastic mammary glands: 28 feline mammary carcinomas (73.7%) had a high p62 expression score, three (7.9%) had a moderate expression, while seven cases (18.4%) had a low expression. The grade of the differentiation of the carcinoma was not correlated with the p62 expression. This study represents the first approach in feline oncology that correlates p62 expression in feline mammary carcinoma. Our results, although preliminary, are similar to the results of human breast cancer, therefore, also in the cat, p62 could be considered a possible oncotarget.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151964
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1965: Digestibility of a Lignocellulose
           Supplemented Diet and Fecal Quality in Beagle Dogs

    • Authors: Amr Abd El-Wahab, Bussarakam Chuppava, Diana-Christin Siebert, Christian Visscher, Josef Kamphues
      First page: 1965
      Abstract: Lignocellulose (LC) might be used as a substitute fiber source for dogs as a strategy to decrease energy density and enhance gastrointestinal functionality. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of including different levels of LC on apparent nutrient digestibility and fecal parameters (dry matter (DM), fecal score, and daily fecal output), as well as fecal fatty acid concentrations. Four diets were tested: control diet (no supplementation of LC; LC0), and three control diets diluted with increasing levels of LC: 1, 2, and 4% (LC1, LC2, and LC4). Six Beagle dogs (BW 17.1 kg ± 1.22) participated in a crossover experimental design. Before each experimental period, five days were used as a wash-out period. The fecal consistency was scored based on a 5-point scale (1 = very hard; 2 = solid, well-formed “optimum”; 3 = soft, still formed; 4 = pasty, slushy; and 5 = watery diarrhea). The results demonstrated that the organic matter apparent digestibility (p = 0.01) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) (p < 0.01) was significantly lower for dogs fed LC4 compared to those fed LC0. Dogs fed LC2 and LC4 had a lower fecal consistency score (2.39 and 2.18, respectively; p < 0.05). The fecal DM was significantly the highest (p < 0.01), and the daily fecal output on fresh matter was lower (p < 0.05) when dogs were fed the LC4 diet compared with the LC0 diet. Including LC at 1% in the diet resulted in significantly higher fecal acidic pH levels. However, no differences among treatments were noted regarding fecal fatty acid concentrations.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151965
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1966: The Effects of Breed and Residual Feed
           Intake Divergence on the Abundance and Active Population of Rumen
           Microbiota in Beef Cattle

    • Authors: Yawei Zhang, Fuyong Li, Yanhong Chen, Le-Luo Guan
      First page: 1966
      Abstract: To assess the effects of residual feed intake (RFI) and breed on rumen microbiota, the abundance (DNA) and active population (RNA) of the total bacteria, archaea, protozoa, and fungi in the rumen of 96 beef steers from three different breeds (Angus (AN), Charolais (CH), and Kinsella Composite (KC)), and divergent RFIs (High vs Low), were estimated by measuring their respective maker gene copies using qRT-PCR. All experimental animals were kept under the same feedlot condition and fed with the same high-energy finishing diet. Rumen content samples were collected at slaughter and used for the extraction of genetic material (DNA and RNA) and further analysis. There was a significant difference (p < 0.01) between the marker gene copies detected for abundance and active populations for all four microbial groups. AN steers had a higher abundance of bacteria (p < 0.05) and a lower abundance of eukaryotes (protozoa and fungi, p < 0.05) compared to KC steers, while the abundance of protozoa (p < 0.05) in the AN cattle and fungi (p < 0.05) in the KC cattle were lower and higher, respectively, than those in the CH steers. Meanwhile, the active populations of bacteria, archaea, and protozoa in the KC steers were significantly lower than those in the AN and CH animals (p < 0.01). This work demonstrates that cattle breed can affect rumen microbiota at both the abundance and activity level. The revealed highly active protozoal populations indicate their important role in rumen microbial fermentation under a feedlot diet, which warrants further study.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151966
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1967: Shipping Temperature, Time and Media Effects
           on Equine Wharton’s Jelly and Adipose Tissue Derived Mesenchymal
           Stromal Cells Characteristics

    • Authors: Eleonora Iacono, Aliai Lanci, Penelope Gugole, Barbara Merlo
      First page: 1967
      Abstract: To use Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) in equine patients, isolation and expansion are performed in a laboratory. Cells are then sent back to the veterinary clinic. The main goal of storage conditions during cell transport is to preserve their biological properties and viability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage solutions, temperature and time on the characteristics of equine adipose tissue and Wharton’s jelly-derived MSCs. We compared two different storage solutions (plasma and 0.9% NaCl), two different temperatures (4 °C and room temperature) and three time frames (6, 24, 48 h). Cell viability, colony-forming units, trilineage differentiation, the expression of CD45 and CD90 antigens and adhesion potentials were evaluated. Despite the molecular characterization and differentiation potential were not influenced by storage conditions, viability, colony-forming units and adhesion potential are influenced in different way, depending on MSCs sources. Overall, this study found that, despite equine adipose tissue MSCs being usable after 24 h of storage, cells derived from Wharton’s jelly need to be used within 6 h. Moreover, while for adipose cells the best conservation solutions seems to be plasma, the cell viability of Wharton’s jelly MSCs declined in both saline and plasma solution, confirming their reduced resistance to conservation.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151967
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1968: Inclusion of Sunflower Oil, Organic
           Selenium, and Vitamin E on Milk Production and Composition, and Blood
           Parameters of Lactating Cows

    • Authors: Arlindo Saran Netto, Thiago H. Silva, Mellory M. Martins, Ana Maria C. Vidal, Márcia S. V. Salles, Luiz C. Roma Júnior, Marcus A. Zanetti
      First page: 1968
      Abstract: Aiming to improve milk quality and animal health, the effects of the inclusion of sunflower oil with added organic selenium (Se) and vitamin E in the diets of lactating cows were evaluated. Twenty-four multiparous lactating Jersey cows were randomly enrolled into four treatments: CON (control); SEL [2.5 mg organic Se kg−1 dry matter (DM) + 1000 IU vitamin E daily]; SUN (sunflower oil 3% DM); and SEL + SUN (sunflower oil 3% DM + 2.5 mg organic Se kg−1 DM + 1000 IU vitamin E daily). The experimental period was 12 weeks with 14 days for acclimation. Cows were milked twice a day. Dry matter intake, milk production, and composition were measured daily and analyzed in a pooled 4-week sample. On day 84, white blood cell counts, as well as serum and milk Se and vitamin E levels, were assessed. Supplementation with selenium and vitamin E alone or combined with sunflower oil increased milk production, and increased the serum and milk concentrations of those nutrients. The inclusion of sunflower oil reduced fat content and DM intake but also altered the milk fatty acid profile, mainly increasing levels of trans 11 C18:1 (vaccenic) and cis 9 trans 11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Our results indicate that supplementation with sunflower oil, Se and vitamin E provides beneficial effects on animal performance and milk composition, which could be an important source of CLA and antioxidants (Se and vitamin E) for human consumption.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151968
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1969: Increasing Environmental Complexity by
           Providing Different Types of Litter and Perches during Early Rearing
           Boosts Coping Abilities in Domestic Fowl Chicks

    • Authors: Franco Nicolas Nazar, Lena Skånberg, Kirste McCrea, Linda Jane Keeling
      First page: 1969
      Abstract: Early experience of a complex environment can improve biologically relevant traits related to coping abilities. However, the mechanisms underlying these positive effects have not been well explored. We hypothesized that giving chicks possibilities to express choices within relevant resources could be an important part of the mechanism, as well as a novel way to increase environmental complexity. In a balanced design, laying hen hatchlings of the white hybrid Bovans Robust were reared in a “single-choice” environment (single litter and perch type) or a “multi-choice” environment (four different litter and perch types). Immunological and behavioral indicators of chicks’ coping abilities were explored in this experimental study at three weeks of age. Chicks from “multi-choice” environments had shorter durations of tonic immobility, lower heterophil/lymphocyte ratios, higher natural antibody concentrations, and were more successful in gaining novel food rewards in a repeated opportunity test. These results imply that chicks having access to variation within resource types were less fearful, experienced less chronic stress, would be more able to cope with pathogenic challenges, and potentially had an improved learning ability. To conclude, the more complex environment, achieved by increasing chicks’ possibilities to choose, seemed to make chicks better prepared for potential challenges, boosting their adaptive capacities and their ability to make the most of opportunities.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151969
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1970: Insights into the Evolution of Aphid
           Mitogenome Features from New Data and Comparative Analysis

