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  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 107 journals)
Showing 1 - 22 of 22 Journals sorted by number of followers
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Animal Welfare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Society and Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Social Choice and Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Learning and Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acrocephalus     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Animal Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Natural History Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
British Poultry Abstracts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
South African Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research Journal of Parasitology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pastoralism : Research, Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Botanical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Ilmiah Peternakan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
TRACE ∴ Finnish Journal for Human-Animal Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Science and Products     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Derecho Animal. Forum of Animal Law Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue de primatologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Animal Sentience : An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens     Open Access  
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access  
Human-Wildlife Interactions     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Peternakan Indonesia     Open Access  
People and Animals : The International Journal of Research and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Uluslararası Tarım ve Yaban Hayatı Bilimleri Dergisi / International Journal of Agricultural and Wildlife Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan     Open Access  
Translational Animal Science     Open Access  
Corpoica Ciencia y Tecnología Agropecuaria     Open Access  
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries     Open Access  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Rangifer     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  

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Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.744
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 11  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2076-2615
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2010: Transcriptomics and Metabolomics Analysis of
           the Ovaries of High and Low Egg Production Chickens

    • Authors: Xuan Huang, Haiyang Zhang, Haiyue Cao, Wei Zhou, Xin Xiang, Zhaozheng Yin
      First page: 2010
      Abstract: Egg production is a pivotal indicator for evaluating the fertility of poultry, and the ovary is an essential organ for egg production and plays an indispensable role in poultry production and reproduction. In order to investigate different aspects of egg production mechanisms in different poultry, in this study we performed a metabolomic analysis of the transcriptomic combination of the ovaries of two chicken breeds, the high-production Ninghai indigenous chickens and the low-production Wuliangshan black-boned chickens, to analyze the biosynthesis and potential key genes and metabolic pathways in the ovaries during egg production. We predicted four genes in the transcriptomic that are associated with egg production, namely P2RX1, INHBB, VIPR2, and FABP3, and identified three important pathways during egg production, “Calcium signaling pathway”, “Neuroactive ligand–receptor interaction” and “Cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction”, respectively. In the metabolomic 149 significantly differential metabolites were identified, 99 in the negative model and 50 in the positive model, of which 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, iloprost, spermidine, and adenosine are important metabolites involved in reproduction. By integrating transcriptomics and metabolomics, the correlation between specific differential genes and differential metabolites identified important gene-metabolite pairs “VIPR2-Spermidine” and “P2RX1-Spermidine” in egg production. In conclusion, these data provide a better understanding of the molecular differences between the ovaries of low- and high-production hens and provide a theoretical basis for further studies on the mechanics of poultry egg production.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162010
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2011: Host Species Affects Bacterial Evenness, but
           Not Diversity: Comparison of Fecal Bacteria of Cows and Goats Offered the
           Same Diet

    • Authors: Tiziana Maria Mahayri, Kateřina Olša Fliegerová, Silvana Mattiello, Stefania Celozzi, Jakub Mrázek, Chahrazed Mekadim, Hana Sechovcová, Simona Kvasnová, Elie Atallah, Giuseppe Moniello
      First page: 2011
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the diversity and composition of fecal bacteria in goats and cows offered the same diet and to evaluate the influence of animal species on the gut microbiome. A total of 17 female goats (Blond Adamellan) and 16 female cows (Brown Swiss) kept on an organic farm were fed pasture and hay. Bacterial structure in feces was examined by high-throughput sequencing using the V4–V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The Alpha diversity measurements of the bacterial community showed no statistical differences in species richness and diversity between the two groups of ruminants. However, the Pielou evenness index revealed a significant difference and showed higher species evenness in cows compared to goats. Beta diversity measurements showed statistical dissimilarities and significant clustering of bacterial composition between goats and cows. Firmicutes were the dominant phylum in both goats and cows, followed by Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Spirochaetes. Linear discriminant analysis with effect size (LEfSe) showed a total of 36 significantly different taxa between goats and cows. Notably, the relative abundance of Ruminococcaceae UCG-005, Christensenellaceae R-7 group, Ruminococcaceae UCG-010, Ruminococcaceae UCG-009, Ruminococcaceae UCG-013, Ruminococcaceae UCG-014, Ruminococcus 1, Ruminococcaceae UCG-002, Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 group, Treponema 2, Lachnospiraceae AC2044 group, and Bacillus was higher in goats compared to cows. In contrast, the relative abundance of Turicibacter, Solibacillus, Alloprevotella, Prevotellaceae UCG-001, Negativibacillus, Lachnospiraceae UCG-006, and Eubacterium hallii group was higher in cows compared with goats. Our results suggest that diet shapes the bacterial community in feces, but the host species has a significant impact on community structure, as reflected primarily in the relative abundance of certain taxa.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162011
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2012: Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis among
           Shelter-Housed Felines in a Philadelphia Suburb

    • Authors: Danni J. Mitchell, Chelsea L. Reinhard, Stephen D. Cole, Darko Stefanovski, Brittany Watson
      First page: 2012
      Abstract: Members of the Felidae family are the definitive host of the ubiquitous zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Few studies have been conducted to determine the epidemiology of T. gondii in domestic felines within animal shelter populations. The goal of this study was to assess seroprevalence in a limited-admission shelter in the greater Philadelphia area. Serum samples were collected from cats at a shelter in Media, Pennsylvania during the summer of 2018 to assess the proportion of the population that was IgM or IgG seropositive for antibodies against T. gondii, using a commercially available ELISA. Out of the 84 cats that were sampled, 24 cats were seropositive, giving a population prevalence of 28.6%. Nine cats were seropositive for IgM, nine were seropositive for IgG, and six were seropositive for both IgM and IgG. Based on our data, we found that a large percentage of this population was seronegative. Although the sample size in this study was limited and prevented us from obtaining statistically significant results, this research can serve as a pilot study for further investigations into the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among shelter-housed felines.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162012
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2013: Mechanical Testing of the New Cage for
           Tibial Tuberosity Advancement with the Cranial Implant Fixation (TTA CF)
           Technique—Ex Vivo Study on Sheep Model

    • Authors: Yauheni Zhalniarovich, Paulina Przyborowska-Zhalniarovich, Angelika Tobolska, Marta Mieszkowska, Justyna Abako, Magdalena Morawska-Kozłowska, Marcin Mieszkowski, Dariusz Onichimowski
      First page: 2013
      Abstract: Background: Modifications of tibial tuberosity advancement are well accepted for cranial cruciate rupture repair. We compared the loads that were needed to pull the TTA CF cage out in the two groups. The first group consisted of five sheep in which osteotomy and TTA CF cage fixation were performed as assumed preoperatively. The second group consisted of five sheep in which intraoperative or postoperative discrepancies from preoperative planning were found. This is also the first report describing biomechanical testing after tibial tuberosity advancement with cranial implant fixation (TTA CF) surgical procedures. Results: A total of 10 ovine proximal tibiae were tested biomechanically by tearing out TTA CF implants from the bone. The mean maximal loaded forces to pull out the cage in Group 1, in which fixation of the implant was performed as assumed preoperatively, was 878 ± 61 N, and in Group 2, in which discrepancies from preoperative planning were found, was 330 ± 55 N. The mean implant displacement under maximal load to failure was 2.6 mm and 2.2 mm in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. There was a significant difference between Group 1 and Group 2 in the maximal loads-to-failure; however, the difference in the displacement at maximal loaded forces to pull out the cage was not significant between the groups. Conclusions: The mean maximal loaded forces to pull out the cage was significantly lower in Group 2, where discrepancies from preoperative planning were found (878 ± 61 N vs. 330 ± 55 N). The lower forces that were needed to extract the TTA CF implant from the tibia can lead to the conclusion that biointegration of the implant is also weaker. Correct positioning of the osteotomy line and TTA CF implant is essential for good biointegrity and thus for limiting complications in the form of tibial tuberosity avulsion fracture or tibial shaft fracture.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162013
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2014: Supplementation of Boswellia serrata and
           Salix alba Extracts during the Early Laying Phase: Effects on Serum and
           Albumen Proteins, Trace Elements, and Yolk Cholesterol

    • Authors: Giulia Andreani, Thomas Dalmonte, Alessandro Guerrini, Caterina Lupini, Micaela Fabbri, Enea Ferlizza, Gloria Isani
      First page: 2014
      Abstract: Extracts from Boswellia serrata (Bs) and Salix alba (Sa) are used as supplements in poultry feed. The aims of this research were to study the possible effects of dietary supplementation with Bs and Sa extracts on serum and albumen proteins, zinc and iron, and yolk cholesterol content in Leghorn hens during the critical phase of the onset of laying. A total of 120 pullets, 17 weeks of age, were assigned to two groups (control (C) and treated (T), n = 60 each). The T group received a supplement containing Bs (5%) and Sa (5%) for 12 weeks. The study lasted 19 weeks. Serum proteins were fractionated using agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) and SDS–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE). Trace elements were determined in serum using atomic absorption spectrometry, and yolk cholesterol was determined using a colorimetric test. No significant differences were observed between control and supplemented hens for the analyzed biochemical indices. Moreover, the supplementation with phytoextracts did not negatively affect the physiological variations in serum proteins; therefore, it can be safely used as a treatment to prevent inflammatory states at onset and during the early laying phase.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162014
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2015: The Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Three
           Sphenomorphinae Species (Squamata: Scincidae) and the Selective Pressure
           Analysis on Mitochondrial Genomes of Limbless Isopachys gyldenstolpei

    • Authors: Lian Wu, Yao Tong, Sam Pedro Galilee Ayivi, Kenneth B. Storey, Jia-Yong Zhang, Dan-Na Yu
      First page: 2015
      Abstract: In order to adapt to diverse habitats, organisms often evolve corresponding adaptive mechanisms to cope with their survival needs. The species-rich family of Scincidae contains both limbed and limbless species, which differ fundamentally in their locomotor demands, such as relying on the movement of limbs or only body swing to move. Locomotion requires energy, and different types of locomotion have their own energy requirements. Mitochondria are the energy factories of living things, which provide a lot of energy for various physiological activities of organisms. Therefore, mitochondrial genomes could be tools to explore whether the limb loss of skinks are selected by adaptive evolution. Isopachys gyldenstolpei is a typical limbless skink. Here, we report the complete mitochondrial genomes of I. gyldenstolpei, Sphenomorphus indicus, and Tropidophorus hainanus. The latter two species were included as limbed comparator species to the limbless I. gyldenstolpei. The results showed that the full lengths of the mitochondrial genomes of I. gyldenstolpei, S. indicus, and T. hainanus were 17,210, 16,944, and 17,001 bp, respectively. Three mitochondrial genomes have typical circular double-stranded structures similar to other reptiles, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and the control region. Three mitochondrial genomes obtained in this study were combined with fifteen mitochondrially complete genomes of Scincidae in the NCBI database; the phylogenetic relationship between limbless I. gyldenstolpei and limbed skinks (S. indicus and T. hainanus) is discussed. Through BI and ML trees, Sphenomorphinae and Mabuyinae were monophyletic, while the paraphyly of Scincinae was also recovered. The limbless skink I. gyldenstolpei is closer to the species of Tropidophorus, which has formed a sister group with (T. hainanus + T. hangman). In the mitochondrial genome adaptations between limbless I. gyldenstolpei and limbed skinks, one positively selected site was found in the branch-site model analysis, which was located in ND2 (at position 28, BEB value = 0.907). Through analyzing the protein structure and function of the selected site, we found it was distributed in mitochondrial protein complex I. Positive selection of some mitochondrial genes in limbless skinks may be related to the requirement of energy to fit in their locomotion. Further research is still needed to confirm this conclusion though.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162015
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2016: High Seroprevalence against SARS-CoV-2 among
           Dogs and Cats, Poland, 2021/2022

    • Authors: Edyta Kaczorek-Łukowska, Kerstin Wernike, Martin Beer, Małgorzata Wróbel, Joanna Małaczewska, Elżbieta Mikulska-Skupień, Karolina Malewska, Izabela Mielczarska, Andrzej Krzysztof Siwicki
      First page: 2016
      Abstract: The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for a pandemic in the human population that has unfolded since the beginning of 2020 and has led to millions of deaths globally. Apart from humans, SARS-CoV-2 has been confirmed in various animal species, including felines, canines, mustelids, and primates. Of these species, dogs and cats are the most popular companion animals worldwide. Several seroprevalence studies have already been performed in these animal species; however, the results vary depending on the location and especially the time of sampling. Here, serum samples were collected from a total of 388 dogs and 243 cats from three veterinary clinics in two cities (Gdańsk and Olsztyn) in Poland between October 2021 and February 2022, when the country was in the midst of the fourth wave of viral spread. All sera were tested for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 by a multispecies ELISA based on the receptor-binding domain and by an indirect immunofluorescence assay (iIFA). Overall, 18.9% of the feline sera and 16.0% of the canine sera tested positive using ELISA and iIFA. This relatively high seroprevalence among randomly selected animals is most likely related to the high case numbers in the human population and indicates a continuous occurrence of transspecies virus transmissions from infected owners to their pets. Hence, dogs and cats should be included in monitoring studies and/or outbreak investigations for a better understanding of the epidemiology of this virus.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162016
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2017: Arginine Enhances Ovarian Antioxidant
           Capability via Nrf2/Keap1 Pathway during the Luteal Phase in Ewes

    • Authors: Yan Ma, Zhiyi Guo, Qiujue Wu, Binyao Cheng, Zhenhan Zhai, Yuqin Wang
      First page: 2017
      Abstract: This study evaluated the effect of arginine (Arg) on ovarian antioxidant capability during the luteal phase in ewes. A total of 108 multiparous Hu sheep at two years of age were randomly allocated to three groups: a control group (CG), a restriction group (RG), and an Arg group (AG), with six replicates per group and six ewes per replicate. Our results showed that the end body weight was significantly decreased in the RG group (p < 0.05), while the Arg addition reversed this reduction. The estrous cycle days were significantly increased in the RG group (p < 0.05), while Arg addition reversed this time extension. Compared with the control group, restricting feeding could significantly enhance the number of small follicles (SF), total follicles (TF), large corpora lutea, and the SF/TF (p < 0.05), while Arg addition reduced the number of SF and TF. However, the large follicles/TF were significantly decreased (p < 0.05), while Arg addition reversed this reduction. In addition, nutrition restriction significantly increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level (p < 0.05), while significantly decreased the glutathione/glutathione disulfide and the activities of superoxidative dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the ovaries (p < 0.05). However, Arg addition reversed this enhancement of the MDA level and the reductions in these antioxidant enzymes activities. In addition, positive relationships occurred between antioxidant enzyme activities and the enzyme mRNA expressions. Meanwhile, the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA expression was positively connected with antioxidant mRNA expressions and negatively related to the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) mRNA expression. The Nrf2 protein expression was negatively related to the Keap1 protein expression. In conclusion, nutrition restriction reduced the ovarian antioxidant capability in ewes, while this was significantly improved by Arg supplementation, which was associated with the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162017
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2018: Cloning and Expression Analysis of HAT1 and
           HDAC1 in the Testes of Mature Yaks and Their Sterile Hybrids

    • Authors: Shijie Sun, Zhenhua Shen, Suyu Jin, Lin Huang, Yucai Zheng
      First page: 2018
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to explore the molecular mechanism of male sterility in yak hybrids based on HAT1 and HDAC1. Total RNA was extracted from the testes of adult yaks (n = 11) and sterile cattle-yaks (n = 11) followed by reverse transcription. The coding sequence (CDS) of yak HAT1 and HDAC1 were obtained by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene cloning. The testicular mRNA and protein levels of HAT1 and HDAC1 in yaks and cattle-yaks were detected by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Western blotting, respectively, and the histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) histone acetylation level in the testes of yaks and cattle-yaks was assayed using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that the CDS of HAT1 and HDAC1 were 1242 bp and 1449 bp in length, encoding 413 and 482 amino acids, respectively; yaks had a similar mRNA sequence as cattle in both genes. The testicular mRNA and protein levels of HAT1 of cattle-yaks were significantly lower than those of yaks, and the protein level of HDAC1 was significantly higher than that of yaks. ELISA showed that the acetylation level of testicular H3K9 was significantly lower in yak hybrids than that of yaks. The present results suggest that the decreased level of HAT1 and increased level of HDAC1 may result in the decreased H3K9 acetylation in cattle-yaks and might be associated with their sterility.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2019: Correction: González-Rellán et
           al. Anatomy of the Palmar Region of the Carpus of the Dog. Animals 2022,
           12, 1573

    • Authors: Sonia González-Rellán, Andrés Barreiro, José Manuel Cifuentes, Patricia Fdz-de-Trocóniz
      First page: 2019
      Abstract: In the original publication [...]
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162019
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2020: Introducing the Software CASE (Cluster and
           Analyze Sound Events) by Comparing Different Clustering Methods and Audio
           Transformation Techniques Using Animal Vocalizations

    • Authors: Sebastian Schneider, Kurt Hammerschmidt, Paul Wilhelm Dierkes
      First page: 2020
      Abstract: Unsupervised clustering algorithms are widely used in ecology and conservation to classify animal sounds, but also offer several advantages in basic bioacoustics research. Consequently, it is important to overcome the existing challenges. A common practice is extracting the acoustic features of vocalizations one-dimensionally, only extracting an average value for a given feature for the entire vocalization. With frequency-modulated vocalizations, whose acoustic features can change over time, this can lead to insufficient characterization. Whether the necessary parameters have been set correctly and the obtained clustering result reliably classifies the vocalizations subsequently often remains unclear. The presented software, CASE, is intended to overcome these challenges. Established and new unsupervised clustering methods (community detection, affinity propagation, HDBSCAN, and fuzzy clustering) are tested in combination with various classifiers (k-nearest neighbor, dynamic time-warping, and cross-correlation) using differently transformed animal vocalizations. These methods are compared with predefined clusters to determine their strengths and weaknesses. In addition, a multidimensional data transformation procedure is presented that better represents the course of multiple acoustic features. The results suggest that, especially with frequency-modulated vocalizations, clustering is more applicable with multidimensional feature extraction compared with one-dimensional feature extraction. The characterization and clustering of vocalizations in multidimensional space offer great potential for future bioacoustic studies. The software CASE includes the developed method of multidimensional feature extraction, as well as all used clustering methods. It allows quickly applying several clustering algorithms to one data set to compare their results and to verify their reliability based on their consistency. Moreover, the software CASE determines the optimal values of most of the necessary parameters automatically. To take advantage of these benefits, the software CASE is provided for free download.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162020
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2021: Detection of Porcine Circovirus 1/2/3 and
           Genetic Analysis of Porcine Circovirus 2 in Wild Boar from Jiangxi
           Province of China

    • Authors: Xifeng Hu, Zheng Chen, Yu Li, Zhen Ding, Qinghua Zeng, Tong Wan, Huansheng Wu
      First page: 2021
      Abstract: A number of disorders that harm pig production are linked to porcine circoviruses, including PCV2. PCV2 infection is a substantial contributor to porcine-circovirus-associated illnesses (PCAS) and the post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), which have a significant negative economic impact on pig production. Additionally, PCV infection has been labeled as a global concern to cattle and wildlife. This study’s objectives were to examine the prevalence of PCV1/2/3 in Jiangxi Province, China, and to clarify the epidemiological significance of wild boar in PCV epidemiology. The 2020 hunting seasons resulted in the collection of 138 wild boar samples for PCV1/2/3 detection, which was followed by the genetic clarification of PCV2 strains. According to our data, 21.7% (30/138) of the population had PCV1 positivity, 22.5% (31/138) had PCV2 positivity, and 5.8% (8/138) had PCV3 positivity. Additionally, 10 out of 138 wild boar samples had PCV1 and PCV2 co-infections, while 5 out of 138 wild boar samples had PCV2 and PC3 co-infections. Nineteen full-length PCV2 genomes measuring 1767 nt were recovered from various animal tissues using conventional PCR. Eighteen out of nineteen PCV2 strains were identified as PCV2b by phylogenetic tree analysis, which was completed by the reference strain HLJ2015 obtained from domestic pigs in 2015. Additionally, one genotype of PCV2d JX11-2020 (MW889021) shared a sub-branch with the referenced strain TJ (AY181946), which was isolated in domestic pigs in 2002. This finding raises the possibility that domestic pigs could contract PCV2 strains from wild boar, posing a serious threat to the Jiangxi province of China’s pig production industry.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162021
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2022: The Effect of Phytonutrients in Terminalia
           chebula Retz. on Rumen Fermentation Efficiency, Nitrogen Utilization, and
           Protozoal Population in Goats

