A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

              [Sort alphabetically]   [Restore default list]

  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 103 journals)
Showing 1 - 22 of 22 Journals sorted by number of followers
Animal Welfare     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
European Journal of Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Society and Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Social Choice and Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Learning and Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Acrocephalus     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Animal Science and Products     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Equine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Animal Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Animal Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Derecho Animal. Forum of Animal Law Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
British Poultry Abstracts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Natural History Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
South African Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Botanical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research Journal of Parasitology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pastoralism : Research, Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Animal Sentience : An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revue de primatologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Ilmiah Peternakan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
TRACE ∴ Finnish Journal for Human-Animal Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Human-Wildlife Interactions     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Peternakan Indonesia     Open Access  
People and Animals : The International Journal of Research and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Uluslararası Tarım ve Yaban Hayatı Bilimleri Dergisi / International Journal of Agricultural and Wildlife Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan     Open Access  
Translational Animal Science     Open Access  
Corpoica Ciencia y Tecnología Agropecuaria     Open Access  
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries     Open Access  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Rangifer     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  

              [Sort alphabetically]   [Restore default list]

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Animals
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.744
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 14  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2076-2615
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 657: Mitigation of Aerosol and Microbial
           Concentration in a Weaning Piggery by Spraying Nanobubble Ozone Water with
           an Ultrasonic Sprayer

    • Authors: Takumi Yoshino, Atuso Ikeguchi
      First page: 657
      Abstract: Enhancing biosecurity measures in livestock is an essential prerequisite for producing animal products with the highest levels of safety and quality. In Japan, 70% of the mortalities post-weaning are attributed to respiratory pathogens. The research has shown that microorganisms, including both viruses and bacteria, do not merely float in the air independently. Instead, they spread by adhering to aerosols. Therefore, improving the control of aerosol dissemination becomes a critical strategy for reducing pathogenic loads and boosting the overall efficiency of livestock production. This study focused on reducing concentrations of aerosol particles, airborne microbial concentrations, and airborne mass concentrations by spraying ozone solution with an ultrasonic sprayer. The experiments were conducted at a farm in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, known for its integrated management system, overseeing a herd of 200 sows. Nanobubble ozone water particles were dispersed using an ultrasonic sprayer, which allowed the particles to remain airborne significantly longer than those dispersed using a standard nozzle, at a rate of 30 mL per weaning pig 49 days old, for a 10 min period. This procedure was followed by a 10 min pause, and the cycle was repeated for 17 days. Measurements included concentrations of airborne bacteria, aerosol mass, and aerosol particles. The findings demonstrated a substantial reduction in airborne microbial concentrations of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in the treated area compared to the control, with reductions reaching a peak of 85.7% for E. coli and 69.5% for S. aureus. Aerosol particle sizes ranging from 0.3–0.5 µm, 0.5–1.0 µm, 1.0–2.0 µm, 2.0–5.0 µm, to 5.0–10.0 µm were monitored, with a notable decrease in concentrations among larger particles. The average aerosol mass concentration in the test area was over 50% lower than in the control area.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050657
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 658: Conflict between Farmers and Guanacos (Lama
           guanicoe cacsilensis): Field Surveys, Remote Sensing, and Interviews
           Provide Information for Conservation of a Critically Endangered Species in
           Southern Peru

    • Authors: Hugo Castillo-Doloriert, Daniela Velasquez, Yumi Matsuno, Domingo Hoces, Jane C. Wheeler
      First page: 658
      Abstract: The Peruvian guanaco (Lama guanicoe cacsilensis) is classified as being “in critical danger of extinction” by the government. In this study, we evaluate how the conflict between farmers and guanacos in the Susapaya and Estique Districts, Tacna Department (Southern Peru) may represent a threat to their survival. To evaluate the situation, we 1. Conducted field surveys to monitor guanaco presence, 2. Used available remote sensing data to map guanaco movement, and 3. interviewed the impacted farmers concerning their losses. Remote sensing data showed that sedentary guanaco family groups located in prime steppe vegetation habitats never entered agricultural areas, while field surveys showed that bachelor bands and solitary individuals did, perhaps seeking forage due to growing population pressure. Interview data found that 90% of community farmers felt that guanacos were a problem best resolved by better fencing (45%), hunting (19%), or increased security (16%), and 92% saw no value in the conservation of the species. Hunting is illegal, given the critically endangered status of guanacos in Peru, so additional efforts are needed to both educate those who feel guanacos are a menace and involve them in efforts to preserve the species.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050658
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 659: Modeling Climate Change Effects on Genetic
           Diversity of an Endangered Horse Breed Using Canonical Correlations

    • Authors: Carmen Marín Navas, Juan Vicente Delgado Bermejo, Amy Katherine McLean, José Manuel León Jurado, María Esperanza Camacho Vallejo, Francisco Javier Navas González
      First page: 659
      Abstract: The historical increase in the occurrence of extreme weather events in Spain during the last thirty years makes it a perfect location for the evaluation of climate change. Modeling the effects of climate change on domestic animals’ genetic diversity may help to anticipate challenging situations. However, animal populations’ short life cycle and patent lack of historical information during extended periods of time drastically compromise the evaluation of climate change effects. Locally adapted breeds’ gene pool is the base for their improved resilience and plasticity in response to climate change’s extreme climatic conditions. The preservation of these domestic resources offers selection alternatives to breeders who seek such improved adaptability. The Spanish endangered autochthonous Hispano-Arabian horse breed is perfectly adapted to the conditions of the territory where it was created, developed, and widespread worldwide. The possibility to trace genetic diversity in the Hispano-Arabian breed back around seven decades and its global ubiquity make this breed an idoneous reference subject to act as a model for other international populations. Climate change’s shaping effects on the genetic diversity of the Hispano-Arabian horse breed’s historical population were monitored from 1950 to 2019 and evaluated. Wind speed, gust speed, or barometric pressure have greater repercussions than extreme temperatures on genetic diversity. Extreme climate conditions, rather than average modifications of climate, may push breeders/owners to implement effective strategies in the short to medium term, but the effect will be plausible in the long term due to breed sustainability and enhanced capacity of response to extreme climate events. When extreme climatic conditions occur, breeders opt for mating highly diverse unrelated individuals, avoiding the production of a large number of offspring. People in charge of domestic population conservation act as catalyzers of the regulatory changes occurring during breeds’ climate change adaptive process and may identify genes conferring their animals with greater adaptability but still maintaining enhanced performance. This model assists in determining how owners of endangered domestic populations should plan their breeding strategies, seeking the obtention of animals more resilient and adapted to climate-extreme conditions. This efficient alternative is focused on the obtention of increased profitability from this population and in turn ensuring their sustainability.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050659
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 660: Modulation of Performance, Plasma
           Constituents, Small Intestinal Morphology, and Cecum Microbiota in Growing
           Geese by Dietary Citric Acid Supplementation

    • Authors: Yongkang Zhang, Jiajia Xue, Ying Chen, Xiaofeng Huang, Zuolan Liu, Hang Zhong, Qun Xie, Yi Luo, Qigui Wang, Chao Wang
      First page: 660
      Abstract: To investigate the efficiency and optimum inclusion level of CA in growing geese diets on performance, plasma constituents, and intestinal health, 240 healthy female geese at the age of 28d were randomly allotted six treatment diets incorporated with 0, 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2, and 4% CA. Each treatment group consisted of five replicates and eight birds per replicate. The findings demonstrated that 3.2% CA supplementation resulted in improved growth performance (ADG, ADFI, and FBW) (p = 0.001), and geese who received CA also showed lower body fat contents (p < 0.05) than the control group. Moreover, geese from the 2.4% and 3.2% CA group had the highest plasma glutathione peroxidase and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). A microbial diversity analysis of the cecum conducted by 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that 3.2% CA supplementation showed a significantly higher abundance of beneficial bacteria (Muribaculaceae, CHKCI001, Erysipelotricha-ceae_UCG_003, and UCG_009) (p < 0.05) and a lower abundance of harmful bacteria (Atopobiaceae, Streptococcus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Alistipes) (p < 0.10). Collectively, our results revealed that dietary supplementation with 3.2% CA had several benefits on the performance and physiological health of growing geese by promoting nutrients metabolism, improving antioxidant capacity, and modulating cecum microbiota.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050660
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 661: Nature or Nurture: Is the Digestive System of
           the Pontoporia blainvillei Influenced or Determined by Its Diet'

    • Authors: Carlos Tostado-Marcos, María Julieta Olocco Diz, Rosario Martín-Orti, Juan-Pablo Loureiro, Ignacio Molpeceres-Diego, Enrique Tendillo-Domínguez, Pilar Pérez-Lloret, Inmaculada Santos-Álvarez, Juncal González-Soriano
      First page: 661
      Abstract: The Franciscana (also known as the La Plata River Dolphin) is a small dolphin that lives in the coastal waters of Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina. This species is considered the most endangered marine mammal in the western South Atlantic Ocean. Anatomic dissection of the digestive system of 19 animals of different ages, including 2 neonates, 12 juveniles, and 5 adults, was performed. Parameters related to length, breadth, weight, and diameter of the digestive viscera were considered in each case. Our results show that the Franciscana dolphin presents differential characteristics in relation to several parts of the digestive system, including, specifically, the tongue, the teeth, the stomach, and the small intestine. Thus, this paper add precious information to the actual knowledge of this vulnerable marine mammal species in order to improve conservation efforts.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050661
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 662: Effects of Whole-Plant Corn Silage on Growth
           Performance, Serum Biochemical Indices, and Fecal Microorganisms in Hezuo
           Pigs

    • Authors: Xitong Yin, Pengfei Wang, Zunqiang Yan, Qiaoli Yang, Xiaoyu Huang, Shuangbao Gun
      First page: 662
      Abstract: In this study, we investigated the effects of the dietary inclusion of different proportions of whole-plant corn silage on growth performance, serum biochemical indexes, and intestinal microorganisms in Hezuo pigs. Thirty-two two-month-old Hezuo pigs (body weight: 7.88 ± 0.81 kg) were randomly divided into four groups of eight pigs (half male, half female) each. The control (CON) group received a basal diet, while the three experimental groups were fed the basal diet, part of which had been replaced with 5%, 10%, and 15% whole-plant corn silage, respectively. The experiment lasted for 127 days, including 7 days of pre-testing and 120 days of formal testing. At the end of the experiment, blood and fecal samples were collected. Compared with the CON group, the feed-to-gain ratio was significantly lower in the 10% test group (p < 0.05), whereas the total protein, albumin, triglyceride, and glucose contents were significantly higher (p < 0.05). No significant differences in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, creatinine, urea, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were observed among the groups (p > 0.05). The addition of whole-plant corn silage to the diet significantly increased alpha diversity in the pig gut based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The principal coordinate analysis results showed significant clustering of the different groups (p < 0.05). At the phylum level, the addition of whole-plant corn silage to the diet significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the relative abundance of Firmicutes and significantly increased (p < 0.05) that of Bacteroidetes. At the genus level, the relative abundance of Streptococcus significantly decreased (p < 0.05) with increasing silage supplementation levels, whereas species diversity significantly increased (p < 0.05). In conclusion, 10% is the recommended inclusion ratio for whole-plant corn silage in the diets of pigs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050662
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 663: Seasonal Diet Composition of Goitered Gazelle
           (Gazella subgutturosa) in an Arid and Semi-Arid Region of Western China

    • Authors: Nan Zhang, Zhirong Zhang, Chao Liu, Zeqin Xiong, Yaoyun Wei, Dehuai Meng, Meiling Zhan, Zongzhi Li, Yao Zhao, Liwei Teng, Zhensheng Liu
      First page: 663
      Abstract: Global climate change, habitat fragmentation, and human interference have resulted in a significant, ongoing decline in the population of goitered gazelles. Effective conservation strategies require an understanding of resource requirements of threatened species, such as dietary needs. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the food composition and seasonal dietary changes of goitered gazelles through microhistological analyses of fresh feces. Fabaceae (11.5%), Gramineae (9.4%), Chenopodiaceae (20.2%), Asteraceae (10.1%), and Rosaceae (19.5%) formed the primary dietary components of goitered gazelle. Additionally, Krascheninnikovia arborescens (13.4%) and Prunus sibirica (16.3%) were identified as the key forage plants. Forbs (50.4%) were the predominant plants for grazing throughout the year, particularly in the spring (72.9%). The proportion of trees in the diet was highest in the autumn (36.7%) and comparatively lower in other seasons. Furthermore, the proportions of shrubs (22.0%) and graminoids (14.8%) both reached their peaks in the winter. Our findings indicate that goitered gazelles strategically forage seasonally to cope with resource bottlenecks, enhancing their adaptability to arid and semi-arid habitats. Our study provides essential ecological information for the conservation of goitered gazelles and emphasizes the importance of dietary studies of species of ecological significance in environmentally sensitive areas.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050663
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 664: The Impact of Transportation on the Cortisol
           Level of Dwarf Rabbits Bred to Animal-Assisted Interventions

    • Authors: Éva Suba-Bokodi, István Nagy, Marcell Molnár
      First page: 664
      Abstract: (1) Background: the popularity of rabbits has increased during the last decade and become the third most common companion animal in the EU. Rabbits’ participation in Animal-Assisted Interventions (AAIs) is growing. It is highly important to ensure the well-being of the animals in AAIs. Whereas the needs and the advantages of people involved in AAI are becoming more and more evident, the needs of animals are not clearly defined, therefore, it is a great field of inquiry. Animals who are used for AAI need to be transported regularly, which itself might be a source of stress. (2) Methods: the stress of rabbits—caused by transportation—was measured in a non-invasive way: cortisol levels were determined from feces, based on their breakdown products. Eighteen animals were involved in the study. Rabbits experienced a 30 min transportation every second day for two weeks (altogether six times) while 126 samples were collected. (3) Results: rabbits could handle the transportation procedure the first time but subsequently the stress hormone metabolites in feces samples increased regardless of the offered treatments (hay, carrot and apple) during the carriage. (4) Conclusions: those owners who use rabbits for Animal-Assisted Interventions need to take into account that transportation itself is a stressful experience for the animals.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050664
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 665: Comparative Analysis of Intestinal
           Inflammation and Microbiota Dysbiosis of LPS-Challenged Piglets between
           Different Breeds

    • Authors: Chao Li, Yanping Wang, Xueyan Zhao, Jingxuan Li, Huaizhong Wang, Yifan Ren, Houwei Sun, Xiaodong Zhu, Qinye Song, Jiying Wang
      First page: 665
      Abstract: Post-weaning diarrhea is common in piglets, causing huge economic losses worldwide. Associations between LPS challenge, intestinal inflammation, and microbiota have been reported in Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire (DLY) crossbred pigs. However, the effects of LPS challenge in other breeds remain unclear. In the current study, we performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of the effects of LPS challenge on jejunal mucosal morphology, jejunal microbial composition, and serum indexes in two pig breeds: DLY and Heigai, an indigenous Chinese breed. The results showed that LPS caused considerable damage to the mucosal morphology, enhanced serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and the intestinal permeability index, and lowered the antioxidant capacity index. LPS challenge also changed the microbial composition and structure of the jejunum, significantly increased the abundances of Escherichia-Shigella in DLY pigs, and decreased those of Gemella and Saccharimonadales in Heigai pigs. Furthermore, LPS challenge triggered functional changes in energy metabolism and activities related to the stress response in the jejunal bacterial community, alleviating the inflammatory response in Heigai pigs. This study also revealed that Heigai pigs had a weaker immune response to LPS challenge than DLY pigs, and identified several genera related to the breed-specific phenotypes of Heigai pigs, including Gemella, Saccharimonadales, Clostridia_UCG_014, Terrisporobacter, and Dielma. Our collective findings uncovered differences between Heigai and DLY pigs in intestinal inflammation and microbiota dysbiosis induced by LPS challenge, providing a theoretical basis for unraveling the mechanism of intestinal inflammation in swine and proposing microbial candidates involved in the resistance to diarrhea in piglets.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050665
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 666: Identifying Relationships between Glutathione
           S-Transferase-2 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Hypoxia Tolerance and
           Growth Traits in Macrobrachium nipponense

    • Authors: Xuanbin Gao, Zijian Gao, Minglei Zhang, Hui Qiao, Sufei Jiang, Wenyi Zhang, Yiwei Xiong, Shubo Jin, Hongtuo Fu
      First page: 666
      Abstract: Investigating hypoxia tolerance and growth trait single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Macrobrachium nipponense is conducive to cultivating prawns with hypoxia tolerance and good growth characteristics. The glutathione S-transferase-2 gene (GST-2) has been shown to regulate hypoxia responses in M. nipponense. In this study, we identified a single GST-2 SNP in M. nipponense, and analyzed its regulatory relationship with hypoxia tolerance and growth. The GST-2 sequence was amplified with a polymerase chain reaction from 197 “Taihu Lake No. 3”, “Taihu Lake No. 2”, and Pearl River population samples to identify SNP loci. The full-length Mn-GST2 sequence was 2317 bp, including three exons and two introns. In total, 38 candidate SNP loci were identified from GST-2 using Mega11.0 comparisons, with most loci moderately polymorphic in terms of genetic diversity. Locus genotypes were also analyzed, and basic genetic parameters for loci were calculated using Popgene32 and PIC_CALC. The expected heterozygosity of the 38 SNP loci ranged from 0.2334 to 0.4997, with an average of 0.4107, while observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.1929 to 0.4721, with an average of 0.3401. The polymorphic information content ranged from 0.21 to 0.37. From SPSS analyses, the G+256A locus was significantly correlated with hypoxia tolerance across all three M. nipponense populations, while the SNP loci A+261C, C+898T, A+1370C, and G+1373T were significantly associated with growth traits. Further analyses revealed that the T+2017C locus was significantly correlated with hypoxia tolerance in “Taihu Lake No. 2” populations, G+256A, A+808T, C+1032T, and A+1530G loci were significantly correlated with hypoxia tolerance in “Taihu Lake No. 3” populations, while no SNP loci were correlated with hypoxia tolerance in Pearl River populations. A+1370C and G+1373T loci, which were associated with growth traits, exhibited a high degree of linkage disequilibrium (r2 = 0.89 and r2 > 0.8), suggesting potential genetic linkage. Our data suggest associations between hypoxia tolerance and growth trait SNP loci in M. nipponense, and provide valuable evidence for the genetic improvement of growth and hypoxia tolerance in this prawn species.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050666
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 667: A Polyherbal Mixture with Nutraceutical
           

    • Authors: Germán David Mendoza-Martínez, José Felipe Orzuna-Orzuna, José Alejandro Roque-Jiménez, Adrián Gloria-Trujillo, José Antonio Martínez-García, Nallely Sánchez-López, Pedro Abel Hernández-García, Héctor Aaron Lee-Rangel
      First page: 667
      Abstract: BioCholine Powder is a polyherbal feed additive composed of Achyrantes aspera, Trachyspermum ammi, Azadirachta indica, and Citrullus colocynthis. The objective of this study was to analyze published results that support the hypothesis that the polyherbal product BioCholine Powder has rumen bypass choline metabolites through a meta-analysis and effect size analysis (ES). Using Scopus, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, PubMed, and university dissertation databases, a systematic search was conducted for experiments published in scientific documents that evaluated the effects of BioCholine supplementation on the variables of interest. The analyzed data were extracted from twenty-one publications (fifteen scientific articles, three abstracts, and three graduate dissertations available in institutional libraries). The studies included lamb growing–finishing, lactating ewes and goats, calves, and dairy cows. The effects of BioCholine were analyzed using random effects statistical models to compare the weighted mean difference (WMD) between BioCholine-supplemented ruminants and controls (no BioCholine). Heterogeneity was explored, and three subgroup analyses were performed for doses [(4 (or 5 g/d), 8 (10 g/d)], supplementation in gestating and lactating ewes (pre- and postpartum supplementation), and blood metabolites by species and physiological state (lactating goats, calves, lambs, ewes). Supplementation with BioCholine in sheep increased the average daily lamb gain (p < 0.05), final body weight (p < 0.01), and daily milk yield (p < 0.05) without effects on intake or feed conversion. Milk yield was improved in small ruminants with BioCholine prepartum supplementation (p < 0.10). BioCholine supplementation decreased blood urea (p < 0.01) and increased levels of the liver enzymes alanine transaminase (ALT; p < 0.10) and albumin (p < 0.001). BioCholine doses over 8 g/d increased blood glucose, albumin (p < 0.10), cholesterol, total protein, and globulin (p < 0.05). The ES values of BioCholine in retained energy over the control in growing lambs were +7.15% NEm (p < 0.10) and +9.25% NEg (p < 0.10). In conclusion, adding BioCholine Powder to domestic ruminants’ diets improves productive performance, blood metabolite indicators of protein metabolism, and liver health, showing its nutraceutical properties where phosphatidylcholine prevails as an alternative that can meet the choline requirements in ruminants.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050667
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 668: Effects of Probiotic Lactiplantibacillus
           plantarum HJLP-1 on Growth Performance, Selected Antioxidant Capacity,
           Immune Function Indices in the Serum, and Cecal Microbiota in Broiler
           Chicken