    • Authors: Hui Zhang, Congcong Lu, Qian Liu, Tianmin Zou, Gexia Qiao, Xiaolei Huang
      First page: 1970
      Abstract: The complete mitochondrial genomes and their rearrangement patterns can provide useful information for inferring evolutionary history of organisms. Aphids are one of the insect groups with some unique mitogenome features. In this study, to examine whether some features in aphid mitogenomes are independent species-specific evolutionary events or clade-specific events at certain taxonomic levels, we sequenced three new aphid mitogenomes (Hormaphidinae: Ceratovacuna keduensis, Pseudoregma panicola; Lachninae: Nippolachnus piri) and compared them with all known aphid mitogenomes. The three mitogenomes are 16,059–17,033 bp in length, with a set of 37 typical mitochondrial genes, a non-coding control region and a tandem repeat region. The gene orders of them are all highly rearranged. Within the subfamily Hormaphidinae, the presence of repeat region and mitogenome rearrangement in Cerataphidini species but not in the other two tribes indicate that these may be Cerataphidini-specific features. The same gene rearrangement pattern in the two Lachninae species, N. piri (Tuberolachnini) and Stomaphis sinisalicis (Stomaphidini), supports that this feature should be at least derived from the common ancestor of two tribes. Overall, our data and analyses provide new insights into the evolutionary patterns of gene rearrangement and repeat region in aphid mitogenomes, and further corroborate the potential role of gene rearrangement in elucidating the evolutionary history of different insect lineages.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151970
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1971: No Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Wild
           Mink (Mustela lutreola and Neogale vison) from Northern Spain during the
           First Two Years of Pandemic

    • Authors: Sergio Villanueva-Saz, Jacobo Giner, Ana María Palomar, María Asunción Gómez, Madis Põdra, María del Carmen Aranda, María de los Ángeles Jiménez, Patricia Lizarraga, Raquel Hernández, Aránzazu Portillo, José Antonio Oteo, Ignacio Ruíz-Arrondo, María Dolores Pérez, Ana Pilar Tobajas, Maite Verde, Delia Lacasta, Diana Marteles, Ramón Hurtado-Guerrero, Llipsy Santiago, Héctor Ruíz, Antonio Fernández
      First page: 1971
      Abstract: The impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on wildlife is largely unevaluated, and extended surveillance of animal species is needed to reach a consensus on the role of animals in the emergence and maintenance of SARS-CoV-2. This infection has been detected in farmed and domestic animals and wild animals, mainly in captivity. The interactions or shared resources with wildlife could represent a potential transmission pathway for the SARS-CoV-2 spill over to other wild species and could lead to health consequences or the establishment of new reservoirs in susceptible hosts. This study evaluated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in European mink (Mustela lutreola) and American mink (Neogale vison) in Spain by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the receptor binding domain (RBD) of Spike antigen in serum samples and/or by RT-qPCR assays in oropharyngeal and rectal swabs. From January 2020 to February 2022, a total of 162 animals (127 European mink and 35 American mink) with no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection were included in the study. Antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 were not found in the serum samples analysed (n = 126), nor was the virus amplified by RT-qPCR (n = 160 swabs). Our results suggest that the potential role of wild mink and the European mink bred in captivity and released to the wild as dispersers of SARS-CoV-2 is so far low. However, wildlife surveillance for early detection of human and animal risks should be continued. In this sense, epidemiological monitoring measures, including serology and molecular analysis, are necessary.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151971
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1972: Supplementing Citrus aurantium Flavonoid
           Extract in High-Fat Finishing Diets Improves Animal Behavior and Rumen
           Health and Modifies Rumen and Duodenum Epithelium Gene Expression in
           Holstein Bulls

    • Authors: Montserrat Paniagua, Javier Francisco Crespo, Anna Arís, Maria Devant
      First page: 1972
      Abstract: One hundred and forty-six bulls (178.2 ± 6.64 kg BW and 146.0 ± 0.60 d of age) were randomly allocated to one of eight pens and assigned to control (C) or citrus flavonoid (BF) treatments (Citrus aurantium, Bioflavex CA, HTBA, S.L.U., Barcelona, Spain, 0.4 kg per ton of Bioflavex CA). At the finishing phase, the dietary fat content of the concentrate was increased (58 to 84 g/kg DM). Concentrate intake was recorded daily, and BW and animal behavior by visual scan, fortnightly. After 168 d, bulls were slaughtered, carcass data were recorded, and rumen and duodenum epithelium samples were collected. Performance data were not affected by treatment, except for the growing phase where concentrate intake (p < 0.05) was lesser in the BF compared with the C bulls. Agonistic and sexual behaviors were more frequent (p < 0.01) in the C than in the BF bulls. In the rumen epithelium, in contrast to duodenum, gene expression of some bitter taste receptors (7, 16, 39) and other genes related to behavior and inflammation was higher (p < 0.05) in the BF compared with the C bulls. Supplementing citrus flavonoids in high-fat finishing diets to Holstein bulls reduces growing concentrate consumption and improves animal welfare.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151972
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1973: Exploring the Potential of Myrothamnus
           flabellifolius Welw. (Resurrection Tree) as a Phytogenic Feed Additive in
           Animal Nutrition

    • Authors: Carlos Wyson Tawanda Nantapo, Upenyu Marume
      First page: 1973
      Abstract: Myrothamnus flabellifolius (Welw.) is used in African traditional medicine for the treatment of depression and mental disorder, asthma, infectious diseases, respiratory, inflammation, epilepsy, heart, wound, backaches, diabetes, kidney ailments, hypertension, hemorrhoids, gingivitis, shingles, stroke, and skins conditions. The effectiveness of M. flabellifolius is due to the presence of several secondary metabolites that have demonstrated efficacy in other cell and animal models. These metabolites are key in cell regulation and function and have potential use in animal production due to antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, for an improvement in growth performance, feed quality and palatability, gut microbial environment, function, and animal health. The purpose of this review is to provide a detailed account on the potential use of M. flabellifolius in animal nutrition. Limitations towards the use of this plant in animal nutrition, including toxicity, economic, and financial issues are discussed. Finally, novel strategies and technologies, e.g., microencapsulation, microbial fermentation, and essential oil extraction, used to unlock and improve nutrient bioaccessibility and bioavailability are clearly discussed towards the potential use of M. flabellifolius as a phytogenic additive in animal diets.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151973
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1974: Signs of Anxiety and Salivary Copeptin
           Levels in Dogs Diagnosed with Separation-Related Problems in a Short
           Separation Test

    • Authors: Ludovica Pierantoni, Mariangela Albertini, Patrizia Piotti, Giulia Ripamonti, Paola Pocar, Vitaliano Borromeo, Federica Pirrone
      First page: 1974
      Abstract: The need for faster diagnosis and more accurate treatment decisions in separation-related problems (SRPs) in dogs is urgent, and a more precise behavioral phenotyping and the development of biomarkers may be of great value. Vasopressin could be a potential non-invasive biomarker of anxiety in dogs with SRPs, but reliable measurement of its concentration is challenging. Here, we compared the behavior and salivary concentrations of copeptin, an arginine vasopressin surrogate, in dogs with SRPs (Case group, n = 13) and with no problems (Control group, n = 15) as they were introduced to a novel environment and subjected to a short episode of separation and reunion with the owner. Dogs in the Case group had greater odds of showing locomotory or oral behaviors during the pre- and post-separation than Controls, while the odds were significantly lower during separation. They also had greater odds of being persistent in seeking attention and proximity from the stranger during reunion. Overall, dogs with SRPs were more likely to express an anxiety-like state during the entire test than Controls, with separation from the owner, and even its anticipation, possibly accounting for this group difference. Although salivary copeptin concentrations did not differ between the two groups, a different trend was detected in Cases and Controls that is worth exploring in further validation studies involving a larger sample.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151974
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1975: Defining Terms Used for Animals Working in
           Support Roles for People with Support Needs