    • Authors: Pongsatorn Gunun, Anusorn Cherdthong, Pichad Khejornsart, Metha Wanapat, Sineenart Polyorach, Sungchhang Kang, Walailuck Kaewwongsa, Nirawan Gunun
      First page: 2022
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Terminalia chebula meal (TCM) supplementation on digestibility, rumen fermentation, nitrogen utilization, and protozoal population in goats. Eight goats with an initial body weight (BW) of 13 ± 3.0 kg were randomly assigned according to a double 4 × 4 Latin square design to receive different levels of TCM supplementation at 0, 8, 16, and 24 g/kg of total dry matter (DM) intake, respectively. The goats were fed with concentrate diets at 13 g/kg BW, while rice straw was used as a roughage source, fed ad libitum. The results revealed that the feed intake and the apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were similar among the treatments (p > 0.05). However, crude protein (CP) digestibility decreased significantly (p < 0.05) when supplemented with TCM at 24 g/kg of total DM intake (p < 0.05). The addition of TCM did not change the ruminal pH and blood urea nitrogen concentrations (p > 0.05), whereas the concentration of NH3-N at 4 h post feeding was reduced with the inclusion of TCM at 16 and 24 g/kg of total DM intake. The total numbers of bacteria were enhanced by the addition of TCM, while the protozoal population, in both entodiniomorph and holotrich, was reduced (p < 0.05). The supplementation of TCM did not change the concentration of total volatile fatty acids (TVFA), acetic acid, or butyric acid, while the propionic acid concentration at 4-h post feeding increased significantly, especially when supplemented at 16 g/kg of total DM intake (p < 0.05. In addition, urinary nitrogen (N) excretion decreased, while fecal N excretion, N absorption, N retention, and the proportion of N retention to N intake increased with the inclusion of TCM at all levels. In summary, the inclusion of TCM could improve rumen fermentation efficiency and N balance without having an adverse effect on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and rumen ecology; however, the protozoal population decreased. Therefore, this study suggests that TCM (16 g/kg of total DM intake) could be used as a plant source for rumen enhancement in goats fed a diet based on rice straw without having an adverse effect on feed intake or nutrient digestion. However, further studies on the production of types of meat and milk that have a long-term feeding trial should be carried out.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162022
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2023: Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Heifer
           and Cow Fertility Traits Derived from On-Farm AI Service Records of South
           African Holstein Cattle

    • Authors: Ramadimetje Delight Kgari, Carel Muller, Kennedy Dzama, Mahlako Linah Makgahlela
      First page: 2023
      Abstract: This study aimed to derive additional fertility traits from service data and estimate their genetic parameters for their possible inclusion in the South African Holstein cattle breeding programs. Service records (n = 64,464) were collected from 18 South African Holstein herds using on-farm automated milk recording systems. Using a multivariate model, the data were used to estimate heritabilities and correlations among several fertility traits. The pedigree data consisted of information on 18,592 animals born between 1981 and 2013. Heritability estimates observed were low to moderate (0.02 ± 0.00 to 0.24 ± 0.00), indicating that there is some genetic basis for the explored fertility traits to warrant selection. The genetic correlations observed between fertility traits were generally favorable, with some high correlations between age at first service (AFS) and services per conception for heifers (SPCh) (0.73 ± 0.00) and between days from calving to first service (CFS) and services per conception for cows (SPC) (0.90 ± 0.01). Positive genetic correlations indicate that improvement in one trait is coupled with a correlated genetic increase in another trait. The studied fertility traits could be used in addition to AFC and CI to serve as a basis for the selection of reproduction in dairy cattle to minimize selection bias.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162023
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2024: Could Weaning Remodel the Oral Microbiota
           Composition in Donkeys' An Exploratory Study

    • Authors: Zhenwei Zhang, Bingjian Huang, Yonghui Wang, Mingxia Zhu, Changfa Wang
      First page: 2024
      Abstract: As the initiation point of digestion, the oral microbiome is important in maintaining oral and systemic health. However, the composition of oral microbial communities and the influence of weaning on the oral microbiota of donkey foals remains poorly characterized. The present study used buccal swab samples to determine the changes in oral microbial communities occurring at the time of weaning. A total of 20 oral swab samples were collected from two groups: preweaning donkey foals (PreW group, n = 10) and postweaning donkey foals (PostW group, n = 10). The donkey oral microbiome was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing using Illumina MiSeq. This study is the first report of the donkey oral microbiome in association with weaning. Compared to the preweaning donkeys, the oral bacteria diversity in the postweaning donkeys was increased, with a higher Simpson index. Changes in the composition of the oral microbiota between the PreW and PostW groups were observed in the present study. At the phylum level, the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Myxococcota was significantly greater in the PostW than in the PreW group. At the genus level, the Gemella, unclassified_o__Lactobacillales, and Lactobacillus were increased in the postweaning donkeys. The donkeys’ oral microbial functions were predicted using PICRUSt, and the functions related to carbohydrate metabolic pathways were significantly enriched in the oral microbiome in the PostW donkeys. In summary, the current study provides a deeper insight into the oral microbiota changes during the weaning period, and the influence of weaning together with the documented changes in diversity and composition will help us to obtain a better understanding of their long-term health impact within the oral cavities of donkey foals. However, a major limitation of the present study was that the samples were obtained from different animals in the PreW and PostW groups, which may have resulted in variability among the different individuals. Further investigation is needed to monitor the shift in oral microbes in the same individuals during the weaning period.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162024
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2025: Is Dairy Effluent an Alternative for Maize
           Crop Fertigation in Semiarid Regions' An Approach to Agronomic and
           Environmental Effects

    • Authors: Banira Lombardi, Luciano Orden, Patricio Varela, Maximiliano Garay, Gastón Alejandro Iocoli, Agustín Montenegro, José Sáez-Tovar, María Ángeles Bustamante, María Paula Juliarena, Raul Moral
      First page: 2025
      Abstract: The reuse of effluents from intensive dairy farms combined with localized irrigation techniques (fertigation) has become a promising alternative to increase crop productivity while reducing the environmental impact of waste accumulation and industrial fertilizers production. Currently, the reuse of dairy effluents through fertigation by subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) systems is of vital importance for arid regions but it has been poorly studied. The present study aimed to assess the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, soil properties, and crop yield of a maize crop fertigated with either treated dairy effluent or dissolved granulated urea applied through an SDI system at a normalized N application rate of 200 kg N ha−1. Fertilizer application was divided into six fertigation events. GHG fluxes were measured during fertigation (62-day) using static chambers. Soil properties were measured previous to fertilizer applications and at the harvest coinciding with crop yield estimation. A slight increase in soil organic matter was observed in both treatments for the 20–60 cm soil depth. Both treatments also showed similar maize yields, but the dairy effluent increased net GHG emissions more than urea during the fertigation period. Nevertheless, the net GHG emissions from the dairy effluent were lower than the theoretical CO2eq emission that would have been emitted during urea manufacturing or the longer storage of the effluent if it had not been used, showing the need for life-cycle assessments. Local-specific emission factors for N2O were determined (0.07%), which were substantially lower than the default value (0.5%) of IPCC 2019. Thus, the subsurface drip irrigation systems can lead to low GHG emissions, although further studies are needed.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162025
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2026: Correction: Wiśniewska et al.
           Heterospecific Fear and Avoidance Behaviour in Domestic Horses (Equus
           caballus). Animals 2021, 11, 3081

    • Authors: Anna Wiśniewska, Iwona Janczarek, Izabela Wilk, Ewelina Tkaczyk, Martyna Mierzicka, Christina R. Stanley, Aleksandra Górecka-Bruzda
      First page: 2026
      Abstract: The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper [...]
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162026
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2027: Glaucoma through Animal’s Eyes:
           Insights from the Evolution of Intraocular Pressure in Mammals and Birds

    • Authors: Watcharapong Hongjamrassilp, Roger Zhang, B. Natterson-Horowitz, Daniel T. Blumstein
      First page: 2027
      Abstract: Glaucoma, an eye disorder caused by elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in humans. Understanding how IOP levels have evolved across animal species could shed light on the nature of human vulnerability to glaucoma. Here, we studied the evolution of IOP in mammals and birds and explored its life history correlates. We conducted a systematic review, to create a dataset of species-specific IOP levels and reconstructed the ancestral states of IOP using three models of evolution (Brownian, Early burst, and Ornstein–Uhlenbeck (OU)) to understand the evolution of glaucoma. Furthermore, we tested the association between life history traits (e.g., body mass, blood pressure, diet, longevity, and habitat) and IOP using phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS). IOP in mammals and birds evolved under the OU model, suggesting stabilizing selection toward an optimal value. Larger mammals had higher IOPs and aquatic birds had higher IOPs; no other measured life history traits, the type of tonometer used, or whether the animal was sedated when measuring IOP explained the significant variation in IOP in this dataset. Elevated IOP, which could result from physiological and anatomical processes, evolved multiple times in mammals and birds. However, we do not understand how species with high IOP avoid glaucoma. While we found very few associations between life history traits and IOP, we suggest that more detailed studies may help identify mechanisms by which IOP is decoupled from glaucoma. Importantly, species with higher IOPs (cetaceans, pinnipeds, and rhinoceros) could be good model systems for studying glaucoma-resistant adaptations.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162027
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2028: Regulatory Role of Apoptotic and
           Inflammasome Related Proteins and Their Possible Functional Aspect in
           Thiram Associated Tibial Dyschondroplasia of Poultry

    • Authors: Muhammad Fakhar-e-Alam Kulyar, Wangyuan Yao, Quan Mo, Yanmei Ding, Yan Zhang, Jindong Gao, Kewei Li, Huachun Pan, Shah Nawaz, Muhammad Shahzad, Khalid Mehmood, Mudassar Iqbal, Muhammad Akhtar, Zeeshan Ahmad Bhutta, Muhammad Waqas, Jiakui Li, Desheng Qi
      First page: 2028
      Abstract: Tibial dyschondroplasia debilities apoptotic and inflammasomal conditions that can further destroy chondrocytes. Inflammasomes are specialized protein complexes that process pro-inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. Moreover, there is mounting evidence that many of the signaling molecules that govern programmed cell death also affect inflammasome activation in a cell-intrinsic way. During the last decade, apoptotic functions have been described for signaling molecules involving inflammatory responses and cell death pathways. Considering these exceptional developments in the knowledge of processes, this review gives a glimpse of the significance of these two pathways and their connected proteins in tibial dyschondroplasia. The current review deeply elaborates on the elevated level of signaling mediators of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis and the inflammasome. Although investigating these pathways’ mechanisms has made significant progress, this review identifies areas where more study is especially required. It might lead to developing innovative therapeutics for tibial dyschondroplasia and other associated bone disorders, e.g., osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, where apoptosis and inflammasome are the significant pathways.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162028
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2029: An Evaluation of Ethograms Measuring
           Distinct Features of Enrichment Use by Captive Chimpanzees (Pan

    • Authors: Julia L. Greeson, Kara I. Gabriel, J. B. Mulcahy, Bonnie King Hendrickson, Susan D. Lonborg, Jay C. Holloway
      First page: 2029
      Abstract: Environmental enrichment provides mental stimulation and minimizes abnormal behaviors in captive animals. In captive chimpanzees, individual animals may vary in the ways in which they benefit from enrichment or use enrichment devices, so investigating nuances in enrichment use may improve the welfare of captive chimpanzees. In the current study, three ethograms measuring distinct features of enrichment use (i.e., enrichment object, manipulation behavior, and social context) were evaluated by coding videos of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Chimpanzee Sanctuary Northwest in Cle Elum, WA. A total of 732 min and 58 s of video footage was coded from a larger video archive (i.e., 2054 videos) of enrichment use that spanned a decade. A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that different categories of enrichment objects were more often associated with specific manipulation behaviors and social contexts, suggesting that enrichment objects might fulfill different behavioral and social needs in captivity. Specifically, toy objects were associated with active tactile behaviors in affiliative contexts while oral behaviors were used with foraging objects in solitary contexts. Additionally, individual chimpanzees showed unique preferences for enrichment objects, indicating that caregivers of captive chimpanzees should consider individual needs instead of a “one size fits all” approach to enrichment provisions.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162029
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2030: Peste des Petits Ruminants in Central and
           Eastern Asia/West Eurasia: Epidemiological Situation and Status of Control
           and Eradication Activities after the First Phase of the PPR Global
           Eradication Programme (2017–2021)

    • Authors: Matteo Legnardi, Eran Raizman, Daniel Beltran-Alcrudo, Giuseppina Cinardi, Timothy Robinson, Laura C. Falzon, Hervé Kapnang Djomgang, Edward Okori, Satya Parida, Felix Njeumi, Camilla T. O. Benfield
      First page: 2030
      Abstract: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious infectious disease of small ruminants caused by peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). PPR poses a significant threat to sheep and goat systems in over 65 endemic countries across Africa, the Middle East and Asia. It is also responsible for devastating outbreaks in susceptible wildlife, threatening biodiversity. For these reasons, PPR is the target of the Global Eradication Programme (PPR GEP), launched in 2016, which is aimed at eradicating the disease by 2030. The end of the first five-year phase of the PPR GEP (2017–2021) provides an ideal opportunity to assess the status of the stepwise control and eradication process. This review analyses 13 countries belonging to Eastern Europe, Transcaucasia, and Central and East Asia. Substantial heterogeneity is apparent in terms of PPR presence and control strategies implemented by different countries. Within this region, one country is officially recognised as PPR-free, seven countries have never reported PPR, and two have had no outbreaks in the last five years. Therefore, there is real potential for countries in this region to move forward in a coordinated manner to secure official PPR freedom status and thus reap the trade and socioeconomic benefits of PPR eradication.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162030
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2031: Effects of Heat Stress in Dairy Cows Offered
           Diets Containing Either Wheat or Corn Grain during Late Lactation

    • Authors: Josie B. Garner, S. Richard O. Williams, Peter J. Moate, Joe L. Jacobs, Murray C. Hannah, Greg L. Morris, William J. Wales, Leah C. Marett
      First page: 2031
      Abstract: Cereal grains that differ in the rate and extent of ruminal fermentation differ in heat increment and may be used to improve thermoregulation during heat stress. This experiment investigated the responses of dairy cows in late lactation to a heat challenge when offered wheat-grain or corn-grain. Eighteen lactating cows, 220 ± 94 (mean ± standard deviation) days in milk, 3.7 ± 0.17 years of age and 558 ± 37 kg bodyweight, were allocated treatments containing 6 kg dry matter (DM)/day of wheat grain or 6 kg DM/day corn grain (9 per treatment) plus 14 kg DM/day of alfalfa hay. Measurements were made during a 7-day pre-challenge period at ambient conditions in individual stalls, during a 4-day heat challenge (temperature humidity index of 74 to 84) in individual controlled-climate chambers, then during a 7-day recovery period at ambient conditions in individual stalls. During the heat challenge, cows offered corn had lower respiration rates (p = 0.017) and greater feed intake (p = 0.021) but energy-corrected milk (p = 0.097) was not different to that of cows offered wheat. Feeding corn grain to dairy cows during a heat challenge reduced some of the negative impacts of heat stress, enabling the cows to consume more forage compared with supplementing with wheat grain.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162031
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2032: Immunohistochemical Distribution of
           Serotonin Transporter (SERT) in the Optic Lobe of the Honeybee, Apis

    • Authors: Cristiano Bombardi, Giulia Salamanca, Claudio Tagliavia, Annamaria Grandis, Fanny Mille, Maria Grazia De Iorio, Giulietta Minozzi
      First page: 2032
      Abstract: Visual information is processed in the optic lobes, which consist of three retinotopic neuropils. These are the lamina, the medulla and the lobula. Biogenic amines play a crucial role in the control of insect responsiveness, and serotonin is clearly related to aggressiveness in invertebrates. Previous studies suggest that serotonin modulates aggression-related behaviours, possibly via alterations in optic lobe activity. The aim of this investigation was to immunohistochemically localize the distribution of serotonin transporter (SERT) in the optic lobe of moderate, docile and aggressive worker honeybees. SERT-immunoreactive fibres showed a wide distribution in the lamina, medulla and lobula; interestingly, the highest percentage of SERT immunoreactivity was observed across all the visual neuropils of the docile group. Although future research is needed to determine the relationship between the distribution of serotonin fibres in the honeybee brain and aggressive behaviours, our immunohistochemical study provides an anatomical basis supporting the role of serotonin in aggressive behaviour in the honeybee.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162032
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2033: Using Pregnancy-Associated Glycoproteins
           (PAGs) to Improve Reproductive Management: From Dairy Cows to Other Dairy

    • Authors: Olimpia Barbato, Laura Menchetti, Gabriele Brecchia, Vittoria Lucia Barile
      First page: 2033
      Abstract: Pregnancy success represents a major issue for the economic income of cattle breeders. Early detection of pregnant and non-pregnant animals, as well as the prediction of early pregnancy failure, can influence farm management decisions. Several diagnostic tools for pregnancy are currently available. Among these, pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) have been shown to be useful for identifying the presence of vital embryos and for pregnancy follow-up monitoring. This review presents an overview of the PAGs’ functions, their pregnancy trends, and their use as a tool to improve reproductive management in bovine and other dairy livestock, such as small ruminants and buffalos.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162033
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2034: Schizothorax prenanti Heat Shock Protein 27
           Gene: Cloning, Expression, and Comparison with Other Heat Shock Protein
           Genes after Poly (I:C) Induction

    • Authors: Jianlu Zhang, Kunyang Zhang, Jiqin Huang, Wei Jiang, Hongying Ma, Jie Deng, Hongxing Zhang, Wanchun Li, Qijun Wang
      First page: 2034
      Abstract: We identified and cloned cDNA encoding the heat shock protein (Hsp) 27 gene from Schizothorax prenanti (SpHsp27), and compared its expression with that of SpHsp60, SpHsp70, and SpHsp90 in the liver, head kidney, hindgut, and spleen of S. prenanti that were injected with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [Poly (I:C)]. The SpHsp27 partial cDNA (sequence length, 653 bp; estimated molecular mass, 5.31 kDa; theoretical isoelectric point, 5.09) contained an open reading frame of 636 bp and a gene encoding 211 amino acids. The SpHsp27 amino acid sequence shared 61.0–92.89% identity with Hsp27 sequences from other vertebrates and SpHsp27 was expressed in seven S. prenanti tissues. Poly (I:C) significantly upregulated most SpHsps genes in the tissues at 12 or 24 h (p < 0.05) compared with control fish that were injected with phosphate-buffered saline. However, the intensity of responses of the four SpHsps was organ-specifically increased. The expression of SpHsp27 was increased 163-fold in the head kidney and 26.6-fold SpHsp27 in the liver at 24 h after Poly (I:C) injection. In contrast, SpHsp60 was increased 0.97–1.46-fold in four tissues and SpHsp90 was increased 1.21- and 1.16-fold in the liver and spleen at 12 h after Poly (I:C) injection. Our findings indicated that Poly (I:C) induced SpHsp27, SpHsp60, SpHsp70, and SpHsp90 expression and these organ-specific SpHsps are potentially involved in S. prenanti antiviral immunity or mediate pathological process.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162034
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2035: Effects of Polymeric Media-Coated
           Gynosaponin on Microbial Abundance, Rumen Fermentation Properties and
           Methanogenesis in Xinjiang Goats