    • Authors: Caimei Yang, Shuting Wang, Qing Li, Ruiqiang Zhang, Yinglei Xu, Jie Feng
      First page: 668
      Abstract: This research study aimed to investigate the effects of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) on growth performance, oxidation resistance, immunity, and cecal microbiota in broilers. This work classed three hundred and sixty 1-day-old male broilers into three groups randomly, including a control group (CON, basal diet) and antibiotic (ANT, 75 mg kg−1 chlortetracycline added into basal diet) and probiotic groups (LP, 5 × 108 CFU kg−1Lactiplantibacillus plantarum HJLP-1 contained within basal diet). Animals were then fed for 42 days, and each group comprised eight replicates with 15 broilers. Compared with CON, L. plantarum supplementation significantly improved the average daily weight gain (AWDG) (p < 0.05) while reducing the feed–gain ratio over the entire supplemental period (p < 0.05). Birds fed L. plantarum had markedly lower serum ammonia and xanthine oxidase levels (p < 0.05) than those in the ANT and CON groups. Significant improvements (p < 0.05) in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and serum IgM and IgY contents in broilers fed L. plantarum were also observed when compared with those in the CON and ANT groups. Both L. plantarum and antibiotics decreased pro-inflammatory factor IL-1β levels significantly (p < 0.05), while only L. plantarum promoted anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 levels in the serum (p < 0.05) compared with CON. L. plantarum (p < 0.05) increased acetic acid and butyric acid concentrations in cecal contents when compared to those in CON and ANT. Among the differences revealed via 16S rRNA analysis, L. plantarum markedly improved the community richness of the cecal microbiota. At the genus level, the butyric acid-producing bacteria Ruminococcus and Lachnospiraceae were found in higher relative abundance in samples of L. plantarum-treated birds. In conclusion, dietary L. plantarum supplementation promoted the growth and health of broilers, likely by inducing a shift in broiler gut microbiota toward short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria. Therefore, L. plantarum has potential as an alternative to antibiotics in poultry breeding.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050668
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 669: Genome-Wide Analysis of Milk Production
           Traits and Selection Signatures in Serbian Holstein-Friesian Cattle

    • Authors: Marko Ristanic, Minja Zorc, Uros Glavinic, Jevrosima Stevanovic, Jovan Blagojevic, Milan Maletic, Zoran Stanimirovic
      First page: 669
      Abstract: To improve the genomic evaluation of milk-related traits in Holstein-Friesian (HF) cattle it is essential to identify the associated candidate genes. Novel SNP-based analyses, such as the genetic mapping of inherited diseases, GWAS, and genomic selection, have led to a new era of research. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of each individual SNP in Serbian HF cattle with milk production traits and inbreeding levels. The SNP 60 K chip Axiom Bovine BovMDv3 was deployed for the genotyping of 334 HF cows. The obtained genomic results, together with the collected phenotypic data, were used for a GWAS. Moreover, the identification of ROH segments was performed and served for inbreeding coefficient evaluation and ROH island detection. Using a GWAS, a polymorphism, rs110619097 (located in the intron of the CTNNA3 gene), was detected to be significantly (p < 0.01) associated with the milk protein concentration in the first lactation (adjusted to 305 days). The average genomic inbreeding value (FROH) was 0.079. ROH islands were discovered in proximity to genes associated with milk production traits and genomic regions under selection pressure for other economically important traits of dairy cattle. The findings of this pilot study provide useful information for a better understanding of the genetic architecture of milk production traits in Serbian HF dairy cows and can be used to improve lactation performances in Serbian HF cattle breeding programs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050669
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 670: Management of Donkeys in Assisted
           Interventions: A Snapshot

    • Authors: Lucia Sobrero, Emanuela Dalla Costa, Michela Minero
      First page: 670
      Abstract: People working in the field of Animal-Assisted Interventions (AAIs) often state that they perceive animal welfare as a matter of paramount importance; nevertheless, most scientific literature focuses on the effectiveness of interventions from the user’s perspective. Before focusing on the animals’ management and welfare during their interactions with users, it is important to ensure animal welfare during their “ordinary lives”. This article reports information and considerations about the management of donkeys involved in AAIs in Northern Italy. Six facilities with several years of experience in Donkey-Assisted Interventions were visited for the purpose of an initial data collection regarding the management of donkeys involved in AAIs. Some knowledge gaps regarding the nutritional needs of the donkey and its preventive medicine have been identified; this study also highlighted a need for efforts to create a more stimulating and enriched environment for animals involved in AAIs. Some possible areas for improvement in the management of donkeys involved in AAIs have been highlighted. Further studies are necessary to provide a more comprehensive picture of the welfare of donkeys involved in this context.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050670
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 671: Farm Animal Welfare—From the
           Farmers’ Perspective

    • Authors: Clive J. C. Phillips
      First page: 671
      Abstract: Improvements in the welfare of animals in the intensive production industries are increasingly being demanded by the public. Scientific methods of welfare improvement have been developed and are beginning to be used on farms, including those provided by precision livestock farming. The number of welfare challenges that animals are facing in the livestock production industries is growing rapidly, and farmers are a key component in attempts to improve welfare because their livelihood is at stake. The challenges include climate change, which not only exposes animals to heat stress but also potentially reduces forage and water availability for livestock production systems. Heat-stressed animals have reduced welfare, and it is important to farmers that they convert feed to products for human consumption less efficiently, their immune system is compromised, and both the quality of the products and the animals’ reproduction are adversely affected. Livestock farmers are also facing escalating feed and fertiliser costs, both of which may jeopardise feed availability for the animals. The availability of skilled labour to work in livestock industries is increasingly limited, with rural migration to cities and the succession of older farmers uncertain. In future, high-energy and protein feeds are unlikely to be available in large quantities when required for the expanding human population. It is expected that livestock farming will increasingly be confined to marginal land offering low-quality pasture, which will favour ruminant livestock, at the expense of pigs and poultry unable to readily digest coarse fibre in plants. Farmers also face disease challenges to their animals’ welfare, as the development of antibiotic resistance in microbes has heralded an era when we can no longer rely on antibiotics to control disease or improve the feed conversion efficiency of livestock. Farmers can use medicinal plants, pro-, pre- and synbiotics and good husbandry to help maintain a high standard of health in their animals. Loss of biodiversity in livestock breeds reduces the availability of less productive genotypes that survive better on nutrient-poor diets than animals selected for high productivity. Farmers have a range of options to help address these challenges, including changing to less intensive diets, diversification from livestock farming to other enterprises, such as cereal and pseudocereal crops, silvopastoral systems and using less highly selected breeds. These options may not always produce good animal welfare, but they will help to give farm animals a better life.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050671
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 672: Impact of Climate Change on the Distribution
           of Three Rare Salamanders (Liua shihi, Pseudohynobius jinfo, and
           Tylototriton wenxianensis) in Chongqing, China, and Their Conservation
           Implications

    • Authors: Qi Ma, Lipeng Wan, Shengchao Shi, Zhijian Wang
      First page: 672
      Abstract: The Wushan Salamander (Liua shihi), Jinfo Salamander (Pseudohynobius jinfo), and Wenxian Knobby Salamander (Tylototriton wenxianensis) are rare national Class II protected wild animals in China. We performed MaxEnt modeling to predict and analyze the potential distribution and trends of these species in Chongqing under current and future climate conditions. Species distribution data were primarily obtained from field surveys, supplemented by museum collections and the existing literature. These efforts yielded 636 records, including 43 for P. jinfo, 23 for T. wenxianensis, and 570 for L. shihi. Duplicate records within the same 100 m × 100 m grid cell were removed using ENMTools, resulting in 10, 12, and 58 valid distribution points for P. jinfo, T. wenxianensis, and L. shihi, respectively. The optimization of feature class parameters (FC) and the regularization multiplier (RM) were applied using R package “ENMeval 2.0” to establish the optimal model with MaxEnt. The refined models were applied to simulate the suitable distribution areas for the three species. The results indicate that the current suitable habitat area for L. shihi accounted for 9.72% of the whole region of the Chongqing municipality. It is projected that, by 2050, the proportion of suitable habitat will increase to 12.54% but will decrease to 11.98% by 2070 and further decline to 8.80% by 2090. The current suitable habitat area for P. jinfo accounted for 1.08% of the whole region of the Chongqing municipality, which is expected to decrease to 0.31%% by 2050, 0.20% by 2070, and 0.07% by 2090. The current suitable habitat area for T. wenxianensis accounted for 0.81% of the whole region of the Chongqing municipality, which is anticipated to decrease to 0.37% by 2050, 0.21% by 2070, and 0.06% by 2090. Human disturbance, climate variables, and habitat characteristics are the primary factors influencing the distribution of three salamander species in Chongqing. The proximity to roads significantly impacts L. shihi, while climate conditions mainly affect P. jinfo, and the distance to water sources is crucial for T. wenxianensis. The following suggestions were made based on key variables identified for each species: (1) For L. shihi, it is imperative to minimize human disturbances and preserve areas without roads and the existing vegetation within nature reserves to ensure their continued existence. (2) For P. jinfo, the conservation of high-altitude habitats is of utmost importance, along with the reduction in disturbances caused by roads to maintain the species’ ecological niche. (3) For T. wenxianensis, the protection of aquatic habitats is crucial. Additionally, efforts to mitigate the impacts of road construction and enhance public awareness are essential for the preservation of this species and the connectivity of its habitats.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050672
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 673: Effect of IGFBP-4 during In Vitro Maturation
           on Developmental Competence of Bovine Cumulus Oocyte Complexes

    • Authors: Adriana Raquel Camacho de Gutiérrez, Oguz Calisici, Christine Wrenzycki, Juan Carlos Gutiérrez-Añez, Christine Hoeflich, Andreas Hoeflich, Árpád Csaba Bajcsy, Marion Schmicke
      First page: 673
      Abstract: Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are essential for oocyte maturation. Their bioavailability is regulated by their respective binding proteins (IGFBPs) and proteases. IGFBP-4 blocks the biological effects of IGFs. High IGFBP-4 expression has been associated with follicle atresia. We hypothesized that IGFBP-4 affects oocyte developmental competence during maturation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of IGFBP-4 on the developmental rate of bovine cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) during in vitro embryo production. Abattoir-derived COCs were matured with rbIGFBP-4 (2000, 540, and 54 ng/mL) compared to a control. Cumulus expansion, oocyte maturation, cleavage, blastocyst, and hatching rates were evaluated. Furthermore, blastocyst gene expression of SOCS2, STAT3, SLC2A1, SLCA3, BAX, and POU5F1 transcripts were quantified using RT-qPCR. No statistical differences were detected among the groups for cumulus expansion, maturation, cleavage, blastocyst rates, or all gene transcripts analyzed. However, at day 8 and 9, the number of total hatching and successfully hatched blastocysts was lower in 2000 ng/mL rbIGFBP-4 compared to the control (day 8: total hatching: 17.1 ± 0.21 vs. 31.2 ± 0.11%, p = 0.02 and hatched blastocyst 6.7 ± 0.31 vs. 21.5 ± 0.14%, p = 0.004; day 9 total hatching 36.4 ± 0.18 vs. 57.7 ± 0.10%, p = 0.009 and hatched blastocyst 18.2 ± 0.21 vs. 38.1 ± 0.11%, p = 0.004). We concluded that high concentrations of rbIGFBP-4 might negatively affect the subsequent ability of the embryo to hatch and possibly compromise further elongation.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050673
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 674: Linking Acrosome Size and Genetic Divergence
           in an Inter-Oceanic Mussel from the Pacific and Atlantic Coasts: A Case of
           Incipient Speciation'

    • Authors: Carolina Briones, José J. Nuñez, Montse Pérez, Orlando Garrido, Bernardita Campos, Karina Godoy, Ricardo Hartley, Pablo A. Oyarzún, Ricardo Guiñez
      First page: 674
      Abstract: In recent years, advances in analyses of the sperm morphology and genetics of Perumytilus purpuratus have allowed to two evolutionary scenarios for this mussel to be suggested: (1) the scenario of cryptic species and (2) the scenario of incipient or in progress speciation. For a better understanding of the evolutionary history of P. purpuratus, we performed extensive sampling along a latitudinal gradient of ca. 7180 km of coastline—from the Southern Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean—and we delved deeper into the sperm morphology of P. purpuratus, exploring its association with the phylogeny and population genetics to determine whether the variability in sperm traits between the northern and southern regions was a signal of cryptic or incipient species. Overall, our results showed that sperm sizes were strongly correlated with the genetic structure in males of P. purpuratus. We identified at 37° S on the Pacific coast a coincident break of both sperm size and genetic disruption that can be explained by historical events and postglacial recolonization as causal phenomena for the observed divergences. Furthermore, evidence of genetic admixture between lineages was found at 38° S, suggesting the presence of an introgressive hybridization zone and incomplete reproductive isolation in an in fraganti or incipient speciation process.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050674
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 675: INSL3 Variation in Dogs Following Suppression
           and Recovery of the HPG Axis

    • Authors: Ravinder Anand-Ivell, Acacia Rebello Coutinho, Yanzhenzi Dai, Gary England, Sandra Goericke-Pesch, Richard Ivell
      First page: 675
      Abstract: Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) is a constitutive product of mature, adult-type Leydig cells of the testes and consequently in most mammals is an ideal biomarker with which to monitor pubertal development. A new heterologous time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay was developed and validated to measure circulating INSL3 in the blood of adult male dogs. Compared to other species, INSL3 concentration is low with marked variation between individuals, which appears to be independent of breed, age, or weight. A model system was then used in which a cohort of beagle dogs was subject to a GnRH-agonist implant to suppress the HPG axis and spermatogenesis, followed by implant removal and recovery. Unlike testosterone, INSL3 levels were not fully suppressed in all animals by the GnRH agonist, nor was the recovery of Leydig cell function following implant removal uniform or complete, even after several weeks. In dogs, and dissimilar from other species (including humans), Leydig-cell INSL3 appears to be quite variable between individual dogs and only weakly connected to the physiology of the HPG axis after its suppression by a GnRH-agonist implant and recovery. Consequently, INSL3 may be less useful in this species for the assessment of testis function.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050675
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 676: Long-Term Survival in 241 Cases of
           Intussusception in Cattle and Factors Associated with Mortality

    • Authors: Laurens Chantillon, Mathilde Laetitia Pas, Lieven Vlaminck, Bart Pardon
      First page: 676
      Abstract: Intussusception is a frequent cause of mechanical ileus in cattle. Long-term survival has never been described and risk factors for mortality are scarcely documented. A retrospective cohort study on 241 cattle was conducted to determine survival of intussusception and identify risk factors for mortality. Clinical records were matched with the national cattle identification database. Information on possible predictors including clinical examination, ultrasonography, blood-gas analysis and surgery were collected. Survival analysis and decision tree analysis were used. Overall survival was 44.8% until discharge. Of all animals, 39.0% could complete their life cycle and were eligible for slaughter. Male animals and cattle < 226 days old experienced a significantly higher mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4–3.0 and HR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.7–3.4, respectively). The final model consisted of heart rate (>95 beats per minute) and packed cell volume (<36.5%) with sensitivity and specificity of 60.4% and 49.4%, respectively. A second model consisted of sex (male) and time to referral (>4.5 days) with sensitivity and specificity of 88.0% and 65.6%, respectively. The long-term prognosis for intussusception in cattle appears to be fair. Factors identified in this study may aid in the decision-making process in cases with presumed intussusception to perform the surgery or opt for euthanasia.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050676
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 677: Whole-Genome Resequencing of Ujimqin Sheep
           Identifies Genes Associated with Vertebral Number

    • Authors: Chuanqing Zhou, Yue Zhang, Teng Ma, Dabala Wu, Yanyan Yang, Daqing Wang, Xiunan Li, Shuchun Guo, Siqi Yang, Yongli Song, Yong Zhang, Yongchun Zuo, Guifang Cao
      First page: 677
      Abstract: The number of vertebrae is a crucial economic trait that can significantly impact the carcass length and meat production in animals. However, our understanding of the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and candidate genes associated with the vertebral number in sheep (Ovis aries) remains limited. To identify these candidate genes and QTLs, we collected 73 Ujimqin sheep with increased numbers of vertebrae (T13L7, T14L6, and T14L7) and 23 sheep with normal numbers of vertebrae (T13L6). Through high-throughput genome resequencing, we obtained a total of 24,130,801 effective single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). By conducting a selective-sweep analysis, we discovered that the most significantly selective region was located on chromosome 7. Within this region, we identified several genes, including VRTN, SYNDIG1L, LTBP2, and ABCD4, known to regulate the spinal development and morphology. Further, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) performed on sheep with increased and normal vertebral numbers confirmed that ABCD4 is a candidate gene for determining the number of vertebrae in sheep. Additionally, the most significant SNP on chromosome 7 was identified as a candidate QTL. Moreover, we detected two missense mutations in the ABCD4 gene; one of these mutations (Chr7: 89393414, C > T) at position 22 leads to the conversion of arginine (Arg) to glutamine (Gln), which is expected to negatively affect the protein’s function. Notably, a transcriptome expression profile in mouse embryonic development revealed that ABCD4 is highly expressed during the critical period of vertebral formation (4.5–7.5 days). Our study highlights ABCD4 as a potential major gene influencing the number of vertebrae in Ujimqin sheep, with promising prospects for future genome-assisted breeding improvements in sheep.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050677
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 678: An In-Depth Look at Fonni’s Dog
           Behavior under Different Outdoor Conditions

    • Authors: Raffaella Cocco, Sara Sechi, Claudia Giannetto, Maria Rizzo, Giuseppe Piccione, Francesca Arfuso
      First page: 678
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the common social and communicative behaviors of the Fonni’s Dog under different outdoor conditions. For this study, 70 adult dogs (3–7 years; 32 intact males, 38 intact females) belonging to the Fonni’s breed were used. A total of 35 dogs were kept in kennels and 35 were free-ranging dogs in their sheep/goat livestock units. A behavioral repertoire was adapted from the literature and an ethogram was filled in for each dog. All dogs were evaluated in the presence of the owner. Fisher’s exact test, following Bonferroni’s correction, was used to test possible differences in the categorical variables (presence or absence of the behavior) between free-ranging dogs and dogs kept in kennels. The study revealed that several categories of the dogs’ body language were associated with the management condition. However, the breed motivations (guarding and defense of the territory) were satisfied both in kennel and in the animals who were free in the property. The current study suggests a good behavioral balance of the Fonni’s Dogs which could be attributed to correct communication between dogs and owners.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050678
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 679: What Is the Cost of Weight Loss' An Approach
           to Commercial (Dry and Wet) and Homemade Diets

    • Authors: Thiago Henrique Annibale Vendramini, Henrique Tobaro Macedo, Andressa Rodrigues Amaral, Rafael Vessecchi Amorim Zafalon, Adrielly Aparecida do Carmo, Cinthia Gonçalves Lenz Cesar, Pedro Henrique Marchi, Júlio Cesar de Carvalho Balieiro, Marcio Antonio Brunetto
      First page: 679
      Abstract: In the context of the rising prevalence of obesity among pets, this study aimed to assess the economic aspects of weight reduction protocols for dogs and cats, considering the lack of information and the varying costs of commercial and homemade diets. The results indicated an average weekly weight loss rate of 1.02% for dogs and 0.92% for cats, with a reduction in body fat mass (p < 0.005). The cost analysis included an evaluation of both dry and wet commercial prescription diets as well as homemade diets. The results unveiled higher expenses associated to wet commercial diets, followed by homemade and dry commercial diets (p < 0.001). The study demonstrated that despite the initial investment, the long-term benefits of weight loss, including improved health and reduced financial burdens for owners, justify the expenses incurred. This comprehensive analysis provides veterinarians and pet owners with valuable insights into the economic considerations of weight reduction protocols, facilitating informed decision making and promoting pet well-being.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050679
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 680: Animals and Cities: A Reflection on Their
           Potential in Innovating Nature-Based Solutions

    • Authors: Giulia Granai, Carmen Borrelli, Chiara Mariti, Francesco Di Iacovo
      First page: 680
      Abstract: In recent decades, nature-based solutions (NBSs) have spread in scientific research, and they are increasingly deployed in cities’ strategic planning. While the number of nonhuman animals in cities is growing, a specific reflection on the advantages of human–animal interactions as potential NBSs is still lacking. This article aims to provide an overview of the current situation of animals in cities and to explore the roles of animals and their interactions with humans in such a context. These topics are crucial to the European project IN-HABIT in Lucca (Italy), which aims to codify an integrated policy on the relationship between people and animals; its outputs will then be transferred and replicated in other cities. This article concludes by highlighting the need for the involvement of different stakeholders in public–private–people partnerships to implement actions that aim to valorize human–animal relationships and their positive effects. This study presents a perspective on the relevance of animal NBSs to increase the quality of life in cities, both for citizens and for animals living in cities, and to also introduce the opportunity to develop an integrated animal urban policy able to valorize human–animal interactions in cities.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050680
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 681: Updating the Classification of Chronic
           Inflammatory Enteropathies in Dogs