    • Authors: Tiffani J. Howell, Leanne Nieforth, Clare Thomas-Pino, Lauren Samet, Sunday Agbonika, Francisca Cuevas-Pavincich, Nina Ekholm Fry, Kristine Hill, Brinda Jegatheesan, Miki Kakinuma, Maureen MacNamara, Sanna Mattila-Rautiainen, Andy Perry, Christine Y. Tardif-Williams, Elizabeth Ann Walsh, Melissa Winkle, Mariko Yamamoto, Rachel Yerbury, Vijay Rawat, Kathy Alm, Ashley Avci, Tanya Bailey, Hannah Baker, Pree Benton, Catherine Binney, Sara Boyle, Hagit Brandes, Alexa M. Carr, Wendy Coombe, Kendra Coulter, Audrey Darby, Lowri Davies, Esther Delisle, Marie-Jose Enders-Slegers, Angela Fournier, Marie Fox, Nancy Gee, Taryn M. Graham, Anne Hamilton-Bruce, Tia G. B. Hansen, Lynette Hart, Morag Heirs, Jade Hooper, Rachel Howe, Elizabeth Johnson, Melanie Jones, Christos Karagiannis, Emily Kieson, Sun-A Kim, Christine Kivlen, Beth Lanning, Helen Lewis, Deborah Linder, Dac Loc Mai, Chiara Mariti, Rebecca Mead, Gilly Mendes Ferreira, Debbie Ngai, Samantha O’Keeffe, Grainne O’Connor, Christine Olsen, Elizabeth Ormerod, Emma R. Power, Peggy A. Pritchard, Kerri Rodriguez, Deborah Rook, Matthew B. Ruby, Leah Schofield, Tania Signal, Jill Steel, Wendy Stone, Melissa Symonds, Diane van Rooy, Tiamat Warda, Monica Wilson, Janette Young, Pauleen Bennett
      First page: 1975
      Abstract: The nomenclature used to describe animals working in roles supporting people can be confusing. The same term may be used to describe different roles, or two terms may mean the same thing. This confusion is evident among researchers, practitioners, and end users. Because certain animal roles are provided with legal protections and/or government-funding support in some jurisdictions, it is necessary to clearly define the existing terms to avoid confusion. The aim of this paper is to provide operationalized definitions for nine terms, which would be useful in many world regions: “assistance animal”, “companion animal”, “educational/school support animal”, “emotional support animal”, “facility animal”, “service animal”, “skilled companion animal”, “therapy animal”, and “visiting/visitation animal”. At the International Society for Anthrozoology (ISAZ) conferences in 2018 and 2020, over 100 delegates participated in workshops to define these terms, many of whom co-authored this paper. Through an iterative process, we have defined the nine terms and explained how they differ from each other. We recommend phasing out two terms (i.e., “skilled companion animal” and “service animal”) due to overlap with other terms that could potentially exacerbate confusion. The implications for several regions of the world are discussed.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151975
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1976: Animal Detection and Classification from
           Camera Trap Images Using Different Mainstream Object Detection
           Architectures

    • Authors: Mengyu Tan, Wentao Chao, Jo-Ku Cheng, Mo Zhou, Yiwen Ma, Xinyi Jiang, Jianping Ge, Lian Yu, Limin Feng
      First page: 1976
      Abstract: Camera traps are widely used in wildlife surveys and biodiversity monitoring. Depending on its triggering mechanism, a large number of images or videos are sometimes accumulated. Some literature has proposed the application of deep learning techniques to automatically identify wildlife in camera trap imagery, which can significantly reduce manual work and speed up analysis processes. However, there are few studies validating and comparing the applicability of different models for object detection in real field monitoring scenarios. In this study, we firstly constructed a wildlife image dataset of the Northeast Tiger and Leopard National Park (NTLNP dataset). Furthermore, we evaluated the recognition performance of three currently mainstream object detection architectures and compared the performance of training models on day and night data separately versus together. In this experiment, we selected YOLOv5 series models (anchor-based one-stage), Cascade R-CNN under feature extractor HRNet32 (anchor-based two-stage), and FCOS under feature extractors ResNet50 and ResNet101 (anchor-free one-stage). The experimental results showed that performance of the object detection models of the day-night joint training is satisfying. Specifically, the average result of our models was 0.98 mAP (mean average precision) in the animal image detection and 88% accuracy in the animal video classification. One-stage YOLOv5m achieved the best recognition accuracy. With the help of AI technology, ecologists can extract information from masses of imagery potentially quickly and efficiently, saving much time.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151976
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1977: Retrospective Evaluation of Intravenous
           Enoxaparin Administration in Feline Arterial Thromboembolism

    • Authors: Athanasia Mitropoulou, Esther Hassdenteufel, Joanna Lin, Natali Bauer, Gabriel Wurtinger, Claudia Vollmar, Estelle Henrich, Nicolai Hildebrandt, Matthias Schneider
      First page: 1977
      Abstract: Induction of a hypocoagulable state is imperative in the treatment of feline arterial thromboembolism. Publications in human medicine report the use of enoxaparin intravenously in selected cases. The aim of our retrospective study was to report the regain of perfusion, short-term outcome, and complications of cats treated with a novel intravenous enoxaparin protocol (1 mg/kg bolus injection followed by 3 mg/kg/day continuous infusion) combined with oral clopidogrel administration. The secondary aim was to report the monitoring of enoxaparin with anti-Xa activity. There were 36 cats included. The probability of reaching limb reperfusion was significantly (p = 0.0148) higher with anti-Xa activity within or above the target range compared to results below the target range (19/21, 90% versus 11/20, 55%). The complications observed were acute kidney injury (15/36, 42%), hemorrhage (2/36, 6%), and neurological signs (6/36, 17%). The most common causes of death/euthanasia were cardiac instability, acute kidney injury, neurological abnormalities, and limb necrosis. The hospital discharge rate was 83% (10/12) for single limb and 29% (7/24) for dual limb thrombosis; the difference was significant (p = 0.0039). The median hospitalization time for the survivors was 119.5 (95–480) h. Our study supports the use of intravenous continuous rate infusion of enoxaparin in combination with oral clopidogrel for cats with aortic thromboembolism. We report similar discharge rates and lower hemorrhage rates than previously reported with thrombolytic treatment.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151977
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1978: Red Sea Bream Iridovirus (RSIV) Kinetics in
           Rock Bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) at Various Fish-Rearing Seawater
           Temperatures

    • Authors: Kyung-Ho Kim, Kwang-Min Choi, Min-Soo Joo, Gyoungsik Kang, Won-Sik Woo, Min-Young Sohn, Ha-Jeong Son, Mun-Gyeong Kwon, Jae-Ok Kim, Do-Hyung Kim, Chan-Il Park
      First page: 1978
      Abstract: Red sea bream iridoviral disease (RSIVD) causes serious economic losses in the aquaculture industry. In this paper, we evaluated RSIV kinetics in rock bream under various rearing water temperatures and different RSIV inoculation concentrations. High viral copy numbers (approximately 103.7–106.7 RSIV genome copies/L/g) were observed during the period of active fish mortality after RSIV infection at all concentrations in the tanks (25 °C and 20 °C). In the group injected with 104 RSIV genome copies/fish, RSIV was not detected at 21–30 days post-infection (dpi) in the rearing seawater. In rock bream infected at 15 °C and subjected to increasing water temperature (1 °C/d until 25 °C) 3 days later, the virus replication rate and number of viral copies shed into the rearing seawater increased. With the decrease in temperature (1 °C/d) from 25 to 15 °C after the infection, the virus replicated rapidly and was released at high loads on the initial 3–5 dpi, whereas the number of viral copies in the fish and seawater decreased after 14 dpi. These results indicate that the number of viral copies shed into the rearing seawater varies depending on the RSIV infection level in rock bream.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151978
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1979: Microplastics in Internal Tissues of
           Companion Animals from Urban Environments

    • Authors: Joana C. Prata, Ana L. Patrício Silva, João P. da Costa, Patrícia Dias-Pereira, Alexandre Carvalho, António José Silva Fernandes, Florinda Mendes da Costa, Armando C. Duarte, Teresa Rocha-Santos
      First page: 1979
      Abstract: Companion animals living in urban areas are exposed to environmental contaminants, which may include microplastics. A preliminary study was conducted by collecting postmortem samples from the internal tissue (lungs, ileum, liver, kidney, and blood clots) of 25 dogs (Canis familiaris) and 24 cats (Felis catus) living in an urban environment in Porto metropolitan area, Portugal. Suspected microplastics were found in 80 samples from 35 animals (18 cats and 17 dogs), often occurring in more than one tissue of the same animal (71.4%), primarily under small sizes (50.3% as 1–10 µm). Micro-Raman spectroscopy confirmed a fraction of particles as common polymer types (e.g., polyethylene terephthalate). However, the number of particles was very low. This study highlights the possibilities of the internalization and distribution of microplastics in the internal tissues of terrestrial vertebrates.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151979
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1980: Contour-Based Wild Animal Instance
           Segmentation Using a Few-Shot Detector

    • Authors: Jiaxi Tang, Yaqin Zhao, Liqi Feng, Wenxuan Zhao
      First page: 1980
      Abstract: Camera traps are widely used in wildlife research, conservation, and management, and abundant images are acquired every day. Efficient real-time instance segmentation networks can help ecologists label and study wild animals. However, existing deep convolutional neural networks require a large number of annotations and labels, which makes them unsuitable for small datasets. In this paper, we propose a two-stage method for the instance segmentation of wildlife, including object detection and contour approximation. In the object detection stage, we use FSOD (few-shot object detection) to recognize animal species and detect the initial bounding boxes of animals. In the case of a small wildlife dataset, this method may improve the generalization ability of the wild animal species recognition and even identify new species that only have a small number of training samples. In the second stage, deep snake is used as the contour approximation model for the instance segmentation of wild mammals. The initial bounding boxes generated in the first stage are input to deep snake to approximate the contours of the animal bodies. The model fuses the advantages of detecting new species and real-time instance segmentation. The experimental results show that the proposed method is more suitable for wild animal instance segmentation, in comparison with pixel-wise segmentation methods. In particular, the proposed method shows a better performance when facing challenging images.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151980
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1981: Relative Bioavailability of Trace Minerals
           in Production Animal Nutrition: A Review