    • Authors: Peng Li, Irum Mohd Mehmood, Wei Chen
      First page: 2035
      Abstract: Gynosaponin is known to modulate rumen methanogenesis and microbial fermentation characteristics in ruminants. The current experiment aimed to determine the time-dependent effects of intraruminal polymeric media-coated gynosaponin (PMCG) supplementation on the methanogenesis, rumen fermentation properties and microbial abundance in Xinjiang goats. Eight goats were used in a 2 × 2 crossover arrangement with a PMCG group (8 g/kg DMI) and a control group (0 g/kg DMI). The experiment was divided into four phases, each lasted 21 d. Ruminal contents were obtained for analysis of rumen fermentation properties and microbial abundance. Protozoa numbers were counted by microscope and the abundance of methanogens, rumen fungi and cellulolytic bacteria were quantified by real-time PCR. The results indicated that PMCG significantly reduced methane production (p < 0.05) during the first two phases but this increased to baseline again during the last two phases. Meanwhile, the concentration of acetate decreased remarkably, which resulted in a significant reduction in the acetate to propionate ratio and total VFA concentration (p < 0.05). However, other rumen properties and dry matter intake were not affected (p > 0.05). During the first and second phases, the protozoa numbers and gene copies of methanogens, total bacteria and F. succinogens relative to the 16 s rDNA were all slightly decreased, but the statistical results were not significant. However, the ruminal supplementation of PMCG had little effect on other tested microbes. Accordingly, it was concluded that the addition of PMCG had an inhibitory effect on methane production probably due to a decline in methanogen numbers.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162035
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2036: Effects of Dietary Nucleotide
           Supplementation on Performance, Profitability, and Disease Resistance of
           Litopenaeus vannamei Cultured in Indonesia under Intensive Outdoor Pond

    • Authors: Romi Novriadi, Oriol Roigé, Sergi Segarra
      First page: 2036
      Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of dietary nucleotide supplementation in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, cultured in Indonesia. A total of 22,500 shrimp receiving diets in which fish meal (FM) had been partially replaced with vegetable protein sources were classified into five study groups (4500 shrimp/group) and received different diets for 110 days: 10FM (control group; 10% FM), 6FM (6% FM—low FM and no nucleotide supplementation), 10FMN (10% FM; 0.1% nucleotides), 8FMN (8% FM; 0.1% nucleotides) and 6FMN (6% FM; 0.1% nucleotides). Growth performance, body composition, total hemocyte count (THC), lysozyme activity, and hepatopancreas histopathology were assessed. Organoleptic evaluation and profitability assessments were also performed. In addition, shrimp resistance to a Vibrio harveyi challenge was studied in shrimps after having received the diets for 30 days. Results showed that reducing FM had a negative impact on growth performance and hepatopancreas morphology. Adding nucleotides resulted in better performance and profitability, a healthier histomorphological appearance of the hepatopancreas, and significantly higher survival rates upon challenge with V. harveyi, while it did not negatively affect organoleptic parameters. In conclusion, nucleotide supplementation could be useful for optimizing performance, profitability, and disease resistance in shrimp cultured under intensive outdoor pond conditions.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162036
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2037: Effects of Casein Phosphopeptide-Selenium
           Complex on the Immune Functions in Beagle Dogs

    • Authors: Wencan Wang, Ling Xu, Yong Cao, Guo Liu, Qianru Lin, Xin Mao
      First page: 2037
      Abstract: The health of pets is becoming a growing concern for the pet industry and its owners. Immunity is one of the foundational supports for health, thus developing a functional bioactive substance that can boost pets’ immunity is essential. Many studies have shown that casein phosphopeptide (CPP) and selenium (Se) can individually regulate immunity in many species, but there has been no reported research on the immunomodulatory function of casein phosphopeptide–selenium complex (CPP-Se). The objective of this study was to investigate the function of CPP-Se on immunomodulation in dogs. Twenty Beagle dogs were equally divided into two groups and fed either a control snack or a test snack supplemented with 0.03% CPP-Se for 30 days. Anticoagulated blood, serum and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were collected from dogs at 0 d, 10 d, 20 d and 30 d to detect the change in the number of immune cells and the expression of cytokine-related mRNAs and proteins. PBL isolated from blood were exposed to CPP-Se in vitro to measure the proliferative responses and cytokine-related mRNAs expression. During the time the test snack was fed, the number of lymphocytes increased significantly, whereas neutrophils and monocytes remained unaltered. The expression of interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), CD4 molecule (CD4) and CD8α molecule (CD8α) was up-regulated, while interleukin-1β (IL-1β) was down-regulated, and interleukin-10 (IL-10) declined initially and subsequently increased. ELISA detection revealed a significant increment in serum IL-4, IL-6, Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IFN-γ, except for IgG. Furthermore, CPP-Se treatment increased the proliferation and the expression of cytokine-related mRNAs in PBL cultured in vitro. This is the first study to demonstrate that CPP-Se can improve immunity in the dog.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162037
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2038: Post-Mortem Dental Profile as a Powerful
           Tool in Animal Forensic Investigations—A Review

    • Authors: Joan Viciano, Sandra López-Lázaro, Carmen Tanga
      First page: 2038
      Abstract: Veterinary forensics is becoming more important in our society as a result of the growing demand for investigations related to crimes against animals or investigations of criminal deaths caused by animals. A veterinarian may participate as an expert witness or may be required to give forensic assistance, by providing knowledge of the specialty to establish a complete picture of the involvement of an animal and allowing the Courts to reach a verdict. By applying diverse dental profiling techniques, not only can species, sex, age-at-death, and body size of an animal be estimated, but also data about their geographical origin (provenance) and the post-mortem interval. This review concentrates on the dental techniques that use the characteristics of teeth as a means of identification of freshly deceased and skeletonised animals. Furthermore, this highlights the information that can be extracted about the animal from the post-mortem dental profile.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162038
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2039: Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Azadirachta
           indica and Moringa oleifera Leaf Extracts on the Carcass Quality and Fatty
           Acid Composition of Lambs Fed High Forage Total Mixed Rations

    • Authors: Edward Cottington Webb, Abubeker Hassen, Michael Olanrewaju Olaniyi, Pamela Pophiwa
      First page: 2039
      Abstract: There is an increased interest in the use of medicinal plants as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters and as agents for methane production mitigation. This study investigated the effects of Azadirachta indica and Moringa oleifera feed additives on the carcass and meat quality of lambs. Forty South African Mutton Merino lambs, weighing between 29 and 43 kg, were randomly assigned to four treatment groups (n = 10 lambs/treatment) and fed a basal total mixed ration (TMR) containing soybean meal (17%), yellow maize (28%), Alfalfa hay (20%), Eragrostis curvula hay (22.2%), molasses (6.0%), wheat offal (5%), urea (0.8%) and vitamin premix (0.5%) on a DM basis. The dietary treatments: TMR diet (control); TMR diet with A. indica leaf extract (A. indica leaf extract at a dosage of 50 mg per kg of feed: neem); TMR diet with M. oleifera leaf extract (M. oleifera leaf extract at a dosage of 50 mg per kg DM of feed: moringa); TMR diet with monensin (at a dosage of 50 mg monensin sodium per kg of feed: positive control). After an adaptation period of 10 days to the experimental conditions, the lambs from all treatment groups were fed ad libitum with the experimental diets. The lambs were slaughtered at a live weight of 60–65 kg after a 23 week trial period. The plant extract dietary additives had no significant effects on the carcass characteristics of the lambs. In comparison to monensin, supplementing with moringa leaf extracts resulted in a higher proportion of C18:1n9c (45.0% ± 0.57 vs. 40.5% ± 0.80; p < 0.05), total MUFAs (47.3% ± 0.66 vs. 42.6% ± 0.87; p < 0.05), and UFA:SFA ratio (1.01 ± 0.03 vs. 0.85 ± 0.03; p < 0.05), which may be beneficial for human health. Our results suggest that natural feed additives, such as A. indica and M. oleifera leaf extracts, can be included in lamb diets without compromising meat fatty acid composition. The negative economic impacts of such technologies on animal production and farm profitability should not be expected.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162039
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2040: Sequence Variation in Caprine KRTAP6-2
           Affects Cashmere Fiber Diameter

    • Authors: Jian Cao, Jiqing Wang, Huitong Zhou, Jiang Hu, Xiu Liu, Shaobin Li, Yuzhu Luo, Jon G. H. Hickford
      First page: 2040
      Abstract: Keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) are a structural component of cashmere fibers and in part determine fiber attributes. The gene encoding the high-glycine/tyrosine KAP6-2 (called KRTAP6-2) has been described in sheep, but it has not been identified goats. In this study, a 252-bp open reading frame with similarity to ovine KRTAP6-2 was found on goat chromosome 1, with its upstream and downstream flanking sequences are closely related with ovine KRTAP6-2 but are clearly distinct from other ovine KRTAP6-n sequences. Polymerase chain reaction amplification followed by single strand conformation polymorphism analysis of this region revealed five distinct banding patterns representing five different sequences (A to E) in 230 Longdong cashmere goats. Eleven diallelic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a three-nucleotide sequence variation, and a 12-bp insertion/deletion were found among these five sequences, with most SNPs being either outside the coding region or synonymous. The presence of variant D was found to be associated with decreased mean fiber diameter (MFD; present: 13.26 ± 0.07 µm; absent: 13.55 ± 0.04 µm; p < 0.001), suggesting that variation in KRTAP6-2 may affect fiber diameter and have value as a molecular marker for improving the cashmere fiber diameter trait.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162040
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2041: Influence of Sugar Beet Pulp Supplementation
           on Pigs’ Health and Production Quality

    • Authors: Sarunas Badaras, Dovile Klupsaite, Modestas Ruzauskas, Romas Gruzauskas, Egle Zokaityte, Vytaute Starkute, Ernestas Mockus, Jolita Klementaviciute, Darius Cernauskas, Agila Dauksiene, Laurynas Vadopalas, Elena Bartkiene
      First page: 2041
      Abstract: Fibrous feedstuffs can have a variable effect on pig growth, health and meat quality. The effect of sugar beet pulp (SBP) supplementation in the diet on pork quality has not been widely reported. This study examines the effect of an SBP-supplemented (3%) diet (TG-I group) on 300 Large White/Norwegian Landrace pigs in terms of growth performance, blood parameters, microbial profiling of faeces, carcass parameters and meat quality, including the profiles of biogenic amines (BAs), fatty acids (FAs) and volatile compounds (VCs). After 163 days of the experiment, TG-I pigs had a significantly lower average daily gain and feed conversion ratio than pigs in the control group, as well as a significantly higher percentage of carcasses in the S and KN classes and a lower percentage in the E and U classes (p ≤ 0.05). Faeces of TG-I contained significantly more bacteria that are considered probiotic. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were found in most of the blood parameters, FA, VC profile and emotional responses between the two groups. Higher drip loss, protein content and redness, as well as lower cooking loss, intramuscular fat content and lightness were observed in the meat of TG-I. Most of the sensory properties, as well as overall acceptability, were rated higher for the meat of TG-I. Based on the results, a diet containing 3% of SBP could be beneficial for the improvement of pigs’ gut health and pork quality. However, further studies are needed to indicate which compounds of the SBP dietary fiber are responsible for these desirable changes.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162041
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2042: Modulatory Effects of Arctostaphylos uva-urs

    • Authors: Hamada Elwan, Abdelhameed S. A. Mohamed, Dawood Hosni Dawood, Shaaban S. Elnesr
      First page: 2042
      Abstract: In ovo injection of nutrients can modulate the embryo’s physiological responses against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) embryotoxicity. This hypothesis was tested using in ovo injection of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (Ar. uu.) methanolic extract. The total polyphenols, total flavonoids, total antioxidant capacity, and GC-MS analysis were all assessed in the Ar. uu. methanolic extract. A total of 180 ten-day-old embryonated eggs were distributed into six groups of 30 replicates each. The first group was used as a control (non-injected), and the second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth groups were injected with 10 µ double-distilled water (DDW), 500 µL methanol, 0.01 g Ar. uu./500 µL methanol, 50 ng AFB1/10 µL DDW, and 50 ng AFB1 in 10 µ DDW + 0.01 g Ar. uu./500 µL methanol, respectively. The relative embryo weight, residual yolk sac weight, tibia length and weight, and survival were recorded. Total and differential leukocytes, oxidative stress, and humoral immune responses were observed. The residual yolk sac was lower (p < 0.05) in the Ar. uu. group than other groups. The embryonic growth (tibia weight and length) was enhanced in AFB1 + Ar. uu.-injected embryos compared with those injected with AFB1 alone. In conclusion, in ovo injection of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi could modulate AFB1-induced toxicity in chicken embryos.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162042
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2043: Effects of Decreasing Fishmeal as Main
           Source of Protein on Growth, Digestive Physiology, and Gut Microbiota of
           Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    • Authors: Bong-Seung Seo, Su-Jin Park, So-Yeon Hwang, Ye-In Lee, Seung-Han Lee, Sang-Woo Hur, Kyeong-Jun Lee, Taek-Jeong Nam, Jin-Woo Song, Jae-Sig Kim, Won-Je Jang, Youn-Hee Choi
      First page: 2043
      Abstract: In olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), growth performance, expression of growth-related factors, digestive physiology, and gut microbiota were assessed under farm conditions in the fish fed diets with low levels of fishmeal. Four experimental diets were prepared, FM70 [control (CON), 70% fishmeal], FM45 (45% fishmeal), FM35A (35% fishmeal), and FM35B (35% fishmeal + insect meal), and fed to the fish for five months. The CON-fed fish had the highest plasma GH, but IGF-1 and hepatic IGF-1 mRNA expression of the olive flounder fed diets with low-fishmeal levels did not significantly differ among diets. The intestinal villus length, muscular thickness, and the number of goblet cells were statistically similar, and ocular examination of hepatopancreas showed no discernable difference in all experimental diets. The chymotrypsin content of FM35B-fed fish is significantly lower, but trypsin and lipase contents are similar. The diversity of gut microbiota did not differ among groups, although the FM35B group had a higher composition of Firmicutes. Thus, a diet with reduced fishmeal content and several alternative protein sources can be used as feed ingredients in feed formulation for olive flounder reared under typical aquaculture farm conditions.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162043
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2044: Intestinal S100/Calgranulin Expression in
           Cats with Chronic Inflammatory Enteropathy and Intestinal Lymphoma

    • Authors: Denise S. Riggers, Corinne Gurtner, Martina Protschka, Denny Böttcher, Wolf von Bomhard, Gottfried Alber, Karsten Winter, Joerg M. Steiner, Romy M. Heilmann
      First page: 2044
      Abstract: Diagnosing chronic inflammatory enteropathies (CIE) in cats and differentiation from intestinal lymphoma (IL) using currently available diagnostics is challenging. Intestinally expressed S100/calgranulins, measured in fecal samples, appear to be useful non-invasive biomarkers for canine CIE but have not been evaluated in cats. We hypothesized S100/calgranulins to play a role in the pathogenesis of feline chronic enteropathies (FCE) and to correlate with clinical and/or histologic disease severity. This retrospective case-control study included patient data and gastrointestinal (GI) tissues from 16 cats with CIE, 8 cats with IL, and 16 controls with no clinical signs of GI disease. GI tissue biopsies were immunohistochemically stained using polyclonal α-S100A8/A9 and α-S100A12 antibodies. S100A8/A9+ and S100A12+ cells were detected in all GI segments, with few significant differences between CIE, IL, and controls and no difference between diseased groups. Segmental inflammatory lesions were moderately to strongly correlated with increased S100/calgranulin-positive cell counts. Clinical disease severity correlated with S100A12+ cell counts in cats with IL (ρ = 0.69, p = 0.042) and more severe diarrhea with colonic lamina propria S100A12+ cells with CIE (ρ = 0.78, p = 0.021) and duodenal S100A8/A9+ cells with IL (ρ = 0.71, p = 0.032). These findings suggest a role of the S100/calgranulins in the pathogenesis of the spectrum of FCE, including CIE and IL.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162044
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2045: Effect of Dietary Ramie Powder at Various
           Levels on the Growth Performance, Meat Quality, Serum Biochemical Indices
           and Antioxidative Capacity of Yanling White Geese

    • Authors: Fengming Chen, Jieyi He, Xin Wang, Tuo Lv, Chunjie Liu, Liping Liao, Zibo Li, Jun Zhou, Bingsheng He, HuaJiao Qiu, Qian Lin
      First page: 2045
      Abstract: To investigate the effects of different levels of ramie powder (Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaudich.) (i.e., 0%, 6%, 12% and 24%) on the production performance, serum biochemical indices, antioxidative capacity and intestinal development of Yanling white geese, a total of 256 geese at 56 days of age were randomly divided into four groups and fed a control diet and the control diet supplemented with 6%, 12% and 24% ramie powder, respectively, for 42 days. The results show that dietary supplementation with 12% ramie powder significantly increased the average final weight (p < 0.05) and tended to improve the average daily gain (ADG) and feed/gain ratio (F/G) of the test geese (0.05 < p < 0.10). Moreover, the dietary inclusion of 12 and 24% ramie powder improved meat qualities by reducing the L* value (p < 0.05) and cooking loss (0.05 < p < 0.10) of thigh muscle. Compared with the control group, the ramie powder supplementation at different levels increased the serum activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione, promoting the antioxidative capacity of the body (0.05 < p < 0.10). This study demonstrates that moderate ramie powder is beneficial to the production performance of Yanling white geese and has the potential to be used as a poultry feed ingredient. In conclusion, 12% was the proper supplementation rate of ramie powder in Yanling white geese feed.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162045
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2046: Chicken Protein S Gene Regulates
           Adipogenesis and Affects Abdominal Fat Deposition

    • Authors: Lijin Guo, Weiling Huang, Siyu Zhang, Yulin Huang, Yibin Xu, Ruiquan Wu, Xiang Fang, Haiping Xu, Qinghua Nie
      First page: 2046
      Abstract: (1) Background: Excessive abdominal fat deposition in broilers not only causes feed waste but also leads to a series of metabolic diseases. It has gradually become a new breeding goal of the broiler industry to improve growth rates and to reduce abdominal fat rates. In a previous study, PROS1 was highly expressed in low-abdominal fat broilers, suggesting a potential role in broilers adipogenesis. However, the function of PROS1 in preadipocytes and its association with abdominal fat traits need to be characterized. (2) Methods: qRT-PCR and Western Blot were used to quantify gene expression at the RNA and protein levels; flow cytometry and EdU were carried out to detect cell proliferation; and a GLM analysis was used to determine the association between PROS1 SNPs and carcass traits. (3) Results: PROS1 was downregulated in high-abdominal fat chicken; PROS1 contributed preadipocyte proliferation but suppressed preadipocyte differentiation; and the SNPs in the PROS1 5′ flank were significantly associated with the abdominal fat weight rate. (4) Conclusions: Chicken PROS1 is able to suppress adipogenesis, and its polymorphisms are associated with the abdominal fat weight rate, which can be considered the molecular markers for chicken breeding, indicating that PROS1 is an effective potential gene in regulating abdominal fat deposition.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162046
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2047: Suitable Habitats of Chrysolophus spp. Need
           Urgent Protection from Habitat Fragmentation in China: Especially Suitable
           Habitats in Non-Nature Reserve Areas

