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  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 107 journals)
Showing 1 - 22 of 22 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acrocephalus     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Animal Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Animal Sentience : An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Animal Welfare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Botanical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
British Poultry Abstracts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Corpoica Ciencia y Tecnología Agropecuaria     Open Access  
Derecho Animal. Forum of Animal Law Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
European Journal of Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Human-Wildlife Interactions     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Animal Science and Products     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Learning and Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens     Open Access  
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Peternakan Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Ilmiah Peternakan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural History Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pastoralism : Research, Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
People and Animals : The International Journal of Research and Practice     Open Access  
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference     Open Access  
Rangifer     Open Access  
Research Journal of Parasitology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue de primatologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries     Open Access  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies     Open Access  
Social Choice and Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Society and Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
South African Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
TRACE ∴ Finnish Journal for Human-Animal Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Translational Animal Science     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
Uluslararası Tarım ve Yaban Hayatı Bilimleri Dergisi / International Journal of Agricultural and Wildlife Sciences     Open Access  
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access  
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)

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Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.744
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 11  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2076-2615
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1595: Phylogenetic Implication of Large Intergenic
           Spacers: Insights from a Mitogenomic Comparison of Prosopocoilus Stag
           Beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae)

    • Authors: Mengqiong Xu, Shiju Zhou, Xia Wan
      First page: 1595
      Abstract: To explore the characteristics of mitogenomes and discuss the phylogenetic relationships within the genus Prosopocoilus, the mitogenomes of two species (P. castaneus and P. laterotarsus) were newly sequenced and comparatively analyzed. The arrangement of the mitogenome in these two lucanid beetles was the same as that in the inferred ancestral insect, and the nucleotide composition was highly biased towards A + T as in other lucanids. The evolutionary rates of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) suggested that their evolution was based on purifying selection. Notably, we found evidence of the presence of a large IGS between trnI and trnQ genes, whose length varied from 375 bp (in P. castaneus) to 158 bp (in P. laterotarsus). Within the large IGS region, a short sequence (TAAAA) was found to be unique among these two species, providing insights into phylogenomic reconstruction. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using the maximum likelihood (IQ-TREE) and Bayesian (PhyloBayes) methods based on 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) in nucleotides and amino acids (AA) from published mitogenomes (n = 29). The genus Prosopocoilus was found to constitute a distinct clade with high nodal support. Overall, our findings suggested that analysis of the characteristics of the large IGS (presence or absence, size, and location) in mitogenomes of the genus Prosopocoilus may be informative for the phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses and for evaluation of the genus Prosopocoilus, despite the dense sampling materials needed.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131595
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1596: Infectious Disease Agents Associated with
           Pulmonary Alterations in Aborted Bovine Fetuses

    • Authors: Thalita Evani Silva de Oliveira, Gabriela Sanches Scuisato, Juliana Torres Tomazi Fritzen, Denise Correia Silva, Rodrigo Pelisson Massi, Isadora Fernanda Pelaquim, Luara Evangelista Silva, Eduardo Furtado Flores, Renato Lima Santos, Lucienne Garcia Pretto-Giordano, Júlio Augusto Naylor Lisbôa, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri, Selwyn Arlington Headley
      First page: 1596
      Abstract: This study investigated the occurrence of selected pathogens of bovine respiratory disease in fetal pulmonary tissue of cattle and associated these with patterns of disease. Fetal pulmonary (n = 37) tissues were evaluated by histopathology; immunohistochemical assays identified intralesional antigens of bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoAHV1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and Mycoplasma bovis. Molecular assays were performed to amplify reproductive disease pathogens and bovine gammaherpesvirus 6 (BoGHV6) from 12 lungs. The 2 patterns of pulmonary diseases were interstitial pneumonia (12/37) and suppurative bronchopneumonia (1/37). The frequency of the intralesional antigens identified was BRSV (16.2%; 6/37), BVDV (13.5%; 5/37), BoAHV1 (8.1%; 3/37), M. bovis (5.4%; 2/37), and BPIV-3 (2.7%; 1/37). Interstitial pneumonia was associated with BRSV (n = 3), BoAHV1 (n = 3), and BVDV (n = 2); suppurative bronchopneumonia contained a Gram-positive bacterium and BVDV and BRSV. Reproductive pathogens detected included Leptospira spp., (n = 3), BVDV, Neospora caninum, and Brucella abortus (n = 2). BoGHV6 DNA was identified in the lungs of two fetuses with interstitial pneumonia. These findings suggest that these fetuses were infected transplacentally by several pathogens. The role of some of these pathogens herein identified must be further elucidated in the possible participation of fetal disease.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131596
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1597: Opuntia spp. as Alternative Fodder for
           Sustainable Livestock Production