    • Authors: Laurann Byrne, Richard A. Murphy
      First page: 1981
      Abstract: The importance of dietary supplementation of animal feeds with trace minerals is irrefutable, with various forms of both organic and inorganic products commercially available. With advances in research techniques, and data obtained from both in-vitro and in-vivo studies in recent years, differences between inorganic and organic trace minerals have become more apparent. Furthermore, differences between specific organic mineral types can now be identified. Adhering to PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews, we carried out an extensive literature search on previously published studies detailing performance responses to trace minerals, in addition to their corresponding relative bioavailability values. This review covers four of the main trace minerals included in feed: copper, iron, manganese and zinc, and encompasses the different types of organic and inorganic products commercially available. Their impact from environmental, economic, and nutritional perspectives are discussed, along with the biological availability of various mineral forms in production animals. Species-specific sections cover ruminants, poultry, and swine. Extensive relative bioavailability tables cover values for all trace mineral products commercially available, including those not previously reviewed in earlier studies, thereby providing a comprehensive industry reference guide. Additionally, we examine reasons for variance in reported relative bioavailability values, with an emphasis on accounting for data misinterpretation.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151981
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1982: The Economic Burden of Chromosome
           

    • Authors: Nicole M. Lewis, Carla Canedo-Ribeiro, Claudia C. Rathje, Rebecca L. Jennings, Maxim Danihel, Lisa M. Bosman, Giuseppe Silvestri, Darren K. Griffin
      First page: 1982
      Abstract: The cattle breeding industry, through both of its derivatives (dairy and beef), provides 81% of milk and 22% of meat required globally. If a breeding bull is sub-fertile, this impacts herd conception and birth rates, and it is generally accepted that having a proactive genetic screening programme can prevent further losses. Chromosome translocations are the leading genetic cause of infertility in livestock and, in cattle, this extends beyond the classical 1:29 to other Robertsonian translocations (RobTs) and to reciprocal translocations (RECTs). The incidence of both (collectively termed RTs) varies between breeds and herds; however, we estimate that RECTs are, most likely, at least twice as common as RobTs. The purpose of this study was to develop an industry economic model to estimate the financial impact of an RT event at the herd level. If we assume a conservative incidence rate of 0.4% for Rob1:29 with each one impacting the conception rate by 5%, we calculate that actively screening for and removing a Rob1:29 bull could benefit an impacted herd by GBP 2.3 million (approx. USD 2.8 million) over six years. A recently updated screening protocol developed in our lab for all RTs, however (with a projected combined incidence of 1.2%, impacting conception rates by 10%), could benefit an impacted herd by GBP 7.2 million (nearly USD 9 million) for each RT found. For an industry worth USD 827.4 billion (dairy) and USD 467.7 billion (beef), expanding knowledge on incidence and further dissection of the potential costs (financial and environmental) from RTs is essential to prevent further losses.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151982
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1983: A Deep Learning Model for Detecting
           Cage-Free Hens on the Litter Floor

    • Authors: Xiao Yang, Lilong Chai, Ramesh Bahadur Bist, Sachin Subedi, Zihao Wu
      First page: 1983
      Abstract: Real-time and automatic detection of chickens (e.g., laying hens and broilers) is the cornerstone of precision poultry farming based on image recognition. However, such identification becomes more challenging under cage-free conditions comparing to caged hens. In this study, we developed a deep learning model (YOLOv5x-hens) based on YOLOv5, an advanced convolutional neural network (CNN), to monitor hens’ behaviors in cage-free facilities. More than 1000 images were used to train the model and an additional 200 images were adopted to test it. One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD analyses were conducted using JMP software (JMP Pro 16 for Mac, SAS Institute, Cary, North Caronia) to determine whether there are significant differences between the predicted number of hens and the actual number of hens under various situations (i.e., age, light intensity, and observational angles). The difference was considered significant at p < 0.05. Our results show that the evaluation metrics (Precision, Recall, F1 and mAP@0.5) of the YOLOv5x-hens model were 0.96, 0.96, 0.96 and 0.95, respectively, in detecting hens on the litter floor. The newly developed YOLOv5x-hens was tested with stable performances in detecting birds under different lighting intensities, angles, and ages over 8 weeks (i.e., birds were 8–16 weeks old). For instance, the model was tested with 95% accuracy after the birds were 8 weeks old. However, younger chicks such as one-week old birds were harder to be tracked (e.g., only 25% accuracy) due to interferences of equipment such as feeders, drink lines, and perches. According to further data analysis, the model performed efficiently in real-time detection with an overall accuracy more than 95%, which is the key step for the tracking of individual birds for evaluation of production and welfare. However, there are some limitations of the current version of the model. Error detections came from highly overlapped stock, uneven light intensity, and images occluded by equipment (i.e., drinking line and feeder). Future research is needed to address those issues for a higher detection. The current study established a novel CNN deep learning model in research cage-free facilities for the detection of hens, which provides a technical basis for developing a machine vision system for tracking individual birds for evaluation of the animals’ behaviors and welfare status in commercial cage-free houses.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151983
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1984: Hematological Changes in Sika Doe and
           Suckling Fawn Fed with Spent Mushroom Substrate of Pleurotus ostreatus

    • Authors: Chongshan Yuan, Changze Li, Xinyuan Chen, Syed Muhammad Tahir, Aiwu Zhang, Min Wu
      First page: 1984
      Abstract: Sika deer velvet antler is the most important animal nutraceutic in traditional Chinese medicine. Reducing the breeding cost of sika deer by looking for a low-cost diet is the main research direction at present. The purpose of this experiment was to find an alternative diet for sika deer and reduce the cost of the diet by using spent mushroom substrate (SMS) as a concentrate supplement. The apparent digestibility for sika doe and the hematological changes of sika doe and suckling fawn were measured by replacing 10% of the concentrate supplement with SMS of Pleurotus ostreatus (SMS-MP). Compared with the control group, the digestibility of dry matter (DM), total protein (TP), globulin (GLO), and cholesterol (CHOL) of sika doe were significantly decreased (p < 0.05), and glucose (GLU), alanine (Ala), phenylalanine (Phe), and proline (Pro) of sika doe were significantly increased (p < 0.05) after the replacement of SMS-MP. Compared with the control group, the serum GLU of suckling fawn was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) and the phosphatase (ALP) was significantly increased after the replacement of SMS-MP (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the immune globulin and amino acid of suckling fawns between the two groups (p > 0.05). The present findings confirm the applicability of SMS-MP as a sika doe concentrate supplement. At the same time, using SMS, a waste resource, can not only reduce the breeding cost of sika doe, but also make full use of SMS to reduce environmental pollution.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151984
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1985: Assessing the Social Cohesion of a
           Translocated Pride of White Lions Integrated with Wild Tawny Lions in
           South Africa, Using Social Network Analysis

    • Authors: Jason A. Turner, Hans de Iongh, Emma J. Dunston-Clarke
      First page: 1985
      Abstract: In South Africa, lions are protected in national parks and smaller fenced reserves. Translocating lions between fenced reserves, whilst necessary to maintain genetic diversity, is disruptive and can impact survivorship and pride cohesion. Critical to translocation success is pride cohesion. White lions are a natural colour variant occurring in the Greater Kruger Park Region, where anthropogenic threats eliminated this population until reintroduction in 2006. Through social network analysis (SNA), the sociality of a released pride of captive-origin white and wild tawny lions was compared to two captive-origin and wild prides of tawny lions. Social interactions and pride dynamics were recorded for each pride. For all prides, cubs and subadults were central to the play network, while adults received the most social interactions. White and wild tawny adult males initiated more social interactions than captive-origin tawny males, whilst a keystone adult female was identified in each pride. For the constructed pride, social interactions were more evenly distributed, suggesting a high level of connectedness and cohesion. This is the first study to demonstrate that captive-origin white and wild tawny lions can form a socially functional pride, suggesting that white lions would survive in the wild in the absence of anthropogenic threats.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151985
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1986: Carcass Traits of Growing Meat Goats Fed
           Different Levels of Hempseed Meal

    • Authors: Reshma Gurung, Khim B. Ale, Frank W. Abrahamsen, Katie Moyer, Jason T. Sawyer, Nar K. Gurung
      First page: 1986
      Abstract: Hempseed meal (HSM) is the byproduct of hemp seeds and is rich in crude protein and fiber, making it an ideal candidate as a feedstuff for ruminants. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effects of feeding different levels of HSM on the carcass traits of crossbred Boer goats. Forty castrated goat kids (approximately six months, 25.63 ± 0.33 kg) were assigned to one of four treatments (n = 10) in a completely randomized design. Goats were fed pelleted diets (50% forage and 50% concentrate) with additional supplementation of HSM: control with 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of the total diets. Goats were harvested and processed after a 60-day feeding trial. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the mean values of dressing percentages, carcass weights, body wall thickness, and ribeye area among treatments. Marbling scores and percentages of moisture, fats, proteins, and collagen in the muscles showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) among the treatments. Results suggest that including up to 30% of HSM in the diet of growing meat goats does not affect their carcass traits.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151986
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1987: Social Licence to Operate: What Can
           Equestrian Sports Learn from Other Industries'