    • Authors: Peng Wang, Wancai Xia, Enhua Zhou, Yanhong Li, Jie Hu
      First page: 2047
      Abstract: Over the past few years, the wild population of Chrysolophus spp. has decreased remarkably. Habitat fragmentation is a significant cause for this serious threat to the survival of Chrysolophus spp. population. In order to further understand the distribution of potentially suitable habitats of Chrysolophus spp., we used the maximum entropy model to predict the potentially suitable habitats of C. pictus and C. amherstiae in China based on the known distribution. According to the prediction results of the model, we calculated the landscape pattern index to compare the fragmentation of the two species’ potential suitable habitats in nature reserves and non-nature reserves. The results showed that the potentially suitable habitat for Chrysolophus spp. only accounted for a small area of China. The suitable habitats for C. pictus were mainly in Sichuan, Shaanxi, Hubei, and other provinces, and the model predicts a total area of 359,053.06 km2. In addition, the suitable habitats for C. amherstiae were mainly distributed in the three-parallel-river area, with a potential total area of 215,569.83 km2. The model also showed that there was an overlap of suitable habitats between the two species in the western edge of the Sichuan Basin. Previously, hybrids of the two pheasants have already been found in this same overlapping area predicted by the model. The landscape pattern index showed that in the potentially suitable habitat for Chrysolophus spp., the fragmentation of non-nature reserve areas was higher than that of nature reserve areas. The results revealed the distribution of potentially suitable habitats for Chrysolophus spp. in China and highlighted that the suitable habitats in non-nature reserve areas were in urgent need of conservation, thereby providing a key reference for the conservation of the Chrysolophus spp. population in the future.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162047
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2048: Molecular Identification of Sarcocystis
           Species in Sheep from Lithuania

    • Authors: Alina Marandykina-Prakienė, Dalius Butkauskas, Naglis Gudiškis, Evelina Juozaitytė-Ngugu, Vytautas Januškevičius, Eglė Rudaitytė-Lukošienė, Petras Prakas
      First page: 2048
      Abstract: Data on the distribution of different Sarcocystis species in various muscles of sheep are scarce. In the present study, 190 diaphragm, oesophagus, and heart muscle samples of 69 sheep raised in Lithuania were examined for the presence of Sarcocystis spp. Under a light microscope, two morphological types of microcysts corresponding to S. arieticanis and S. tenella were detected. Eight and 12 sarcocysts of S. arieticanis and S. tenella, respectively, were isolated and characterised by the sequencing of a portion of cox1. The sequence comparisons revealed the highest similarity between European and Asian isolates of S. arieticanis and S. tenella obtained from domestic sheep and other wild Caprinae hosts. Based on peptic digestion, nested PCR targeting cox1, and sequencing, a 100% infection prevalence of S. arieticanis and S. tenella was observed in the 69 studied animals. The occurrence of S. tenella was significantly higher in the diaphragm than in the oesophagus (χ2 = 13.14, p < 0.001), whereas differences in the prevalence of S. arieticanis in the studied muscle types were insignificant (χ2 = 1.28, p > 0.05). Further molecularly based epidemiological studies are needed to compare the prevalence of Sarcocystis species in various muscles of sheep raised in different geographic regions.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162048
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2049: Comparison of Sources and Methods for the
           Isolation of Equine Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal/Stem Cells and
           Preliminary Results on Their Reaction to Incubation with 5-Azacytidine

    • Authors: Dagmar S. Trachsel, Hannah J. Stage, Sebastian Rausch, Susanne Trappe, Katharina Söllig, Gerhard Sponder, Roswitha Merle, Jörg R. Aschenbach, Heidrun Gehlen
      First page: 2049
      Abstract: Physiological particularities of the equine heart justify the development of an in vitro model suitable for investigations of the species-specific equine cardiac electrophysiology. Adipose tissue-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) could be a promising starting point from which to develop such a cardiomyocyte (CM)-like cell model. Therefore, we compared abdominal, retrobulbar, and subcutaneous adipose tissue as sources for the isolation of ASCs applying two isolation methods: the collagenase digestion and direct explant culture. Abdominal adipose tissue was most suitable for the isolation of ASCs and both isolation methods resulted in comparable yields of CD45-/CD34-negative cells expressing the mesenchymal stem cell markers CD29, CD44, and CD90, as well as pluripotency markers, as determined by flow cytometry and real-time quantitative PCR. However, exposure of equine ASCs to 5-azacytidine (5-AZA), reportedly inducing CM differentiation from rats, rabbits, and human ASCs, was not successful in our study. More precisely, neither the early differentiation markers GATA4 and NKX2-5, nor the late CM differentiation markers TNNI3, MYH6, and MYH7 were upregulated in equine ASCs exposed to 10 µM 5-AZA for 48 h. Hence, further work focusing on the optimal conditions for CM differentiation of equine stem cells derived from adipose tissue, as well as possibly from other origins, are needed.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162049
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2050: High-Resolution Ultrasonographic Anatomy of
           the Carpal Tendons of Sporting Border Collies

    • Authors: Maria Grazia Entani, Alessio Franini, Gabriele Barella, Roberta Saleri, Fabio De Rensis, Giliola Spattini
      First page: 2050
      Abstract: Recent literature has demonstrated that high-resolution ultrasonographic anatomy of the canine carpus is possible; however, only the structures of the dorsal face were described. The aims of this prospective study were: (1) to describe the normal ultrasonographic appearance of the carpal tendons in sporting Border Collies; (2) to measure the height, length, and thickness of the tendon at the radial ulnar notch level in order to create a baseline reference for the breed, and (3) to describe a standardised protocol to ultrasonographically evaluate the carpal faces and visible tendinous structures. A pilot study based on ten cadaveric front limbs was used to identify the structures. A subsequent clinical phase of the study using twenty-six Border Collies was recorded. The tendons of the Extensor Carpi Radialis, Extensor Digitorum Communis, and Extensor Digitorum Lateralis were identified and followed from the tenomuscular junction to the distal insertion on the dorsal face of the digits. On the lateral face, the tendon of the Extensor Carpi Ulnaris was recognised and followed. On the palmar face, the two heads of the Flexor Carpi Ulnaris tendon ending on the accessory carpal bone, the adjacent Flexor Digitorum Superficialis tendon, and the deep and medially located Flexor Digitorum Profundus tendon were seen and followed. The Flexor Carpi Radialis and the Abductor Pollicis Longus tendons were seen in the medial carpal face. The ulnar notch of the radius was used as the measurement and starting point of the ultrasonography. These data could be used as a standard reference in the case of chronic overuse and trauma-induced changes in the canine carpus.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162050
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2051: Snakebite Envenomation, Attitudes, and
           Behavior toward Snakes in Banten, Indonesia

    • Authors: Linda T. Uyeda, Ardiantiono Ardiantiono, Entang Iskandar, Aaron J. Wirsing, Randall C. Kyes
      First page: 2051
      Abstract: Snakes are commonly associated with feelings of anxiety or disgust, and snake conservation is often hindered by negative attitudes and perceptions. Although global snake populations are generally in decline, snakebite envenomation (SBE) continues to be recognized as a serious public health issue, particularly in rural areas of tropical and subtropical countries. Data on SBE, a neglected tropical disease, are lacking, and Indonesia, a hotspot of venomous snake diversity, has no snake bite reporting system. We analyzed 127 survey results in Banten, Indonesia with the aim of documenting SBE and exploring the relationships between respondents’ experiences, attitudes, and behaviors toward snakes. Nine percent of respondents had experienced SBE, and knowledge of SBE incidents was associated with negative attitudes toward snake populations, with negative attitudes toward snakes associated with a higher likelihood of anti-conservation behavior. Women were more fearful than men, and women and those with lower education levels were more negative toward pythons (Malayopython reticulatus), suggesting that increased knowledge may aid in snake conservation efforts. Universally negative risk beliefs and attitudes toward venomous snakes indicate a need to reduce the threat of SBE in our study area.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162051
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2052: Trait Analysis in Domestic Rabbits
           (Oryctolagus cuniculus f. domesticus) Using SNP Markers from
           Genotyping-by-Sequencing Data

    • Authors: Congyan Li, Yuying Li, Jie Zheng, Zhiqiang Guo, Xiuli Mei, Min Lei, Yongjun Ren, Xiangyu Zhang, Cuixia Zhang, Chao Yang, Li Tang, Yang Ji, Rui Yang, Jifeng Yu, Xiaohong Xie, Liangde Kuang
      First page: 2052
      Abstract: The domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus f. domesticus) is a very important variety in biomedical research and agricultural animal breeding. Due to the different geographical areas in which rabbit breeds originated, and the long history of domestication/artificial breeding, rabbits have experienced strong selection pressure, which has shaped many traits of most rabbit varieties, such as color and weight. An efficient genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection strategy is genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), which has been widely used in many organisms. This study attempted to explore bi-allelic SNPs associated with fur color and weight-related traits using GBS in five rabbit breeds. The data consisted of a total 831,035 SNPs in 150 individuals from Californian rabbits (CF), German Zika rabbits (ZK), Qixing rabbits (QX), Sichuan grey rabbits (SG), and Sichuan white rabbits (SW). In addition, these five breeds of rabbits were obviously independent populations, with high genetic differentiation among breeds and low genetic diversity within breeds. A total of 32,144 SNP sites were identified by selective sweep among the different varieties. The genes that carried SNP loci in these selected regions were related to important traits (fur color and weight) and signal pathways, such as the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway and the Hippo signaling pathway. In addition, genes related to fur color and weight were identified, such as ASIPs, MITFs and KITs, ADCY3s, YAPs, FASs, and ACSL5s, and they had more SNP sites. The research offers the foundation for further exploration of molecular genetic markers of SNPs that are related to traits.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162052
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2053: Effect of Fiber Fermentation and Protein
           Digestion Kinetics on Mineral Digestion in Pigs

    • Authors: Charlotte M. E. Heyer, Neil W. Jaworski, Greg I. Page, Ruurd T. Zijlstra
      First page: 2053
      Abstract: Nutrient kinetic data and the timing of nutrient release along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), are not yet widely used in current feed formulations for pigs and poultry. The present review focuses on interactions between fermentable substrates (e.g., starch, fiber, and protein) and selected minerals on nutrient digestion and absorption to determine nutritional solutions to maximize animal performance, principally in the grower–finisher phase, with the aim of minimizing environmental pollution. For phosphorus (P), myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis (dihydrogen phosphate) (InsP6), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn), no standardized methodologies to assess in vitro mineral digestion exist. The stepwise degradation of InsP6 to lower inositol phosphate (InsP) forms in the GIT is rare, and inositol phosphate4 (InsP4) might be the limiting isomer of InsP degradation in diets with exogenous phytase. Furthermore, dietary coefficients of standardized total tract digestibility (CSTTD) of P might be underestimated in diets with fermentable ingredients because of increased diet-specific endogenous P losses (EPL), and further clarification is required to better calculate the coefficients of true total tract digestibility (CTTTD) of P. The quantification of fiber type, composition of fiber fractions, their influence on digestion kinetics, effects on digesta pH, and nutrient solubility related to fermentation should be considered for formulating diets. In conclusion, applications of nutrient kinetic data should be considered to help enhance nutrient digestion and absorption in the GIT, thereby reducing nutrient excretion.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162053
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2054: First Insights on the Karyotype
           Diversification of the Endemic Malagasy Leaf-Toed Geckos (Squamata:
           Gekkonidae: Uroplatus)

    • Authors: Marcello Mezzasalma, Elvira Brunelli, Gaetano Odierna, Fabio Maria Guarino
      First page: 2054
      Abstract: We provide here the first karyotype description of eight Uroplatus species and a characterization of their chromosomal diversity. We performed a molecular taxonomic assessment of several Uroplatus samples using the mitochondrial 12S marker and a comparative cytogenetic analysis with standard karyotyping, silver staining (Ag-NOR) and sequential C-banding + Giemsa, +Chromomycin A3 (CMA3), +4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). We found chromosomal variability in terms of chromosome number (2n = 34–38), heterochromatin composition and number and localization of loci or Nucleolar Organizer Regions (NORs) (alternatively on the 2nd, 6th, 10th or 16th pair). Chromosome morphology is almost constant, with karyotypes composed of acrocentric chromosomes, gradually decreasing in length. C-banding evidenced a general low content of heterochromatin, mostly localized on pericentromeric and telomeric regions. Centromeric bands varied among the species studied, resulting in CMA3 positive and DAPI negative or positive to both fluorochromes. We also provide evidence of a first putative heteromorphic sex chromosome system in the genus. In fact, in U. alluaudi the 10th pair was highly heteromorphic, with a metacentric, largely heterochromatic W chromosome, which was much bigger than the Z. We propose an evolutionary scenario of chromosome reduction from 2n = 38 to 2n = 34, by means of translocations of microchromosomes on larger chromosomes (often involving the NOR-bearing microchromosomes). Adding our data to those available from the literature, we show that similar processes characterized the evolutionary radiation of a larger gecko clade. Finally, we hypothesize that sex chromosome diversification occurred independently in different genera.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162054
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2055: Mapping of the Thermal Microenvironment for
           Dairy Cows in an Open Compost-Bedded Pack Barn System with
           Positive-Pressure Ventilation

    • Authors: Carlos Eduardo Alves Oliveira, Ilda de Fátima Ferreira Tinôco, Flávio Alves Damasceno, Victor Crespo de Oliveira, Gabriel Araújo e Silva Ferraz, Fernanda Campos de Sousa, Rafaella Resende Andrade, Matteo Barbari
      First page: 2055
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate and characterize the dependence and the spatial and temporal distribution of variables and indices of the thermal environment in an open compost-bedded pack barn system with positive-pressure ventilation (CBPPV) during the winter period. The study was conducted in a CBPPV system located in the Zona da Mata region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The indoor environment was divided into a mesh composed of 55 equidistant points, where data on dry-bulb air temperature (tdb) and relative humidity (RH) were collected. The collected data were divided into four periods—dawn, morning, afternoon, and night—and mean values were obtained. To evaluate the thermal microenvironment, the temperature and humidity index (THI) and the specific enthalpy of air (h) were used. For spatial dependence analysis, geostatistical techniques were applied. Through the results, a strong spatial dependence was verified for all variables evaluated. Through THI and h maps, conditions of thermal comfort were found for dairy cattle. The highest values of tdb, THI, and h were recorded in the afternoon period in the northwest region of the facility (tdb = 23.2 °C, THI = 69.7, and h = 50.9 kJ∙kg of dry air−1).
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162055
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2056: Effect of Dietary 4-Phenylbuthyric Acid
           Supplementation on Acute Heat-Stress-Induced Hyperthermia in Broiler

    • Authors: Yukako Tokutake, Ryo Takanashi, Motoi Kikusato, Masaaki Toyomizu, Kan Sato
      First page: 2056
      Abstract: Hot, humid weather causes heat stress (HS) in broiler chickens, which can lead to high mortality. A recent study found that HS causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, the possible involvement of ER stress in HS-induced physiological alterations in broiler chickens is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the dietary supplementation of 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), an alleviator of ER stress, in acute HS-exposed young broiler chickens. Twenty-eight 14-day-old male broiler chickens (ROSS 308) were divided into two groups and fed either a control diet or a diet containing 4-PBA (5.25 g per kg of diet feed) for 10 days. At 24 days old, each group of chickens was kept in thermoneutral (24 ± 0.5 °C) or acute HS (36 ± 0.5 °C) conditions for 2 h. The results showed that thermoneutral birds supplemented with 4-PBA exhibited no negative effects in terms of broiler body weight gain and tissue weight compared to non-supplemental birds. HS increased body temperature in both the control and 4-PBA groups, but the elevation was significantly lower in the 4-PBA group than in the control group. The plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentration was significantly increased by HS treatment in non-supplemental groups, while the increase was partially attenuated in the 4-PBA group. Moreover, 4-PBA prevented HS-induced gene elevation of the ER stress markers GRP78 and GRP94 in the skeletal muscle. These findings suggest that the 4-PBA effect may be specific to the skeletal muscle in HS-exposed birds and that 4-PBA supplementation attenuated HS-induced muscle ER stress, which could be associated with a supplementation of the body temperature elevation and lipolysis.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162056
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2057: Non-Native Turtles (Chelydridae) in
           Freshwater Ecosystems in Italy: A Threat to Biodiversity and Human

    • Authors: Giuseppe Esposito, Luciano Di Tizio, Marino Prearo, Alessandro Dondo, Carlo Ercolini, Gianpiero Nieddu, Angelo Ferrari, Paolo Pastorino
      First page: 2057
      Abstract: Marketed globally, freshwater turtles are popular pets. Two species of the Chelydridae family are increasingly reported in Italy: the snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) and the alligator snapping turtle (Macrochelys temminckii). Both pose potential threats to public safety and habitat biodiversity. This update reports on their distribution and impact on biodiversity and human health. The recent increase in the number of C. serpentina in urban and rural areas suggests illegal importation into the country. Findings are reported for the north (35% and 100% for C. serpentina and M. temminckii, respectively) and the central-northern regions (60% for C. serpentina), predominantly Umbria and Latium, and the Tiber River catchment area in particular. Because omnivorous, Chelydridae species can affect native biodiversity; because they are carriers of pathogens, they endanger public health. Monitoring plans need to take account of this neglected threat.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162057
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2058: Bibliometric Analysis of Literature in Snake
           Venom-Related Research Worldwide (1933–2022)

    • Authors: Fajar Sofyantoro, Donan Satria Yudha, Kenny Lischer, Tri Rini Nuringtyas, Wahyu Aristyaning Putri, Wisnu Ananta Kusuma, Yekti Asih Purwestri, Respati Tri Swasono
      First page: 2058
      Abstract: Snake envenomation is a severe economic and health concern affecting countries worldwide. Snake venom carries a wide variety of small peptides and proteins with various immunological and pharmacological properties. A few key research areas related to snake venom, including its applications in treating cancer and eradicating antibiotic-resistant bacteria, have been gaining significant attention in recent years. The goal of the current study was to analyze the global profile of literature in snake venom research. This study presents a bibliometric review of snake venom-related research documents indexed in the Scopus database between 1933 and 2022. The overall number of documents published on a global scale was 2999, with an average annual production of 34 documents. Brazil produced the highest number of documents (n = 729), followed by the United States (n = 548), Australia (n = 240), and Costa Rica (n = 235). Since 1963, the number of publications has been steadily increasing globally. At a worldwide level, antivenom, proteomics, and transcriptomics are growing hot issues for research in this field. The current research provides a unique overview of snake venom research at global level from 1933 through 2022, and it may be beneficial in guiding future research.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162058
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2059: Anterior Mandibular Displacement in Growing
           Rats—A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Efstratios Ferdianakis, Ioannis Lyros, Ioannis A. Tsolakis, Antigoni Alexiou, Konstantina Alexiou, Apostolos I. Tsolakis
      First page: 2059
      Abstract: Skeletal Class II malocclusion is the most common skeletal anomaly in orthodontics. Growth in the body of the deficient mandible is induced by periosteal apposition and endochondral ossification in the condyle. Functional appliances have been used in the correction of Class II malocclusions by inducing mandibular growth. Despite their utilization though, their effect still remains controversial. The aim of the present study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of mandibular protrusion in mandibular growth of growing rats. A protocol was followed according to the guidelines of the Cohrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews. Databases were searched using a specific algorithm. From the ten studies finally analyzed, we conclude that the use of a functional appliance in growing rats induces cell proliferation and bone formation in their condyles, resulting in mandibular growth.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162059
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2060: Competitiveness of Spanish Local Breeds