    • Authors: Noémie Dupouy-Manescau, Tristan Méric, Odile Sénécat, Amandine Drut, Suzy Valentin, Rodolfo Oliveira Leal, Juan Hernandez
      First page: 681
      Abstract: Chronic inflammatory enteropathies (CIEs) in dogs are currently classified based on response to sequential treatment trials into food-responsive (FREs); antibiotic-responsive (AREs); immunosuppressant-responsive (IREs); and non-responsive enteropathies (NREs). Recent studies have reported that a proportion of NRE dogs ultimately respond to further dietary trials and are subsequently misclassified. The FRE subset among CIEs is therefore probably underestimated. Moreover, alterations in the gut microbiota composition and function (dysbiosis) have been shown to be involved in CIE pathogenesis in recent research on dogs. Metronidazole and other antibiotics that have been used for decades for dogs with AREs have been demonstrated to result in increased antimicrobial resistance and deleterious effects on the gut microbiota. As a consequence, the clinical approach to CIEs has evolved in recent years toward the gradual abandonment of the use of antibiotics and their replacement by other treatments with the aim of restoring a diverse and functional gut microbiota. We propose here to refine the classification of canine CIEs by replacing the AREs category with a microbiota-related modulation-responsive enteropathies (MrMREs) category.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050681
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 682: In Vitro Antiviral and Virucidal Activity of
           Ozone against Feline Calicivirus

    • Authors: Cristiana Catella, Francesco Pellegrini, Alice Carbonari, Matteo Burgio, Giovanni Patruno, Annalisa Rizzo, Claudia Maria Trombetta, Jolanda Palmisani, Vito Martella, Michele Camero, Gianvito Lanave
      First page: 682
      Abstract: The Caliciviridae family includes several viral pathogens of humans and animals, including norovirus (NoV), genus Norovirus, and feline calicivirus (FCV), genus Vesivirus. Due to their resistance in the environment, NoV and FCV may give rise to nosocomial infections, and indirect transmission plays a major role in their diffusion in susceptible populations. A pillar of the control of viruses resistant to an environment is the adoption of prophylaR1.6ctic measures, including disinfection. Since NoVs are not cultivatable in common cell cultures, FCV has been largely used as a surrogate of NoV for the assessment of effective disinfectants. Ozone (O3), a molecule with strong oxidizing properties, has shown strong microbicidal activity on bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. In this study, the virucidal and antiviral activities of an O3/O2 gas mixture containing O3 were tested at different concentrations (20, 35, and 50 μg/mL) for distinct contact times against FCV. The O3/O2 gas mixture showed virucidal and antiviral activities against FCV in a dose- and contact time-dependent fashion. Ozonation could be considered as a valid strategy for the disinfection of environments at risk of contamination by FCV and NoV.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050682
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 683: Bacteriophages for Controlling Staphylococcus
           spp. Pathogens on Dairy Cattle Farms: In Vitro Assessment

    • Authors: Ewelina Pyzik, Renata Urban-Chmiel, Łukasz Kurek, Klaudia Herman, Rafał Stachura, Agnieszka Marek
      First page: 683
      Abstract: Pathogenic Staphylococcus spp. strains are significant agents involved in mastitis and in skin and limb infections in dairy cattle. The aim of this study was to assess the antibacterial effectiveness of bacteriophages isolated from dairy cattle housing as potential tools for maintaining environmental homeostasis. The research will contribute to the use of phages as alternatives to antibiotics. The material was 56 samples obtained from dairy cows with signs of limb and hoof injuries. Staphylococcus species were identified by phenotypic, MALDI-TOF MS and PCR methods. Antibiotic resistance was determined by the disc diffusion method. Phages were isolated from cattle housing systems. Phage activity (plaque forming units, PFU/mL) was determined on double-layer agar plates. Morphology was examined using TEM microscopy, and molecular characteristics were determined with PCR. Among 52 strains of Staphylococcus spp., 16 were used as hosts for bacteriophages. Nearly all isolates (94%, 15/16) showed resistance to neomycin, and 87% were resistant to spectinomycin. Cefuroxime and vancomycin were the most effective antibiotics. On the basis of their morphology, bacteriophages were identified as class Caudoviricetes, formerly Caudovirales, families Myoviridae-like (6), and Siphoviridae-like (9). Three bacteriophages of the family Myoviridae-like, with the broadest spectrum of activity, were used for further analysis. This study showed a wide spectrum of activity against the Staphylococcus spp. strains tested. The positive results indicate that bacteriophages can be used to improve the welfare of cattle.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050683
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 684: Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP) Block in
           Rabbit Cadavers: Anatomical Description and Measurements of Injectate
           Spread Using One- and Two-Point Approaches

    • Authors: Federica Serino, Luca Pennasilico, Margherita Galosi, Angela Palumbo Piccionello, Adolfo Maria Tambella, Caterina Di Bella
      First page: 684
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to describe one-point (preiliac approach) and two-point (preiliac and retrocostal approach) blocks of the Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP) on a cadaveric model. For this purpose, ultrasound-guided infiltration of the plane between the internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles was performed and, after dissection of tissues, the areas and percentage of nerve fibers involved were analyzed. Injection into the TAP plexus of a 1 mL/kg solution of 2% lidocaine and 1% methylene blue (1:1) was performed in 30 rabbit cadavers. In fifteen rabbits (group S), the solution was inoculated at the preiliac level. In the other 15 rabbits (group D), the solution was divided into two inoculations (0.5 mL/kg at the retrocostal level and 0.5 mL/kg at the preiliac level). All cadavers were then dissected and stained spinal nerve branches were measured. Moreover, the percentage of length, height and the total area of the stained tissue were calculated. In the S group, T10, T11 and T12 nerve eminences were successfully stained in 18%, 52% and 75% of cases, respectively. Furthermore, L1, L2, L3 and L4 were stained in 95%, 100%, 60% and 40% of cases, respectively. In group D, the ventromedial eminence of T10, T11 and T12 were stained in 68.1%, 100% and 98% of cases, respectively, and L1, L2, L3 and L4 were stained in 88%, 100%, 62% and 31% of cases, respectively. In conclusion, a two-point TAP block is more effective in covering the nerve eminences of the cranial abdomen than the preiliac approach alone.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050684
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 685: Morphological and Molecular Changes during
           Limb Regeneration of the Exopalaemon carinicauda

    • Authors: Chaofan Xing, Mintao Wang, Zhenxiang Chen, Yong Li, Xinlei Zhou, Lei Wang, Yao Zhong, Wenjia Li, Xin Shen, Huan Gao, Panpan Wang
      First page: 685
      Abstract: With the increase in breeding density of Exopalaemon carinicauda, appendage breakage may occur, which seriously affects survival and economic benefits. To study the limb regeneration process of E. carinicauda, we induced autotomy of the pereopods. After a period of time, wound swelling disappeared, the pigment gradually accumulated, and a tawny film subsequently formed in the wound. The healing period of the wound occurred 24 h after autotomy, and the blastema formation stage occurred 48 h after autotomy. After 4 days of cutting, the limb buds began to differentiate, grow, and expand rapidly, and this process lasted approximately 15 days. Microscopic observations revealed significant changes in the type and number of associated cells including outer epithelial cells, granulocytes, embryonic cells, columnar epidermal cells, elongated cells, and blastoma cells, during the process from limb fracture to regeneration. A comparative transcriptome analysis identified 1415 genes differentially expressed between the J0h (0 h post autotomy) and J18h (18 h post autotomy), and 3952 and 4366 differentially expressed genes for J0 and J14d (14 days post autotomy) and J18h and J14d, respectively. Some of these genes may be related to muscle growth or molting, as indicated by the presence of troponin C, chitinase, actin, innexin, and cathepsin L. As a functional gene involved in epidermal formation, the mRNA expression level of the innexin inx2 in the pereopod of E. carinicauda changed significantly in the experimental groups (p < 0.05). The results of this study contribute to existing knowledge of regeneration mechanisms in crustaceans.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050685
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 686: Establishment and Characterization of a
           Primary Fibroblast Cell Culture from the Amazonian Manatee (Trichechus
           inunguis)

    • Authors: Flávia dos Santos Tavares, Cesar Martins, Flávia Karina Delella, Luís Adriano Santos do Nascimento, Angélica Lúcia Figueiredo Rodrigues, Sávia Moreira, Adauto Lima Cardoso, Renata Coelho Rodrigues Noronha
      First page: 686
      Abstract: The vulnerable status of the Amazon manatee, Trichechus inunguis, indicates the need to seek measures to guarantee its conservation. In this context, the cultivation of cells in vitro is a strategy that should at least guarantee the preservation of their genetic material. Thus, we established for the first time a primary culture of Amazonian manatee fibroblasts (TINsf) from a skin biopsy of a young male. Karyotypic analysis of the 3rd, 7th, and 12th passages confirmed the taxonomic identity of the species T. inunguis (2n = 56/NF = 92) and indicated that this culture presents genomic stability. Gene and protein expression of vimentin at the 13th passage show the predominant presence of fibroblasts in TINsf. To test the cell line’s responsiveness to materials and demonstrate a possible application of this culture, it was exposed to andiroba seed oil (ASO), and its viability and proliferative capacity were evaluated. ASO demonstrated toxic effects at the highest concentrations and longest exposure times tested, reproducing results observed in human cultures, indicating the applicability of TINsf in toxicological and biotechnological studies. After cryopreservation, the TINsf line maintained its proliferative potential, indicating the establishment of a new culture available for future studies.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050686
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 687: Whole-Genome Scanning for Selection
           Signatures Reveals Candidate Genes Associated with Growth and Tail Length
           in Sheep

    • Authors: Taotao Li, Meilin Jin, Huihua Wang, Wentao Zhang, Zehu Yuan, Caihong Wei
      First page: 687
      Abstract: Compared to Chinese indigenous sheep, Western sheep have rapid growth rate, larger physique, and higher meat yield. These excellent Western sheep were introduced into China for crossbreeding to expedite the enhancement of production performance and mutton quality in local breeds. Here, we investigated population genetic structure and genome-wide selection signatures among the Chinese indigenous sheep and the introduced sheep based on whole-genome resequencing data. The PCA, N-J tree and ADMIXTURE results showed significant genetic difference between Chinese indigenous sheep and introduced sheep. The nucleotide diversity (π) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay results indicated that the genomic diversity of introduced breeds were lower. Then, Fst & π ratio, XP-EHH, and de-correlated composite of multiple signals (DCMS) methods were used to detect the selection signals. The results showed that we identified important candidate genes related to growth rate and body size in the introduced breeds. Selected genes with stronger selection signatures are associated with growth rate (CRADD), embryonic development (BVES, LIN28B, and WNT11), body size (HMGA2, MSRB3, and PTCH1), muscle development and fat metabolism (MSTN, PDE3A, LGALS12, GGPS1, and SAR1B), wool color (ASIP), and hair development (KRT71, KRT74, and IRF2BP2). Thus, these genes have the potential to serve as candidate genes for enhancing the growth traits of Chinese indigenous sheep. We also identified tail-length trait-related candidate genes (HOXB13, LIN28A, PAX3, and VEGFA) in Chinese long-tailed breeds. Among these genes, HOXB13 is the main candidate gene for sheep tail length phenotype. LIN28A, PAX3, and VEGFA are related to embryonic development and angiogenesis, so these genes may be candidate genes for sheep tail type traits. This study will serve as a foundation for further genetic improvement of Chinese indigenous sheep and as a reference for studies related to growth and development of sheep.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050687
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 688: Dietary Replacement Effect of Fish Meal by
           Tuna By-Product Meal on Growth and Feed Availability of Red Sea Bream
           (Pagrus major)

    • Authors: Seong Il Baek, Sung Hwoan Cho
      First page: 688
      Abstract: The effect of substituting fish meal (FM) by tuna by-product meal (TBM) on growth and feed availability of red sea bream (Pagrus major) was investigated. Six experimental diets were crested to be isonitrogenous (51.5%) and isolipidic (14.5%). The control (Con) diet contained 55% FM. FM substitution in the Con diet was made in increments of 20 percentage points (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%), named as the TBM20, TBM40, TBM60, TBM80, and TBM100 diets, respectively. Juvenile red sea bream were stocked into 18, 300 L flow-through tanks (50 fish/tank). Red sea bream were hand-fed with each diet until satiation for 8 weeks. No statistical differences in weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), and feed consumption were found among red sea bream fed the Con, TBM20, and TBM40 diets. Furthermore, feed utilization of fish fed the TBM20, TBM40, TBM60, and TBM80 diets was comparable to red sea bream fed the Con diet. The biological indices, biochemical composition, and hematological parameters of fish were not statistically altered by dietary FM replacement with TBM. The greatest economic profit index was achieved in the TBM40 diet. In conclusion, the replacement of 40% FM with TBM in red sea bream diet appears to be the most recommendable approach without producing retarded growth and feed availability, but maximizing EPI to farmers.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050688
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 689: Maternal Supplementation with Ornithine
           Promotes Placental Angiogenesis and Improves Intestinal Development of
           Suckling Piglets

    • Authors: Yun Yang, Guanyu Hou, Fengjie Ji, Hanlin Zhou, Renlong Lv, Chengjun Hu
      First page: 689
      Abstract: The blood vessels of the placenta are crucial for fetal growth. Here, lower vessel density and ornithine (Orn) content were observed in placentae for low-birth-weight fetuses versus normal-birth-weight fetuses at day 75 of gestation. Furthermore, the Orn content in placentae decreased from day 75 to 110 of gestation. To investigate the role of Orn in placental angiogenesis, 48 gilts (Bama pig) were allocated into four groups. The gilts in the control group were fed a basal diet (CON group), while those in the experimental groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0.05% Orn (0.05% Orn group), 0.10% Orn (0.10% Orn group), and 0.15% Orn (0.15% Orn group), respectively. The results showed that 0.15% Orn and 0.10% Orn groups exhibited increased birth weight of piglets compared with the CON group. Moreover, the 0.15% Orn group was higher than the CON group in the blood vessel densities of placenta. Mechanistically, Orn facilitated placental angiogenesis by regulating vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). Furthermore, maternal supplementation with 0.15% Orn during gestation increased the jejunal and ileal villi height and the concentrations of colonic propionate and butyrate in suckling piglets. Collectively, these results showed that maternal supplementation with Orn promotes placental angiogenesis and improves intestinal development of suckling piglets.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050689
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 690: Treatment of a Large Tibial Non-Union Bone
           Defect in a Cat Using Xenograft with Canine-Derived Cancellous Bone,
           Demineralized Bone Matrix, and Autograft

    • Authors: Keun-Yung Kim, Minha Oh, Minkyung Kim
      First page: 690
      Abstract: A 17-month-old domestic short-hair cat was referred due to a non-union in the left tibia. The initial repair, conducted 3 months prior at another animal hospital, involved an intramedullary (IM) pin and wire to address a comminuted fracture. Unfortunately, the wire knot caused a skin tract, resulting in osteomyelitis. Although the wire knot was removed at that hospital, the draining tract persisted, continuously discharging exudate. Upon evaluation, the first surgery was reassessed and revised, involving the removal of the IM pin and the application of external skeletal fixation alongside an antibiotic susceptibility test. After 118 days post-revision surgery, while some cortical continuity was observed, a significant bone defect persisted, posing a substantial risk of refracture should the implant be removed. A second revision surgery was performed, utilizing a bone plate combined with cancellous bone autograft, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2, and xenograft featuring a canine-derived cancellous chip mixed with demineralized bone matrix. Remarkably, the bone completed its healing within 105 days following the subsequent surgery. Radiography demonstrated successful management of the large bone defect up to the 2-year postoperative check-up. During telephone follow-ups for 3.5 years after surgery, no complications were identified, and the subject maintained a favorable gait.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050690
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 691: Current State of Mugger Populations

    • Authors: Milena Sylwia Bors, Pogiri Gowri Shankar, Joanna Gruszczyńska
      First page: 691
      Abstract: The mugger (Crocodylus palustris) is a medium-sized crocodilian inhabiting South Asia. As a result of intensive hunting, its range declined drastically up till the 1970s. Currently, the world mugger population is fragmented and threatened mainly by habitat loss and the consequences of human–crocodile conflict, being classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN. The goal of this paper is to comprehensively determine the mugger’s current range, and assess risks in notable habitats of the species across its range. To determine the range and notable habitats, extensive literature covering surveys, monitoring, population studies and reports of human–crocodile conflict was examined. Habitat suitability and risk assessment were performed by evaluating selected habitats using eight factors: the legal status of the area, elevation, surface water availability, water quality, salinity, availability of nesting and basking sites, interaction with humans and interspecific competition. Based on our findings, the chances of the mugger’s survival varies greatly across its range and the threats they face are complex and often site-specific. Defining these threats is the first step for determining suitable risk mitigation efforts, some of which are explored in this review.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050691
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 692: Genomic and Proteomic Analyses of
           Extracellular Products Reveal Major Virulence Factors Likely Accounting
           for Differences in Pathogenicity to Bivalves between Vibrio mediterranei
           Strains

    • Authors: Congling Fan, Wenfang Dai, Haiyan Zhang, Sheng Liu, Zhihua Lin, Qinggang Xue
      First page: 692
      Abstract: Vibrio mediterranei, a bacterial pathogen of bivalves, has exhibited strain-dependent virulence. The mechanisms behind the variations in bivalve pathogenicity between V. mediterranei strains have remained unclear. However, a preliminary analysis of the extracellular product (ECP) proteomes has revealed differences in protein compositions between low- and high-virulence strains; in addition to 1265 shared proteins, 127 proteins have been identified to be specific to one low-virulence strain and 95 proteins to be specific to two high-virulence strains. We further studied the ECP proteins of the three V. mediterranei strains from functional perspectives using integrated genomics and proteomics approaches. The results showed that lipid metabolism, transporter activity and membrane transporter pathways were more enriched in the ECPs of the two high-virulence strains than in those of the low-virulence strain. Additionally, 73 of the 95 high-virulence strain-specific proteins were found to have coding genes in the genome but were not expressed in the low-virulence strain. Moreover, comparisons with known virulence factors in the Virulence Factor Database (VFDB) and the Pathogen–Host Interactions Database (PHI-base) allowed us to predict more than 10 virulence factors in the categories of antimicrobial activity/competitive advantage, the effector delivery system and immune modulation, and the high-virulence strain-specific ECP proteins consisted of a greater percentage of known virulence factors than the low-virulence strain. Particularly, two virulence factors, MtrC and KatG, were identified in the ECPs of the two high-virulence strains but not in those of the low-virulence strain. Most coding genes of the ECP proteins including known virulence factors were identified on chromosome 1 of V. mediterranei. Our findings indicate that variations in virulence factor composition in the bacterial ECPs may partially account for the differences in the bivalve pathogenicity between V. mediterranei strains.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050692
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 693: Effect of a Lactobacilli-Based Direct-Fed
           Microbial Product on Gut Microbiota and Gastrointestinal Morphological
           Changes

    • Authors: John I. Alawneh, Hena Ramay, Timothy Olchowy, Rachel Allavena, Martin Soust, Rafat Al Jassim
      First page: 693
      Abstract: The calf’s gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiome undergoes rapid shifts during early post-natal life, which can directly affect calf performance. The objectives of this study were to characterise and compare differences in the establishment and succession of GIT microbiota, GIT morphological changes, and the growth of dairy calves from birth until weaned. Forty-four newborn Holstein-Friesian calves were randomly selected and assigned to Treatment (TRT) and Control (CON) groups. The TRT group calves received a once-daily dose of a direct-fed microbial (DFM) liquid product containing Lacticaseibacillus paracasei, Lentilactobacillus buchneri, and Lacticaseibacillus casei, all formerly known as Lactobacillus. Fresh faecal samples were manually taken from the rectum of all calves, and gross necropsy was performed on the forestomachs and gastrointestinal tracts. Bacterial DNA was extracted from frozen faecal samples for 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Calves in the TRT group had greater live weights (p = 0.02) at weaning compared with calves in the CON group (mean = 69.18 kg, SD = 13.37 kg). The average daily live weight gain (ADG) and total feed intake were similar between the two groups. Calves in the TRT group had greater duodenum, abomasum, and reticulum weights (p = 0.05). Rumen and intestinal development (p < 0.05) and faecal microbial diversity (p < 0.05) were more pronounced in the TRT group. The relative abundances of eight genera differed (p < 0.001) between the groups. Supplementing calves with the LAB-based DFM increased live weight at weaning and had a more pronounced effect on the development of rumen and the gastrointestinal tract and on microbiota diversity and evenness. Future work is needed to better understand the potential association of LAB-DFM products on gut mucosa-associated microbiota.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050693
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 694: Fertility and Insemination Characteristics of
           Sperm Storage Tubules in Old Thai-Native Hens