    • Authors: Janet Douglas, Roly Owers, Madeleine L. H. Campbell
      First page: 1987
      Abstract: The concept of ‘social licence to operate’ (SLO) is relevant to all animal-use activities. An SLO is an intangible, implicit agreement between the public and an industry/group. Its existence allows that industry/group to pursue its activities with minimal formalised restrictions because such activities have widespread societal approval. In contrast, the imposition of legal restrictions—or even an outright ban—reflect qualified or lack of public support for an activity. This review discusses current threats to equestrianism’s SLO and suggests actions that those across the equine sector need to take to justify the continuation of the SLO. The most important of these is earning the trust of all stakeholders, including the public. Trust requires transparency of operations, establishment and communication of shared values, and demonstration of competence. These attributes can only be gained by taking an ethics-based, proactive, progressive, and holistic approach to the protection of equine welfare. Animal-use activities that have faced challenges to their SLO have achieved variable success in re-establishing the approval of society, and equestrianism can learn from the experience of these groups as it maps its future. The associated effort and cost should be regarded as an investment in the future of the sport.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151987
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1988: Hematology, Ultrastructure and Morphology of
           Blood Cells in Rufous-Winged Buzzards (Butastur liventer) from Thailand

    • Authors: Pornchai Pornpanom, Chaiyan Kasorndorkbua, Preeda Lertwatcharasalakul, Chaleow Salakij
      First page: 1988
      Abstract: In attempt to treat injured raptors and promote conservation awareness, the Kasetsart University Raptor Rehabilitation Unit (KURRU) was established in 2007. The complete blood counts (CBCs) are a manual tool used for the screening of raptor health. These tests require knowledge of blood cell morphology. This study aimed to describe the preliminary information of the hematology, ultrastructure, and morphology of blood cells in rufous-winged buzzards (RWB). There were 17 RWBs admitted into the KURRU. CBCs were manually performed by veterinary technicians. The morphology and morphometry of blood cells were observed from Wright-stained blood smears. Ultrastructure was observed from uranyl acetate and lead citrate-stained sections. The hematologic values were analyzed and described from individual RWBs that were clinically healthy, negative for blood parasites, and had PCV > 0.30 L/L. Consequently, CBCs of 12 out of 17 RWBs were included for descriptive hematologic values. Heterophils were the most prevalent white blood cells in RWBs. Of these 17 RWBs, 1 non-parasitized RWB showed hypochromic erythrocytes with PCV 0.18 L/L, which indicated that anemia in RWBs resulted from non-parasitic causes. The morphology of blood cells in RWBs was similar to those in other diurnal raptors, except that the lymphocytes showed pale or colorless cytoplasm. The electron micrographs highlighted that the basophil contained two types of granules: homogeneous electron-dense granules and reticulated electron-dense granules. The photomicrographs in this report are the scientific reference for identification of blood cells in RWBs. The CBCs from non-parasitized RWBs (clinically healthy) can be used as a cage mate reference in the KURRU. Additionally, we found evidence that evaluations of blood smears together with CBC examination were important in raptors.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151988
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1989: Feedlot Factors Influencing the Incidence of
           Dark Cutting in Australian Grain-Fed Beef

    • Authors: Cameron C. Steel, Angela M. Lees, Garth Tarr, Frank R. Dunshea, Des Bowler, Frances Cowley, Robyn D. Warner, Peter McGilchrist
      First page: 1989
      Abstract: It has been well-established that dark cutting (DC) is a multifactorial issue that is associated with numerous animal and management factors. However, there is limited understanding of the feedlot-based factors that contribute to the influence of DC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of climate, animal, and feedlot factors on the incidence of pH non-compliance in Australian grain-fed cattle. For this study, feedlot and abattoir records from 142,228 individual cattle over a 1-year period were investigated. These data incorporated records from seven feedlots that consigned cattle to three abattoirs. The average incidence of DC in these carcasses was 2.8%. The production factors that were associated with increased risk of DC included feedlot, sex, hormone growth promotants (HGP), cattle health, and days on feed (DOF). Additionally, DC also increased by reduced solar radiation (SR, W/m2), lower wind speeds (WS, m/s), increased ambient temperature (TA, °C), higher rainfall, a higher average temperature–humidity index (THI), and increased duration of time above heat-load-index threshold of 86 (HLI ≥ 86) during the 7 days prior to feedlot departure. This study identified the feedlot factors that increase the risk of DC from a feedlot-management perspective.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151989
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1990: Female Cuckoo Calls Deceive Their Hosts by
           Evoking Nest-Leaving Behavior: Variation under Different Levels of
           Parasitism

    • Authors: Jiaojiao Wang, Laikun Ma, Xiangyang Chen, Canchao Yang
      First page: 1990
      Abstract: The common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) is an obligate brood parasite that has evolved a series of strategies to trick its hosts. The female cuckoo has been hypothesized to mimic the appearance and sounds of several raptors to deceive the hosts into exhibiting anti-predator behavior. Such behavior would relax the protection of the host nest and thus allow the female cuckoo to approach the host nest unopposed. Many anti-parasite strategies have been found to vary among geographical populations due to different parasitic pressures from cuckoos. However, the effect of female cuckoo calls related to different levels of parasitic pressure has not been examined. Here, we studied the effect of female cuckoo calls on the oriental reed warbler (Acrocephalus orientalis), one of the major hosts of the common cuckoo, in two geographical populations experiencing different levels of parasite pressure. Four kinds of sounds were played back to the hosts: the calls from female common cuckoos, male common cuckoos, sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), and oriental turtle doves (Streptopelia orientalis). The results showed that the female cuckoo calls induced the hosts to leave their nests more frequently than the male cuckoo or dove calls in both populations, and two populations of the hosts reacted similarly to the female cuckoo calls, implying that the function of female cuckoo calls would not be affected by the difference in parasitism rate. This study indicates that female cuckoo calls function to distract the hosts’ attention from protecting their nests. However, we propose that such a deception by the female cuckoo call may not be due to the mimicry of sparrowhawk calls, but rather that the rapid cadence of the call that causes a sense of anxiety in the hosts.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151990
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1991: New Data on Pterygodermatites
           (Pterygodermatites) plagiostoma Wedl, 1861 (Nematoda, Rictulariidae)
           Parasite of the Algerian Hedgehog Atelerix algirus Linnaeus, 1758
           (Eulipotyphla: Erinaceidae) from the Canary Islands

    • Authors: Jordi Miquel, Alexis Ribas, Román Pino-Vera, Elena Izquierdo-Rodríguez, Natalia Martín-Carrillo, Carlos Feliu, Pilar Foronda
      First page: 1991
      Abstract: A redescription of the rictulariid nematode Pterygodermatites (Pterygodermatites) plagiostoma Wedl, 1861, is made by means of light and scanning electron microscopy, including the first data on male specimens. The morphologic study was based on specimens recovered from two Algerian hedgehogs (Atelerix algirus) from Tenerife and Gran Canaria islands (Canary Archipelago, Spain). The main characteristics of P. (P.) plagiostoma males are the presence of 49–53 pairs of cuticular projections, the presence of one or two midventral precloacal fans (generally one), and the size of two unequal spicules, measuring 98–123 µm (right spicule) and 185–236 µm (left spicule). The cloacal papillae are arranged according to the Ascaridida type. They include two precloacal pairs, an unpaired precloacal papilla, one pair lateral to the cloaca, six postcloacal pairs, and a pair of phasmids near the tail tip. Females are mainly characterized by the presence of 71–77 pairs of cuticular projections, with 43–46 pairs of prevulvar combs, by the differentiation from combs to spines at the level of or slightly posterior to the vulva and by the position of the vulva, located posteriorly to the esophagus–intestine junction. Clear differences were found between P. (P.) plagiostoma and related species of the subgenus P. (Pterygodermatites).
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151991
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1992: Farmers’ Risk Perception on Climate
           Change: Transhumance vs. Semi-Intensive Sheep Production Systems in
           Türkiye

    • Authors: Sezen Ocak Yetisgin, Hasan Önder, Uğur Şen, Dariusz Piwczyński, Magdalena Kolenda, Beata Sitkowska, Ceyhun Yucel
      First page: 1992
      Abstract: Sheep farmers’ perceptions of climate change and its impacts and the adaptation strategies they consider to address these risks are of great importance in ensuring the resilience of farming practice. This study focused on sheep farmers’ perception of climate change and the risks and actions taken to mitigate these impacts. A total of 68 surveys were carried out among sheep farmers (39 transhumance and 29 semi-intensive farmers) by two different representative production systems in Türkiye. Variables regarding the socio-economic profile, climate change impacts, and adaptation strategies were identified and analyzed. Principal component analysis and a Pearson Chi-square test were used to evaluate the data. Both farmers’ groups accepted and perceived climate change, showing good awareness and perception. The farmers’ attitudes towards adaptation to climate change were associated with production systems. Transhumance farmers had limited adaptation and coping strategies compared to semi-intensive farmers. Transhumance farmers focused mainly on selling livestock (mostly to cope with degraded natural grassland/feed deficiency) as an adaptive strategy. In contrast, semi-intensive farmers focused on modifying their farm management and feed operations, such as changing the feed ratio and supplement use, improving water and feed storage, and considering crop feed production. The knowledge obtained from this study could be helpful for farmers and policymakers who develop long-term small ruminant production strategies that consider the effects of climate change and adapt them to different farming systems in the Türkiye.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151992
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1993: Locally Injected Autologous Platelet-Rich
           Plasma Improves Cutaneous Wound Healing in Cats