    • Authors: José Perea, Ramón Arias
      First page: 2060
      Abstract: Spain is among the countries with the greatest diversity of local breeds, as a result of an extensive and heterogeneous cultural and agroecological heritage [...]
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162060
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2061: Transcriptomic and Behavioral Studies of
           Small Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) in Response to Noise

    • Authors: Xuguang Zhang, Jun Zhou, Wengang Xu, Wei Zhan, Huafeng Zou, Jun Lin
      First page: 2061
      Abstract: Noise has the potential to induce physiological stress in marine fishes, which may lead to all sorts of ecological consequences. In the current study, we used the RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) method to sequence the whole transcriptome of the brain in small yellow croaker (Larimichthyspolyactis). The animals were exposed to a mix of noises produced by different types of boat played back in a tank, then the brain tissues were collected after the fish had been exposed to a 120 dB noise for 0.5 h. In total, 762 differently expressed genes (DEGs) between the two groups were identified, including 157 up regulated and 605 down regulated genes in the noise exposure group compared with the control group. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis indicated that the most up regulated gene categories included synaptic membranes,receptor-mediated endocytosis and the neurotransmitter secretion process. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways found that endocytosis, cell adhesion molecules and the extracellular matrix (ECM) receptor interaction pathway were over-present. Specifically, ECM-related genes, including lamin2, lamin3, lamin4, coll1a2, coll5a1 and col4a5 were down regulated in the noise exposure group, implying the impaired composition of the ECM. In addition, the behavior experiment revealed that L. polyactis exhibited avoidance behaviors to run away from the noise source at the beginning the noise exposure period. At the end of the noise exposure period, L. polyactis kept motionless on the surface of the water and lost the ability to keep their balance. Taken together, our results indicate that exposure to noise stress contributes to neurological dysfunction in the brain and impaired locomotor ability in L. polyactis.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162061
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2062: Cultural and Medicinal Use of Amphibians and
           Reptiles by Indigenous People in Punjab, Pakistan with Comments on
           Conservation Implications for Herpetofauna

    • Authors: Saba Adil, Muhammad Altaf, Tanveer Hussain, Muhammad Umair, Jian Ni, Arshad Mehmood Abbasi, Rainer W. Bussmann, Sana Ashraf
      First page: 2062
      Abstract: Amphibians and reptiles have interacted with humans for millennia. However, humans interact with amphibian and reptile species in different manners, which depend on their culture and traditions. This study was designed to better understand the interactions between amphibian and reptile species and their usage among the native peoples in the vicinity of the Jhelum and Chenab rivers, Pakistan. Information was collected through semi-structured interviews and questionnaires, and was analyzed by using different indices, including the frequency of citation, corrected fidelity level, fidelity level, relative importance level, and informant major ailment. Two amphibians and twenty-six reptile species were used in therapeutic medicine in the study area. Based on the cultural analysis, we found that Naja naja (black cobra) was highly cited across all cultural groups. A 100% Fidelity Level was calculated for the following species: Naja naja (eye infection), Varanus bengalensis (joint pain), Eurylepis taeniolatus (cataract), and Acanthodactylus cantoris (cancer). We found five endangered species in the study area, i.e., Aspideretes gangeticus, A. hurum, Chitra indica, Varanus flavescens, and Geoclemys hamiltonii, that were used to cure joint pain, muscle stretching and pain, backbone pain, paralysis, and psoriasis, respectively. Likewise, Lissemys punctata andersoni, a vulnerable species as labelled by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, was extensively used for the treatment of joint pain, body pain, paralysis, and arthritis in the study area. In terms of conservation, it is critical to protect the highly vulnerable and endangered species that are being used in therapeutic medicines. Our findings may be helpful for the conservation of amphibian and reptile species by helping to make an effective plan to prevent their extinction. The main threats to the diversity of amphibian and reptile species in the area are hunting, trading, and cultural use. These threats could potentially lead to the extinction of these species. Therefore, with the involvement of concerned authorities, e.g., local stakeholders, the Ministry of Climate Change, provincial wildlife departments, academia, and conservation managers, immediate conservation measures should be taken for the protection and sustainable utilization of medicinal species.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162062
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2063: Regulation of a High-Iron Diet on Lipid
           Metabolism and Gut Microbiota in Mice

    • Authors: Qingqing Xiong, Jing Zhao, Chenying Tian, Wan Ma, Linfeng Miao, Li Liang, Kang Zhang, Huahua Du
      First page: 2063
      Abstract: Iron homeostasis disorder is associated with the imbalance of lipid metabolism, while the specific interaction remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a high-iron diet on lipid metabolism in mice. The C57BL/6 mice were fed with a normal diet (WT) or a high-iron diet (WT + Fe) for 12 weeks. We found that mice in the WT + Fe group showed a significant decrease in body weight gain, body fat and lipid accumulation of liver when compared with mice in the WT group. Accordingly, serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were both reduced in mice with a high-iron diet. Moreover, mice in the WT + Fe group exhibited a significant decrease in expression of genes regulating adipogenesis and adipocyte differentiation, and a significant increase in expression of fat hydrolysis enzyme genes in both liver and adipose tissues, which was consistent with their dramatic reduction in adipocyte cell size. In addition, a high-iron diet decreased the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria (Akkermansia, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus) and increased the relative abundance of pathogenic bacteria (Romboutsia and Erysipelatoclostridium). Thus, our research revealed that a high-iron diet reduced lipid deposition by inhibiting adipogenesis and promoting lipolysis. Altered gut microbial composition induced by a high-iron diet may not play a critical role in regulating lipid metabolism, but might cause unwanted side effects such as intestinal inflammation and damaged villi morphology at the intestinal host–microbe interface. These findings provide new insights into the relationship among iron, lipid metabolism and gut microbiota.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162063
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2064: Effects of Dietary Inclusion of Sericea
           Lespedeza Hay on Feed Intake, Digestion, Nutrient Utilization, Growth
           Performance, and Ruminal Fermentation and Methane Emission of Alpine
           Doelings and Katahdin Ewe Lambs

    • Authors: Wei Wang, Amlan Kumar Patra, Ryszard Puchala, Luana Ribeiro, Terry Allen Gipson, Arthur Louis Goetsch
      First page: 2064
      Abstract: Twenty-four Alpine doelings, initial 25.3 ± 0.55 kg body weight (BW) and 10.4 ± 0.11 mo of age, and 24 Katahdin ewe lambs, 28.3 ± 1.02 kg BW and 9.6 ± 0.04 mo of age, were used to determine effects of dietary inclusion of Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) hay on feed intake, digestion, growth performance, energy metabolism, and ruminal fermentation and methane emission. There were four periods, the first three 42 days in length and the fourth 47 days. Diets consumed ad libitum contained 75% coarsely ground hay with alfalfa (ALF), a 1:1 mixture of ALF and LES (ALF+LES), and LES (10.0% condensed tannins; CT). The intake of dry matter (DM) tended to be greater (p = 0.063) for Katahdin than for Alpine (4.14 vs. 3.84% BW; SEM = 0.110). The dry matter intake was similar among the diets (3.97, 4.10, and 3.89% BW for ALF, ALF+LES, and LES, respectively; SEM = 0.134). The digestion of organic matter (75.3, 69.3, and 65.5%; SEM = 0.86), neutral detergent fiber (61.7, 50.5, and 41.4%; SEM = 1.49), and nitrogen (78.8, 66.9, and 50.8% for ALF, ALF+LES, and LES, respectively; SEM = 0.92) decreased as the dietary concentration of lespedeza increased (p < 0.05). However, there was an interaction (p < 0.05) between the breed and diet in nitrogen digestion, with a greater value for goats vs. sheep with LES (54.4 vs. 47.3%; SEM = 1.30). The digested nitrogen intake decreased markedly with the increasing quantity of lespedeza (38.0, 27.5, and 15.7 g/day for ALF, ALF+LES, and LES, respectively; SEM = 1.26). The average daily gain was greater for Katahdin than for Alpine (p < 0.001; 180 vs. 88 g, SEM = 5.0) and ranked (p < 0.05) ALF > ALF+LES > LES (159, 132, and 111 g, respectively; SEM = 6.1). The ruminal methane emission differed (p < 0.05) between animal types in MJ/day (1.17 and 1.44), kJ/g DM intake (1.39 and 1.23), and kJ/g ADG (18.1 and 9.8 for Alpine and Katahdin, respectively). Regardless of the period and animal type, diet did not impact methane emission in MJ/day or relative to DM intake, BW, or ADG (p > 0.05). The digestible and metabolizable energy intakes, heat production, and retained energy were not affected by diet (p > 0.05). In conclusion, future research should consider the marked potential effect of CT of forages such as lespedeza on nitrogen digestion and associated effects on protein status and other conditions that may be impacted.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162064
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2065: Rapid Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION
           Sequencing Workflow for Campylobacter jejuni Identification in
           Broilers on Site—A Proof-of-Concept Study

    • Authors: Clara Marin, Francisco Marco-Jiménez, Llucia Martínez-Priego, Griselda De Marco-Romero, Vicente Soriano-Chirona, Laura Lorenzo-Rebenaque, Giuseppe D’Auria
      First page: 2065
      Abstract: Campylobacter is recognised as one of the most important foodborne bacteria, with a worldwide health and socioeconomic impact. This bacterium is one of the most important zoonotic players in poultry, where efficient and fast detection methods are required. Current official culture methods for Campylobacter enumeration in poultry usually include >44 h of culture and >72 h for identification, thus requiring at least five working shifts (ISO/TS 10272-2:2017). Here, we have assembled a portable sequencing kit composed of the Bento Lab and the MinION and developed a workflow for on-site farm use that is able to detect and report the presence of Campylobacter from caecal samples in less than five hours from sampling time, as well as the relationship of Campylobacter with other caecal microbes. Beyond that, our workflow may offer a cost-effective and practical method of microbiologically monitoring poultry at the farm. These results would demonstrate the possibility of carrying out rapid on-site screening to monitor the health status of the poultry farm/flock during the production chain.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162065
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2066: Effect of Varying Dietary Crude Protein
           Level on Milk Production, Nutrient Digestibility, and Serum Metabolites by
           Lactating Donkeys

    • Authors: Yuanxi Yue, Li Li, Manman Tong, Shuyi Li, Yanli Zhao, Xiaoyu Guo, Yongmei Guo, Binlin Shi, Sumei Yan
      First page: 2066
      Abstract: Donkey milk is considered as a functional food due to its high levels of whey protein, and can be used in newborn nutrition, due to the nutritional similarities with human milk and its hypoallergenic property. However, donkey milk yield is very low and little is known about improving donkey milk yield by nutrition manipulation. The effect of dietary crude protein (CP) levels on milk production, nutrient digestibility, and serum metabolites was investigated in the current study. Twenty-four lactating donkeys were randomly assigned to one of the following three CP content diets: 15.3% (HP), 14.2% (MP), and 13.1% (LP) of dry matter, respectively. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks, with the first two weeks being used for adaptation. The results showed that milk yield and yields of protein, lactose, solid-not-fat, total solid, and contents of protein, total solid and milk urea nitrogen in the HP and MP groups were higher than the LP group. No significant changes were observed in dry-matter intake, contents of milk fat, lactose or solid-not-fat. The feed conversion ratio, milk protein synthesis efficiency, and the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, calcium and phosphorous in the HP and MP groups were greater than the LP group. Serum total protein, albumin and urea nitrogen concentrations decreased, while concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate increased in the LP group compared with the HP and MP groups. In conclusion, the diet containing 14.2% CP supplied an adequate amount of protein for improving milk production in lactating donkeys, but milk production was not further increased by feeding the donkeys more than 14.2% CP.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12162066
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 16 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1967: Shipping Temperature, Time and Media Effects
           on Equine Wharton’s Jelly and Adipose Tissue Derived Mesenchymal
           Stromal Cells Characteristics

    • Authors: Eleonora Iacono, Aliai Lanci, Penelope Gugole, Barbara Merlo
      First page: 1967
      Abstract: To use Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) in equine patients, isolation and expansion are performed in a laboratory. Cells are then sent back to the veterinary clinic. The main goal of storage conditions during cell transport is to preserve their biological properties and viability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage solutions, temperature and time on the characteristics of equine adipose tissue and Wharton’s jelly-derived MSCs. We compared two different storage solutions (plasma and 0.9% NaCl), two different temperatures (4 °C and room temperature) and three time frames (6, 24, 48 h). Cell viability, colony-forming units, trilineage differentiation, the expression of CD45 and CD90 antigens and adhesion potentials were evaluated. Despite the molecular characterization and differentiation potential were not influenced by storage conditions, viability, colony-forming units and adhesion potential are influenced in different way, depending on MSCs sources. Overall, this study found that, despite equine adipose tissue MSCs being usable after 24 h of storage, cells derived from Wharton’s jelly need to be used within 6 h. Moreover, while for adipose cells the best conservation solutions seems to be plasma, the cell viability of Wharton’s jelly MSCs declined in both saline and plasma solution, confirming their reduced resistance to conservation.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151967
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1968: Inclusion of Sunflower Oil, Organic
           Selenium, and Vitamin E on Milk Production and Composition, and Blood
           Parameters of Lactating Cows

    • Authors: Arlindo Saran Netto, Thiago H. Silva, Mellory M. Martins, Ana Maria C. Vidal, Márcia S. V. Salles, Luiz C. Roma Júnior, Marcus A. Zanetti
      First page: 1968
      Abstract: Aiming to improve milk quality and animal health, the effects of the inclusion of sunflower oil with added organic selenium (Se) and vitamin E in the diets of lactating cows were evaluated. Twenty-four multiparous lactating Jersey cows were randomly enrolled into four treatments: CON (control); SEL [2.5 mg organic Se kg−1 dry matter (DM) + 1000 IU vitamin E daily]; SUN (sunflower oil 3% DM); and SEL + SUN (sunflower oil 3% DM + 2.5 mg organic Se kg−1 DM + 1000 IU vitamin E daily). The experimental period was 12 weeks with 14 days for acclimation. Cows were milked twice a day. Dry matter intake, milk production, and composition were measured daily and analyzed in a pooled 4-week sample. On day 84, white blood cell counts, as well as serum and milk Se and vitamin E levels, were assessed. Supplementation with selenium and vitamin E alone or combined with sunflower oil increased milk production, and increased the serum and milk concentrations of those nutrients. The inclusion of sunflower oil reduced fat content and DM intake but also altered the milk fatty acid profile, mainly increasing levels of trans 11 C18:1 (vaccenic) and cis 9 trans 11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Our results indicate that supplementation with sunflower oil, Se and vitamin E provides beneficial effects on animal performance and milk composition, which could be an important source of CLA and antioxidants (Se and vitamin E) for human consumption.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151968
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1969: Increasing Environmental Complexity by
           Providing Different Types of Litter and Perches during Early Rearing
           Boosts Coping Abilities in Domestic Fowl Chicks

    • Authors: Franco Nicolas Nazar, Lena Skånberg, Kirste McCrea, Linda Jane Keeling
      First page: 1969
      Abstract: Early experience of a complex environment can improve biologically relevant traits related to coping abilities. However, the mechanisms underlying these positive effects have not been well explored. We hypothesized that giving chicks possibilities to express choices within relevant resources could be an important part of the mechanism, as well as a novel way to increase environmental complexity. In a balanced design, laying hen hatchlings of the white hybrid Bovans Robust were reared in a “single-choice” environment (single litter and perch type) or a “multi-choice” environment (four different litter and perch types). Immunological and behavioral indicators of chicks’ coping abilities were explored in this experimental study at three weeks of age. Chicks from “multi-choice” environments had shorter durations of tonic immobility, lower heterophil/lymphocyte ratios, higher natural antibody concentrations, and were more successful in gaining novel food rewards in a repeated opportunity test. These results imply that chicks having access to variation within resource types were less fearful, experienced less chronic stress, would be more able to cope with pathogenic challenges, and potentially had an improved learning ability. To conclude, the more complex environment, achieved by increasing chicks’ possibilities to choose, seemed to make chicks better prepared for potential challenges, boosting their adaptive capacities and their ability to make the most of opportunities.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151969
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1970: Insights into the Evolution of Aphid
           Mitogenome Features from New Data and Comparative Analysis

    • Authors: Hui Zhang, Congcong Lu, Qian Liu, Tianmin Zou, Gexia Qiao, Xiaolei Huang
      First page: 1970
      Abstract: The complete mitochondrial genomes and their rearrangement patterns can provide useful information for inferring evolutionary history of organisms. Aphids are one of the insect groups with some unique mitogenome features. In this study, to examine whether some features in aphid mitogenomes are independent species-specific evolutionary events or clade-specific events at certain taxonomic levels, we sequenced three new aphid mitogenomes (Hormaphidinae: Ceratovacuna keduensis, Pseudoregma panicola; Lachninae: Nippolachnus piri) and compared them with all known aphid mitogenomes. The three mitogenomes are 16,059–17,033 bp in length, with a set of 37 typical mitochondrial genes, a non-coding control region and a tandem repeat region. The gene orders of them are all highly rearranged. Within the subfamily Hormaphidinae, the presence of repeat region and mitogenome rearrangement in Cerataphidini species but not in the other two tribes indicate that these may be Cerataphidini-specific features. The same gene rearrangement pattern in the two Lachninae species, N. piri (Tuberolachnini) and Stomaphis sinisalicis (Stomaphidini), supports that this feature should be at least derived from the common ancestor of two tribes. Overall, our data and analyses provide new insights into the evolutionary patterns of gene rearrangement and repeat region in aphid mitogenomes, and further corroborate the potential role of gene rearrangement in elucidating the evolutionary history of different insect lineages.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151970
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1971: No Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Wild
           Mink (Mustela lutreola and Neogale vison) from Northern Spain during the
           First Two Years of Pandemic

    • Authors: Sergio Villanueva-Saz, Jacobo Giner, Ana María Palomar, María Asunción Gómez, Madis Põdra, María del Carmen Aranda, María de los Ángeles Jiménez, Patricia Lizarraga, Raquel Hernández, Aránzazu Portillo, José Antonio Oteo, Ignacio Ruíz-Arrondo, María Dolores Pérez, Ana Pilar Tobajas, Maite Verde, Delia Lacasta, Diana Marteles, Ramón Hurtado-Guerrero, Llipsy Santiago, Héctor Ruíz, Antonio Fernández
      First page: 1971
      Abstract: The impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on wildlife is largely unevaluated, and extended surveillance of animal species is needed to reach a consensus on the role of animals in the emergence and maintenance of SARS-CoV-2. This infection has been detected in farmed and domestic animals and wild animals, mainly in captivity. The interactions or shared resources with wildlife could represent a potential transmission pathway for the SARS-CoV-2 spill over to other wild species and could lead to health consequences or the establishment of new reservoirs in susceptible hosts. This study evaluated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in European mink (Mustela lutreola) and American mink (Neogale vison) in Spain by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the receptor binding domain (RBD) of Spike antigen in serum samples and/or by RT-qPCR assays in oropharyngeal and rectal swabs. From January 2020 to February 2022, a total of 162 animals (127 European mink and 35 American mink) with no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection were included in the study. Antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 were not found in the serum samples analysed (n = 126), nor was the virus amplified by RT-qPCR (n = 160 swabs). Our results suggest that the potential role of wild mink and the European mink bred in captivity and released to the wild as dispersers of SARS-CoV-2 is so far low. However, wildlife surveillance for early detection of human and animal risks should be continued. In this sense, epidemiological monitoring measures, including serology and molecular analysis, are necessary.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151971
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1972: Supplementing Citrus aurantium Flavonoid
           Extract in High-Fat Finishing Diets Improves Animal Behavior and Rumen
           Health and Modifies Rumen and Duodenum Epithelium Gene Expression in
           Holstein Bulls