    • Authors: Theerapat Kheawkanha, Vibuntita Chankitisakul, Maruay Pimprasert, Wuttigrai Boonkum, Thevin Vongpralub
      First page: 694
      Abstract: We aimed to evaluate the effects of sperm concentration (150–250 × 106 spz/dose) and insemination frequency (once, twice, and thrice weekly) on fertility and sperm storage tubule (SST) characteristics. The SSTs were classified into five categories: namely, SSTs having an unscorable (SST1), empty (SST2), low (SST3), medium (SST4), and high (SST5) sperm count after insemination. The results showed that only insemination frequency affected the fertility rate (p < 0.05). The highest fertility was found in the thrice-weekly insemination group; however, this rate was not significantly different from that for the twice-weekly insemination group, except on day 7, while the once-weekly insemination group showed the lowest fertility rate (p < 0.05) from day four onward. On day 1, the SST characteristics showed no differences among the various insemination frequencies. On day 4, the SST2 and SST3 categories increased in the once-weekly insemination group (p < 0.05), while the SST4 and SST5 categories decreased compared to the twice- and thrice-weekly insemination groups (p < 0.05). On day 7, only the thrice-weekly insemination group maintained a level of SST5 category tubules like that measured on day 1 (p > 0.05). In summary, the insemination dose of 150 × 106 sperm was enough for fertilization, and thrice-weekly insemination was the appropriate frequency in old Thai native hens for maintaining a high sperm density in the SSTs throughout the week.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050694
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 695: Genome-Wide Transcriptome Profiling Reveals
           the Mechanisms Underlying Hepatic Metabolism under Different Raising
           Systems in Yak

    • Authors: Mengfan Zhang, Xita Zha, Xiaoming Ma, Yongfu La, Xian Guo, Min Chu, Pengjia Bao, Ping Yan, Xiaoyun Wu, Chunnian Liang
      First page: 695
      Abstract: Yak meat is nutritionally superior to beef cattle but has a low fat content and is slow-growing. The liver plays a crucial role in lipid metabolism, and in order to determine whether different feeding modes affect lipid metabolism in yaks and how it is regulated, we employed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology to analyze the genome-wide differential gene expression in the liver of yaks maintained under different raising systems. A total of 1663 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified ( log2FC ≥ 0 and p-value ≤ 0.05), including 698 down-regulated and 965 up-regulated genes. According to gene ontology (GO) and KEGG enrichment analyses, these DEGs were significantly enriched in 13 GO terms and 26 pathways (p < 0.05). Some DEGs were enriched in fatty acid degradation, PPAR, PI3K-Akt, and ECM receptor pathways, which are associated with lipid metabolism. A total of 16 genes are well known to be related to lipid metabolism (e.g., APOA1, FABP1, EHHADH, FADS2, SLC27A5, ACADM, CPT1B, ACOX2, HMGCS2, PLIN5, ACAA1, IGF1, FGFR4, ALDH9A1, ECHS1, LAMA2). A total of 11 of the above genes were significantly enriched in the PPAR signaling pathway. The reliability of the transcriptomic data was verified using qRT-PCR. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms regulating yak meat quality. It shows that fattening improves the expression of genes that regulate lipid deposition in yaks and enhances meat quality. This finding will contribute to a better understanding of the various factors that determine yak meat quality and help develop strategies to improve yield and quality.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050695
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 696: Application of Infrared Thermography in the
           Rehabilitation of Patients in Veterinary Medicine

    • Authors: Alejandro Casas-Alvarado, Asahi Ogi, Dina Villanueva-García, Julio Martínez-Burnes, Ismael Hernández-Avalos, Adriana Olmos-Hernández, Patricia Mora-Medina, Adriana Domínguez-Oliva, Daniel Mota-Rojas
      First page: 696
      Abstract: Infrared Thermography (IRT) has become an assistance tool in medicine and is used to noninvasively evaluate heat elimination during and after inflammatory processes or during the recovery period. However, its application in veterinary patients undergoing physiotherapy is a field that requires deep research. This review aims to analyze the application of IRT in the monitoring of animal physiotherapy, using the thermal changes that are present in patients undergoing gait or lameness issues (e.g., inflammation, pain, increased local temperature) as a neurobiological basis. Rehabilitation techniques such as acupuncture, physical therapies, thermotherapy, photo-biomodulation, and electrostimulation have been reported to have an anti-inflammatory effect that decreases the amount of local heat production, which is heat that can be recorded with IRT. Therefore, IRT could be used as a complementary tool to evaluate the effectiveness of the therapy, and it is suggested that further studies evaluate the accuracy, sensibility, and sensitivity of IRT.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050696
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 697: Small Felids Coexist in Mixed-Use Landscape
           in the Bolivian Amazon

    • Authors: Courtney Anderson, Amelia Zuckerwise, Robert B. Wallace, Guido Ayala, Maria Viscarra, Oswald J. Schmitz
      First page: 697
      Abstract: In the face of global species loss, it is paramount to understand the effects of human activity on vulnerable species, particularly in highly diverse, complex systems. The Greater Madidi Landscape in the Bolivian Amazon includes several biodiverse protected areas that were created with the goal of sustaining healthy and diverse ecosystems while not impeding the livelihoods of local indigenous peoples. In this study, we sought to use camera trap data and single-species occupancy analysis to assess the impacts of different forms of human activity on four species of small felids: ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), margays (Leopardus wiedii), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi), and oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus). We modeled both human variables (proximity to indigenous communities, roads, and tourist camps) and non-human variables (terrain ruggedness, proximity to rivers, canopy height, prey availability, and large cat abundance). Margay occupancy was unaffected by any of these human variables and ocelots showed only weak evidence of being affected by tourism. Ocelots were particularly pervasive throughout the study area and were consistently estimated to have high occupancy probability. We did not obtain sufficient data on jaguarundi or oncilla to reliably model these effects. Our results indicate that small cats successfully coexist both with each other and with the surrounding human activity in this unique landscape, which serves as a model for global protected area management.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050697
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 698: Advances in the Clinical Diagnostics to
           Equine Back Pain: A Review of Imaging and Functional Modalities

    • Authors: Natalia Domańska-Kruppa, Małgorzata Wierzbicka, Elżbieta Stefanik
      First page: 698
      Abstract: Back pain is common in ridden horses. Back diseases in horses include Impinging Dorsal Spinous Processes, Ventral Spondylosis, Osteoarthritis of Articular Process, Intervertebral Discs Disease, Vertebral Fractures, Conformational Abnormalities, Desmopathy of the Supraspinous Ligament, Desmopathy of the Intraspinous Ligament, and Longissimus Muscle Strain. Back pain may also develop as a result of lameness (particularly hindlimb lameness). A poorly fitting saddle and an unbalanced rider are also considered important factors influencing the development of back pain in horses. The conventional diagnosis of equine back pain includes a clinical examination and diagnostic imaging examination using ultrasound, radiography, and thermography. Advanced diagnostic modalities of equine back pain involve the objectification of standard procedures through the use of algometers, a lameness locator, biometric mats, and the geometric morphometrics method. In addition to modern diagnostic methods, such as computed tomography and scintigraphy, advances in the diagnosis of equine back pain include the use of electromyography and functional electrical stimulation. The aim of this review article is to familiarize clinicians with the usefulness and capabilities of conventional diagnostic protocols and advanced diagnostic modalities. Although orthopedic examination and traditional diagnostic methods will remain the foundation of the diagnosis of back diseases, modern methods meet the growing expectations towards high-performance horses and allow for deeper diagnostics and objective monitoring of rehabilitation and training progress.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050698
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 699: Unveiling the Genetic Secrets of Chinese
           Indigenous Pigs from Guizhou Province: Diversity, Evolution and Candidate
           Genes Affecting Pig Coat Color

    • Authors: Ziping Hu, Yanfang Su, Wencheng Zong, Naiqi Niu, Runze Zhao, Ruiping Liang, Lixian Wang, Yiyu Zhang, Longchao Zhang
      First page: 699
      Abstract: The local pig breeds in Guizhou possess exceptional meat quality, robust adaptability, and resilience to harsh feeding conditions, making them ideal for producing high-quality pork. With over 10 local pig breeds in the region, we focused on 7 specific breeds: Baixi pigs (BX), Congjiang Xiang pigs (CJX), Guanling pigs (GL), Jianhe White Xiang pigs (JHBX), Jiangkou Luobo pigs (JKLB), Kele pigs (KL), and Qiandong Hua pigs (QDH). Unfortunately, these breeds face threats such as introduced species and inbreeding, resulting in a decline in population size and numbers. To better protect and utilize these breeds, we employed genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to investigate the population structure, genetic diversity, and selection characteristics of 283 pigs across these seven breeds. Our findings revealed distinct ancestral sources between Chinese and Western pig breeds, as demonstrated by principal component analysis, adjacent tree analysis, and ADMIXTURE analysis. Notably, JHBX exhibited a distant genetic relationship from the other six local pig breeds in Guizhou province, showcasing unique genetic characteristics. While the genetic diversity of the six Chinese native pig populations, excluding JHBX, was generally moderate in Guizhou province, the JHBX population displayed low genetic diversity. Therefore, it is imperative to intensify selection efforts to prevent inbreeding decline in JHBX while further enhancing the protection measures for the other six pig populations. Additionally, we identified candidate genes influencing the size disparity among pigs in Guizhou province through signal selection. Our study outcomes serve as a reference for developing effective conservation and utilization plans for pig breeds in Guizhou province and deepen our understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying pig body size.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050699
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 700: Animal Welfare Assessment and Meat Quality
           through Assessment of Stress Biomarkers in Fattening Pigs with and without
           Visible Damage during Slaughter

    • Authors: Natália Nami Ogawa, Giovanna Lima Silva, Ana Paula Ayub da Costa Barbon, Karina Keller Marques da Costa Flaiban, Caio Abercio da Silva, Luiene Moura Rocha, Ana Maria Bridi
      First page: 700
      Abstract: The study aimed to investigate the physiological and meat quality differences between Non-Ambulatory, Non-Injured (NANI), and without apparent abnormalities (non-NANI) pigs in a commercial slaughterhouse setting, focusing on the impact of stress and health conditions on the overall well-being and meat quality of the animals. A total of 241 surgically castrated crossbred male pigs from Southern Brazil were analyzed, with 131 non-NANI pigs and 110 NANI pigs. Infrared orbital temperature, rectal temperature, hematological parameters, and meat quality measurements were collected. Statistical analysis included ANOVA tests and principal component analysis (PCA). NANI pigs exhibited significantly higher infrared orbital temperatures and rectal temperature (p < 0.01). Hematological analysis revealed higher levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cells in NANI pigs (p < 0.05). White blood cell count and lactate dehydrogenase were significantly elevated in NANI pigs (p < 0.01), indicating potential infections or inflammatory responses. Meat quality parameters showed that NANI pigs had lower pH values, higher luminosity, and increased drip loss (p < 0.01), reflecting poorer water retention and potential muscle glycogen depletion. The study highlights the physiological and meat quality differences between NANI and non-NANI pigs, emphasizing the impact of stress, health conditions, and handling procedures on the animals. Blood biomarkers proved valuable in assessing physiological stress, immune response, and potential health issues in pigs, correlating with meat quality abnormalities. Utilizing these biomarkers as predictive tools can enhance animal welfare practices and contribute to improving meat quality in the swine industry.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050700
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 701: Dolphin-WET—Development of a Welfare
           Evaluation Tool for Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) under Human
           Care

    • Authors: Baumgartner, Hüttner, Isabella L. K. Clegg, Hartmann, Garcia-Párraga, Manteca, Mercera, Monreal-Pawlowsky, Pilenga, Ternes, Tallo-Parra, Vaicekauskaite, Fersen, Yon, Delfour
      First page: 701
      Abstract: Ensuring high standards of animal welfare is not only an ethical duty for zoos and aquariums, but it is also essential to achieve their conservation, education, and research goals. While for some species, animal welfare assessment frameworks are already in place, little has been done for marine animals under human care. Responding to this demand, the welfare committee of the European Association for Aquatic Mammals (EAAM) set up a group of experts on welfare science, cetacean biology, and zoo animal medicine across Europe. Their objective was to develop a comprehensive tool to evaluate the welfare of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), named Dolphin-WET. The tool encompasses 49 indicators that were either validated through peer review or management-based expertise. The first of its kind, the Dolphin-WET is a species-specific welfare assessment tool that provides a holistic approach to evaluating dolphin welfare. Inspired by Mellor’s Five Domains Model and the Welfare Quality®, its hierarchical structure allows for detailed assessments from overall welfare down to specific indicators. Through combining 37 animal-based and 12 resource-based indicators that are evaluated based on a two- or three-level scoring, the protocol offers a detailed evaluation of individual dolphins. This approach allows for regular internal monitoring and targeted welfare management, enabling caretakers to address specific welfare concerns effectively.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050701
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 702: Saving the Last West African Giraffe
           Population: A Review of Its Conservation Status and Management

    • Authors: Kateřina Gašparová, Julian Fennessy, Abdoul Razack Moussa Zabeirou, Ali Laouel Abagana, Thomas Rabeil, Karolína Brandlová
      First page: 702
      Abstract: The West African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis peralta) was historically spread across much of the Sudano-Sahelian zone but is now restricted to Niger. Several factors resulted in their dramatic decline during the late 20th century. In 1996, only 49 individuals remained, concentrated in the ‘Giraffe Zone’. Conservation activities implemented by the Government of Niger, supported by local communities and NGOs, facilitated their population numbers to increase. This review summarizes past and present conservation activities and evaluates their impact to advise and prioritize future conservation actions for the West African giraffe. The long-term conservation of the West African giraffe is highly dependent on the local communities who live alongside them, as well as supplementary support from local and international partners. Recent conservation initiatives range from community-based monitoring to the fitting of GPS satellite tags to better understand their habitat use, spatial movements to expansion areas, and environmental education to the establishment of the first satellite population of West African giraffe in Gadabedji Biosphere Reserve, the latter serving as a flagship for the future restoration of large mammal populations in West Africa. The integration of modern technologies and methods will hopefully provide better-quality data, improved spatial analyses, and greater understanding of giraffe ecology to inform the long-term management of West African giraffe.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050702
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 703: Spatiotemporal Analysis of Stranded
           Loggerhead Sea Turtles on the Croatian Adriatic Coast

    • Authors: Željko Mihaljević, Šimun Naletilić, Jasna Jeremić, Iva Kilvain, Tina Belaj, Tibor Andreanszky
      First page: 703
      Abstract: This study investigates the spatiotemporal trends of loggerhead turtles along the Croatian Adriatic coast by using stranding data and post-mortem analyses. Information on 620 loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta), collected in the period between 2010 and 2022, has been analysed. Seasonal stranding variations reveal distinct patterns, indicating season-specific abundance and age-specific mortality in different areas, particularly in the key neritic habitat of the northern Adriatic. The analysis identifies four critical areas in the northeast and central Adriatic showing high stranding densities and provides regional managers with a tool with which to effectively conserve and manage this species. Fishing-induced mortality, collision with vessels, and potential cold stunning are identified as major threats to loggerhead turtles. Post-mortem investigations reveal that longline fishing gear and collisions with vessels are significant age-specific mortality contributors, underscoring the need for targeted conservation efforts in high-risk areas. The study acknowledges potential biases in strandings records but highlights the importance of post-mortem investigations in understanding mortality causes. The findings provide valuable insights for improving conservation strategies, emphasizing the importance of focused surveillance and conservation efforts in identified high-risk locations to mitigate human–turtle interactions.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050703
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 704: The Effect of Birth Weight on Fattening
           Performance, Meat Quality, and Muscle Fibre Characteristics in Lambs of
           the Karayaka Native Breed

    • Authors: Emre Şirin, Uğur Şen, Yüksel Aksoy, Ümran Çiçek, Zafer Ulutaş, Mehmet Kuran
      First page: 704
      Abstract: This investigation aimed to assess the influence of birth weight on post-weaning fattening performance, meat quality, muscle fibre characteristics, and carcass traits in Karayaka lambs. The study categorized the lambs into three distinct groups based on birth weight: low birth weight (LBW), medium birth weight (MBW), and high birth weight (HBW). Throughout the fattening phase, the lambs were given ad libitum access to food and water, culminating in the slaughter at the end of the study. Following slaughter, warm and cold carcasses were weighted, and specific muscles (longissimus thoracis et lumborum [LTL], semitendinosus [ST], and semimembranosus [SM]) were isolated for the evaluation of muscle weights, muscle fibre types (Type I, Type IIA, and Type IIB), and muscle fibre numbers. Carcass characteristics were also determined, including eye muscle (LTL) fat, loin thickness, and meat quality characteristics, such as pH, colour, texture, cooking loss, and water-holding capacity. The statistical analysis revealed highly significant differences among the experimental groups concerning muscle weights and warm and cold carcass weights (p < 0.01), with the lambs in the HBW group exhibiting a notably higher carcass yield (in females: 45.65 ± 1.34% and in males: 46.18 ± 0.77%) and LTL, ST, and SM (except for female lambs) muscle weights than the lambs in LBW group (p < 0.01). However, apart from the texture of LTL and ST muscles, no significant differences in meat quality parameters were observed among the treatment groups (p > 0.05). Notably, the birth weight of lambs did not impart a discernible effect on the total number and metabolic activity of muscle fibres in LTL, ST, and SM muscles. Nonetheless, a noteworthy distinction in the fibre area of Type I fibres in the LTL muscle of male lambs (LBW: 30.4 ± 8.9, MBW: 29.1 ± 7.3 and HBW; 77.3 ± 15.4) and in the ST muscle of female lambs (LBW: 44.1 ± 8.1, MBW: 38.8 ± 7.7 and HBW: 36.9 ± 7.1) were evident among the birth weight groups (p < 0.05). The study also found that the mean fat thickness values of eye muscles in Karayaka lambs, as obtained by ultrasonic tests, were below the typical range for sheep. In synthesis, the outcomes of this study underscore the considerable impact of birth weight on slaughtered and carcass weights, emphasizing the positive association between higher birth weights and enhanced carcass yield. Remarkably, despite these pronounced effects on carcass traits, the birth weight did not demonstrate a statistically significant influence on meat quality or overall muscle fibre characteristics, except for the area of Type I fibres in the LTL muscle. This nuanced understanding contributes valuable insights into the intricate relationship between birth weight and various physiological and carcass parameters in Karayaka lambs undergoing post-weaning fattening.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050704
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 705: Guidance on Minimum Standards for
           Canine-Assisted Psychotherapy in Adolescent Mental Health: Delphi Expert
           Consensus on Health, Safety, and Canine Welfare

    • Authors: Melanie G. Jones, Kate Filia, Simon M. Rice, Sue M. Cotton
      First page: 705
      Abstract: As interest in animal-assisted therapy (AAT) and canine-assisted psychotherapy (CAP) grows, there are increasing calls for the management of related health, safety, and welfare concerns for canines, providers, and clients. Existing health and safety guidelines lack empirical support and are, at times, contradictory. Welfare is increasingly prioritized; however, tools to monitor and manage welfare are underutilized and under-reported. The aim of this study was to provide expert consensus on the minimum health, safety, and welfare standards required to develop and deliver a CAP group program to adolescents experiencing common mental health disorders. Diverse AAT experts were recruited globally. Using Delphi methodology, over two rounds, 40 panelists reached a consensus agreement to include 32 items from a possible 49 into the minimum standards. Health and safety measures included risk assessment, veterinary screening, preventative medicine, training in infection control, and first aid. Welfare measures included training in welfare assessment, documentation of welfare, and flexible, individualized responses to promote wellbeing. Intestinal screening for parasites and the prohibition of raw food were not supported. Flexible and individualized assessment and management of canine welfare were supported over fixed and time-limited work schedules. Clinical practice implications are discussed, and recommendations are made.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050705
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 706: Immunophysiological State of Dogs According
           to the Immunoregulatory Index of their Blood and Spleens

    • Authors: Oksana Dunaievska, Ihor Sokulskyi, Mykola Radzykhovskii, Bogdan Gutyj, Olga Dyshkant, Zoriana Khomenko, Viktor Brygadyrenko
      First page: 706
      Abstract: In this study, the immunological characteristics of a dog’s body were established, allowing for a quick reaction to any changes in the immune status and the development of an immunodeficiency state. The immunoregulatory blood index was determined to indicate the ratio of T-helpers and T-suppressors. The immunoregulatory index of the spleen was determined as the ratio of CD4+ cells to CD8+ cells in the field of view of a microscope (eyepiece 10, objective 40) after obtaining histological preparations according to generally accepted methods. It was found that the number of T-helpers decreased by 0.13 × 1012/L, while the number of T-suppressors increased non-significantly by 0.01 × 1012/L after intensive exercise during tasks. The immunoregulatory blood index of dogs was 2.1 ± 0.1 and 1.7 ± 0.13 before and after intensive exercise, respectively. Lymphocytes with markers CD4+ and CD8+ were located almost all in the white pulp; in the red pulp, they were found alone, and their share was 3.4% and 1.9%, respectively. Lymphocytes with CD4+ markers in the spleen’s white pulp were mainly concentrated in lymphoid nodules (60.7%), of which 20.1% were focused on the marginal zone, and slightly less in the light center (19.4%) and the periarterial zone (18.1%). Lymphocytes with CD8+ markers in the spleen’s white pulp were also mainly concentrated in lymphoid nodules, but their number was 8.1% higher (68.8%). The immunoregulatory index of the spleen is 1.9. These findings emphasize the need for the assessment of the immunoregulatory index in service dogs to prevent the development of secondary immunodeficiency and allow them to properly perform their official duties.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050706
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 707: A New Method to Detect Buffalo Mastitis Using
           Udder Ultrasonography Based on Deep Learning Network