    • Authors: Vasileia Angelou, Dimitra Psalla, Chrysostomos I. Dovas, George M. Kazakos, Christina Marouda, Kyriakos Chatzimisios, Zacharenia Kyrana, Evangelia Moutou, Maria Karayannopoulou, Lysimachos G. Papazoglou
      First page: 1993
      Abstract: Cutaneous defects in cats are commonly encountered in clinical practice, and healing can be accomplished by first or second intention. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is characterized by a plasma concentration containing a large number of platelets in a small volume of plasma. The objective of the present study was to record the efficacy of PRP infiltration in open wounds in laboratory cats. Six wounds were created in the dorsal midline of eight laboratory cats, with the wounds of one side designated as the PRP group and the wounds of the other side as the control group. Wound healing was evaluated by daily clinical examination, planimetry, laser Doppler flowmetry, and histologic examination on days 0, 7, 14, and 25, and by measurement of metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2 and -9 and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 on days 0, 14, and 25. Based on the results of the present study, the mean time for full coverage with granulation tissue was shorter in the PRP group, the mean contraction and total wound healing percentage were increased compared to the control group, and finally, the perfusion measured with laser Doppler flowmetry was higher in the PRP group during all examination days. In conclusion, this is the first study focusing on the topical application of PRP in the treatment of open wounds in laboratory cats, and our results are encouraging—showing a more rapid healing in the PRP group.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151993
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1994: Association of Herd Size with Stillbirth and
           Dystocia Rates in Japanese Black Cattle

    • Authors: Moe Misaka, Mizuho Uematsu, Go Kitahara, Takeshi Osawa, Yosuke Sasaki
      First page: 1994
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of herd size on stillbirth and dystocia rates; the relationships between herd size, calving season, parity, and gestation length in Japanese Black cattle were also explored. Data were collected for 41,184 calvings from 15,512 animals on 905 farms between 2006 and 2010. In this study, herds were classified into three groups based on size: small (1–10 cows), medium (11–50 cows), and large (≥51 cows). Herd size had an effect on the dystocia rate (p < 0.05) but not the stillbirth rate. Additionally, interactions between herd size and gestation length were associated with the dystocia rate (p < 0.05), and the dystocia rate was the highest in small herds, followed by medium and large herds for cows with a gestation length of 281–300 days, which is considered a pregnancy of normal duration. In summary, in Japanese Black cattle, there were different effects of herd size on the stillbirth rate and dystocia rates, as herd size was associated with the dystocia rate but not with the stillbirth rate.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151994
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1995: Andrographolide and Deoxyandrographolide
           Inhibit Protease and IFN-Antagonist Activities of Foot-and-Mouth Disease
           Virus 3Cpro

    • Authors: Sirin Theerawatanasirikul, Varanya Lueangaramkul, Nattarat Thangthamniyom, Penpitcha Chankeeree, Ploypailin Semkum, Porntippa Lekcharoensuk
      First page: 1995
      Abstract: Foot-and mouth-disease (FMD) caused by the FMD virus (FMDV) is highly contagious and negatively affects livestock worldwide. The control of the disease requires a combination of measures, including vaccination; however, there is no specific treatment available. Several studies have shown that plant-derived products with antiviral properties were effective on viral diseases. Herein, antiviral activities of andrographolide (AGL), deoxyandrographolide (DAG), and neoandrographolide (NEO) against FMDV serotype A were investigated using an in vitro cell-based assay. The results showed that AGL and DAG inhibited FMDV in BHK-21 cells. The inhibitory effects of AGL and DAG were evaluated by RT-qPCR and exhibited EC50 values of 52.18 ± 0.01 µM (SI = 2.23) and 36.47 ± 0.07 µM (SI = 9.22), respectively. The intracellular protease assay revealed that AGL and DAG inhibited FMDV 3Cpro with IC50 of 67.43 ± 0.81 and 25.58 ± 1.41 µM, respectively. Additionally, AGL and DAG significantly interfered with interferon (IFN) antagonist activity of the 3Cpro by derepressing interferon-stimulating gene (ISGs) expression. The molecular docking confirmed that the andrographolides preferentially interacted with the 3Cpro active site. However, NEO had no antiviral effect in any of the assays. Conclusively, AGL and DAG inhibited FMDV serotype A by interacting with the 3Cpro and hindered its protease and IFN antagonist activities.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151995
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1996: Evaluation of the Effect of Storage Time on
           ROTEM S® Parameters in Healthy and Ill Dogs

    • Authors: Nicole Weingand, Johanna Vuille-dit-Bille, Rahel Jud Jud Schefer, Annette P. N. Kutter, Martina Stirn, Katja-Nicole Adamik, Nadja E. Sigrist
      First page: 1996
      Abstract: Viscoelastic testing as a bedside test to assess global haemostasis has gained popularity in the past decade, with rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and thromboelastography (TEG) being the two commonly used devices. TEG studies suggest analysis 30 min after blood sampling. However, the reproducibility of results over time for ROTEM analysis using lyophilized samples in dogs has not been established. In this study, we investigated the influence of time on viscoelastic testing, using 33 healthy staff-/client-owned dogs for blood sampling and repeated measurements of ROTEM tracings at three different time points after blood collection. Additionally, a group of 21 hospitalized patients with suspected coagulation disorders were included to investigate whether stability over time was comparable between healthy and ill dogs. We demonstrated a significant difference of ROTEM tracings over time, with a tendency towards hypocoagulability over time. These changes do have a clinical relevance as they exceed reference intervals and could therefore lead to erroneous conclusions about a patient’s coagulation status. Therefore, time-specific reference intervals are proposed and presented in this publication.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151996
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1997: Relationship between Bruises on Carcasses of
           Beef Cattle and Transport-Related Factors

    • Authors: Emanuela Zanardi, Silvio De Luca, Giovanni Loris Alborali, Adriana Ianieri, Maria Olga Varrà, Claudia Romeo, Sergio Ghidini
      First page: 1997
      Abstract: The assessment of bruises on carcasses at the slaughterhouse has been lately indicated as a valid method to evaluate cattle welfare. However, little is known about the prevalence and the causes of bruises of cattle slaughtered in Italy. The aim of this study was to collect information concerning the prevalence of bruises on the carcasses of beef cattle slaughtered in an Italian abattoir and to determine a relationship between fresh bruises and transport-related factors. In total, 1265 animals were included in this study, with 21.6% of them being positive for at least one bruise, either fresh or old. In most cases, the bruising was mild, with lesions exclusively located in one area of the carcass. Most of the bruised animals (63%) showed at least one red lesion. Occurrence of such red, fresh bruises varied significantly depending on the body parts (p < 0.0001), with the flank being the most affected area (39.5%), followed by the butt (36.0%) and the front (23.8%). The probability of fresh bruising varied significantly depending on the category of each animal (p < 0.0001), with steers showing fewer red bruises than both heifers and veal. Finally, animals transported in conditions of a high density had a lower probability of bruising (p = 0.0003). These findings support the use of a monitoring scheme based on the presence of bruises to assess cattle welfare at the abattoir level in order to provide feedback to farmers and to implement procedures carried out during transport.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151997
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1998: A Comprehensive Study of the Quality of
           Fat-Tailed Sheep Carcasses in Greece

    • Authors: Angeliki Argyriadou, Anestis Tsitsos, Ioanna Stylianaki, Sotiria Vouraki, Theodoros Kallitsis, Vangelis Economou, Georgios Arsenos
      First page: 1998
      Abstract: Sheep farming in Greece is focused on milk production. Meat is considered a by-product and consists mainly light carcasses of undefined quality. The main challenge of the sector is to ensure sustainability, and hence efforts are towards efficient use of available resources, including undervalued carcasses of local fat-tailed sheep. The objective here was twofold: (i) to assess the carcass quality of fat-tailed sheep slaughtered at different live weights and (ii) to compare them with carcasses from thin-tailed sheep. In total, 146 fat-tailed and 97 thin-tailed dairy sheep were used. They belonged to five live-weight categories (LWC), representing 25%, 35%, 50%, 70% and 100% of mature body weight. Carcass length/weight/yield/pH and wither height were recorded. Muscle fiber minimum Feret’s diameter and meat color/tenderness/moisture/lipid and protein content were determined. Sex and LWC differences in fat-tailed sheep were assessed. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used to compare with thin-tailed sheep, considering the effects of LWC, sex and their interactions with sheep population (fat-tailed/thin-tailed). Most traits were significantly different (p < 0.05) between groups of fat-tailed sheep. Carcass yield of fat-tailed sheep was significantly higher compared to thin-tailed (p < 0.01). Interactions of sheep population with LWC or sex affected wither height, carcass pH, meat color and tenderness (p < 0.05). Fat-tailed sheep meat quality is equal or higher compared to thin-tailed. Finishing weights corresponding to 50 and 70% LWC may improve capitalization of fat-tailed carcasses.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151998
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1999: Rapid Nucleic Acid Extraction for Aquatic
           Animal DNA Virus Determination Using Chelex 100 Resin via Conventional PCR
           and Digital Droplet PCR Detection