    • Authors: Montserrat Paniagua, Javier Francisco Crespo, Anna Arís, Maria Devant
      First page: 1972
      Abstract: One hundred and forty-six bulls (178.2 ± 6.64 kg BW and 146.0 ± 0.60 d of age) were randomly allocated to one of eight pens and assigned to control (C) or citrus flavonoid (BF) treatments (Citrus aurantium, Bioflavex CA, HTBA, S.L.U., Barcelona, Spain, 0.4 kg per ton of Bioflavex CA). At the finishing phase, the dietary fat content of the concentrate was increased (58 to 84 g/kg DM). Concentrate intake was recorded daily, and BW and animal behavior by visual scan, fortnightly. After 168 d, bulls were slaughtered, carcass data were recorded, and rumen and duodenum epithelium samples were collected. Performance data were not affected by treatment, except for the growing phase where concentrate intake (p < 0.05) was lesser in the BF compared with the C bulls. Agonistic and sexual behaviors were more frequent (p < 0.01) in the C than in the BF bulls. In the rumen epithelium, in contrast to duodenum, gene expression of some bitter taste receptors (7, 16, 39) and other genes related to behavior and inflammation was higher (p < 0.05) in the BF compared with the C bulls. Supplementing citrus flavonoids in high-fat finishing diets to Holstein bulls reduces growing concentrate consumption and improves animal welfare.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151972
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1973: Exploring the Potential of Myrothamnus
           flabellifolius Welw. (Resurrection Tree) as a Phytogenic Feed Additive in
           Animal Nutrition

    • Authors: Carlos Wyson Tawanda Nantapo, Upenyu Marume
      First page: 1973
      Abstract: Myrothamnus flabellifolius (Welw.) is used in African traditional medicine for the treatment of depression and mental disorder, asthma, infectious diseases, respiratory, inflammation, epilepsy, heart, wound, backaches, diabetes, kidney ailments, hypertension, hemorrhoids, gingivitis, shingles, stroke, and skins conditions. The effectiveness of M. flabellifolius is due to the presence of several secondary metabolites that have demonstrated efficacy in other cell and animal models. These metabolites are key in cell regulation and function and have potential use in animal production due to antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, for an improvement in growth performance, feed quality and palatability, gut microbial environment, function, and animal health. The purpose of this review is to provide a detailed account on the potential use of M. flabellifolius in animal nutrition. Limitations towards the use of this plant in animal nutrition, including toxicity, economic, and financial issues are discussed. Finally, novel strategies and technologies, e.g., microencapsulation, microbial fermentation, and essential oil extraction, used to unlock and improve nutrient bioaccessibility and bioavailability are clearly discussed towards the potential use of M. flabellifolius as a phytogenic additive in animal diets.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151973
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1974: Signs of Anxiety and Salivary Copeptin
           Levels in Dogs Diagnosed with Separation-Related Problems in a Short
           Separation Test

    • Authors: Ludovica Pierantoni, Mariangela Albertini, Patrizia Piotti, Giulia Ripamonti, Paola Pocar, Vitaliano Borromeo, Federica Pirrone
      First page: 1974
      Abstract: The need for faster diagnosis and more accurate treatment decisions in separation-related problems (SRPs) in dogs is urgent, and a more precise behavioral phenotyping and the development of biomarkers may be of great value. Vasopressin could be a potential non-invasive biomarker of anxiety in dogs with SRPs, but reliable measurement of its concentration is challenging. Here, we compared the behavior and salivary concentrations of copeptin, an arginine vasopressin surrogate, in dogs with SRPs (Case group, n = 13) and with no problems (Control group, n = 15) as they were introduced to a novel environment and subjected to a short episode of separation and reunion with the owner. Dogs in the Case group had greater odds of showing locomotory or oral behaviors during the pre- and post-separation than Controls, while the odds were significantly lower during separation. They also had greater odds of being persistent in seeking attention and proximity from the stranger during reunion. Overall, dogs with SRPs were more likely to express an anxiety-like state during the entire test than Controls, with separation from the owner, and even its anticipation, possibly accounting for this group difference. Although salivary copeptin concentrations did not differ between the two groups, a different trend was detected in Cases and Controls that is worth exploring in further validation studies involving a larger sample.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151974
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1975: Defining Terms Used for Animals Working in
           Support Roles for People with Support Needs

    • Authors: Tiffani J. Howell, Leanne Nieforth, Clare Thomas-Pino, Lauren Samet, Sunday Agbonika, Francisca Cuevas-Pavincich, Nina Ekholm Fry, Kristine Hill, Brinda Jegatheesan, Miki Kakinuma, Maureen MacNamara, Sanna Mattila-Rautiainen, Andy Perry, Christine Y. Tardif-Williams, Elizabeth Ann Walsh, Melissa Winkle, Mariko Yamamoto, Rachel Yerbury, Vijay Rawat, Kathy Alm, Ashley Avci, Tanya Bailey, Hannah Baker, Pree Benton, Catherine Binney, Sara Boyle, Hagit Brandes, Alexa M. Carr, Wendy Coombe, Kendra Coulter, Audrey Darby, Lowri Davies, Esther Delisle, Marie-Jose Enders-Slegers, Angela Fournier, Marie Fox, Nancy Gee, Taryn M. Graham, Anne Hamilton-Bruce, Tia G. B. Hansen, Lynette Hart, Morag Heirs, Jade Hooper, Rachel Howe, Elizabeth Johnson, Melanie Jones, Christos Karagiannis, Emily Kieson, Sun-A Kim, Christine Kivlen, Beth Lanning, Helen Lewis, Deborah Linder, Dac Loc Mai, Chiara Mariti, Rebecca Mead, Gilly Mendes Ferreira, Debbie Ngai, Samantha O’Keeffe, Grainne O’Connor, Christine Olsen, Elizabeth Ormerod, Emma R. Power, Peggy A. Pritchard, Kerri Rodriguez, Deborah Rook, Matthew B. Ruby, Leah Schofield, Tania Signal, Jill Steel, Wendy Stone, Melissa Symonds, Diane van Rooy, Tiamat Warda, Monica Wilson, Janette Young, Pauleen Bennett
      First page: 1975
      Abstract: The nomenclature used to describe animals working in roles supporting people can be confusing. The same term may be used to describe different roles, or two terms may mean the same thing. This confusion is evident among researchers, practitioners, and end users. Because certain animal roles are provided with legal protections and/or government-funding support in some jurisdictions, it is necessary to clearly define the existing terms to avoid confusion. The aim of this paper is to provide operationalized definitions for nine terms, which would be useful in many world regions: “assistance animal”, “companion animal”, “educational/school support animal”, “emotional support animal”, “facility animal”, “service animal”, “skilled companion animal”, “therapy animal”, and “visiting/visitation animal”. At the International Society for Anthrozoology (ISAZ) conferences in 2018 and 2020, over 100 delegates participated in workshops to define these terms, many of whom co-authored this paper. Through an iterative process, we have defined the nine terms and explained how they differ from each other. We recommend phasing out two terms (i.e., “skilled companion animal” and “service animal”) due to overlap with other terms that could potentially exacerbate confusion. The implications for several regions of the world are discussed.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151975
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1976: Animal Detection and Classification from
           Camera Trap Images Using Different Mainstream Object Detection

    • Authors: Mengyu Tan, Wentao Chao, Jo-Ku Cheng, Mo Zhou, Yiwen Ma, Xinyi Jiang, Jianping Ge, Lian Yu, Limin Feng
      First page: 1976
      Abstract: Camera traps are widely used in wildlife surveys and biodiversity monitoring. Depending on its triggering mechanism, a large number of images or videos are sometimes accumulated. Some literature has proposed the application of deep learning techniques to automatically identify wildlife in camera trap imagery, which can significantly reduce manual work and speed up analysis processes. However, there are few studies validating and comparing the applicability of different models for object detection in real field monitoring scenarios. In this study, we firstly constructed a wildlife image dataset of the Northeast Tiger and Leopard National Park (NTLNP dataset). Furthermore, we evaluated the recognition performance of three currently mainstream object detection architectures and compared the performance of training models on day and night data separately versus together. In this experiment, we selected YOLOv5 series models (anchor-based one-stage), Cascade R-CNN under feature extractor HRNet32 (anchor-based two-stage), and FCOS under feature extractors ResNet50 and ResNet101 (anchor-free one-stage). The experimental results showed that performance of the object detection models of the day-night joint training is satisfying. Specifically, the average result of our models was 0.98 mAP (mean average precision) in the animal image detection and 88% accuracy in the animal video classification. One-stage YOLOv5m achieved the best recognition accuracy. With the help of AI technology, ecologists can extract information from masses of imagery potentially quickly and efficiently, saving much time.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151976
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1977: Retrospective Evaluation of Intravenous
           Enoxaparin Administration in Feline Arterial Thromboembolism

    • Authors: Athanasia Mitropoulou, Esther Hassdenteufel, Joanna Lin, Natali Bauer, Gabriel Wurtinger, Claudia Vollmar, Estelle Henrich, Nicolai Hildebrandt, Matthias Schneider
      First page: 1977
      Abstract: Induction of a hypocoagulable state is imperative in the treatment of feline arterial thromboembolism. Publications in human medicine report the use of enoxaparin intravenously in selected cases. The aim of our retrospective study was to report the regain of perfusion, short-term outcome, and complications of cats treated with a novel intravenous enoxaparin protocol (1 mg/kg bolus injection followed by 3 mg/kg/day continuous infusion) combined with oral clopidogrel administration. The secondary aim was to report the monitoring of enoxaparin with anti-Xa activity. There were 36 cats included. The probability of reaching limb reperfusion was significantly (p = 0.0148) higher with anti-Xa activity within or above the target range compared to results below the target range (19/21, 90% versus 11/20, 55%). The complications observed were acute kidney injury (15/36, 42%), hemorrhage (2/36, 6%), and neurological signs (6/36, 17%). The most common causes of death/euthanasia were cardiac instability, acute kidney injury, neurological abnormalities, and limb necrosis. The hospital discharge rate was 83% (10/12) for single limb and 29% (7/24) for dual limb thrombosis; the difference was significant (p = 0.0039). The median hospitalization time for the survivors was 119.5 (95–480) h. Our study supports the use of intravenous continuous rate infusion of enoxaparin in combination with oral clopidogrel for cats with aortic thromboembolism. We report similar discharge rates and lower hemorrhage rates than previously reported with thrombolytic treatment.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151977
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1978: Red Sea Bream Iridovirus (RSIV) Kinetics in
           Rock Bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) at Various Fish-Rearing Seawater

    • Authors: Kyung-Ho Kim, Kwang-Min Choi, Min-Soo Joo, Gyoungsik Kang, Won-Sik Woo, Min-Young Sohn, Ha-Jeong Son, Mun-Gyeong Kwon, Jae-Ok Kim, Do-Hyung Kim, Chan-Il Park
      First page: 1978
      Abstract: Red sea bream iridoviral disease (RSIVD) causes serious economic losses in the aquaculture industry. In this paper, we evaluated RSIV kinetics in rock bream under various rearing water temperatures and different RSIV inoculation concentrations. High viral copy numbers (approximately 103.7–106.7 RSIV genome copies/L/g) were observed during the period of active fish mortality after RSIV infection at all concentrations in the tanks (25 °C and 20 °C). In the group injected with 104 RSIV genome copies/fish, RSIV was not detected at 21–30 days post-infection (dpi) in the rearing seawater. In rock bream infected at 15 °C and subjected to increasing water temperature (1 °C/d until 25 °C) 3 days later, the virus replication rate and number of viral copies shed into the rearing seawater increased. With the decrease in temperature (1 °C/d) from 25 to 15 °C after the infection, the virus replicated rapidly and was released at high loads on the initial 3–5 dpi, whereas the number of viral copies in the fish and seawater decreased after 14 dpi. These results indicate that the number of viral copies shed into the rearing seawater varies depending on the RSIV infection level in rock bream.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151978
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1979: Microplastics in Internal Tissues of
           Companion Animals from Urban Environments

    • Authors: Joana C. Prata, Ana L. Patrício Silva, João P. da Costa, Patrícia Dias-Pereira, Alexandre Carvalho, António José Silva Fernandes, Florinda Mendes da Costa, Armando C. Duarte, Teresa Rocha-Santos
      First page: 1979
      Abstract: Companion animals living in urban areas are exposed to environmental contaminants, which may include microplastics. A preliminary study was conducted by collecting postmortem samples from the internal tissue (lungs, ileum, liver, kidney, and blood clots) of 25 dogs (Canis familiaris) and 24 cats (Felis catus) living in an urban environment in Porto metropolitan area, Portugal. Suspected microplastics were found in 80 samples from 35 animals (18 cats and 17 dogs), often occurring in more than one tissue of the same animal (71.4%), primarily under small sizes (50.3% as 1–10 µm). Micro-Raman spectroscopy confirmed a fraction of particles as common polymer types (e.g., polyethylene terephthalate). However, the number of particles was very low. This study highlights the possibilities of the internalization and distribution of microplastics in the internal tissues of terrestrial vertebrates.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151979
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1980: Contour-Based Wild Animal Instance
           Segmentation Using a Few-Shot Detector

    • Authors: Jiaxi Tang, Yaqin Zhao, Liqi Feng, Wenxuan Zhao
      First page: 1980
      Abstract: Camera traps are widely used in wildlife research, conservation, and management, and abundant images are acquired every day. Efficient real-time instance segmentation networks can help ecologists label and study wild animals. However, existing deep convolutional neural networks require a large number of annotations and labels, which makes them unsuitable for small datasets. In this paper, we propose a two-stage method for the instance segmentation of wildlife, including object detection and contour approximation. In the object detection stage, we use FSOD (few-shot object detection) to recognize animal species and detect the initial bounding boxes of animals. In the case of a small wildlife dataset, this method may improve the generalization ability of the wild animal species recognition and even identify new species that only have a small number of training samples. In the second stage, deep snake is used as the contour approximation model for the instance segmentation of wild mammals. The initial bounding boxes generated in the first stage are input to deep snake to approximate the contours of the animal bodies. The model fuses the advantages of detecting new species and real-time instance segmentation. The experimental results show that the proposed method is more suitable for wild animal instance segmentation, in comparison with pixel-wise segmentation methods. In particular, the proposed method shows a better performance when facing challenging images.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151980
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1981: Relative Bioavailability of Trace Minerals
           in Production Animal Nutrition: A Review

    • Authors: Laurann Byrne, Richard A. Murphy
      First page: 1981
      Abstract: The importance of dietary supplementation of animal feeds with trace minerals is irrefutable, with various forms of both organic and inorganic products commercially available. With advances in research techniques, and data obtained from both in-vitro and in-vivo studies in recent years, differences between inorganic and organic trace minerals have become more apparent. Furthermore, differences between specific organic mineral types can now be identified. Adhering to PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews, we carried out an extensive literature search on previously published studies detailing performance responses to trace minerals, in addition to their corresponding relative bioavailability values. This review covers four of the main trace minerals included in feed: copper, iron, manganese and zinc, and encompasses the different types of organic and inorganic products commercially available. Their impact from environmental, economic, and nutritional perspectives are discussed, along with the biological availability of various mineral forms in production animals. Species-specific sections cover ruminants, poultry, and swine. Extensive relative bioavailability tables cover values for all trace mineral products commercially available, including those not previously reviewed in earlier studies, thereby providing a comprehensive industry reference guide. Additionally, we examine reasons for variance in reported relative bioavailability values, with an emphasis on accounting for data misinterpretation.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151981
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1982: The Economic Burden of Chromosome

    • Authors: Nicole M. Lewis, Carla Canedo-Ribeiro, Claudia C. Rathje, Rebecca L. Jennings, Maxim Danihel, Lisa M. Bosman, Giuseppe Silvestri, Darren K. Griffin
      First page: 1982
      Abstract: The cattle breeding industry, through both of its derivatives (dairy and beef), provides 81% of milk and 22% of meat required globally. If a breeding bull is sub-fertile, this impacts herd conception and birth rates, and it is generally accepted that having a proactive genetic screening programme can prevent further losses. Chromosome translocations are the leading genetic cause of infertility in livestock and, in cattle, this extends beyond the classical 1:29 to other Robertsonian translocations (RobTs) and to reciprocal translocations (RECTs). The incidence of both (collectively termed RTs) varies between breeds and herds; however, we estimate that RECTs are, most likely, at least twice as common as RobTs. The purpose of this study was to develop an industry economic model to estimate the financial impact of an RT event at the herd level. If we assume a conservative incidence rate of 0.4% for Rob1:29 with each one impacting the conception rate by 5%, we calculate that actively screening for and removing a Rob1:29 bull could benefit an impacted herd by GBP 2.3 million (approx. USD 2.8 million) over six years. A recently updated screening protocol developed in our lab for all RTs, however (with a projected combined incidence of 1.2%, impacting conception rates by 10%), could benefit an impacted herd by GBP 7.2 million (nearly USD 9 million) for each RT found. For an industry worth USD 827.4 billion (dairy) and USD 467.7 billion (beef), expanding knowledge on incidence and further dissection of the potential costs (financial and environmental) from RTs is essential to prevent further losses.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151982
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1983: A Deep Learning Model for Detecting
           Cage-Free Hens on the Litter Floor

    • Authors: Xiao Yang, Lilong Chai, Ramesh Bahadur Bist, Sachin Subedi, Zihao Wu
      First page: 1983
      Abstract: Real-time and automatic detection of chickens (e.g., laying hens and broilers) is the cornerstone of precision poultry farming based on image recognition. However, such identification becomes more challenging under cage-free conditions comparing to caged hens. In this study, we developed a deep learning model (YOLOv5x-hens) based on YOLOv5, an advanced convolutional neural network (CNN), to monitor hens’ behaviors in cage-free facilities. More than 1000 images were used to train the model and an additional 200 images were adopted to test it. One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD analyses were conducted using JMP software (JMP Pro 16 for Mac, SAS Institute, Cary, North Caronia) to determine whether there are significant differences between the predicted number of hens and the actual number of hens under various situations (i.e., age, light intensity, and observational angles). The difference was considered significant at p < 0.05. Our results show that the evaluation metrics (Precision, Recall, F1 and mAP@0.5) of the YOLOv5x-hens model were 0.96, 0.96, 0.96 and 0.95, respectively, in detecting hens on the litter floor. The newly developed YOLOv5x-hens was tested with stable performances in detecting birds under different lighting intensities, angles, and ages over 8 weeks (i.e., birds were 8–16 weeks old). For instance, the model was tested with 95% accuracy after the birds were 8 weeks old. However, younger chicks such as one-week old birds were harder to be tracked (e.g., only 25% accuracy) due to interferences of equipment such as feeders, drink lines, and perches. According to further data analysis, the model performed efficiently in real-time detection with an overall accuracy more than 95%, which is the key step for the tracking of individual birds for evaluation of production and welfare. However, there are some limitations of the current version of the model. Error detections came from highly overlapped stock, uneven light intensity, and images occluded by equipment (i.e., drinking line and feeder). Future research is needed to address those issues for a higher detection. The current study established a novel CNN deep learning model in research cage-free facilities for the detection of hens, which provides a technical basis for developing a machine vision system for tracking individual birds for evaluation of the animals’ behaviors and welfare status in commercial cage-free houses.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151983
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1984: Hematological Changes in Sika Doe and
           Suckling Fawn Fed with Spent Mushroom Substrate of Pleurotus ostreatus