    • Authors: Grazia Pastorelli, Valentina Serra, Camilla Vannuccini, Everaldo Attard
      First page: 1597
      Abstract: During the past decades, livestock production has increased significantly, which has led to the degradation of rangelands due to overgrazing. The lack of water in several arid areas has led to a decline in crop and animal husbandry. As a consequence, the demand for drought-resistant crops has increased significantly so as to keep crop and animal husbandry systems viable and sustainable. Cactaceae have adaptive characteristics that ensure their development progress under drought conditions. The present review provides information on the nutritive value of Opuntia in animal fodder production, its effects on animal performance, and the quality of the animal-derived products. In conclusion, the use of Opuntia as innovative alternative feed would render animal production systems more sustainable.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131597
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1598: New Challenges in Cryopreservation: A
           Reproductive Perspective

    • Authors: Daniela Bebbere, Sara Succu
      First page: 1598
      Abstract: Cryopreservation is a fundamental procedure to preserve the structure and function of cells and tissues by storing them at low temperatures for long periods [...]
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131598
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1599: fHER2, PR, ER, Ki-67 and Cytokeratin 5/6
           Expression in Benign Feline Mammary Lesions

    • Authors: Maria Soares, Assunção N. Correia, Mariana R. Batista, Jorge Correia, Fernando Ferreira
      First page: 1599
      Abstract: Biomarkers are essential in the characterization of neoplastic lesions and aid not only in the classification of the nature of the lesions, but also in the understanding of their ontogeny, development and prognosis. In cats, while mammary carcinomas are increasingly being characterized, information on their benign lesions is still scarce. Indeed, a better characterization of benign lesions could have an important role in unravelling mammary oncogenesis, similar to that in human breast cancer. Thus, in this study, the expression of five markers was analyzed in 47 benign mammary lesions (hyperplasia, dysplasia and benign tumors) collected from 27 queens. Dysplastic and hyperplastic lesions were the most common (41/47, 81.7%). Most of the lesions were classified as ER positive (43/47, 91.5%), PR negative (30/47, 63.8%), fHER2 negative (29/47, 64.4%), CK 5/6 negative (36/47, 76.6%) and with a low Ki-67 index (37/47, 78.7%). Statistical analysis revealed a correlation between younger ages and ER positivity (p = 0.013) and between larger lesions and negative PR status (p = 0.038). These results reinforce the importance of evaluating the expression of the ER status, prevalent in benign lesions, as a putative precursor in cancer progression.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131599
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1600: Octorhopalona saltatrix, a New Genus
           and Species (Hydrozoa, Anthoathecata) from Japanese Waters

    • Authors: Sho Toshino, Gaku Yamamoto, Shinsuke Saito
      First page: 1600
      Abstract: Approximately 300 species of cnidarian jellyfish have been reported in Japanese waters. However, many specimens remain unidentified. In this study, taxonomic investigations, including morphological observations and molecular 16S phylogenetic analyses, were conducted on unknown specimens collected off Oarai, Sagami Bay, and Tosa Bay, Japan. The specimens have the following morphological characteristics: distinct peaks in jelly above the base of the manubrium, a red band on the manubrium, and cylindrical marginal bulbs, each with an abaxial ocellus that is common to the family Halimedusidae. However, the specimens can be distinguished from other Halimedusidae species by their eight radial canals, eight tentacles with numerous stalked nematocyst knobs, and eight nematocyst tracks on the exumbrella. Moreover, molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Kimura two-parameter distance between the specimens and other Halimedusa species was 0.066–0.099, which is considered to represent intergeneric variability. Based on this result, we described it as a new species and established a new genus for taxonomic stabilization. We also emended the diagnostic characters of the family Halimedusidae owing to the establishment of the new genus. Halimedusidae comprises five species in four genera. This paper provides taxonomic keys for the identification of species in the family Halimedusidae.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131600
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1601: Polymorphisms of the Growth Hormone
           Releasing Hormone Receptor Gene Affect Body Conformation Traits in Chinese
           Dabieshan Cattle