    • Authors: Xi Hu, Nan Jiang, Yiqun Li, Yong Zhou, Yuding Fan, Mingyang Xue, Lingbing Zeng, Wenzhi Liu, Yan Meng
      First page: 1999
      Abstract: Molecular diagnostic testing for viral pathogens is crucial in aquaculture. The efficient and convenient preparation of pathogenic microbial nucleic acids is the basis of molecular diagnosis. Here, we developed a simplified deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction method from aquatic animal DNA viruses using the Chelex 100 resin. The nucleic acid was extracted from infected tissues and cell culture for the detection of three common aquatic viral pathogens (CEV, CyHV-2, and GSIV). We compared the extraction effects of a current commercial kit extraction method and the Chelex 100 resin extraction method according to nucleic acid concentration, conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and digital droplet PCR (ddPCR). The results indicated that both extraction procedures could obtain high-quality nucleotide samples. Extracting DNA using the Chelex 100 resin led to better detective efficiency for ddPCR molecular diagnostic testing. The whole process took less than 20 min, and only Chelex 100 resin solution was added to the tissues or cells without multiple tubes being transferred several times. The extracted DNA concentration and the detection sensitivity were high. These results indicated that the Chelex 100 resin solution has the advantages of speed, efficiency, and economy compared to the commercial kit. In addition, the higher pH value (10–11) of the Chelex 100 resin solution markedly improved the detection sensitivity compared to a lower pH value (9–10). In conclusion, the comparison of the Chelex 100 Resin and commercial viral DNA extraction kits revealed the good performance of the Chelex 100 resin solution at pH 10–11 in DNA extraction for PCR amplification from aquatic animal viral samples of tissues and cells in molecular diagnostic testing. It is both rapid and cost-effective.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151999
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2000: Technology for Improving Street Dog Welfare
           and Capturing Data in Digital Format during Street Dog Sterilisation
           Programmes

    • Authors: Amit Chaudhari, George Brill, Indira Chakravarti, Tim Drees, Shrikant Verma, Nidhi Avinash, Abhinandan Kumar Jha, Sitaram Langain, Narendra Bhatt, Sanjit Kumar, Satyanarayan Choudhary, Parvinder Singh, Subhash Chandra, Anju Murali, Katherine Polak
      First page: 2000
      Abstract: Street dogs survive on food handouts provided by individuals, or the wider community yet typically receive limited to no veterinary care. They can also carry a variety of zoonotic diseases such as rabies, posing a significant risk to human and dog population health. Dog sterilisation is one of the most humane and effective methods available to control street dog populations. Dog sterilisation programmes, particularly those operating at a large-scale, often face a variety of challenges including limited resources, staffing, and less-than-ideal facilities. Recordkeeping is often a challenge as well, which can complicate the return of a sterilised dog to their location of capture. Street dogs are territorial, and the return of a dog to an incorrect location is fraught with various welfare issues, as well as an increased risk of postoperative complications, including death. Humane Society International developed a mobile phone-based application called ‘HSIApps’ drawing on years of field experience and data collection in street dog location recording, as well as clinical and postoperative treatment. HSIApps facilitates the return of dogs back to their exact captured location, which ensures dog welfare, and generates reports of a variety of useful data variables to maximise the efficacy and reliability of sterilisation programmes.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12152000
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2001: Effect of Duration of High-Grain Feeding on
           Chewing, Feeding Behavior, and Salivary Composition in Cows with or
           without a Phytogenic Feed Supplement

    • Authors: Raul Rivera-Chacon, Sara Ricci, Renée M. Petri, Andreas Haselmann, Nicole Reisinger, Qendrim Zebeli, Ezequias Castillo-Lopez
      First page: 2001
      Abstract: Switching diets from forage to a high-grain (HG) diet increases the risk of rumen fermentation disorders in cattle. However, the effects of the duration of the HG feeding, after the diet switch, on animal behavior and health have received considerably less attention. This experiment primarily aimed to assess the effects of the duration of an HG diet on the chewing, eating, and lying behavior and salivation dynamics in a control group (CON) and a group of cows receiving a phytogenic feed supplement (TRT) at 0.04% (DM basis), which included L-menthol, thymol, eugenol, mint oil, and cloves powder. The experiment was a crossover design with nine non-lactating cows, and two experimental periods with an intermediate washout of four weeks. In each period, the cows were first fed a forage diet for a week to collect baseline measurements representing week 0; then, the diet was switched over a week to HG (65% concentrate), which was fed for four continuous weeks (week 1, week 2, week 3, and week 4 on an HG diet, respectively). The cows were divided in two groups of four and five animals and were randomly allocated to CON or TRT. The data analysis revealed that at the start of the HG feeding, the dry matter intake and the cows’ number of lying bouts increased, but the eating time, rumination time, and meal frequency decreased, resulting in a greater eating rate. We also found that an advanced duration on an HG diet further decreased the rumination time, total chewing time, chewing index, and sorting in favor of short feed particles, with the lowest values in week 4. The feed bolus size increased but feed the ensalivation decreased in week 4 compared to week 0. The dietary switch increased salivary lysozyme activity, and the advanced duration on the HG diet increased salivary pH, but salivary phosphate decreased in weeks 1 and 2 on the HG diet. Supplementation with TRT increased sorting in favor of physically effective NDF (peNDF) in week 2 and increased salivary pH in week 4 on an HG diet. Overall, the negative effects of the HG diet in cattle are more pronounced during the initial stage of the HG feeding. However, several detrimental effects were exacerbated with the cows’ advanced duration on feed, with host adaptive changes still observed after 3 and 4 weeks following the diet switch. The TRT mitigated some of the negative effects through the temporal improvement of the salivary properties and the intake of peNDF, which are known to modulate rumen fermentation.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12152001
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2002: Health Status of Bycaught Common Eiders
           (Somateria mollissima) from the Western Baltic Sea

    • Authors: Luca A. Schick, Peter Wohlsein, Silke Rautenschlein, Arne Jung, Joy Ometere Boyi, Gildas Glemarec, Anne-Mette Kroner, Stefanie A. Barth, Ursula Siebert
      First page: 2002
      Abstract: The Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) inhabits the entire northern hemisphere. In northern Europe, the flyway population reaches from the southern Wadden Sea to the northern Baltic coast. The European population is classified as endangered due to declines in Common Eider numbers across Europe since 1990. In this study, we assessed 121 carcasses of Common Eiders, captured incidentally in gillnets in the Western Baltic between 2017 and 2019. The most common findings were parasitic infections of the intestine by acanthocephalans in 95 animals, which correlated with enteritis in 50% of the cases. Parasites were identified as Profilicollis botulus in 25 selected animals. Additionally, oesophageal pustules, erosions, and ulcerations, presumably of traumatic origin, were frequently observed. Nephritis and hepatitis were frequent, but could not be attributed to specific causes. Lung oedema, fractures and subcutaneous haemorrhages likely resulted from entangling and drowning. Two Common Eiders had mycobacterial infections and in one of these, Mycobacterium avium subspecies (ssp.) avium was identified. This study gives an overview of morphological changes and infectious diseases from one location of the European flyway population. It contributes to future health studies on Common Eiders in the Baltic and Wadden Seas by providing baseline information to compare with other areas or circumstances.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12152002
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2003: Home Range and Movement Patterns of
           Reintroduced White Lions (Panthera leo melanochaita) in the Kruger to
           Canyons Biosphere Reserve, South Africa