    • Authors: Xinxin Zhang, Yuan Li, Yiping Zhang, Zhiqiu Yao, Wenna Zou, Pei Nie, Liguo Yang
      First page: 707
      Abstract: Mastitis is one of the most predominant diseases with a negative impact on ranch products worldwide. It reduces milk production, damages milk quality, increases treatment costs, and even leads to the premature elimination of animals. In addition, failure to take effective measures in time will lead to widespread disease. The key to reducing the losses caused by mastitis lies in the early detection of the disease. The application of deep learning with powerful feature extraction capability in the medical field is receiving increasing attention. The main purpose of this study was to establish a deep learning network for buffalo quarter-level mastitis detection based on 3054 ultrasound images of udders from 271 buffaloes. Two data sets were generated with thresholds of somatic cell count (SCC) set as 2 × 105 cells/mL and 4 × 105 cells/mL, respectively. The udders with SCCs less than the threshold value were defined as healthy udders, and otherwise as mastitis-stricken udders. A total of 3054 udder ultrasound images were randomly divided into a training set (70%), a validation set (15%), and a test set (15%). We used the EfficientNet_b3 model with powerful learning capabilities in combination with the convolutional block attention module (CBAM) to train the mastitis detection model. To solve the problem of sample category imbalance, the PolyLoss module was used as the loss function. The training set and validation set were used to develop the mastitis detection model, and the test set was used to evaluate the network’s performance. The results showed that, when the SCC threshold was 2 × 105 cells/mL, our established network exhibited an accuracy of 70.02%, a specificity of 77.93%, a sensitivity of 63.11%, and an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) of 0.77 on the test set. The classification effect of the model was better when the SCC threshold was 4 × 105 cells/mL than when the SCC threshold was 2 × 105 cells/mL. Therefore, when SCC ≥ 4 × 105 cells/mL was defined as mastitis, our established deep neural network was determined as the most suitable model for farm on-site mastitis detection, and this network model exhibited an accuracy of 75.93%, a specificity of 80.23%, a sensitivity of 70.35%, and AUC 0.83 on the test set. This study established a 1/4 level mastitis detection model which provides a theoretical basis for mastitis detection in buffaloes mostly raised by small farmers lacking mastitis diagnostic conditions in developing countries.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050707
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 708: Spatiotemporal Patterns of Reptile and
           Amphibian Road Fatalities in a Natura 2000 Area: A 12-Year Monitoring of
           the Lake Karla Mediterranean Wetland

    • Authors: Alexandros D. Kouris, Apostolos Christopoulos, Konstantinos Vlachopoulos, Aikaterini Christopoulou, Panayiotis G. Dimitrakopoulos, Yiannis G. Zevgolis
      First page: 708
      Abstract: The pervasive expansion of human-engineered infrastructure, particularly roads, has fundamentally reshaped landscapes, profoundly affecting wildlife interactions. Wildlife-vehicle collisions, a common consequence of this intricate interplay, frequently result in fatalities, extending their detrimental impact within Protected Areas (PAs). Among the faunal groups most susceptible to road mortality, reptiles and amphibians stand at the forefront, highlighting the urgent need for global comprehensive mitigation strategies. In Greece, where road infrastructure expansion has encroached upon a significant portion of the nation’s PAs, the plight of these road-vulnerable species demands immediate attention. To address this critical issue, we present a multifaceted and holistic approach to investigating and assessing the complex phenomenon of herpetofauna road mortality within the unique ecological context of the Lake Karla plain, a rehabilitated wetland complex within a PA. To unravel the intricacies of herpetofauna road mortality in the Lake Karla plain, we conducted a comprehensive 12-year investigation from 2008 to 2019. Employing a combination of statistical modeling and spatial analysis techniques, we aimed to identify the species most susceptible to these encounters, their temporal and seasonal variations, and the ecological determinants of their roadkill patterns. We documented a total of 340 roadkill incidents involving 14 herpetofauna species in the Lake Karla’s plain, with reptiles, particularly snakes, being more susceptible, accounting for over 60% of roadkill occurrences. Moreover, we found that environmental and road-related factors play a crucial role in influencing roadkill incidents, while spatial analysis techniques, including Kernel Density Estimation, the Getis-Ord Gi*, and the Kernel Density Estimation plus methods revealed critical areas, particularly in the south-eastern region of Lake Karla’s plain, offering guidance for targeted interventions to address both individual and collective risks associated with roadkill incidents.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050708
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 709: Myokines Produced by Cultured Bovine
           Satellite Cells Harvested from 3- and 11-Month-Old Angus Steers

    • Authors: Katie A. Shira, Brenda M. Murdoch, Kara J. Thornton, Caleb C. Reichhardt, Gabrielle M. Becker, Gwinyai E. Chibisa, Gordon K. Murdoch
      First page: 709
      Abstract: The myokines interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 15 (IL-15), myonectin (CTRP15), fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5/irisin (FNDC5), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are associated with skeletal muscle cell proliferation, differentiation, and muscle hypertrophy in biomedical model species. This study evaluated whether these myokines are produced by cultured bovine satellite cells (BSCs) harvested from 3- and 11-month-old commercial black Angus steers and if the expression and secretion of these targets change across 0, 12, 24, and 48 h in vitro. IL-6, IL-15, FNDC5, and BDNF expression were greater (p ≤ 0.05) in the differentiated vs. undifferentiated BSCs at 0, 12, 24, and 48 h. CTRP15 expression was greater (p ≤ 0.03) in the undifferentiated vs. differentiated BSCs at 24 and 48 h. IL-6 and CTRP15 protein from culture media were greater (p ≤ 0.04) in undifferentiated vs. differentiated BSCs at 0, 12, 24, and 48 h. BDNF protein was greater in the media of differentiated vs. undifferentiated BSCs at 0, 12, 24, and 48 h. IL-6, 1L-15, FNDC5, and BDNF are expressed in association with BSC differentiation, and CTRP15 appears to be expressed in association with BSC proliferation. This study also confirms IL-6, IL-15, CTRP15, and BDNF proteins present in media collected from primary cultures of BSCs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050709
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 710: Evaluation of Anatolian Water Buffalo Carcass
           Weights Based on a Slaughterhouse Data Collection

    • Authors: Nursen Ozturk, Sevinc Arap, Omur Kocak, Lorenzo Serva, Kozet Avanus, Halil Ibrahim Kilic, Luisa Magrin, Halil Gunes
      First page: 710
      Abstract: This study analyzed data collected on a slaughterhouse from 2017 to 2021, belonging to five hundred and twenty one Anatolian water buffalos from different farms located in Edirne, Istanbul, and Kirklareli. Specifically, it aimed to determine the factors affecting the carcass weights and slaughter ages of the Anatolian water buffalos. The results of the study showed that the slaughter age of the buffalos was a significant determinant of their carcass weights. Meanwhile, the sex, slaughter year, and slaughter season affected the carcass weight. Differences were observed for the slaughter age regarding the sex and farm origin. Since the pricing system in local markets is based on the buffalo carcass weight, the findings of this study could be essential for farmers when determining their fattening strategies.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050710
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 711: Concurrent Validation of MI-CAT(V), a
           Clinical Metrology Instrument for Veterinarians Assessing Osteoarthritis
           Pain in Cats, through Testing for Firocoxib Analgesic Efficacy in a
           Prospective, Randomized, Controlled, and Blinded Study

    • Authors: Aliénor Delsart, Colombe Otis, Vivian S. Y. Leung, Émilie Labelle, Maxim Moreau, Marilyn Frezier, Marlene Drag, Johanne Martel-Pelletier, Jean-Pierre Pelletier, Eric Troncy
      First page: 711
      Abstract: Veterinarians face the lack of a rapid, reliable, inexpensive, and treatment-sensitive metrological instrument reflecting feline osteoarthritis (OA) pain. The Montreal Instrument for Cat Arthritis Testing, for Use by Veterinarians (MI-CAT(V)) has been refined in 4 sub-sections, and we proposed its concurrent validation. Cats naturally affected by OA (n = 32) were randomly distributed into 4 groups of firocoxib analgesic (Gr. A: 0.40; B: 0.25; C: 0.15, and P: 0.00 mg/kg bodyweight). They were assessed during Baseline, Treatment, and Recovery periods using MI-CAT(V) and objective outcomes (effort path, stairs assay compliance, and actimetry). The MI-CAT(V) total score correlated to the effort path and actimetry (RhoS = −0.501 to −0.453; p < 0.001), also being sensitive to treatment responsiveness. The pooled treatment group improved its total, gait, and body posture scores during Treatment compared to the Baseline, Recovery, and placebo group (p < 0.05). The MI-CAT(V) suggested a dose-(especially for Gr. B) and cluster-response. Cats in the moderate and severe MI-CAT(V) clusters responded to firocoxib with a remaining analgesic effect, while the mild cluster seemed less responsive and experienced a negative rebound effect. The MI-CAT(V) was validated for its OA pain severity discriminatory abilities and sensitivity to firocoxib treatment, providing a new perspective for individualized care.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050711
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 712: Behaviour Indicators of Animal Welfare in
           Purebred and Crossbred Yearling Beef Reared in Optimal Environmental
           Conditions

    • Authors: Alessandra Marzano, Fabio Correddu, Mondina Francesca Lunesu, Elias Zgheib, Anna Nudda, Giuseppe Pulina
      First page: 712
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to monitor the behaviour of purebred and crossbred beef cattle reared in the same optimal environmental conditions according to Classyfarm®. Thirty-yearling beef 11.5 months old, including 10 Limousines (LMS), 10 Sardo-Bruna (SRB), and 10 crossbred Limousine × Sardo-Bruna (LMS × SRB), balanced for sex and body weight, were used. Animals were evaluated for five months by two trained operators by SCAN (“sternal resting”, “lateral resting”, “ central or peripheral position in the pen”, standing”, “walking”, “feeding”, “drinking”, and “ruminating) and FOCUS (“displacement for space”, “displacement for feed or water”, “play-fighting”, “self-grooming”, “allo-grooming”, “stereotyping”, and “mounting”) protocols. Feeding behaviour was monitored by a CCTV system. The application of the SCAN sampling evidenced that SRB animals preferred the “standing” activity over the LMS animals, while the LMS × SRB did not differ from them. The “standing” and “ ruminating “activities were observed mostly in females than males (p < 0.05). For behaviour parameters assessed by the FOCUS methodology, the n-events of “allo-grooming” were higher (p < 0.05) in SRB than in LMS and LMS × SRB genetic types. Males showed higher (p < 0.05) n-events than females for “play-fighting”. For feeding behaviour, the “eating concentrate” activity (expressed as n-events) was higher (p < 0.05) in SRB than LMS × SRB and LMS being intermediate (p < 0.05). The duration of “eating concentrate” (expressed in minutes) was higher (p < 0.05) in females than males. In conclusion, behaviour indicators of animal welfare did not evidence substantial differences among genetic types and between sexes reared in the same “optimal” environmental conditions. Female beef and the autochthon’s cattle breed of Sardinia, although typically hardy, showed a wide behavioural repertoire.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050712
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 713: The Effects of Occupation, Education and
           Dwelling Place on Attitudes towards Animal Welfare in China

    • Authors: Francesca Carnovale, Jin Xiao, Binlin Shi, David R. Arney, Clive J. C. Phillips
      First page: 713
      Abstract: Attitudes to animal welfare are not understood well in China, the country with the highest output of farm animals in the world. We surveyed attitudes of the public around China using a team of researchers to conduct individual interviews, with 1301 respondents in total. Contrary to results obtained in several other countries, high school leavers were more concerned about animal welfare than those who had obtained a university degree. We speculate that this may reflect the labour market currently existing in China, with limited opportunities for graduates. Scientists were less supportive, and artists more supportive, of good animal welfare. Urban dwellers were more concerned about animal welfare than rural residents, with village residents in the middle, which confirmed our theory that such a difference prevails in developing countries, where a large proportion of the rural population are involved in agriculture. It is concluded that education level, occupation and living place all have pronounced influences on attitudes to animal welfare in China, some of which follow international trends.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050713
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 714: Dietary Protein Quality Affects the Interplay
           between Gut Microbiota and Host Performance in Nile Tilapia

    • Authors: Gabriella do Vale Pereira, Carla Teixeira, José Couto, Jorge Dias, Paulo Rema, Ana Teresa Gonçalves
      First page: 714
      Abstract: Dietary protein quality plays a key role in maintaining intestinal mucosal integrity, but also modulates the growth of luminal microorganisms. This work assessed the effect of dietary protein sources on the performance, gut morphology, and microbiome in Nile tilapia. Four isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets comprising equivalent amounts of the protein supply derived from either PLANT, ANIMAL, INSECT, or BACTERIAL (bacterial biomass) sources were fed to triplicate groups of fish (IBW: 12 g) for 46 days. Fish fed the ANIMAL and BACTERIAL diets showed significantly higher weight gains than those fed the PLANT and INSECT diets (p < 0.05). Relative abundance at the phylum level showed that Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, and Proteobacteria were the more abundant phyla in tilapia’s intestine, while Cetobacterium was the most representative genus in all treatments. Interesting patterns were observed in the correlation between amino acid intake and genus and species abundance. Metabolism prediction analysis showed that BACTERIAL amine and polyamine degradation pathways are modulated depending on diets. In conclusion, different protein sources modulate the relationship between bacteria functional pathways and amino acid intake.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050714
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 715: Effects of Isochlorogenic Acid on Ewes Rumen
           Fermentation, Microbial Diversity and Ewes Immunity of Different
           Physiological Stages

    • Authors: Shuyan Li, Xiongxiong Li, Yuzhu Sha, Shuai Qi, Xia Zhang, Huning Wang, Zhengwen Wang, Shengguo Zhao, Ting Jiao
      First page: 715
      Abstract: The effects of isochlorogenic acid (ICGA) on ewes rumen environment, microbial diversity, and immunity at different physiological stages (estrus, pregnancy and lactation) were studied in this experiment. Twenty healthy female Hu lambs of 1.5 months with similar body weight (17.82 ± 0.98 kg) and body condition were selected and randomly divided into two groups: the control group (CON) and the ICGA group (ICGA). The lambs of CON were fed a basal diet, while the lambs of ICGA were supplemented with 0.1% ICGA based on the basal diet. Lambs rumen fermentation characteristics, microbial diversity and immunity at estrus, pregnancy, and lactation stages were determined and analyzed, respectively. The results showed that the rumen pH in CON increased first and then decreased as lambs grew (p < 0.05). However, it showed the opposite change in ICGA. The content of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) showed the highest at estrus stage in both groups, but it was significantly higher in ICGA than that in CON (p < 0.05). The Acetic acid/propionic acid (A/P) ratio at estrus stage and the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) at pregnancy stage in ICGA were significantly higher than those of the CON (p < 0.05). The 16S rDNA sequencing analysis showed that the Shannon, Chao 1 and ACE indexes of the ICGA were significantly higher than those of the CON both at estrus and lactation stages (p < 0.05), while they showed higher at the pregnancy stage in CON (p > 0.05). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that there were significant differences in rumen microorganism structure between CON and ICGA at all physiological stages (p < 0.01). At the phylum level, compared with the CON, Firmicutes relative abundance of three physiological stages decreased (p > 0.05) while Bacteroidota increased (p > 0.05). The relative abundance of Synergistota at estrus stage and Patescibacteria at the lactation stage increased significantly too (p < 0.05). At the genus level, compared with the CON, the relative abundance of Prevotella at three stages showed the highest (p > 0.05), while the relative abundance of Succiniclasticum, unclassified_Selenomonadaceae and Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group showed different abundances at different physiological stages in ICGA. Compared with the CON, the lambs of the ICGA showed higher blood IgG, IgM, and TNF- α contents at three physiological stages and higher IL-6 contents at pregnancy stage (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Adding ICGA could regulate ewes rumen fermentation mode at different physiological stages by increasing rumen NH3-N at estrus, VFAs at pregnancy, and the ratio of A/P at lactation. It optimizes rumen microbial flora of different physiological stages by increasing Bacteroidota relative abundance while reducing Firmicutes relative abundance, maintaining rumen microbial homeostasis at pregnant stage, increasing the number of beneficial bacteria in later lactating and ewes blood immunoglobulins content at three physiological stages.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050715
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 716: Long-Term Effects of Pre-Weaning Individual
           or Pair Housing of Dairy Heifer Calves on Subsequent Growth and Feed
           Efficiency

    • Authors: Kaylee A. Riesgraf, Kent A. Weigel, Matthew S. Akins, Jennifer M. C. Van Os
      First page: 716
      Abstract: Our objective in this exploratory study was to evaluate the long-term impacts of pre-weaning social isolation vs. contact on subsequent growth and feed efficiency of Holstein heifers. As pre-weaned calves, 41 heifers were housed individually (n = 15 heifers) or in pairs (n = 13 pairs; 26 heifers). At 18 months of age, heifers were blocked by body weight and randomly assigned to one of three pens within a block (six to eight heifers per pen; six pens total), with original pairs maintained. Body weight (BW), hip height and width, and chest girth were measured at the start and end of the study. Each pen was given 3 days of access to a GreenFeed greenhouse gas emissions monitor to assess potential physiological differences between treatments in enteric methane emissions or behavioral differences in propensity to approach a novel object. During the 9-week study, heifers were fed a common diet containing 62.3% male-sterile corn silage, 36.0% haylage, 0.7% urea, and 1.0% mineral (DM basis). To calculate daily feed intake, as-fed weights and refusals were recorded for individual heifers using Calan gates. Feed samples were collected daily, composited by week, and dried to calculate dry matter intake (DMI). Feed refusal and fecal samples were collected on 3 consecutive days at 3 timepoints, composited by heifer, dried, and analyzed to calculate neutral detergent fiber (NDF), organic matter (OM), and DM digestibility. Feed efficiency was calculated as feed conversion efficiency (FCE; DMI/average daily gain [ADG]) and residual feed intake (RFI; observed DMI-predicted DMI). Paired and individually housed heifers did not differ in DMI, ADG, FCE, or RFI. Although no differences were found in initial or final hip height, hip width, or chest girth, heifers which had been pair-housed maintained a greater BW than individually housed heifers during the trial. Methane production, intensity, and yield were similar between treatments. Pre-weaning paired or individual housing did not impact the number of visits or latency to approach the GreenFeed; approximately 50% of heifers in each treatment visited the GreenFeed within 8 h of exposure. Digestibility of OM, DM, and NDF were also similar between housing treatments. In conclusion, pre-weaning pair housing had no adverse effects on growth, feed efficiency, or methane emissions at 18 to 20 months of age.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050716
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 617: Performance Evaluation of a Novel Combination
           of Four- and Five-Carbon [Butyric and Valeric] Short-Chain Fatty Acid
           Glyceride Esters in Broilers

    • Authors: Marta I. Gracia, Patricia Vazquez, Yolanda Ibáñez-Pernía, Jeroen Pos, Snehal Tawde
      First page: 617
      Abstract: A novel combination of Butyric and Valeric acid glycerol esters with oregano oil in a dry powder form was evaluated for performance improvements in broilers. The dosing regimen (500 g/Ton feed in starter and grower; 250 g/Ton in finisher feed) was considered low compared to conventional practices using non-esterified Butyric and Valeric short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Six trials were conducted at various trial facilities in Italy, United Kingdom, Spain, and Poland. Supplemented broilers weighed significantly more than the control birds at 28 days of age (+3.4%; 1459 g vs. 1412 g; p = 0.0006) and at 42 days of age (+2.5%; 2834 g vs. 2763 g; p = 0.0030). Supplementation significantly reduced mortality from 1.9% to 0.8% during the finisher phase (from 29 to 42 days of age); however, average mortality was 3.2% for the whole 42-day growth period and was not affected. Further, supplemented broilers grew more (66.4 vs. 64.5 g/day; p = 0.0005), ate more feed (104.7 vs. 103.1 g/day; p = 0.0473), converted feed significantly more efficiently (1.58 vs. 1.60; p = 0.0072), leading to better EPEF value (410 vs. 389; p = 0.0006) than the control broilers. Meta-analysed trial performance data for novel SCFA formulations such as these are not commonly available, and serve to facilitate efficacy determination from an end-user perspective. The use of short- and medium-chain fatty acid esters in optimal low-dose combinations to reliably augment gut health and performance appears promising in commercial broiler production, and may lead to further improvements in industry practices and reduced antibiotic use.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040617
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 618: The Occurrence of Microplastics in Donax
           trunculus (Mollusca: Bivalvia) Collected along the Tuscany Coast
           (Mediterranean Sea)