    • Authors: Shuanping Zhao, Hai Jin, Lei Xu, Yutang Jia
      First page: 1601
      Abstract: This study was performed to expose the polymorphisms of the growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor gene in Chinese Dabieshan cattle, evaluate its effect on body conformation traits, and find potential molecular markers in Chinese cattle. The GHRHR structure and the phylogenetic tree were analyzed using bioinformatics software. The polymorphism of the GHRHR gene in 486 female cattle was genotyped by PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing, and the association between SNPs and body conformation traits of Chinese Dabieshan cattle was analyzed by one-way ANOVA in SPSS software. GHRHR was often conserved in nine species, and its sequence of cattle was closest to sheep and goats. Six polymorphic SNPs were identified, g.10667A > C and g.10670A > C were missense mutation. The association analysis indicated that the six SNPs significantly influenced the body conformation traits of Chinese Dabieshan cattle (p < 0.05). Six haplotypes were identified and Hap1 (-CAACGA-) had the highest frequency (36.10%). The Hap3/5 (-GCCCCCGGAAGG-) exhibited a significantly greater wither height (WH), hip height (HH), heart girth (HG), and hip width (HW) (p < 0.05). Overall, the polymorphisms of GHRHR affected the body conformation traits of Chinese Dabieshan cattle, and the GHRHR gene could be used as a molecular marker in Dabieshan cattle breeding programs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131601
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1602: Combining Abilities, Heterosis, Growth
           Performance, and Carcass Characteristics in a Diallel Cross from
           Black-Bone Chickens and Thai Native Chickens

    • Authors: Piriyaporn Sungkhapreecha, Vibuntita Chankitisakul, Monchai Duangjinda, Wuttigrai Boonkum
      First page: 1602
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the combining abilities and heterosis for the growth performance and carcass characteristics in crosses between Hmong black-bone (HB), Chinese black-bone (CB), and Thai native (TN) chickens using a mating system diallel crossing. Nine crossbred chickens including HB × HB, CB × CB, TN × TN, HB × TN, TN × HB, CB × HB, HB × CB, TN × CB, and CB × TN, were tested. The total data were 699 recorded at the beginning of the experiment to 595 recorded in weeks 14 of age. Body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and survival rate (SUR) were recorded. Heterosis and combining ability regarding general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA), and reciprocal combining ability (RCA) were estimated. The study found that CB had the greatest BW and ADG at all weeks (p < 0.05) except for hatch, while those of HB were the lowest. The highest GCA was found in CB; meanwhile, GCA was significantly negative in HB of all ages. Crossing between TN × CB had the greatest BW from 8 weeks of age, which was related to positive SCA and RCA values. However, the RCA value of TN × CB was lower than the SCA value of CB × TN. The yield percentages of the carcass in CB (87.00%) were higher than those in TN (85.05%) and HB (82.91%) (p < 0.05). The highest breast and thigh meat lightness (L*) values were obtained in TN (p < 0.05), while those of CB and HB were not different (p > 0.05). In the crossbreed, the yield percentage of the carcass was highest in TN × CB (89.65%) and CB × TN (88.55%) (p > 0.05) and was lowest in TN × HB (71.91%) (p < 0.05). The meat and skin color of the breast and thigh parts in the crossbreed had the lowest lightness in HB × CB (27.91 to 38.23) (p < 0.05), while those of TN × CB and CB × TN were insignificant (p > 0.05). In conclusion, crossing between the TN sires and CB dams has the preferable potential to develop crossbred Thai native chickens for commercial use based on their high growth performance.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131602
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1603: A Potential Role of the Translation
           Elongation Factor eef1a1 in Gonadal High-Temperature Perception in Chinese
           Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis)