    • Authors: Jason A. Turner, Emma J. Dunston-Clarke, Inger Fabris-Rotelli, Hans de Iongh
      First page: 2003
      Abstract: White lions are a colour variant of the African lion Panthera leo melanochaita and disappeared from the wild due to anthropogenic factors until their reintroduction to the Greater Kruger Park Region of South Africa in 2006. Natural home range behaviour is an index of reintroduction success. Therefore, the home range and movement of a pride of reintroduced white lions and a constructed pride consisting of reintroduced white lions and translocated wild tawny lionesses in small, fenced reserves was assessed. GPS data from collared adults were collected for the white lion pride between 2010–2011 and 2018–2020 for the constructed pride. Home ranges were estimated using kernel density estimation and minimum convex polygon, with minimum daily distance tested for differences between sex, season, and pride. Home ranges were small and average daily movements restricted for both prides (white lion pride: 5.41 km2 and 10.44 ± 4.82 km; constructed pride: 5.50 km2, 11.37 ± 4.72 km) due to the small reserve size of 7 km2. There was no difference between prides for annual and seasonal home range size, male and female home ranges, minimum daily distance travelled, or habitat selection. White lions from both prides established territories and displayed natural home ranging behaviour, suggesting that their reintroduction was successful, in the absence of anthropogenic threats.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12152003
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2004: De Novo Whole-Genome Sequencing and Assembly
           of the Yellow-Throated Bunting (Emberiza elegans) Provides Insights into
           Its Evolutionary Adaptation

    • Authors: Tingli Hu, Guotao Chen, Zhen Xu, Site Luo, Hui Wang, Chunlin Li, Lei Shan, Baowei Zhang
      First page: 2004
      Abstract: Yellow-throated bunting is a small migratory songbird unique to the Palearctic region. However, the genetic studies of this species remain limited, with no nuclear genomic sequence reported to date. In this study, the genomic DNA from the bird was sequenced in long reads using Nanopore sequencing technology. Combining short-read sequencing, the genome was well-assembled and annotated. The final length of the assembly is approximately 1.14 Gb, with a scaffold N50 of 28.94 Mb. About 15,868 protein-coding genes were predicted, and 16.62% of the genome was identified as having repetitive elements. Comparative genomic analysis showed numerous expanded gene families and positively selected genes significantly enriched in those KEGG pathways that are associated with migratory behavior adaptation and immune response. Here, this newly generated de novo genome of the yellow-throated bunting using long reads provide the research community with a valuable resource for further studies of population genetic diversity and genome evolution in this species.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12152004
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2005: Of Elephants and Other Mammals: A
           Comparative Review of Reproductive Tumors and Potential Impact on
           Conservation

    • Authors: Lisa M. Abegglen, Tara M. Harrison, Anneke Moresco, Jared S. Fowles, Brigid V. Troan, Wendy K. Kiso, Dennis Schmitt, Amy M. Boddy, Joshua D. Schiffman
      First page: 2005
      Abstract: Reproductive tumors can impact conception, pregnancy, and birth in mammals. These impacts are well documented in humans, while data in other mammals are limited. An urgent need exists to understand the reproductive impact of these lesions in endangered species, because some endangered species have a documented high prevalence of reproductive tumors. This article documents that the prevalence of both benign and malignant neoplasia differs between African and Asian elephants, with Asian elephants more frequently diagnosed and negatively affected by both. The prevalence of these tumors across mammalian species is compared, and impact plus treatment options in human medicine are reviewed to inform decision making in elephants. Evidence suggests that reproductive tumors can negatively impact elephant conservation. Future studies that document reproductive outcomes, including the success of various treatment approaches in elephants with tumors will benefit conservation efforts.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12152005
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2006: Accuracy to Predict the Onset of Calving in
           Dairy Farms by Using Different Precision Livestock Farming Devices

    • Authors: Ottó Szenci
      First page: 2006
      Abstract: Besides traditional methods such as evaluation of the external preparatory and behavioral signs, which even presently are widely used also in large dairy farms, there are several new possibilities such as measuring body (intravaginal, ventral tail-base surface, ear surface, or reticulo-ruminal) temperature, detecting behavioral signs (rumination, eating, activity, tail raising) or detecting the expulsion of the device inserted into the vagina or fixed to the skin of the vulva when allantochorion appears in the vulva to predict the onset of the second stage of calving. Presently none of the single sensors or a combination of sensors can predict the onset of calving with acceptable accuracy. At the same time, with the exception of the iVET® birth monitoring system, not only the imminent onset of calving could be predicted with high accuracy, but a significantly lower prevalence rate of dystocia, stillbirth, retained fetal membranes, uterine diseases/clinical metritis could be reached while calving-to-conception interval was significantly shorter compared with the control groups. These results may confirm the use of these devices in dairy farms by allowing appropriate intervention during calving when needed. In this way, we can reduce the negative effect of dystocia on calves and their dams and improve their welfare.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12152006
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2007: Effects of Long-Term Protein Restriction on
           Meat Quality and Muscle Metabolites of Shaziling Pigs

    • Authors: Jie Zheng, Yehui Duan, Jiayi Yu, Fengna Li, Qiuping Guo, Tiejun Li, Yulong Yin
      First page: 2007
      Abstract: Background: It has been demonstrated that low-protein diets can improve the meat quality of pork. This study aimed to investigate the effects of long-term protein restriction from piglets to finishing pigs for 24 weeks on meat quality and muscle metabolites of Shaziling pigs. Results: Compared to the control group, reducing dietary protein levels by 20% reduced the L* value (p < 0.05), increased the a* value (p < 0.01), and tended to decrease pressing loss (p = 0.06) of longissimus thoracis muscle (LTM). Furthermore, compared to the control group, the −20% group had significantly lower levels of muscular danazol, N,N-dimethyl-Safingol, and cer(d18:0/14:0) (p < 0.05), all of which were positively associated with the L* value and negatively associated with the a* value (p < 0.05). Therefore, danazol, N,N-dimethyl-Safingol, and cer(d18:0/14:0) might be potential biomarkers for meat color. Conclusions: These results indicated that reducing dietary crude protein by 20% for 24 weeks could improve meat quality and alter muscular metabolites of Shaziling pigs, and the improvement in meat quality might be ascribable to decreased danazol, N,N-dimethyl-Safingol and cer(d18:0/14:0).
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12152007
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2008: Genetic Aspects of Corneal Sequestra in a
           Population of Persian, Himalayan and Exotic Cats

    • Authors: Tom Schipper, Goedele Storms, Gerlinde Janssens, Sabine Schoofs, Eveline Capiau, Dieter Verdonck, Pascale Smets, Luc J. Peelman, Bart J. G. Broeckx
      First page: 2008
      Abstract: Corneal sequestra are ophthalmic lesions that are remarkably common in Persian, Himalayan and exotic cats. In this study, the genetic aspects of this disease were investigated in a population of cats originating from a single cattery. Odds ratios were calculated for parents with affected offspring. The heritability of (owner-reported) corneal sequestra was estimated with a Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure. Well-phenotyped cases and controls were used for a genome-wide association study. Data from 692 cats originating from the cattery, of which 61 were affected, were used. Cats from two specific mothers had significantly higher odds of developing corneal sequestra, but no significant effect of the fathers was found (after correction for the mothers). The heritability of corneal sequestra was estimated to be 0.96. A genome-wide association study with 14 cases and 10 controls did not reveal an associated chromosomal region. The large effect that genetic factors had on the development of corneal sequestra in this study suggests that selective breeding could be an effective way to reduce the prevalence of this condition in these cat breeds.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12152008
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2009: A Comparison of Methods to Maintain the
           Equine Cecal Microbial Environment In Vitro Utilizing Cecal and Fecal
           Material

    • Authors: Jennifer L. MacNicol, Simone Renwick, Caroline M. Ganobis, Emma Allen-Vercoe, JefferyScott Weese, Wendy Pearson
      First page: 2009
      Abstract: The equine gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota is intimately related to the horse. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the microbiome and metabolome of cecal inoculum maintained in an anaerobic chamber or chemostat batch fermenter, as well as the fecal slurry maintained in an anaerobic chamber over 48 h. Cecal and fecal content were collected from healthy adult horses immediately upon death. Cecal fluid was used to inoculate chemostat vessels (chemostat cecal, n = 11) and vessels containing cecal fluid (anaerobic cecal, n = 15) or 5% fecal slurry (anaerobic fecal, n = 6) were maintained in an anaerobic chamber. Sampling for microbiome and metabolome analysis was performed at vessel establishment (0 h), and after 24 h and 48 h of fermentation. Illumina sequencing was performed, and metabolites were identified via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Alpha and beta diversity indices, as well as individual metabolite concentrations and metabolite regression equations, were analyzed and compared between groups and over time. No differences were evident between alpha or beta diversity in cecal fluid maintained in either an anaerobic chamber or chemostat. The microbiome of the fecal inoculum maintained anaerobically shifted over 48 h and was not comparable to that of the cecal inoculum. Metabolite concentrations were consistently highest in chemostat vessels and lowest in anaerobic fecal vessels. Interestingly, the rate of metabolite change in anaerobic cecal and chemostat cecal vessels was comparable. In conclusion, maintaining an equine cecal inoculum in either an anaerobic chamber or chemostat vessel for 48 h is comparable in terms of the microbiome. However, the microbiome and metabolome of fecal material is not comparable with a cecal inoculum. Future research is required to better understand the factors that influence the level of microbial activity in vitro, particularly when microbiome data identify analogous communities.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12152009
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
 
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