    • Authors: Chongshan Yuan, Changze Li, Xinyuan Chen, Syed Muhammad Tahir, Aiwu Zhang, Min Wu
      First page: 1984
      Abstract: Sika deer velvet antler is the most important animal nutraceutic in traditional Chinese medicine. Reducing the breeding cost of sika deer by looking for a low-cost diet is the main research direction at present. The purpose of this experiment was to find an alternative diet for sika deer and reduce the cost of the diet by using spent mushroom substrate (SMS) as a concentrate supplement. The apparent digestibility for sika doe and the hematological changes of sika doe and suckling fawn were measured by replacing 10% of the concentrate supplement with SMS of Pleurotus ostreatus (SMS-MP). Compared with the control group, the digestibility of dry matter (DM), total protein (TP), globulin (GLO), and cholesterol (CHOL) of sika doe were significantly decreased (p < 0.05), and glucose (GLU), alanine (Ala), phenylalanine (Phe), and proline (Pro) of sika doe were significantly increased (p < 0.05) after the replacement of SMS-MP. Compared with the control group, the serum GLU of suckling fawn was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) and the phosphatase (ALP) was significantly increased after the replacement of SMS-MP (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the immune globulin and amino acid of suckling fawns between the two groups (p > 0.05). The present findings confirm the applicability of SMS-MP as a sika doe concentrate supplement. At the same time, using SMS, a waste resource, can not only reduce the breeding cost of sika doe, but also make full use of SMS to reduce environmental pollution.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151984
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1985: Assessing the Social Cohesion of a
           Translocated Pride of White Lions Integrated with Wild Tawny Lions in
           South Africa, Using Social Network Analysis

    • Authors: Jason A. Turner, Hans de Iongh, Emma J. Dunston-Clarke
      First page: 1985
      Abstract: In South Africa, lions are protected in national parks and smaller fenced reserves. Translocating lions between fenced reserves, whilst necessary to maintain genetic diversity, is disruptive and can impact survivorship and pride cohesion. Critical to translocation success is pride cohesion. White lions are a natural colour variant occurring in the Greater Kruger Park Region, where anthropogenic threats eliminated this population until reintroduction in 2006. Through social network analysis (SNA), the sociality of a released pride of captive-origin white and wild tawny lions was compared to two captive-origin and wild prides of tawny lions. Social interactions and pride dynamics were recorded for each pride. For all prides, cubs and subadults were central to the play network, while adults received the most social interactions. White and wild tawny adult males initiated more social interactions than captive-origin tawny males, whilst a keystone adult female was identified in each pride. For the constructed pride, social interactions were more evenly distributed, suggesting a high level of connectedness and cohesion. This is the first study to demonstrate that captive-origin white and wild tawny lions can form a socially functional pride, suggesting that white lions would survive in the wild in the absence of anthropogenic threats.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151985
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1986: Carcass Traits of Growing Meat Goats Fed
           Different Levels of Hempseed Meal

    • Authors: Reshma Gurung, Khim B. Ale, Frank W. Abrahamsen, Katie Moyer, Jason T. Sawyer, Nar K. Gurung
      First page: 1986
      Abstract: Hempseed meal (HSM) is the byproduct of hemp seeds and is rich in crude protein and fiber, making it an ideal candidate as a feedstuff for ruminants. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effects of feeding different levels of HSM on the carcass traits of crossbred Boer goats. Forty castrated goat kids (approximately six months, 25.63 ± 0.33 kg) were assigned to one of four treatments (n = 10) in a completely randomized design. Goats were fed pelleted diets (50% forage and 50% concentrate) with additional supplementation of HSM: control with 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of the total diets. Goats were harvested and processed after a 60-day feeding trial. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the mean values of dressing percentages, carcass weights, body wall thickness, and ribeye area among treatments. Marbling scores and percentages of moisture, fats, proteins, and collagen in the muscles showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) among the treatments. Results suggest that including up to 30% of HSM in the diet of growing meat goats does not affect their carcass traits.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151986
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1987: Social Licence to Operate: What Can
           Equestrian Sports Learn from Other Industries'

    • Authors: Janet Douglas, Roly Owers, Madeleine L. H. Campbell
      First page: 1987
      Abstract: The concept of ‘social licence to operate’ (SLO) is relevant to all animal-use activities. An SLO is an intangible, implicit agreement between the public and an industry/group. Its existence allows that industry/group to pursue its activities with minimal formalised restrictions because such activities have widespread societal approval. In contrast, the imposition of legal restrictions—or even an outright ban—reflect qualified or lack of public support for an activity. This review discusses current threats to equestrianism’s SLO and suggests actions that those across the equine sector need to take to justify the continuation of the SLO. The most important of these is earning the trust of all stakeholders, including the public. Trust requires transparency of operations, establishment and communication of shared values, and demonstration of competence. These attributes can only be gained by taking an ethics-based, proactive, progressive, and holistic approach to the protection of equine welfare. Animal-use activities that have faced challenges to their SLO have achieved variable success in re-establishing the approval of society, and equestrianism can learn from the experience of these groups as it maps its future. The associated effort and cost should be regarded as an investment in the future of the sport.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151987
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1988: Hematology, Ultrastructure and Morphology of
           Blood Cells in Rufous-Winged Buzzards (Butastur liventer) from Thailand

    • Authors: Pornchai Pornpanom, Chaiyan Kasorndorkbua, Preeda Lertwatcharasalakul, Chaleow Salakij
      First page: 1988
      Abstract: In attempt to treat injured raptors and promote conservation awareness, the Kasetsart University Raptor Rehabilitation Unit (KURRU) was established in 2007. The complete blood counts (CBCs) are a manual tool used for the screening of raptor health. These tests require knowledge of blood cell morphology. This study aimed to describe the preliminary information of the hematology, ultrastructure, and morphology of blood cells in rufous-winged buzzards (RWB). There were 17 RWBs admitted into the KURRU. CBCs were manually performed by veterinary technicians. The morphology and morphometry of blood cells were observed from Wright-stained blood smears. Ultrastructure was observed from uranyl acetate and lead citrate-stained sections. The hematologic values were analyzed and described from individual RWBs that were clinically healthy, negative for blood parasites, and had PCV > 0.30 L/L. Consequently, CBCs of 12 out of 17 RWBs were included for descriptive hematologic values. Heterophils were the most prevalent white blood cells in RWBs. Of these 17 RWBs, 1 non-parasitized RWB showed hypochromic erythrocytes with PCV 0.18 L/L, which indicated that anemia in RWBs resulted from non-parasitic causes. The morphology of blood cells in RWBs was similar to those in other diurnal raptors, except that the lymphocytes showed pale or colorless cytoplasm. The electron micrographs highlighted that the basophil contained two types of granules: homogeneous electron-dense granules and reticulated electron-dense granules. The photomicrographs in this report are the scientific reference for identification of blood cells in RWBs. The CBCs from non-parasitized RWBs (clinically healthy) can be used as a cage mate reference in the KURRU. Additionally, we found evidence that evaluations of blood smears together with CBC examination were important in raptors.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151988
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1989: Feedlot Factors Influencing the Incidence of
           Dark Cutting in Australian Grain-Fed Beef

    • Authors: Cameron C. Steel, Angela M. Lees, Garth Tarr, Frank R. Dunshea, Des Bowler, Frances Cowley, Robyn D. Warner, Peter McGilchrist
      First page: 1989
      Abstract: It has been well-established that dark cutting (DC) is a multifactorial issue that is associated with numerous animal and management factors. However, there is limited understanding of the feedlot-based factors that contribute to the influence of DC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of climate, animal, and feedlot factors on the incidence of pH non-compliance in Australian grain-fed cattle. For this study, feedlot and abattoir records from 142,228 individual cattle over a 1-year period were investigated. These data incorporated records from seven feedlots that consigned cattle to three abattoirs. The average incidence of DC in these carcasses was 2.8%. The production factors that were associated with increased risk of DC included feedlot, sex, hormone growth promotants (HGP), cattle health, and days on feed (DOF). Additionally, DC also increased by reduced solar radiation (SR, W/m2), lower wind speeds (WS, m/s), increased ambient temperature (TA, °C), higher rainfall, a higher average temperature–humidity index (THI), and increased duration of time above heat-load-index threshold of 86 (HLI ≥ 86) during the 7 days prior to feedlot departure. This study identified the feedlot factors that increase the risk of DC from a feedlot-management perspective.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151989
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1990: Female Cuckoo Calls Deceive Their Hosts by
           Evoking Nest-Leaving Behavior: Variation under Different Levels of

    • Authors: Jiaojiao Wang, Laikun Ma, Xiangyang Chen, Canchao Yang
      First page: 1990
      Abstract: The common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) is an obligate brood parasite that has evolved a series of strategies to trick its hosts. The female cuckoo has been hypothesized to mimic the appearance and sounds of several raptors to deceive the hosts into exhibiting anti-predator behavior. Such behavior would relax the protection of the host nest and thus allow the female cuckoo to approach the host nest unopposed. Many anti-parasite strategies have been found to vary among geographical populations due to different parasitic pressures from cuckoos. However, the effect of female cuckoo calls related to different levels of parasitic pressure has not been examined. Here, we studied the effect of female cuckoo calls on the oriental reed warbler (Acrocephalus orientalis), one of the major hosts of the common cuckoo, in two geographical populations experiencing different levels of parasite pressure. Four kinds of sounds were played back to the hosts: the calls from female common cuckoos, male common cuckoos, sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), and oriental turtle doves (Streptopelia orientalis). The results showed that the female cuckoo calls induced the hosts to leave their nests more frequently than the male cuckoo or dove calls in both populations, and two populations of the hosts reacted similarly to the female cuckoo calls, implying that the function of female cuckoo calls would not be affected by the difference in parasitism rate. This study indicates that female cuckoo calls function to distract the hosts’ attention from protecting their nests. However, we propose that such a deception by the female cuckoo call may not be due to the mimicry of sparrowhawk calls, but rather that the rapid cadence of the call that causes a sense of anxiety in the hosts.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151990
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1991: New Data on Pterygodermatites
           (Pterygodermatites) plagiostoma Wedl, 1861 (Nematoda, Rictulariidae)
           Parasite of the Algerian Hedgehog Atelerix algirus Linnaeus, 1758
           (Eulipotyphla: Erinaceidae) from the Canary Islands

    • Authors: Jordi Miquel, Alexis Ribas, Román Pino-Vera, Elena Izquierdo-Rodríguez, Natalia Martín-Carrillo, Carlos Feliu, Pilar Foronda
      First page: 1991
      Abstract: A redescription of the rictulariid nematode Pterygodermatites (Pterygodermatites) plagiostoma Wedl, 1861, is made by means of light and scanning electron microscopy, including the first data on male specimens. The morphologic study was based on specimens recovered from two Algerian hedgehogs (Atelerix algirus) from Tenerife and Gran Canaria islands (Canary Archipelago, Spain). The main characteristics of P. (P.) plagiostoma males are the presence of 49–53 pairs of cuticular projections, the presence of one or two midventral precloacal fans (generally one), and the size of two unequal spicules, measuring 98–123 µm (right spicule) and 185–236 µm (left spicule). The cloacal papillae are arranged according to the Ascaridida type. They include two precloacal pairs, an unpaired precloacal papilla, one pair lateral to the cloaca, six postcloacal pairs, and a pair of phasmids near the tail tip. Females are mainly characterized by the presence of 71–77 pairs of cuticular projections, with 43–46 pairs of prevulvar combs, by the differentiation from combs to spines at the level of or slightly posterior to the vulva and by the position of the vulva, located posteriorly to the esophagus–intestine junction. Clear differences were found between P. (P.) plagiostoma and related species of the subgenus P. (Pterygodermatites).
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151991
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1992: Farmers’ Risk Perception on Climate
           Change: Transhumance vs. Semi-Intensive Sheep Production Systems in

    • Authors: Sezen Ocak Yetisgin, Hasan Önder, Uğur Şen, Dariusz Piwczyński, Magdalena Kolenda, Beata Sitkowska, Ceyhun Yucel
      First page: 1992
      Abstract: Sheep farmers’ perceptions of climate change and its impacts and the adaptation strategies they consider to address these risks are of great importance in ensuring the resilience of farming practice. This study focused on sheep farmers’ perception of climate change and the risks and actions taken to mitigate these impacts. A total of 68 surveys were carried out among sheep farmers (39 transhumance and 29 semi-intensive farmers) by two different representative production systems in Türkiye. Variables regarding the socio-economic profile, climate change impacts, and adaptation strategies were identified and analyzed. Principal component analysis and a Pearson Chi-square test were used to evaluate the data. Both farmers’ groups accepted and perceived climate change, showing good awareness and perception. The farmers’ attitudes towards adaptation to climate change were associated with production systems. Transhumance farmers had limited adaptation and coping strategies compared to semi-intensive farmers. Transhumance farmers focused mainly on selling livestock (mostly to cope with degraded natural grassland/feed deficiency) as an adaptive strategy. In contrast, semi-intensive farmers focused on modifying their farm management and feed operations, such as changing the feed ratio and supplement use, improving water and feed storage, and considering crop feed production. The knowledge obtained from this study could be helpful for farmers and policymakers who develop long-term small ruminant production strategies that consider the effects of climate change and adapt them to different farming systems in the Türkiye.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151992
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1993: Locally Injected Autologous Platelet-Rich
           Plasma Improves Cutaneous Wound Healing in Cats

    • Authors: Vasileia Angelou, Dimitra Psalla, Chrysostomos I. Dovas, George M. Kazakos, Christina Marouda, Kyriakos Chatzimisios, Zacharenia Kyrana, Evangelia Moutou, Maria Karayannopoulou, Lysimachos G. Papazoglou
      First page: 1993
      Abstract: Cutaneous defects in cats are commonly encountered in clinical practice, and healing can be accomplished by first or second intention. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is characterized by a plasma concentration containing a large number of platelets in a small volume of plasma. The objective of the present study was to record the efficacy of PRP infiltration in open wounds in laboratory cats. Six wounds were created in the dorsal midline of eight laboratory cats, with the wounds of one side designated as the PRP group and the wounds of the other side as the control group. Wound healing was evaluated by daily clinical examination, planimetry, laser Doppler flowmetry, and histologic examination on days 0, 7, 14, and 25, and by measurement of metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2 and -9 and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 on days 0, 14, and 25. Based on the results of the present study, the mean time for full coverage with granulation tissue was shorter in the PRP group, the mean contraction and total wound healing percentage were increased compared to the control group, and finally, the perfusion measured with laser Doppler flowmetry was higher in the PRP group during all examination days. In conclusion, this is the first study focusing on the topical application of PRP in the treatment of open wounds in laboratory cats, and our results are encouraging—showing a more rapid healing in the PRP group.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151993
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1994: Association of Herd Size with Stillbirth and
           Dystocia Rates in Japanese Black Cattle

    • Authors: Moe Misaka, Mizuho Uematsu, Go Kitahara, Takeshi Osawa, Yosuke Sasaki
      First page: 1994
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of herd size on stillbirth and dystocia rates; the relationships between herd size, calving season, parity, and gestation length in Japanese Black cattle were also explored. Data were collected for 41,184 calvings from 15,512 animals on 905 farms between 2006 and 2010. In this study, herds were classified into three groups based on size: small (1–10 cows), medium (11–50 cows), and large (≥51 cows). Herd size had an effect on the dystocia rate (p < 0.05) but not the stillbirth rate. Additionally, interactions between herd size and gestation length were associated with the dystocia rate (p < 0.05), and the dystocia rate was the highest in small herds, followed by medium and large herds for cows with a gestation length of 281–300 days, which is considered a pregnancy of normal duration. In summary, in Japanese Black cattle, there were different effects of herd size on the stillbirth rate and dystocia rates, as herd size was associated with the dystocia rate but not with the stillbirth rate.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151994
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1995: Andrographolide and Deoxyandrographolide
           Inhibit Protease and IFN-Antagonist Activities of Foot-and-Mouth Disease
           Virus 3Cpro

    • Authors: Sirin Theerawatanasirikul, Varanya Lueangaramkul, Nattarat Thangthamniyom, Penpitcha Chankeeree, Ploypailin Semkum, Porntippa Lekcharoensuk
      First page: 1995
      Abstract: Foot-and mouth-disease (FMD) caused by the FMD virus (FMDV) is highly contagious and negatively affects livestock worldwide. The control of the disease requires a combination of measures, including vaccination; however, there is no specific treatment available. Several studies have shown that plant-derived products with antiviral properties were effective on viral diseases. Herein, antiviral activities of andrographolide (AGL), deoxyandrographolide (DAG), and neoandrographolide (NEO) against FMDV serotype A were investigated using an in vitro cell-based assay. The results showed that AGL and DAG inhibited FMDV in BHK-21 cells. The inhibitory effects of AGL and DAG were evaluated by RT-qPCR and exhibited EC50 values of 52.18 ± 0.01 µM (SI = 2.23) and 36.47 ± 0.07 µM (SI = 9.22), respectively. The intracellular protease assay revealed that AGL and DAG inhibited FMDV 3Cpro with IC50 of 67.43 ± 0.81 and 25.58 ± 1.41 µM, respectively. Additionally, AGL and DAG significantly interfered with interferon (IFN) antagonist activity of the 3Cpro by derepressing interferon-stimulating gene (ISGs) expression. The molecular docking confirmed that the andrographolides preferentially interacted with the 3Cpro active site. However, NEO had no antiviral effect in any of the assays. Conclusively, AGL and DAG inhibited FMDV serotype A by interacting with the 3Cpro and hindered its protease and IFN antagonist activities.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151995
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1996: Evaluation of the Effect of Storage Time on
           ROTEM S® Parameters in Healthy and Ill Dogs

    • Authors: Nicole Weingand, Johanna Vuille-dit-Bille, Rahel Jud Jud Schefer, Annette P. N. Kutter, Martina Stirn, Katja-Nicole Adamik, Nadja E. Sigrist
      First page: 1996
      Abstract: Viscoelastic testing as a bedside test to assess global haemostasis has gained popularity in the past decade, with rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and thromboelastography (TEG) being the two commonly used devices. TEG studies suggest analysis 30 min after blood sampling. However, the reproducibility of results over time for ROTEM analysis using lyophilized samples in dogs has not been established. In this study, we investigated the influence of time on viscoelastic testing, using 33 healthy staff-/client-owned dogs for blood sampling and repeated measurements of ROTEM tracings at three different time points after blood collection. Additionally, a group of 21 hospitalized patients with suspected coagulation disorders were included to investigate whether stability over time was comparable between healthy and ill dogs. We demonstrated a significant difference of ROTEM tracings over time, with a tendency towards hypocoagulability over time. These changes do have a clinical relevance as they exceed reference intervals and could therefore lead to erroneous conclusions about a patient’s coagulation status. Therefore, time-specific reference intervals are proposed and presented in this publication.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151996
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1997: Relationship between Bruises on Carcasses of
           Beef Cattle and Transport-Related Factors