    • Authors: Qian Wang, Qian Liu, Wenxiu Ma, Rui Wang, Shuo Li, Zhongdian Dong, Changwei Shao
      First page: 1603
      Abstract: The eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha (eef1a) gene has a well-defined role in protein synthesis. However, its role in external temperature perception and internal sex differentiation and development is still unclear. In this study, eef1a1 was identified and functionally analyzed in Chinese tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). The eef1a1 cDNA, 1809 bp in length, had a 1386 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a 461 amino acid polypeptide containing one EF-1_alpha domain. eef1a1 expression levels were investigated across different tissues and during gonadal development. In the gonad, eef1a1 showed a sexually dimorphic expression pattern with a statistically higher expression level in the ovary than in the testis from 6 months postfertilization to 3 years postfertilization. Under high temperature (28 °C) treatment during C. semilaevis sex differentiation (from 30 days postfertilization to 3 months postfertilization), eef1a1 was statistically down-regulated in males, while the difference was not detected in females. In addition, the dual-luciferase assay exhibited that eef1a1 can respond to high temperature rapidly. Based on these results, C. semilaevis eef1a1 might have a dual role in the perception of external temperature changes and sex differentiation regulation.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131603
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1604: High Dietary Organic Iron Supplementation
           Decreases Growth Performance and Induces Oxidative Stress in Broilers

    • Authors: Miaomiao Han, Xinsen Fu, Xiangqi Xin, Yuanyang Dong, Zhiqiang Miao, Jianhui Li
      First page: 1604
      Abstract: Although Iron (Fe) is an essential nutrient that plays a vital role in respiratory processes, excessive Fe in the diet can affect the health of broilers. We investigated the effects of diet supplemented with high levels of iron chelates with lysine and glutamic acid (Fe–LG) on the growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, antioxidant status, and duodenal mRNA expression of Fe transporters in broilers. A total of 800 1-day-old male Arbor Acres broilers were assigned to 5 groups, with 8 replicates each. Broilers were fed a corn–soybean meal basal diet or basal diets supplemented with 40, 80, 400, or 800 mg Fe/kg as Fe–LG for 6 weeks. The body weight (BW) was increased in the 80 mg Fe/kg treatment group, but decreased in the 800 mg Fe/kg treatment group on day 21. During days 1–21, compared with the control group, the supplementation of the 80 mg Fe/kg increased the average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI); however, the supplementation of the 800 mg Fe/kg group decreased the ADG and increased the FCR in broilers (p < 0.05). The heart, liver, spleen, and kidney indices were reduced in the 800 mg Fe/kg treatment group (p < 0.05). The supplementation of the 800 mg Fe/kg group increased the serum aspartate aminotransferase activity and the levels of creatinine and urea nitrogen on day 42 (p < 0.05). The broilers had considerably low liver total superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant capacity in the 800 mg Fe/kg treatment group (p < 0.05). Serum and liver Fe concentrations were elevated in the 400 and 800 mg Fe/kg treatment groups, but were not affected in the 40 and 80 mg Fe/kg treatment groups. The duodenal Fe transporters divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin 1 (FPN1) were downregulated in the Fe–LG treatment groups (p < 0.05). We conclude that a high dietary supplement of 800 mg Fe/kg in broilers leads to detrimental health effects, causing kidney function injury and liver oxidative stress.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131604
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1605: Cellular Modifications in Spermatogenesis
           during Seasonal Testicular Regression: An Update Review in Mammals

    • Authors: Ester Beltrán-Frutos, Vicente Seco-Rovira, Jesús Martínez-Hernández, Concepción Ferrer, María Isabel Serrano-Sánchez, Luis Miguel Pastor
      First page: 1605
      Abstract: Testicular regression occurs during the non-breeding season in many mammals. This affects spermatogenesis, resulting in decreased or arrested activity. Both lead to a decrease or cessation in sperm production. In recent years, the cellular mechanisms that lead to infertility in males in non-reproductive periods have been studied in very different species of mammals. At the start of the present century, the main mechanism involved was considered as an increase in the apoptotic activity of germ cells during the regression period. The loss of spermatogonia and spermatocytes causes not only a decrease in spermatogenesis, but an arrest of the seminiferous epithelium activity at the end of regression. Recently, in some mammal species, it was found that apoptosis is the usual mechanism involved in epithelium activity arrest, although it is firstly atrophied by massive desquamation of the germ cells that are released from their binding with the Sertoli cells, and which are shed into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule. In other species, it has been shown that not only germ cell apoptosis, but also Sertoli cell apoptosis, including decreased proliferative activity, spermatophagy or autophagy, are involved in testicular regression. Furthermore, the most recent studies indicate that there are multiple patterns of seminiferous epithelium regression in seasonally breeding animals, which may not only be used by different species, but also by the same ones to reproduce in the best conditions, ensuring their survival. In conclusion, at this time, it is not possible to consider the existence of a paradigmatic cellular mechanism in the involution of the seminiferous epithelium applicable to all male mammals with seasonal reproduction, rather the existence of several mechanisms which participate to a greater or lesser extent in each of the species that have been studied to date.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131605
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1606: Power Up: Combining Behavior Monitoring
           Software with Business Intelligence Tools to Enhance Proactive Animal
           Welfare Reporting