    • Authors: Chiara Malloggi, Luca Nalbone, Silvia Bartalena, Margherita Guidi, Carlo Corradini, Antonino Foti, Pietro G. Gucciardi, Filippo Giarratana, Francesca Susini, Andrea Armani
      First page: 618
      Abstract: Microplastics (MPs) (0.1 µm–5 mm particles) have been documented in oceans and seas. Bivalve molluscs (BMs) can accumulate MPs and transfer to humans through the food chain. BMs (especially mussels) are used to assess MPs’ contamination, but the genus Donax has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize MPs in D. trunculus specimens collected along the Tuscan coast (Italy), and to assess the potential risk for consumers. The samples (~10 g of tissue and intervalval liquid from 35 specimens) were digested using a solution of 10% KOH, subjected to NaCl density separation, and filtered through 5 μm pore-size filters. All items were morphologically classified and measured, and their mean abundance (MA) was calculated. Furthermore, 20% of them were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and, based on the obtained results, the MA was recalculated (corrected MA) and the annual human exposure was estimated. In the 39 samples analyzed, 85 items fibers (n = 45; 52.94%) and fragments (n = 40; 47.06%) were found. The MA was 0.23 ± 0.17 items/grww. Additionally, 83.33% of the items were confirmed as MPs (polyethylene and polyethylene terephthalate). Based on the correct MA (0.18 MPs/grww), D. trunculus consumers could be exposed to 19.2 MPs/per capita/year. The health risk level of MPs was classified as level III (moderate).
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040618
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 619: Feeding Value of Lupins, Field Peas, Faba
           Beans and Chickpeas for Poultry: An Overview

    • Authors: Laura S. David, Catootjie L. Nalle, M. Reza Abdollahi, Velmurugu Ravindran
      First page: 619
      Abstract: Grain legumes are fair sources of protein, amino acids and energy, and can be used as a replacement for soybean meal in poultry feed formulations as the soybean meal becomes short in supply and costly. However, a concern associated with the use of grain legumes in poultry feeding is the presence of antinutritional factors. The effective processing and utilisation of these grain legumes in poultry feeding are well documented. The current review focuses on four selected grain legumes (lupins [Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius], field peas [Phaseolus vulgaris], faba beans [Vicia faba] and chickpeas [Cicer arietinum]) and their nutrient content, the presence of antinutritional factors, processing methods and feeding value, including updated data based on recent research findings.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040619
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 620: Fauna Associated with American Alligator
           (Alligator mississippiensis) Nests in Coastal South Carolina, USA

    • Authors: Thomas R. Rainwater, Randeep Singh, Clarissa A. Tuten, Aaron M. Given, Parker W. Gibbons, Bo Song, Steven G. Platt, Philip M. Wilkinson, Catherine M. Bodinof Jachowski
      First page: 620
      Abstract: Crocodilians are considered to be “ecosystem engineers” because their modification of habitats provides opportunities for feeding, drinking, breeding, and other vital life activities to a wide variety of other animals. One such habitat modification is the construction of nest mounds during the breeding season by most crocodilian species, including American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). While many reports exist describing wildlife associated with alligator nests, no studies have quantified faunal associates and their corresponding behaviors while visiting nests. To address this data gap, we used automated game cameras to monitor wildlife and their behaviors at alligator nests during the egg incubation period (June–September) in coastal South Carolina, USA (2016–2021). We documented a total of 81 species (79 vertebrates and 2 invertebrates) at 78 alligator nests representing six taxonomic groups, including 48 birds (59.2%), 9 mammals (11.1%), 19 reptiles (23.4%), 3 amphibians (3.7%), 1 malacostracan (1.2%), and 1 insect (1.2%). Collectively, faunal associates primarily used alligator nests for feeding/foraging (51.8%), traveling (29.3%), and loafing (19.9%) and to a much lesser extent basking, burrowing/shelter, breeding, and nesting. However, trends in alligator nest use varied among faunal associate groups (birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, etc.), subgroups (e.g., passerines, raptors, wading birds, and waterfowl), and species. Several novel behaviors by some nest associates were also noted during the study, including the first observations of Virginia oppossum (Didelphis virginiana) opening and predating nests, bobcat (Lynx rufus) consuming alligator hatchlings, and Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus) feeding on the contents of a recently predated alligator egg. The results of this study indicate that a diverse assemblage of vertebrates (and some invertebrates) use alligator nest sites in coastal South Carolina for a variety of life activities during the egg incubation period, and the proportion of the behaviors exhibited varies among animal groups and species. This study provides a first step for investigations regarding the net impacts of alligator nest-faunal associate interactions and ultimately the greater ecological role of alligators and other crocodilians.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040620
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 621: Retroviral Insertion Polymorphism (RIP) of
           Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERVs) in Pig Genomes

    • Authors: Zhanyu Du, Cai Chen, Yao Zheng, Xiaoyan Wang, Chengyi Song
      First page: 621
      Abstract: Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are one of the superfamilies of long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTRs) in mice and humans. Approximately 8% of the pig genome is composed of sequences derived from LTRs. While the majority of ERVs in pigs have decayed, a small number of full-length copies can still mobilize within the genome. This study investigated the unexplored retroviral insertion polymorphisms (RIPs) generated by the mobilization of full-length ERVs (Fl-ERVs), and evaluated their impact on phenotypic variation to gain insights into the biological role of Fl-ERVs in pigs. Overall, 39 RIPs (insertions or deletions relative to the pig reference genome) generated by Fl-ERVs were predicted by comparative genomic analysis, and 18 of them were confirmed by PCR detection. Four RIP sites (D5, D14, D15, and D18) were further evaluated by population analysis, and all of them displayed polymorphisms in multiple breeds. The RIP site of ERV-D14, which is a Fl-ERV inserted in the STAB2-like gene, was further confirmed by sequencing. Population analysis of the polymorphic site of ERV-D14 reveals that it presents moderate polymorphism information in the Large White pig breed, and the association analysis reveals that the RIP of ERV-D14 is associated with age variations at 30 kg body weight (p < 0.05) and 100 kg body weight (p < 0.01) in the population of Large White pigs (N = 480). Furthermore, the ERV-D14 RIP is associated with changes in the expression of the target gene STAB2-like in the liver, backfat, and leaf fat in Sushan pigs. These data suggest that some Fl-ERVs are still mobilizing in the pig’s genome, and contribute to genomic and phenotypic variations.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040621
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 622: Patterns of Wolf Dispersal Respond to Harvest
           Density across an Island Complex

    • Authors: Gretchen H. Roffler, Kristine L. Pilgrim, Benjamin C. Williams
      First page: 622
      Abstract: Wolves are highly mobile predators and can disperse across a variety of habitats and over long distances. However, less is known about dispersal capabilities across water and among islands. The biogeography of island systems fosters spatially structured local populations, and their degree of connectivity may influence the dynamics and long-term viability of the regional population. We sought to quantify wolf dispersal rate, distance, and dispersal sex bias throughout Prince of Wales Island, a 6670 km2 island in southeast Alaska, and the surrounding islands that constitute the wildlife management unit (9025 km2). We also investigated patterns of dispersal in relation to hunting and trapping intensity and wolf population density. We used DNA data collected during 2012–2021 long-term monitoring efforts and genotyped 811 wolves, 144 of which (18%) were dispersers. Annual dispersal rates were 9–23% and had a weakly positive relationship with wolf density. Wolves dispersed 41.9 km on average (SD = 23.7 km), and males and females did not disperse at different rates. Of the dispersing wolves, 107 died, and the majority (n = 81) died before they were able to settle. The leading manner of death was trapping (97% of mortalities), and wolves tended to disperse from areas with low harvest density to areas where harvest density was relatively higher. Dispersal occurred both to and from small islands and the larger Prince of Wales Island, indicating bidirectional as opposed to asymmetrical movement, and the genetic overlap of wolf groups demonstrates connectivity throughout this naturally patchy system. Island ecosystems have different predator–prey dynamics and recolonization processes than large, intact systems due to their isolation and restricted sizes; thus, a better understanding of the degree of population connectivity including dispersal patterns among islands in the Prince of Wales archipelago could help inform the management and research strategies of these wolves.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040622
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 623: Effects of Dietary Alfalfa Meal
           Supplementation on the Growth Performance, Nutrient Apparent
           Digestibility, Serum Parameters, and Intestinal Microbiota of Raccoon Dogs
           (Nyctereutes procyonoides)

    • Authors: Xiaoli Chen, Xiao Li, Danyang Chen, Weigang Zhao, Xiuli Zhang, Weitao Yuan, Huazhe Si, Xuming Deng, Rui Du, Chao Xu
      First page: 623
      Abstract: The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is a typical omnivore possessing wide dietary adaptability and tolerance to rough feeding, which may be attributed to its intestinal microbiota. The study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary alfalfa meal levels on the growth performance, nutrient apparent digestibility, serum parameters, and intestinal microbiota of raccoon dogs. Sixty raccoon dogs were randomly divided into four dietary treatments containing 0% (AM0), 5% (AM5), 10% (AM10), and 15% (AM15) alfalfa meal for a 60-day experiment. The results showed that compared to raccoon dogs fed the AM0 diet, those fed the AM5 and AM10 diets had no significant difference in growth performance, while those fed the AM15 diet experienced a significant decrease. Raccoon dogs fed the AM5 diet had no significant effect on the nutrient apparent digestibility. Dietary supplementation with alfalfa meal significantly decreased serum urea levels and increased the antioxidant capacity of raccoon dogs. The intestinal microbiome analysis showed that the richness and diversity of colonic microbiota significantly increased in the AM15 group. With the increase in dietary alfalfa meal levels, the relative abundance of fiber-degrading bacteria in the colon of raccoon dogs, such as Treponema, Phascolarctobacterium, and Christensenellaceae R-7 group, increased. However, the relative abundance of pathogenic bacteria, including Anaerobiospirillum, decreased. In conclusion, the inclusion of 5% alfalfa meal in the raccoon dogs’ diet had no effect on growth performance, but it exhibited the potential to improve serum antioxidant capacity and intestinal microbiota. This indicates that raccoon dogs have a certain tolerance to the addition of alfalfa meal in their diet.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040623
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 624: Understanding Communication Barriers:
           Demographic Variables and Language Needs in the Interaction between
           English-Speaking Animal Professionals and Spanish-Speaking Animal
           Caretakers

    • Authors: Allen Jimena Martinez Aguiriano, Leonor Salazar, Silvana Pietrosemoli, Marcelo Schmidt, Babafela Awosile, Arlene Garcia
      First page: 624
      Abstract: This study focused on assessing the language needs of English-speaking animal professionals in their interactions with Hispanic/Spanish-speaking animal caretakers. A survey was administered to a target audience of non-Spanish speaking and bilingual animal professionals to identify communication gaps while interacting with Hispanic/Spanish-speaking animal caretakers. The data was analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics, including ordinal regression analyses to examine the impact of demographic variables on respondents’ answer choices. The results showed that English-speaking professionals struggled with written and oral communication, which differed compared to bilingual professionals (p < 0.05). Additionally, responses of female professionals varied regarding the aspects of Spanish necessary for interacting with Hispanic/Spanish-speaking animal caretakers, as well as the topics likely to be addressed when agriculture professionals communicate with animal caretakers (p < 0.05). Communication difficulties in the oral medium for both oral receptive skills (listening) and oral productive skills (speaking) were reported as the major barriers that animal professionals need to overcome in their attempt to communicate with the Hispanic/Spanish-speaking workforce in farm settings. This emphasizes the need to address oral communication barriers, and to a lesser degree, the development of reading and writing skills. The topics: typical clinical signs of illness, euthanasia, treatment—drugs, and identification of sick or injured animals were identified as the most likely to be addressed during on-farm interactions. These findings indicate that there are gaps in communication that need to be overcome to improve communication with on-farm Hispanic/Spanish-speaking animal caretakers and consequently contribute to enhancing animal health, welfare, and production.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040624
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 625: Use of Cactus Pear Meal in the Feeding of
           Laying Hens in Semi-Intensive System

    • Authors: Iara S. Sousa, Roseane M. Bezerra, Edson C. Silva Filho, Leilson R. Bezerra, Ricardo L. Edvan, Stelio B. P. Lima, Elainy Cristina Lopes, Francisca Luana A. Carvalho, Francinete A. S. Moura, Gabriela I. Souza, Leilane R. B. Dourado
      First page: 625
      Abstract: Little information is available in the literature on the use of cactus pear meal (CPM) in poultry diets; therefore, it is important to evaluate diets that provide excellent performance and lower production costs. Our objective was to study the use of Miúda CPM in the diets of laying hens. In the first study, two diets for male and female chicks were used—1: 80% reference diet + 20% Miúda cactus pear meal (CPM) and 2: 80% reference diet + 20% Gigante cactus pear meal (CPM). The variety Miúda provided a better use of metabolizable energy, as well as a greater digestibility coefficient of dry matter, protein, and mineral matter. In the second study, a control diet was compared to three diets with different levels of Miúda CPM for laying hens in the proportions of 3%, 6%, and 9%. No significant differences were found in productive performance. However, there were significant differences in the some parameters egg quality, texture and color profile of the cooked yolk, egg composition, fatty acids and cholesterol in the yolk. It is possible to use 9% Miúda CPM in the diet of laying hens in a semi-intensive system that does not compromise performance and egg quality, and using 3% Miúda CPM provides a higher economic return.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040625
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 626: An Evaluation of the Impact of an OPEN
           Stewardship Generated Feedback Intervention on Antibiotic Prescribing
           among Primary Care Veterinarians in Canada and Israel

    • Authors: Kamal R. Acharya, Adar Cohen, Gabrielle Brankston, Jean-Paul R. Soucy, Anette Hulth, Sonja Löfmark, John S. Brownstein, Nadav Davidovich, Moriah E. Ellen, David N. Fisman, Jacob Moran-Gilad, Amir Steinman, Derek R. MacFadden, Amy L. Greer
      First page: 626
      Abstract: An interrupted time-series study design was implemented to evaluate the impact of antibiotic stewardship interventions on antibiotic prescribing among veterinarians. A total of 41 veterinarians were enrolled in Canada and Israel and their prescribing data between 2019 and 2021 were obtained. As an intervention, veterinarians periodically received three feedback reports comprising feedback on the participants’ antibiotic prescribing and prescribing guidelines. A change in the level and trend of antibiotic prescribing after the administration of the intervention was compared using a multi-level generalized linear mixed-effect negative-binomial model. After the receipt of the first (incidence rate ratios [IRR] = 0.88; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79, 0.98), and second (IRR = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.97) feedback reports, there was a reduced prescribing rate of total antibiotic when other parameters were held constant. This decline was more pronounced among Israeli veterinarians compared to Canadian veterinarians. When other parameters were held constant, the prescribing of critical antibiotics by Canadian veterinarians decreased by a factor of 0.39 compared to that of Israeli veterinarians. Evidently, antibiotic stewardship interventions can improve antibiotic prescribing in a veterinary setting. The strategy to sustain the effect of feedback reports and the determinants of differences between the two cohorts should be further explored.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040626
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 627: Strategies for Bovine Respiratory Disease
           (BRD) Diagnosis and Prognosis: A Comprehensive Overview

    • Authors: Mohamed S. Kamel, Josiah Levi Davidson, Mohit S. Verma
      First page: 627
      Abstract: Despite significant advances in vaccination strategies and antibiotic therapy, bovine respiratory disease (BRD) continues to be the leading disease affecting the global cattle industry. The etiology of BRD is complex, often involving multiple microbial agents, which lead to intricate interactions between the host immune system and pathogens during various beef production stages. These interactions present environmental, social, and geographical challenges. Accurate diagnosis is essential for effective disease management. Nevertheless, correct identification of BRD cases remains a daunting challenge for animal health technicians in feedlots. In response to current regulations, there is a growing interest in refining clinical diagnoses of BRD to curb the overuse of antimicrobials. This shift marks a pivotal first step toward establishing a structured diagnostic framework for this disease. This review article provides an update on recent developments and future perspectives in clinical diagnostics and prognostic techniques for BRD, assessing their benefits and limitations. The methods discussed include the evaluation of clinical signs and animal behavior, biomarker analysis, molecular diagnostics, ultrasound imaging, and prognostic modeling. While some techniques show promise as standalone diagnostics, it is likely that a multifaceted approach—leveraging a combination of these methods—will yield the most accurate diagnosis of BRD.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040627
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 628: In Vivo Prediction of Breast Muscle Weight in
           Broiler Chickens Using X-ray Images Based on Deep Learning and Machine
           Learning

    • Authors: Rui Zhu, Jiayao Li, Junyan Yang, Ruizhi Sun, Kun Yu
      First page: 628
      Abstract: Accurately estimating the breast muscle weight of broilers is important for poultry production. However, existing related methods are plagued by cumbersome processes and limited automation. To address these issues, this study proposed an efficient method for predicting the breast muscle weight of broilers. First, because existing deep learning models struggle to strike a balance between accuracy and memory consumption, this study designed a multistage attention enhancement fusion segmentation network (MAEFNet) to automatically acquire pectoral muscle mask images from X-ray images. MAEFNet employs the pruned MobileNetV3 as the encoder to efficiently capture features and adopts a novel decoder to enhance and fuse the effective features at various stages. Next, the selected shape features were automatically extracted from the mask images. Finally, these features, including live weight, were input to the SVR (Support Vector Regression) model to predict breast muscle weight. MAEFNet achieved the highest intersection over union (96.35%) with the lowest parameter count (1.51 M) compared to the other segmentation models. The SVR model performed best (R2 = 0.8810) compared to the other prediction models in the five-fold cross-validation. The research findings can be applied to broiler production and breeding, reducing measurement costs, and enhancing breeding efficiency.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040628
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 629: Reported Agonistic Behaviours in Domestic
           Horses Cluster According to Context

    • Authors: Kate Fenner, Bethany Jessica Wilson, Colette Ermers, Paul Damien McGreevy
      First page: 629
      Abstract: Agonistic behaviours are often directed at other animals for self-defence or to increase distance from valued resources, such as food. Examples include aggression and counter-predator behaviours. Contemporary diets may boost the value of food as a resource and create unanticipated associations with the humans who deliver it. At the same time the domestic horse is asked to carry the weight of riders and perform manoeuvres that, ethologically, are out-of-context and may be associated with instances of pain, confusion, or fear. Agonistic responses can endanger personnel and conspecifics. They are traditionally grouped along with so-called vices as being undesirable and worthy of punishment; a response that can often make horses more dangerous. The current study used data from the validated online Equine Behavioural and Research Questionnaire (E-BARQ) to explore the agonistic behaviours (as reported by the owners) of 2734 horses. With a focus on ridden horses, the behaviours of interest in the current study ranged from biting and bite threats and kicking and kick threats to tail swishing as an accompaniment to signs of escalating irritation when horses are approached, prepared for ridden work, ridden, and hosed down (e.g., after work). Analysis of the responses according to the context in which they arise included a dendrographic analysis that identified five clusters of agonistic behaviours among certain groups of horses and a principal component analysis that revealed six components, strongly related to the five clusters. Taken together, these results highlight the prospect that the motivation to show these responses differs with context. The clusters with common characteristics were those observed in the context of: locomotion under saddle; saddling; reactions in a familiar environment, inter-specific threats, and intra-specific threats. These findings highlight the potential roles of fear and pain in such unwelcome responses and challenge the simplistic view that the problems lie with the nature of the horses themselves rather than historic or current management practices. Improved understanding of agonistic responses in horses will reduce the inclination of owners to label horses that show such context-specific responses as being generally aggressive.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040629
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 630: Investigating the Efficacy of
           Kidney-Protective Lactobacillus Mixture-Containing Pet Treats in Feline
           Chronic Kidney Disease and Its Possible Mechanism