    • Authors: Emanuela Zanardi, Silvio De Luca, Giovanni Loris Alborali, Adriana Ianieri, Maria Olga Varrà, Claudia Romeo, Sergio Ghidini
      First page: 1997
      Abstract: The assessment of bruises on carcasses at the slaughterhouse has been lately indicated as a valid method to evaluate cattle welfare. However, little is known about the prevalence and the causes of bruises of cattle slaughtered in Italy. The aim of this study was to collect information concerning the prevalence of bruises on the carcasses of beef cattle slaughtered in an Italian abattoir and to determine a relationship between fresh bruises and transport-related factors. In total, 1265 animals were included in this study, with 21.6% of them being positive for at least one bruise, either fresh or old. In most cases, the bruising was mild, with lesions exclusively located in one area of the carcass. Most of the bruised animals (63%) showed at least one red lesion. Occurrence of such red, fresh bruises varied significantly depending on the body parts (p < 0.0001), with the flank being the most affected area (39.5%), followed by the butt (36.0%) and the front (23.8%). The probability of fresh bruising varied significantly depending on the category of each animal (p < 0.0001), with steers showing fewer red bruises than both heifers and veal. Finally, animals transported in conditions of a high density had a lower probability of bruising (p = 0.0003). These findings support the use of a monitoring scheme based on the presence of bruises to assess cattle welfare at the abattoir level in order to provide feedback to farmers and to implement procedures carried out during transport.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151997
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1998: A Comprehensive Study of the Quality of
           Fat-Tailed Sheep Carcasses in Greece

    • Authors: Angeliki Argyriadou, Anestis Tsitsos, Ioanna Stylianaki, Sotiria Vouraki, Theodoros Kallitsis, Vangelis Economou, Georgios Arsenos
      First page: 1998
      Abstract: Sheep farming in Greece is focused on milk production. Meat is considered a by-product and consists mainly light carcasses of undefined quality. The main challenge of the sector is to ensure sustainability, and hence efforts are towards efficient use of available resources, including undervalued carcasses of local fat-tailed sheep. The objective here was twofold: (i) to assess the carcass quality of fat-tailed sheep slaughtered at different live weights and (ii) to compare them with carcasses from thin-tailed sheep. In total, 146 fat-tailed and 97 thin-tailed dairy sheep were used. They belonged to five live-weight categories (LWC), representing 25%, 35%, 50%, 70% and 100% of mature body weight. Carcass length/weight/yield/pH and wither height were recorded. Muscle fiber minimum Feret’s diameter and meat color/tenderness/moisture/lipid and protein content were determined. Sex and LWC differences in fat-tailed sheep were assessed. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used to compare with thin-tailed sheep, considering the effects of LWC, sex and their interactions with sheep population (fat-tailed/thin-tailed). Most traits were significantly different (p < 0.05) between groups of fat-tailed sheep. Carcass yield of fat-tailed sheep was significantly higher compared to thin-tailed (p < 0.01). Interactions of sheep population with LWC or sex affected wither height, carcass pH, meat color and tenderness (p < 0.05). Fat-tailed sheep meat quality is equal or higher compared to thin-tailed. Finishing weights corresponding to 50 and 70% LWC may improve capitalization of fat-tailed carcasses.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151998
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1999: Rapid Nucleic Acid Extraction for Aquatic
           Animal DNA Virus Determination Using Chelex 100 Resin via Conventional PCR
           and Digital Droplet PCR Detection

    • Authors: Xi Hu, Nan Jiang, Yiqun Li, Yong Zhou, Yuding Fan, Mingyang Xue, Lingbing Zeng, Wenzhi Liu, Yan Meng
      First page: 1999
      Abstract: Molecular diagnostic testing for viral pathogens is crucial in aquaculture. The efficient and convenient preparation of pathogenic microbial nucleic acids is the basis of molecular diagnosis. Here, we developed a simplified deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction method from aquatic animal DNA viruses using the Chelex 100 resin. The nucleic acid was extracted from infected tissues and cell culture for the detection of three common aquatic viral pathogens (CEV, CyHV-2, and GSIV). We compared the extraction effects of a current commercial kit extraction method and the Chelex 100 resin extraction method according to nucleic acid concentration, conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and digital droplet PCR (ddPCR). The results indicated that both extraction procedures could obtain high-quality nucleotide samples. Extracting DNA using the Chelex 100 resin led to better detective efficiency for ddPCR molecular diagnostic testing. The whole process took less than 20 min, and only Chelex 100 resin solution was added to the tissues or cells without multiple tubes being transferred several times. The extracted DNA concentration and the detection sensitivity were high. These results indicated that the Chelex 100 resin solution has the advantages of speed, efficiency, and economy compared to the commercial kit. In addition, the higher pH value (10–11) of the Chelex 100 resin solution markedly improved the detection sensitivity compared to a lower pH value (9–10). In conclusion, the comparison of the Chelex 100 Resin and commercial viral DNA extraction kits revealed the good performance of the Chelex 100 resin solution at pH 10–11 in DNA extraction for PCR amplification from aquatic animal viral samples of tissues and cells in molecular diagnostic testing. It is both rapid and cost-effective.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151999
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2000: Technology for Improving Street Dog Welfare
           and Capturing Data in Digital Format during Street Dog Sterilisation

    • Authors: Amit Chaudhari, George Brill, Indira Chakravarti, Tim Drees, Shrikant Verma, Nidhi Avinash, Abhinandan Kumar Jha, Sitaram Langain, Narendra Bhatt, Sanjit Kumar, Satyanarayan Choudhary, Parvinder Singh, Subhash Chandra, Anju Murali, Katherine Polak
      First page: 2000
      Abstract: Street dogs survive on food handouts provided by individuals, or the wider community yet typically receive limited to no veterinary care. They can also carry a variety of zoonotic diseases such as rabies, posing a significant risk to human and dog population health. Dog sterilisation is one of the most humane and effective methods available to control street dog populations. Dog sterilisation programmes, particularly those operating at a large-scale, often face a variety of challenges including limited resources, staffing, and less-than-ideal facilities. Recordkeeping is often a challenge as well, which can complicate the return of a sterilised dog to their location of capture. Street dogs are territorial, and the return of a dog to an incorrect location is fraught with various welfare issues, as well as an increased risk of postoperative complications, including death. Humane Society International developed a mobile phone-based application called ‘HSIApps’ drawing on years of field experience and data collection in street dog location recording, as well as clinical and postoperative treatment. HSIApps facilitates the return of dogs back to their exact captured location, which ensures dog welfare, and generates reports of a variety of useful data variables to maximise the efficacy and reliability of sterilisation programmes.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12152000
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2001: Effect of Duration of High-Grain Feeding on
           Chewing, Feeding Behavior, and Salivary Composition in Cows with or
           without a Phytogenic Feed Supplement

    • Authors: Raul Rivera-Chacon, Sara Ricci, Renée M. Petri, Andreas Haselmann, Nicole Reisinger, Qendrim Zebeli, Ezequias Castillo-Lopez
      First page: 2001
      Abstract: Switching diets from forage to a high-grain (HG) diet increases the risk of rumen fermentation disorders in cattle. However, the effects of the duration of the HG feeding, after the diet switch, on animal behavior and health have received considerably less attention. This experiment primarily aimed to assess the effects of the duration of an HG diet on the chewing, eating, and lying behavior and salivation dynamics in a control group (CON) and a group of cows receiving a phytogenic feed supplement (TRT) at 0.04% (DM basis), which included L-menthol, thymol, eugenol, mint oil, and cloves powder. The experiment was a crossover design with nine non-lactating cows, and two experimental periods with an intermediate washout of four weeks. In each period, the cows were first fed a forage diet for a week to collect baseline measurements representing week 0; then, the diet was switched over a week to HG (65% concentrate), which was fed for four continuous weeks (week 1, week 2, week 3, and week 4 on an HG diet, respectively). The cows were divided in two groups of four and five animals and were randomly allocated to CON or TRT. The data analysis revealed that at the start of the HG feeding, the dry matter intake and the cows’ number of lying bouts increased, but the eating time, rumination time, and meal frequency decreased, resulting in a greater eating rate. We also found that an advanced duration on an HG diet further decreased the rumination time, total chewing time, chewing index, and sorting in favor of short feed particles, with the lowest values in week 4. The feed bolus size increased but feed the ensalivation decreased in week 4 compared to week 0. The dietary switch increased salivary lysozyme activity, and the advanced duration on the HG diet increased salivary pH, but salivary phosphate decreased in weeks 1 and 2 on the HG diet. Supplementation with TRT increased sorting in favor of physically effective NDF (peNDF) in week 2 and increased salivary pH in week 4 on an HG diet. Overall, the negative effects of the HG diet in cattle are more pronounced during the initial stage of the HG feeding. However, several detrimental effects were exacerbated with the cows’ advanced duration on feed, with host adaptive changes still observed after 3 and 4 weeks following the diet switch. The TRT mitigated some of the negative effects through the temporal improvement of the salivary properties and the intake of peNDF, which are known to modulate rumen fermentation.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12152001
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2002: Health Status of Bycaught Common Eiders
           (Somateria mollissima) from the Western Baltic Sea

    • Authors: Luca A. Schick, Peter Wohlsein, Silke Rautenschlein, Arne Jung, Joy Ometere Boyi, Gildas Glemarec, Anne-Mette Kroner, Stefanie A. Barth, Ursula Siebert
      First page: 2002
      Abstract: The Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) inhabits the entire northern hemisphere. In northern Europe, the flyway population reaches from the southern Wadden Sea to the northern Baltic coast. The European population is classified as endangered due to declines in Common Eider numbers across Europe since 1990. In this study, we assessed 121 carcasses of Common Eiders, captured incidentally in gillnets in the Western Baltic between 2017 and 2019. The most common findings were parasitic infections of the intestine by acanthocephalans in 95 animals, which correlated with enteritis in 50% of the cases. Parasites were identified as Profilicollis botulus in 25 selected animals. Additionally, oesophageal pustules, erosions, and ulcerations, presumably of traumatic origin, were frequently observed. Nephritis and hepatitis were frequent, but could not be attributed to specific causes. Lung oedema, fractures and subcutaneous haemorrhages likely resulted from entangling and drowning. Two Common Eiders had mycobacterial infections and in one of these, Mycobacterium avium subspecies (ssp.) avium was identified. This study gives an overview of morphological changes and infectious diseases from one location of the European flyway population. It contributes to future health studies on Common Eiders in the Baltic and Wadden Seas by providing baseline information to compare with other areas or circumstances.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12152002
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2003: Home Range and Movement Patterns of
           Reintroduced White Lions (Panthera leo melanochaita) in the Kruger to
           Canyons Biosphere Reserve, South Africa

    • Authors: Jason A. Turner, Emma J. Dunston-Clarke, Inger Fabris-Rotelli, Hans de Iongh
      First page: 2003
      Abstract: White lions are a colour variant of the African lion Panthera leo melanochaita and disappeared from the wild due to anthropogenic factors until their reintroduction to the Greater Kruger Park Region of South Africa in 2006. Natural home range behaviour is an index of reintroduction success. Therefore, the home range and movement of a pride of reintroduced white lions and a constructed pride consisting of reintroduced white lions and translocated wild tawny lionesses in small, fenced reserves was assessed. GPS data from collared adults were collected for the white lion pride between 2010–2011 and 2018–2020 for the constructed pride. Home ranges were estimated using kernel density estimation and minimum convex polygon, with minimum daily distance tested for differences between sex, season, and pride. Home ranges were small and average daily movements restricted for both prides (white lion pride: 5.41 km2 and 10.44 ± 4.82 km; constructed pride: 5.50 km2, 11.37 ± 4.72 km) due to the small reserve size of 7 km2. There was no difference between prides for annual and seasonal home range size, male and female home ranges, minimum daily distance travelled, or habitat selection. White lions from both prides established territories and displayed natural home ranging behaviour, suggesting that their reintroduction was successful, in the absence of anthropogenic threats.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12152003
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2004: De Novo Whole-Genome Sequencing and Assembly
           of the Yellow-Throated Bunting (Emberiza elegans) Provides Insights into
           Its Evolutionary Adaptation

    • Authors: Tingli Hu, Guotao Chen, Zhen Xu, Site Luo, Hui Wang, Chunlin Li, Lei Shan, Baowei Zhang
      First page: 2004
      Abstract: Yellow-throated bunting is a small migratory songbird unique to the Palearctic region. However, the genetic studies of this species remain limited, with no nuclear genomic sequence reported to date. In this study, the genomic DNA from the bird was sequenced in long reads using Nanopore sequencing technology. Combining short-read sequencing, the genome was well-assembled and annotated. The final length of the assembly is approximately 1.14 Gb, with a scaffold N50 of 28.94 Mb. About 15,868 protein-coding genes were predicted, and 16.62% of the genome was identified as having repetitive elements. Comparative genomic analysis showed numerous expanded gene families and positively selected genes significantly enriched in those KEGG pathways that are associated with migratory behavior adaptation and immune response. Here, this newly generated de novo genome of the yellow-throated bunting using long reads provide the research community with a valuable resource for further studies of population genetic diversity and genome evolution in this species.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12152004
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2005: Of Elephants and Other Mammals: A
           Comparative Review of Reproductive Tumors and Potential Impact on

    • Authors: Lisa M. Abegglen, Tara M. Harrison, Anneke Moresco, Jared S. Fowles, Brigid V. Troan, Wendy K. Kiso, Dennis Schmitt, Amy M. Boddy, Joshua D. Schiffman
      First page: 2005
      Abstract: Reproductive tumors can impact conception, pregnancy, and birth in mammals. These impacts are well documented in humans, while data in other mammals are limited. An urgent need exists to understand the reproductive impact of these lesions in endangered species, because some endangered species have a documented high prevalence of reproductive tumors. This article documents that the prevalence of both benign and malignant neoplasia differs between African and Asian elephants, with Asian elephants more frequently diagnosed and negatively affected by both. The prevalence of these tumors across mammalian species is compared, and impact plus treatment options in human medicine are reviewed to inform decision making in elephants. Evidence suggests that reproductive tumors can negatively impact elephant conservation. Future studies that document reproductive outcomes, including the success of various treatment approaches in elephants with tumors will benefit conservation efforts.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12152005
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2006: Accuracy to Predict the Onset of Calving in
           Dairy Farms by Using Different Precision Livestock Farming Devices

    • Authors: Ottó Szenci
      First page: 2006
      Abstract: Besides traditional methods such as evaluation of the external preparatory and behavioral signs, which even presently are widely used also in large dairy farms, there are several new possibilities such as measuring body (intravaginal, ventral tail-base surface, ear surface, or reticulo-ruminal) temperature, detecting behavioral signs (rumination, eating, activity, tail raising) or detecting the expulsion of the device inserted into the vagina or fixed to the skin of the vulva when allantochorion appears in the vulva to predict the onset of the second stage of calving. Presently none of the single sensors or a combination of sensors can predict the onset of calving with acceptable accuracy. At the same time, with the exception of the iVET® birth monitoring system, not only the imminent onset of calving could be predicted with high accuracy, but a significantly lower prevalence rate of dystocia, stillbirth, retained fetal membranes, uterine diseases/clinical metritis could be reached while calving-to-conception interval was significantly shorter compared with the control groups. These results may confirm the use of these devices in dairy farms by allowing appropriate intervention during calving when needed. In this way, we can reduce the negative effect of dystocia on calves and their dams and improve their welfare.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12152006
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2007: Effects of Long-Term Protein Restriction on
           Meat Quality and Muscle Metabolites of Shaziling Pigs

    • Authors: Jie Zheng, Yehui Duan, Jiayi Yu, Fengna Li, Qiuping Guo, Tiejun Li, Yulong Yin
      First page: 2007
      Abstract: Background: It has been demonstrated that low-protein diets can improve the meat quality of pork. This study aimed to investigate the effects of long-term protein restriction from piglets to finishing pigs for 24 weeks on meat quality and muscle metabolites of Shaziling pigs. Results: Compared to the control group, reducing dietary protein levels by 20% reduced the L* value (p < 0.05), increased the a* value (p < 0.01), and tended to decrease pressing loss (p = 0.06) of longissimus thoracis muscle (LTM). Furthermore, compared to the control group, the −20% group had significantly lower levels of muscular danazol, N,N-dimethyl-Safingol, and cer(d18:0/14:0) (p < 0.05), all of which were positively associated with the L* value and negatively associated with the a* value (p < 0.05). Therefore, danazol, N,N-dimethyl-Safingol, and cer(d18:0/14:0) might be potential biomarkers for meat color. Conclusions: These results indicated that reducing dietary crude protein by 20% for 24 weeks could improve meat quality and alter muscular metabolites of Shaziling pigs, and the improvement in meat quality might be ascribable to decreased danazol, N,N-dimethyl-Safingol and cer(d18:0/14:0).
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12152007
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2008: Genetic Aspects of Corneal Sequestra in a
           Population of Persian, Himalayan and Exotic Cats

    • Authors: Tom Schipper, Goedele Storms, Gerlinde Janssens, Sabine Schoofs, Eveline Capiau, Dieter Verdonck, Pascale Smets, Luc J. Peelman, Bart J. G. Broeckx
      First page: 2008
      Abstract: Corneal sequestra are ophthalmic lesions that are remarkably common in Persian, Himalayan and exotic cats. In this study, the genetic aspects of this disease were investigated in a population of cats originating from a single cattery. Odds ratios were calculated for parents with affected offspring. The heritability of (owner-reported) corneal sequestra was estimated with a Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure. Well-phenotyped cases and controls were used for a genome-wide association study. Data from 692 cats originating from the cattery, of which 61 were affected, were used. Cats from two specific mothers had significantly higher odds of developing corneal sequestra, but no significant effect of the fathers was found (after correction for the mothers). The heritability of corneal sequestra was estimated to be 0.96. A genome-wide association study with 14 cases and 10 controls did not reveal an associated chromosomal region. The large effect that genetic factors had on the development of corneal sequestra in this study suggests that selective breeding could be an effective way to reduce the prevalence of this condition in these cat breeds.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12152008
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 2009: A Comparison of Methods to Maintain the
           Equine Cecal Microbial Environment In Vitro Utilizing Cecal and Fecal

    • Authors: Jennifer L. MacNicol, Simone Renwick, Caroline M. Ganobis, Emma Allen-Vercoe, JefferyScott Weese, Wendy Pearson
      First page: 2009
      Abstract: The equine gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota is intimately related to the horse. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the microbiome and metabolome of cecal inoculum maintained in an anaerobic chamber or chemostat batch fermenter, as well as the fecal slurry maintained in an anaerobic chamber over 48 h. Cecal and fecal content were collected from healthy adult horses immediately upon death. Cecal fluid was used to inoculate chemostat vessels (chemostat cecal, n = 11) and vessels containing cecal fluid (anaerobic cecal, n = 15) or 5% fecal slurry (anaerobic fecal, n = 6) were maintained in an anaerobic chamber. Sampling for microbiome and metabolome analysis was performed at vessel establishment (0 h), and after 24 h and 48 h of fermentation. Illumina sequencing was performed, and metabolites were identified via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Alpha and beta diversity indices, as well as individual metabolite concentrations and metabolite regression equations, were analyzed and compared between groups and over time. No differences were evident between alpha or beta diversity in cecal fluid maintained in either an anaerobic chamber or chemostat. The microbiome of the fecal inoculum maintained anaerobically shifted over 48 h and was not comparable to that of the cecal inoculum. Metabolite concentrations were consistently highest in chemostat vessels and lowest in anaerobic fecal vessels. Interestingly, the rate of metabolite change in anaerobic cecal and chemostat cecal vessels was comparable. In conclusion, maintaining an equine cecal inoculum in either an anaerobic chamber or chemostat vessel for 48 h is comparable in terms of the microbiome. However, the microbiome and metabolome of fecal material is not comparable with a cecal inoculum. Future research is required to better understand the factors that influence the level of microbial activity in vitro, particularly when microbiome data identify analogous communities.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12152009
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
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