    • Authors: Ching-Wen Tsai, Hsiao-Wen Huang, Ya-Jane Lee, Ming-Ju Chen
      First page: 630
      Abstract: Microbiota-based strategies are a novel auxiliary therapeutic and preventative way of moderating chronic kidney disease (CKD). Lactobacillus mixture (Lm) was previously demonstrated to exert a renal-protective function in the CKD mice model. The efficacy of probiotics in pet foods is a relatively new area of study, and thus verifying the potential health benefits is necessary. This study evaluated the efficacy of Lm treats in feline CKD and elucidated the mechanisms underlying host-microbe interactions. CKD cats (2 and 3 stages) were administrated probiotic pet treats daily (10 g) for 8 weeks. The results demonstrated that during the eight weeks of Lm administration, creatinine was reduced or maintained in all cats with CKD. Similarly, gut-derived uremic toxin (GDUT), indoxyl sulfate (IS), were potential clinical significance in IS after Lm treatment (confidence intervals = 90%). The life quality of the cats also improved. Feline gut microbiome data, metabolic functional pathway, and renal function indicator analyses revealed the possible mechanisms involved in modulating CKD feline microbial composition. Further regulation of the microbial functions in amino acid metabolism after Lm administration contributed to downregulating deleterious GDUTs. The current study provides potential adjuvant therapeutic insights into probiotic pet foods or treats for pets with CKD.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040630
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 631: Enhancing Weaned Piglet Health and
           Performance: The Role of Autolyzed Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and
           β-Glucans as a Blood Plasma Alternative in Diets

    • Authors: Robson Sfaciotti Barducci, Anderson Aparecido Dias Santos, Leticia Graziele Pacheco, Thaila Cristina Putarov, João Fernando Albers Koch, Marco Aurélio Callegari, Cleandro Pazinato Dias, Rafael Humberto de Carvalho, Caio Abércio da Silva
      First page: 631
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of the autolyzed yeast (AY) Saccharomyces cerevisiae with or without an immunomodulator (1,3/1,6 β-glucans) as a total/partial substitute for blood plasma (BP) in the diet of post-weaning piglets; zootechnical performance, intestinal health and microbiota, immune responses and energy metabolism were assessed. A total of 240 castrated male and female piglets, with a mean age of 22 days and mean initial weight of 5.24 ± 0.82 kg, were randomly divided into blocks of four treatments with 12 replicates. The dietary inclusions were blood plasma (BP), autolyzed yeast (AY), autolyzed yeast + immunomodulator (AYI) and 50% BP and 50% AY (BPAY). In pre-initial phase II (29–35 days), piglets fed AY showed better feed conversion (FCR = 1.358) than the piglets in the BP (1.484), AYI (1.379) and BPAY (1.442) groups, i.e., 8.49% (0.126), 1.52% (0.021) and 4.50% (0.084), respectively (p = 0.0293). In the total period (21–42 days), better FCR was observed in the AYI (1.458) group, i.e., 4.64% (0.071), 1.15% (0.017) and 4.58% (0.070), than in the BP (1.529), AY (1.475) and BPAY (1.528) groups, respectively (p = 0.0150). In piglets fed AY (n = 3) and BPAY (n = 2), there was a reduction in the number of medications, i.e., 82.35% (−14n) and 88.23% (−15n), respectively (p = 0.0001), compared with that in the BP group (n = 17). In the AY group (73.83 mg/dL), AYI group (69.92 mg/dL), and BPAY group (69.58 mg/dL), piglets exhibited increases in triglyceride levels of 79.32%, 69.83%, and 69.00%, respectively, in comparison to those in the BP group, which had triglyceride levels of 41.17 mg/dL (p = 0.0400). The beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration in the AY group (79.96 ng/μL) was lower by 31.95%, 22.64%, and 5.89% compared to the BP group (117.50 ng/μL), AYI group (103.36 ng/μL), and BPAY group (84.67 ng/μL), respectively (p = 0.0072). In the AYI group, there was modulation of the microbiota, with an increase in the relative abundance of bacteria of the genera Lactobacillus, Collinsella and Bulleidia. AY, associated or not associated with an immunomodulator, is a potential substitute for BP in diets for piglets in the nursery phase, with positive effects on immune, metabolic, and intestinal microbial performance.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040631
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 632: The Relation between Plasma Nesfatin-1 Levels
           and Aggressive Behavior in Pit Bull Dogs

    • Authors: Gokcen Guvenc-Bayram, Zeynep Semen, Pelin Fatos Polat-Dincer, Zeynep Tugce Sertkaya, Yasemin Ustundag, Can Ates, Bugra Aktas, Murat Yalcin
      First page: 632
      Abstract: Aggression is a prevalent and concerning behavioral issue in dogs. Pit Bull dogs, known for their high levels of aggression, are recognized as a focus of concern in society. In our study, we aimed to investigate the behavioral characteristics of Pit Bull dogs and explore the potential roles of peptides involved in the neurobiology of aggression. Initially, female, and male dogs underwent aggression tests, and their aggression levels were categorized. Plasma nesfatin-1, serotonin, oxytocin, and dopamine levels were quantified using ELISA, with blood samples collected after a 24 h fasting period and 2 h post-refeeding. Our findings indicate that aggression in Pit Bull dogs correlates with decreased plasma nesfatin-1, serotonin, and oxytocin levels, while dopamine levels increase. The study’s findings indicate that fasted dogs exhibited lower plasma levels of nesfatin-1, serotonin, and dopamine, while plasma oxytocin levels were higher. Furthermore, while the research findings do not suggest a significant relationship between the severity of aggression and the gender of the dog, male Pit Bull breeds appear to have higher plasma nesfatin-1 and serotonin levels compared to their female counterparts. The study’s findings demonstrate that nesfatin-1, serotonin, oxytocin, and dopamine play pivotal roles in Pit Bull dogs’ aggression, indicating potential interactions among these neuropeptides at the central nervous system level.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040632
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 633: Evidence of Pneumopericardium after Elective
           Ovariectomy in a Peritoneopericardial Diaphragmatic Hernia-Affected Dog: A
           Case Report

    • Authors: Debora Campanile, Mariateresa Cafaro, Serena Paci, Michele Panarese, Giammarino Sparapano, Marina Masi, Antonio De Simone
      First page: 633
      Abstract: Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia (PPDH) is an opening between the pericardial sac and the pleuroperitoneal membrane. Pneumopericardium is an infrequent complication of PPDH. This condition is a serious circumstance in which free gas accumulates in the pericardial sac. The present report describes the occurrence of pneumopericardium and pericardial effusion after elective ovariectomy in a dog affected by PPDH. The presence of an umbilical and diaphragmatic hernia was highlighted during ovariectomy, and a pneumopericardium was seen during an X-ray exam. At the time of admission to the hospital, the dog was asymptomatic. The diagnosis was performed by X-ray and ultrasonographic exams. Computed tomography examination confirmed the diagnosis and directed for a surgical approach of the congenital defect. Surgery resulted in resolution of PPDH and of pneumopericardium.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040633
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 634: Development of a Parturition Detection System
           for Korean Native Black Goats

    • Authors: Heungsu Kim, Hyunse Kim, Woo H. Kim, Wongi Min, Geonwoo Kim, Honghee Chang
      First page: 634
      Abstract: Korean Native Black Goats deliver mainly during the cold season. However, in winter, there is a high risk of stunted growth and mortality for their newborns. Therefore, we conducted this study to develop a KNBG parturition detection system that detects and provides managers with early notification of the signs of parturition. The KNBG parturition detection system consists of triaxial accelerometers, gateways, a server, and parturition detection alarm terminals. Then, two different data, the labor and non-labor data, were acquired and a Decision Tree algorithm was used to classify them. After classifying the labor and non-labor states, the sum of the labor status data was multiplied by the activity count value to enhance the classification accuracy. Finally, the Labor Pain Index (LPI) was derived. Based on the LPI, the optimal processing time window was determined to be 10 min, and the threshold value for labor classification was determined to be 14 240.92. The parturition detection rate was 82.4%, with 14 out of 17 parturitions successfully detected, and the average parturition detection time was 90.6 min before the actual parturition time of the first kid. The KNBG parturition detection system is expected to reduce the risk of stunted growth and mortality due to hypothermia in KNBG kids by detecting parturition 90.6 min before the parturition of the first kid, with a success rate of 82.4%, enabling parturition nursing.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040634
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 635: Exploration of Toxins from a Marine Annelid:
           An Analysis of Phyllotoxins and Accompanying Bioactives

    • Authors: Ana P. Rodrigo, Inês Moutinho Cabral, António Alexandre, Pedro M. Costa
      First page: 635
      Abstract: Proteinaceous toxins are peptides or proteins that hold great biotechnological value, evidenced by their ecological role, whether as defense or predation mechanisms. Bioprospecting using bioinformatics and omics may render screening for novel bioactives more expeditious, especially considering the immense diversity of toxin-secreting marine organisms. Eulalia sp. (Annelida: Phyllodocidae), a toxin bearing marine annelid, was recently shown to secrete cysteine-rich protein (Crisp) toxins (hitherto referred to as ‘phyllotoxins’) that can immobilize its prey. By analyzing and validating transcriptomic data, we narrowed the list of isolated full coding sequences of transcripts of the most abundant toxins or accompanying bioactives secreted by the species (the phyllotoxin Crisp, hyaluronidase, serine protease, and peptidases M12A, M13, and M12B). Through homology matching with human proteins, the biotechnological potential of the marine annelid’s toxins and related proteins was tentatively associated with coagulative and anti-inflammatory responses for the peptidases PepM12A, SePr, PepM12B, and PepM13, and with the neurotoxic activity of Crisp, and finally, hyaluronidase was inferred to bear properties of an permeabilizing agent. The in silico analysis succeeded by validation by PCR and Sanger sequencing enabled us to retrieve cDNAs can may be used for the heterologous expression of these toxins.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040635
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 636: The Influence of Recombinant Bovine
           Somatotropin (rbST) on the Metabolic Profile and Milk Composition of
           Lactating Murrah Buffalo

    • Authors: Marcelo Arne Feckinghaus, Mariana Guimarães de Oliveira Diogo, Vanessa Martins Storillo, Fabio Celidonio Pogliani, Bruno Moura Monteiro, Paulo Fantinato Neto, Melina Marie Yasuoka, Daniela Becker Birgel, Eduardo Harry Birgel Junior
      First page: 636
      Abstract: The use of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) leads to an increase in variable amounts of milk production in buffalo, but there is a lack of information on the influence of rbST on their metabolism. This study looked at the effects of a single 500 mg dose of rbST on the lipid profile, liver and kidney function, and physical, chemical, and cellular constitution of milk in 14 buffalo over 14 days, from the 100th day of lactation, compared with 14 animals in a control group. From the first day after rbST, there was a rise in beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-HBO), possibly due to higher dry matter intake or the biotransformation of NEFA into β-HBO. The treatment did not influence blood glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, AST, GGT, bilirubin, urea, or creatinine levels. In 71.3% of the buffalo, there was a gradual increase in milk production, with the maximal response occurring in the first week followed by a gradual decrease, whilst in 21.4%, the increase in production occurred between 7 and 10 days. Only 7.1% of the animals did not respond. On the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 10th days after treatment, an increase was found in daily milk production between the two groups equal to 1.04, 1.52, 1.42, and 1.06 L, respectively. In relative terms, this means an increase in milk production, respectively, of 15.1%, 21.0%, 19.8%, and 15.1%. The constitution of the milk showed no difference in the amounts of fat, lactose, total solids, or somatic cell count; however, on the third day after rbST administration, there was a decrease in protein. Notably, from the fifth day, the protein values showed no statistical difference. It can be concluded that the use of rbST in buffalo from the 100th day of lactation is metabolically safe since the treatment neither caused imbalances in fat metabolism nor overloaded the liver or renal function, and the changes in milk composition were transient and limited to a decrease in milk protein.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040636
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 637: Diversity of Anaplasma phagocytophilum
           Strains from Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) and Red Deer (Cervus elaphus)
           in Poland

    • Authors: Anna W. Myczka, Żaneta Steiner-Bogdaszewska, Grzegorz Oloś, Anna Bajer, Zdzisław Laskowski
      First page: 637
      Abstract: Background: The Gram-negative bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an intracellular pathogen and an etiological agent of human and animal anaplasmosis. Its natural reservoir comprises free-ranging ungulates, including roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus). These two species of deer also constitute the largest group of game animals in Poland. The aim of the study was to genotype and perform a phylogenetic analysis of A. phagocytophilum strains from roe deer and red deer. Methods: Samples were subjected to PCR amplification, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of strain-specific genetic markers (groEL, ankA). Results: Five haplotypes of the groEL gene from A. phagocytophilum and seven haplotypes of ankA were obtained. The phylogenetic analysis classified the groEL into ecotypes I and II. Sequences of the ankA gene were classified into clusters I, II, and III. Conclusions: Strains of A. phagocytophilum from red deer were in the same ecotype and cluster as strains isolated from humans. Strains of A. phagocytophilum from roe deer represented ecotypes (I, II) and clusters (II, III) that were different from those isolated from red deer, and these strains did not show similarity to bacteria from humans. However, roe deer can harbor nonspecific strains of A. phagocytophilum more characteristic to red deer. It appears that the genetic variants from red deer can be pathogenic to humans, but the significance of the variants from roe deer requires more study.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040637
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 638: Blackleg: A Review of the Agent and
           Management of the Disease in Brazil

    • Authors: Ananda Iara de Jesus Sousa, Cleideanny Cancela Galvão, Prhiscylla Sadanã Pires, Felipe Masiero Salvarani
      First page: 638
      Abstract: The genus Clostridium is an important group of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria with a sporulation capacity and wide distribution in different environments, including the gastrointestinal tracts of healthy and diseased animals and humans. Among the pathogenic species of the genus, Clostridium chauvoei stands out as a histotoxic agent. It causes significant myonecrosis such as blackleg, a disease with high lethality, especially in young cattle, and is responsible for significant livestock losses worldwide. The pathogenicity of the disease is complex and has not yet been fully elucidated. Current hypotheses cover processes from the initial absorption to the transport and deposition of the agent in the affected tissues. The virulence factors of C. chauvoei have been divided into somatic and flagellar antigens and soluble antigens/toxins, which are the main antigens used in vaccines against blackleg in Brazil and worldwide. This review provides important information on the first and current approaches to the agent C. chauvoei and its virulence factors as well as a compilation of data on Brazilian studies related to blackleg.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040638
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 639: The Crucial Role of Breeder and Dog Owners
           Associations in Safeguarding Genetic Heritage of Endangered Balearic Dog
           Breeds: Gender Preference and Registry Adscription

    • Authors: José Manuel Alanzor Puente, Águeda Laura Pons Barro, Antonio González Ariza, Carmen Marín Navas, Juan Vicente Delgado Bermejo, Francisco Javier Navas González
      First page: 639
      Abstract: This study delves into the complex relationships between indigenous dog breeds in the Balearic Isles and their human counterparts, specifically breeders and owners. Using Canonical Correlation Analysis, the research examines variables such as breed registries and the number of breeders/owners, uncovering significant correlations within registries. For example, an increase in female auxiliary registrations corresponds to a decline in foundational registrations, indicating shifts in breed documentation dynamics. Similarly, a rise in definitive female registrations coincides with a decrease in foundational female registrations, suggesting increased pedigree awareness across generations. Beyond registries, the study explores the correlation between breeders/owners and various initial records, highlighting that a notable increase in breeders positively influences initial registrations, definitive totals, and overall counts, underscoring their crucial role in early breed stages. Gender preferences in registrations are noted, with a historical bias towards female entries during foundational stages gradually shifting in favor of males in definitive registrations. In conclusion, the research underscores the interconnected roles of breeders, owners, and comprehensive registries in preserving genetic diversity among Balearic dog breeds, emphasizing the need for ongoing efforts to address gaps in genealogical data for a more accurate understanding of breed dynamics.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040639
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 640: Smart Dairy Farming—The Potential of
           the Automatic Monitoring of Dairy Cows’ Behaviour Using a 360-Degree
           Camera

    • Authors: Friederike Kurras, Martina Jakob
      First page: 640
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to show the potential of a vision-based system using a single 360° camera to describe the dairy cows’ behaviour in a free-stall barn with an automatic milking system. A total of 2299 snapshots were manually evaluated, counting the number of animals that were lying, standing and eating. The average capture rate of animals in the picture is 93.1% (counted animals/actual numbers of animals). In addition to determining the daily lying, standing and eating times, it is also possible to allocate animals to the individual functional areas so that anomalies such as prolonged standing in the cubicle or lying in the walkway can be detected at an early stage. When establishing a camera monitoring system in the future, attention should be paid to sufficient resolution of the camera during the night as well as the reduction of the concealment problem by animals and barn equipment. The automatic monitoring of animal behaviour with the help of 360° cameras can be a promising innovation in the dairy barn.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040640
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 641: Microplastics Prevalence in Different
           Cetaceans Stranded along the Western Taiwan Strait

    • Authors: Reyilamu Aierken, Yuke Zhang, Qianhui Zeng, Liming Yong, Jincheng Qu, Haoran Tong, Xianyan Wang, Liyuan Zhao
      First page: 641
      Abstract: Microplastics (MPs) pollution is of global concern, which poses serious threats to various marine organisms, including many threatened apex predators. In this study, MPs were investigated from nine cetaceans of four different species, comprising one common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), two pygmy sperm whales (Kogia breviceps), one ginkgo-toothed beaked whale (Mesoplodon ginkgodens), and five Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) stranded along the western coast of the Taiwan Strait from the East China Sea based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis. Mean abundances of 778 identified MPs items were 86.44 ± 12.22 items individual−1 and 0.43 ± 0.19 items g−1 wet weight of intestine contents, which were found predominantly to be transparent, fiber-shaped polyethylene terephthalate (PET) items usually between 0.5 and 5 mm. The abundance of MPs was found at a slightly higher level and significantly correlated with intestine contents mass (p = 0.0004*). The MPs source was mainly likely from synthetic fibers-laden sewage discharged from intense textile industries. Our report represents the first study of MPs in pelagic and deep-diving cetaceans in China, which not only adds baseline data on MPs for cetaceans in Asian waters but also highlights the further risk assessment of MPs consumption in these threatened species.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040641
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 642: The Role of Progesterone in Elf5 Activation
           and Milk Component Synthesis for Cell-Cultured Milk Production in MAC-T
           Cells

    • Authors: Hyuk Cheol Kwon, Hyun Su Jung, Do Hyun Kim, Jong Hyeon Han, Sung Gu Han
      First page: 642
      Abstract: Prolactin is essential for mammary gland development and lactation. Progesterone also induces ductal branching and alveolar formation via initial secretory differentiation within the mammary gland. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the role of progesterone as a prolactin substitute for the production of cell-cultured milk components in MAC-T cells. Cells were treated with various hormones such as prolactin (PRL), progesterone (P4), 17β-estradiol (E2), cortisol (COR), and insulin (INS) for 5 d. MAC-T cells cultured in a P4 differentiation media (2500 ng/mL of P4, 25 ng/mL of E2, 25 ng/mL of COR, and 25 ng/mL of INS) showed similar levels of E74-like factor 5 (Elf5) and milk component synthesis (α-casein, β-casein, α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and triglycerides) compared to those cultured in a PRL differentiation media (5000 ng/mL of PRL, 500 ng/mL of CORT, and 50 ng/mL of INS). The levels of α-casein and triglycerides in the optimal P4 differentiation media were present at comparable levels to those in the PRL differentiation media. Our results demonstrated that P4 induces the activation of Elf5 and the synthesis of milk components in MAC-T cells, similar to PRL. Therefore, P4 may be used as an effective substitute of PRL for cell-cultured milk production in in vitro frameworks.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040642
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 643: Efficacy of Preemptive Analgesia with
           Amantadine for Controlling Postoperative Pain in Cats Undergoing
           Ovariohysterectomy

    • Authors: Paula Elisa Brandão Guedes, Taísa Miranda Pinto, Janaína Maria Xavier Corrêa, Raquel Vieira Niella, Carolina Moreira dos Anjos, Jéssica Natália Silva de Oliveira, Claire Souza da Costa Marques, Sophia Saraiva de Souza, Elisângela Barboza da Silva, Mário Sérgio Lima de Lavor
      First page: 643
      Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the preemptive administration of amantadine on postoperative analgesia in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy and its influence on the physiological parameters. Twenty healthy domestic cats scheduled to undergo ovariohysterectomy at the Santa Cruz State University, Ilhéus, were divided into two groups: the control group (Group C; n = 10) and the amantadine group (Group A; n = 10). The cats in Group C received placebo capsules 30 min prior to the standard anesthetic protocol, whereas those in Group A received 5 mg/kg of amantadine orally 30 min prior to the standard anesthetic protocol. Postoperative pain was assessed using the visual analog scale and the UNESP-Botucatu multidimensional scale for the evaluation of postoperative pain in cats. The administration of amantadine had no effect on the physiological parameters evaluated. The pain scores in Group A were lower than those in Group C, indicating that the frequency of rescue analgesic administration cats in Group A was lower. That way, preemptive oral administration of amantadine at a dose of 5 mg/kg was effective at controlling postoperative pain in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Moreover, no adverse effects or alterations in the physiological patterns were observed in the treated animals.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040643
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 644: Role of Melatonin in Ovarian Function

    • Authors: Giuseppina Basini, Francesca Grasselli
      First page: 644
      Abstract: Melatonin is a hormone mainly produced by the pineal gland in the absence of light stimuli. The light, in fact, hits the retina, which sends a signal to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which inhibits the synthesis of the hormone by the epiphysis. Mostly by interacting with MT1/MT2 membrane receptors, melatonin performs various physiological actions, among which are its regulation of the sleep–wake cycle and its control of the immune system. One of its best known functions is its non-enzymatic antioxidant action, which is independent from binding with receptors and occurs by electron donation. The hormone is also an indicator of the photoperiod in seasonally reproducing mammals, which are divided into long-day and short-day breeders according to the time of year in which they are sexually active and fertile. It is known that melatonin acts at the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis level in many species. In particular, it inhibits the hypothalamic release of GnRH, with a consequent alteration of FSH and LH levels. The present paper mainly aims to review the ovarian effect of melatonin.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040644
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 645: Late History of Cattle Breeds in Central
           Europe in Light of Genetic and Archaeogenetic Sources—Overview,
           Thoughts, and Perspectives

    • Authors: Vojtěch Janák, Karel Novák, René Kyselý
      First page: 645
      Abstract: Although Europe was not a primary centre of cattle domestication, its expansion from the Middle East and subsequent development created a complex pattern of cattle breed diversity. Many isolated populations of local historical breeds still carry the message about the physical and genetic traits of ancient populations. Since the way of life of human communities starting from the eleventh millennium BP was strongly determined by livestock husbandry, the knowledge of cattle diversity through the ages is helpful in the interpretation of many archaeological findings. Historical cattle diversity is currently at the intersection of two leading directions of genetic research. Firstly, it is archaeogenetics attempting to recover and interpret the preserved genetic information directly from archaeological finds. The advanced archaeogenetic approaches meet with the population genomics of extant cattle populations. The immense amount of genetic information collected from living cattle, due to its key economic role, allows for reconstructing the genetic profiles of the ancient populations backwards. The present paper aims to place selected archaeogenetic, genetic, and genomic findings in the picture of cattle history in Central Europe, as suggested by archaeozoological and historical records. Perspectives of the methodical connection between the genetic approaches and the approaches of traditional archaeozoology, such as osteomorphology and osteometry, are discussed. The importance, actuality, and effectiveness of combining different approaches to each archaeological find, such as morphological characterization, interpretation of the historical context, and molecular data, are stressed.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040645
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 646: Natural Patterns in the Dawn and Dusk
           Choruses of a Neotropical Songbird in Relation to an Urban Sound
           Environment

    • Authors: Noelia Bustamante, Álvaro Garitano-Zavala
      First page: 646
      Abstract: Urbanization is one of the more important phenomena affecting biodiversity in the Anthropocene. Some organisms can cope with urban challenges, and changes in birds’ acoustic communication have been widely studied. Although changes in the timing of the daily organization of acoustic communication have been previously reported, there is a significant gap regarding possible variations in song structure between dawn and dusk choruses. Considering that urbanization imposes different soundscapes for dawn and dusk choruses, we postulate two hypotheses: (i) there are variations in song parameters between dawn and dusk choruses, and (ii) such parameters within the city will vary in response to urban noise. We studied urban and extra-urban populations of Chiguanco Thrush in La Paz, Bolivia, measuring in dawn and dusk choruses: song length; song sound pressure level; minimum, maximum, range and dominant frequency; and the number of songs per individual. The results support our two hypotheses: there were more songs, and songs were louder and had larger band widths at dawn than at dusk in urban and extra-urban populations. Urban Chiguanco Thrushes sing less, the frequency of the entire song rises, and the amplitude increases as compared with extra-urban Chiguanco Thrushes. Understanding variations between dawn and dusk choruses could allow for a better interpretation of how some bird species cope with urban challenges.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040646
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 647: Effects of Probiotic-Fermented Feed on the
           Growth Profile, Immune Functions, and Intestinal Microbiota of Bamei
           Piglets

    • Authors: Miao Zhang, Zhenyu Yang, Guofang Wu, Fafang Xu, Jianbo Zhang, Xuan Luo, Yuhong Ma, Huili Pang, Yaoke Duan, Jun Chen, Yimin Cai, Lei Wang, Zhongfang Tan
      First page: 647
      Abstract: Purebred Bamei piglets present problems, including slow growth, respiratory disease, and post-weaning stress. This study investigated the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum QP28-1- and Bacillus subtilis QB8-fermented feed supplementation on the growth performance, immunity, and intestinal microflora of Bamei piglets from Qinghai, China. A total of 48 purebred Bamei piglets (25 days; 6.8 ± 0.97 kg) were divided into the following four groups for a 28-day diet experiment: basal feed (CK); diet containing 10% Lactobacillus plantarum-fermented feed (L); diet containing 10% Bacillus subtilis-fermented feed (B); and diet containing a mixture of 5% Lactobacillus plantarum + 5% Bacillus subtilis-fermented feed (H). The daily weight gain and daily food intake of group H increased (p < 0.05), and the feed/weight gain ratios of the groups fed with fermented feed decreased more than that of the CK group. The levels of three immune factors, namely immunoglobulin (Ig)M, IgG, and interferon-γ, were higher (p < 0.05), whereas those of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 were lower (p < 0.05) in the fermented feed groups than in the CK group. Total protein was higher (p < 0.05), while urea nitrogen, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower (p < 0.05) in the mixed-fermented feed group than in the CK group. Analysis of the gut microbiota showed that the addition of fermented feed increased the α-diversity of the gut microbiota, increasing the abundances of probiotics including Lactobacillus, Muribaculaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Prevotellaceae, and Rikenellaceae. Additionally, correlation analysis demonstrated that several of these probiotic bacteria were closely related to serum immunity. In conclusion, fermented feed supplementation rebuilt the intestinal microbiota of Bamei piglets, thereby reducing the feed/weight ratio, improving feed intake, and enhancing immunity.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040647
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 648: The Genetic Basis of Melanism in
           Abert’s Squirrel (Sciurus aberti)

    • Authors: Lake H. Barrett, Dean Fraga, Richard M. Lehtinen
      First page: 648
      Abstract: Melanism is widespread in different taxa and has been hypothesized to provide adaptive benefits in certain environments. Melanism is typically caused by mutations in one of two regulatory genes: the Melanocortin 1 Receptor (MC1R) or the Agouti Signaling Protein (ASIP). Melanism has repeatedly evolved among tree squirrels and their relatives (tribe Sciurini) in at least 12 different species based on our review of the literature. The causal mutations for melanism have been characterized in two species so far. This study examines Abert’s Squirrel (Sciurus aberti), which has a melanistic morph whose genetic basis has not yet been established. We sequenced the MC1R and ASIP genes for five wild-type and seven melanistic S. aberti individuals to search for melanism-associated mutations. A novel single base pair mutation in the ASIP gene, unique to S. aberti, was found to be associated with melanism in the species, indicating that melanism in S. aberti evolved independently from other tree squirrels and thus represents an example of convergent evolution. The independent evolution of melanism in this species suggests that there is an adaptive advantage to the melanistic phenotype. The geographic range and habitat of S. aberti suggest possible benefits associated with thermoregulation, post-forest-fire camouflage, or other untested hypotheses.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040648
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 649: Effects of Combinations of Dietary Vitamin C
           and Acetylsalicylic Acid on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and, Serum
           and Immune Response Parameters in Broilers

    • Authors: Giulia Ferronato, Masoomeh Tavakoli, Mehrdad Bouyeh, Alireza Seidavi, Lourdes Suárez Ramírez, Aldo Prandini
      First page: 649
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the combined effects of ascorbic acid (VC) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on broiler health and performance. A total of 200 Ross 308 male broilers were divided into five groups, each receiving different dietary combinations of ASA and VC (ASA: 50 or 100 mg/kg; VC: 200 or 400 mg/kg). The 42-day trial assessed parameters such as feed intake, average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass characteristics, serum parameters, immune response and cecal microbial flora. The results indicate significant treatment effects on feed intake and growth performance, with a higher feed intake of ADG and FCR in treatment groups (p < 0.05). Serum lipid parameters were unaffected, but creatine kinase increased with ASA and VC intake (p < 0.05). Changes in sheep red blood cell titers and influenza antibodies were noted (p < 0.05). The combination of ASA and VC positively influenced carcass traits, reducing abdominal fat and altering the ratio of immune response organs to body weight (p < 0.05). Additionally, the cecal E. coli count decreased with treatment (p < 0.05). This study underscores the intricate interactions between ASA and VC supplementation, growth performance and carcass composition and immune response in broilers. Further research is warranted to explore dosage nuances and variations under specific stress conditions.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040649
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 650: CRISPR Ribonucleoprotein-Mediated Precise
           Editing of Multiple Genes in Porcine Fibroblasts

    • Authors: Xiaochen Guo, Chang Liu, Yunjing Zhao, Chaoqian Jiang, Junxue Jin, Zhonghua Liu, Yanshuang Mu
      First page: 650
      Abstract: The multi-gene editing porcine cell model can analyze the genetic mechanisms of multiple genes, which is beneficial for accelerating genetic breeding. However, there has been a lack of an effective strategy to simultaneously perform precise multi-gene editing in porcine cells. In this study, we aimed to improve the efficiency of CRISPR RNP-mediated precise gene editing in porcine cells. CRISPR RNP, including Cas9 protein, sgRNA, and ssODN, was used to generate precise nucleotide substitutions by homology-directed repair (HDR) in porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs). These components were introduced into PFFs via electroporation, followed by PCR for each target site. To enhance HDR efficacy, small-molecule M3814 and phosphorothioate-modified ssODN were employed. All target DNA samples were sequenced and analyzed, and the efficiencies of different combinations of the CRISPR RNP system in target sites were compared. The results showed that when 2 μM M3814, a small molecule which inhibits NHEJ-mediated repair by blocking DNA-PKs activity, was used, there was no toxicity to PFFs. The CRISPR RNP-mediated HDR efficiency increased 3.62-fold. The combination of CRISPR RNP with 2 μM M3814 and PS-ssODNs achieved an HDR-mediated precision gene modification efficiency of approximately 42.81% in mutated cells, a 6.38-fold increase compared to the control group. Then, we used the optimized CRISPR RNP system to perform simultaneous editing of two and three loci at the INS and RLN3 genes. The results showed that the CRISPR RNP system could simultaneously edit two and three loci. The efficiency of simultaneous editing of two loci was not significantly different from that of single-gene editing compared to the efficiency of single-locus editing. The efficiency of simultaneous precise editing of INS, RLN3 exon 1, and RLN3 exon 2 was 0.29%, 0.24%, and 1.05%, respectively. This study demonstrated that a 2 μM M3814 combination with PS-ssODNs improves the efficacy of CRISPR RNP-mediated precise gene editing and allows for precise editing of up to three genes simultaneously in porcine cells.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040650
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 651: Why Do I Choose an Animal Model or an
           Alternative Method in Basic and Preclinical Biomedical Research' A
           Spectrum of Ethically Relevant Reasons and Their Evaluation

    • Authors: Hannes Kahrass, Ines Pietschmann, Marcel Mertz
      First page: 651
      Abstract: Background: Research model selection decisions in basic and preclinical biomedical research have not yet been the subject of an ethical investigation. Therefore, this paper aims, (1) to identify a spectrum of reasons for choosing between animal and alternative research models (e.g., based on in vitro or in silico models) and (2) provides an ethical analysis of the selected reasons. Methods: In total, 13 researchers were interviewed; the interviews were analyzed qualitatively. The ethical analysis was based on the principlism approach and a value judgement model. Results: This paper presents 66 reasons underlying the choice of researchers using animal (27 reasons) or alternative models (39). Most of the reasons were assigned to the work environment (29) and scientific standards (22). Other reasons were assigned to personal attitudes (11) and animal welfare (4). Qualitative relevant normative differences are presented in the ethical analysis. Even if few reasons can be rejected outright from an ethical point of view, there are good reasons to give some more weight than others. Conclusions: The spectrum of reasons and their ethical assessment provide a framework for reflection for researchers who may have to choose between animal models and (investing in) alternatives. This can help to reflect on and ethically justify decisions.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040651
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 652: Evaluation of Muscle Long Non-coding RNA
           Profile during Rearing and Finishing Phase of Bulls Subjected to Different
           Prenatal Nutritional Strategies

    • Authors: Roberta Cavalcante Cracco, Pamela Almeida Alexandre, Guilherme Henrique Gebim Polizel, Arícia Christofaro Fernandes, Miguel Henrique de Almeida Santana
      First page: 652
      Abstract: Maternal nutrition has the ability of influence critical processes in fetal life, including muscle development. Also, in this period, epigenetic sensitivity to external stimuli is higher and produces long-lasting effects. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate epigenetic mechanisms, including the identification and characterization of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) from animals that had undergone different strategies of prenatal supplementation. A group of Nellore cows (n = 126) were separated into three nutritional plans: NP (control)—Not Programmed, without protein–energy supplementation; PP—Partially Programmed, protein–energy supplementation in the final third of pregnancy; and CP—Complete Programming, protein–energy supplementation during the full period of gestation. A total of 63 male offspring were used in this study, of which 15 (5 per treatment) had Longissimus thoracis muscle at 15 (biopsy) and 22 months (slaughter). Biopsy samples were subjected to RNA extraction and sequencing. Differential expression (DE) of remodeling factors and chromatin-modifying enzyme genes were performed. For the identification and characterization of lncRNA, a series of size filters and protein coding potential tests were performed. The lncRNAs identified had their differential expression and regulatory potential tested. Regarding DE of epigenetic mechanisms, no differentially expressed gene was found (p > 0.1). Identification of potential lncRNA was successful, identifying 1823 transcripts at 15 months and 1533 at 22 months. Among these, four were considered differentially expressed between treatments at 15 months and 6 were differentially expressed at 22 months. Yet, when testing regulatory potential, 13 lncRNAs were considered key regulators in the PP group, and 17 in the CP group. PP group lncRNAs possibly regulate fat-cell differentiation, in utero embryonic development, and transforming growth factor beta receptor, whereas lncRNA in the CP group regulates in utero embryonic development, fat-cell differentiation and vasculogenesis. Maternal nutrition had no effect on differential expression of epigenetic mechanisms; however, it seems to impair lncRNA regulation of epigenetics.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040652
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 653: Population Subdivision and Migration
           Assessment of Mangalica Pig Breeds Based on Pedigree Analysis

    • Authors: Anh Thi Nguyen, György Kövér, Péter Tóth, Ino Curik, Árpád Bokor, István Nagy
      First page: 653
      Abstract: In conserving the genetic diversity of domestic animal breeds, strategies that emphasise between-breed diversity may not be optimal, as they neglect within-breed variation. The aim of the present study was to assess the extent of population subdivision in three Mangalica pig breeds and the contribution of migration to their substructure. Wright’s FST coefficient was calculated based on genealogical data with breeding animals born between 1981 and 2023, with three colour variants (Blonde, Swallow-Belly and Red). These Wright’s FST coefficients were analysed using multidimensional scaling to reveal the population substructure. The average FST coefficient was 0.04 for the Blonde breed and 0.047 for the Swallow-Belly and Red Mangalica breeds, while these parameters were lower in the active herds at 0.03 and 0.04, respectively. The migration of individuals between herds was 61.63% for the Blonde breed and 75.53% and 63.64% for the Swallow-Belly and Red Magalica breeds, respectively. No population substructure was observed in any of the Mangalica breeds, which can be explained by the extensive migration between herds.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040653
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 654: Identification of Selection Signatures and
           Candidate Genes Related to Environmental Adaptation and Economic Traits in
           Tibetan Pigs

    • Authors: Pengliang Liu, Yan Liang, Li Li, Xuebin Lv, Zhiping He, Yiren Gu
      First page: 654
      Abstract: Tibetan pigs are indigenous to the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau and have been the subject of extensive genomic research primarily focused on their adaptation to high altitudes. However, genetic modifications associated with their response to low-altitude acclimation have not been thoroughly explored. To investigate the genetic basis underlying the low-altitude acclimation of Tibetan pigs, we generated and analyzed genotyping data of Tibetan pigs that inhabit high-altitude regions (average altitude 4000 m) and Tibetan pigs that have inhabited nearby low-altitude regions (average altitude 500 m) for approximately 20 generations. We found that the highland and lowland Tibetan pigs have distinguishable genotype and phenotype variations. We identified 46 and 126 potentially selected SNPs associated with 29 and 56 candidate genes in highland and lowland Tibetan pigs, respectively. Candidate genes in the highland Tibetan pigs were involved in immune response (NFYC and STAT1) and radiation (NABP1), whereas candidate genes in the lowland Tibetan pigs were related to reproduction (ESR2, DMRTA1, and ZNF366), growth and development (NTRK3, FGF18, and MAP1B), and blood pressure regulation (CARTPT). These findings will help to understand the mechanisms of environmental adaptation in Tibetan pigs and offer valuable information into the genetic improvement of Tibetan pigs pertaining to low-altitude acclimation and economic traits.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040654
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 655: Applications and Potentials of a Silk Fibroin
           Nanoparticle Delivery System in Animal Husbandry

    • Authors: Yiyao Guo, Mian Muhammad Awais, Shigang Fei, Junming Xia, Jingchen Sun, Min Feng
      First page: 655
      Abstract: Silk fibroin (SF), a unique natural polymeric fibrous protein extracted from Bombyx mori cocoons, accounts for approximately 75% of the total mass of silk. It has great application prospects due to its outstanding biocompatibility, biodegradability, low immunogenicity, and mechanical stability. Additionally, it is non-toxic and environmentally friendly. Nanoparticle delivery systems constructed with SF can improve the bioavailability of the carriers, increase the loading rates, control the release behavior of the deliverables, and enhance their action efficiencies. Animal husbandry is an integral part of agriculture and plays a vital role in the development of the rural economy. However, the pillar industry experiences a lot of difficulties, like drug abuse while treating major animal diseases, and serious environmental pollution, restricting sustainable development. Interestingly, the limited use cases of silk fibroin nanoparticle (SF NP) delivery systems in animal husbandry, such as veterinary vaccines and feed additives, have shown great promise. This paper first reviews the SF NP delivery system with regard to its advantages, disadvantages, and applications. Moreover, we describe the application status and developmental prospects of SF NP delivery systems to provide theoretical references for further development in livestock production and promote the high-quality and healthy development of animal husbandry.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040655
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 656: Tiletamine-Zolazepam, Ketamine, and Xylazine
           Anesthetic Protocol for High-Quality, High-Volume Spay and Neuter of
           Free-Roaming Cats in Seoul, Korea

    • Authors: Donghwi Shin, Yoonju Cho, Inhyung Lee
      First page: 656
      Abstract: This study was performed to evaluate the anesthetic protocol used in the high-quality, high-volume spay and neuter (HQHVSN) of free-roaming cats in Seoul, Korea from 2017 to 2022. The evaluation was performed on a total of 1261 free-roaming cats, with an average weight of 3.48 ± 1.04 kg. The anesthetic combination tiletamine-zolazepam, ketamine, and xylazine (ZKX) was injected intramuscularly. The actual drug doses administered were tiletamine-zolazepam 5.52 ± 1.70 mg/kg, ketamine 8.94 ± 3.60 mg/kg, and xylazine 1.11 ± 0.34 mg/kg. Additional doses were required in 275 cats out of a total of 1261 (21.8%). Following anesthesia and surgery, 1257 cats (99.7%) were returned to their original locations. Four cats (0.3%) died postoperatively. The mean duration of anesthesia (from ZKX combination to yohimbine administration) was 26 ± 22 min for males and 55 ± 36 min for females, while the time from yohimbine administration to the recovery was 31 ± 22 min for males and 20 ± 17 min for females. The use of ZKX for HQHVSN of free-roaming cats is inexpensive, provides predictable results, can be administered quickly and easily in a small volume, and is associated with a low mortality rate during the first 72 h post-surgery.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14040656
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 34.204.169.230
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-
JournalTOCs
 
 

 A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

              [Sort alphabetically]   [Restore default list]

  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 103 journals)
Showing 1 - 22 of 22 Journals sorted by number of followers
Animal Welfare     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
European Journal of Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Society and Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Social Choice and Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Learning and Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Acrocephalus     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Animal Science and Products     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Equine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Animal Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Animal Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Derecho Animal. Forum of Animal Law Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
British Poultry Abstracts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Natural History Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
South African Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Botanical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research Journal of Parasitology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pastoralism : Research, Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Animal Sentience : An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revue de primatologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Ilmiah Peternakan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
TRACE ∴ Finnish Journal for Human-Animal Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Human-Wildlife Interactions     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Peternakan Indonesia     Open Access  
People and Animals : The International Journal of Research and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Uluslararası Tarım ve Yaban Hayatı Bilimleri Dergisi / International Journal of Agricultural and Wildlife Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan     Open Access  
Translational Animal Science     Open Access  
Corpoica Ciencia y Tecnología Agropecuaria     Open Access  
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries     Open Access  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Rangifer     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  

              [Sort alphabetically]   [Restore default list]

Similar Journals
Similar Journals
HOME > Browse the 73 Subjects covered by JournalTOCs  
SubjectTotal Journals
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 34.204.169.230
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-