    • Authors: Jason David Wark
      First page: 1606
      Abstract: Animal welfare is a dynamic process, and its evaluation must be similarly dynamic. The development of ongoing behavior monitoring programs in zoos and aquariums is a valuable tool for identifying meaningful changes in behavior and allows proactive animal management. However, analyzing observational behavior data in an ongoing manner introduces unique challenges compared with traditional hypothesis-driven studies of behavior over fixed time periods. Here, I introduce business intelligence software as a potential solution. Business intelligence software combines the ability to integrate multiple data streams with advanced analytics and robust data visualizations. As an example, I provide an overview of the Microsoft Power BI platform, a leading option in business intelligence software that is freely available. With Power BI, users can apply data cleaning and shaping in a stepwise fashion, then build dashboards using a library of visualizations through a drag-and-drop interface. I share two examples of data dashboards built with Power BI using data from the ZooMonitor behavior recording app: a quarterly behavior summary and an enrichment evaluation summary. I hope this introduction to business intelligence software and Microsoft Power BI empowers researchers and managers working in zoos and aquariums with new tools to enhance their evidence-based decision-making processes.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131606
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1607: Gut Microbiota Composition and Diversity in
           Different Commercial Swine Breeds in Early and Finishing Growth Stages

    • Authors: Jianfeng Ma, Jingyun Chen, Mailin Gan, Lei Chen, Ye Zhao, Yan Zhu, Lili Niu, Shunhua Zhang, Li Zhu, Linyuan Shen
      First page: 1607
      Abstract: The gut microbiota affects the metabolism, health and growth rate of pigs. Understanding the characteristics of gut microbiota of different pig breeds at each growth stage will enable the design of individualized feeding strategies. The present study aimed to compare the growth curves and development patterns of pigs of three different breeds (Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire) using the mathematical models Gompertz, Logistic, Von Bertalanffy and Richards. For Duroc pigs, the Gompertz model showed the highest prediction accuracy (R2 = 0.9974). In contrast, the best models for Landrace and Yorkshire pigs were Richards (R2 = 0.9986) and Von Bertalanffy (R2 = 0.9977), respectively. Path analysis showed that body length (path coefficient  =  0.507) and chest circumference (path coefficient  =  0.532) contributed more significantly to the body weight of pigs at the early growth stage, while hip circumference (path coefficient  =  0.312) had a greater influence on pig body weight in the late growth stage. Moreover, the composition of the gut microbiota of pigs at two growth stages (60 kg of body weight in the early growth stage and 120 kg in the finishing stage) was studied using 16S rRNA sequencing technology. Variations in gut microbiota composition of pigs at different growth stages were observed. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of annotated metagenomes revealed that protein synthesis and amino acid metabolism pathways were significantly enriched in pigs at the early growth stage, which may be related to nutritional requirements of pigs during this stage. This study confirmed longitudinal variation in the gut microbiota of pigs pertaining to age as well as lateral variation related to pig breed. The present findings expand the current understanding of the variations in swine gut microbiota during production stages.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131607
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1608: Genomic Survey and Microsatellite Marker
           Investigation of Patagonian Moray Cod (Muraenolepis orangiensis)

    • Authors: Eunkyung Choi, Seung Jae Lee, Euna Jo, Jinmu Kim, Steven J. Parker, Jeong-Hoon Kim, Hyun Park
      First page: 1608
      Abstract: The Muraenolepididae family of fishes, known as eel cods, inhabits continental slopes and shelves in the Southern Hemisphere. This family belongs to the Gadiformes order, which constitutes one of the most important commercial fish resources worldwide, but the classification of the fish species in this order is ambiguous because it is only based on the morphological and habitat characteristics of the fishes. Here, the genome of Patagonian moray cod was sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq platform, and screened for microsatellite motifs. The genome was predicted to be 748.97 Mb, with a heterozygosity rate of 0.768%, via K-mer analysis (K = 25). The genome assembly showed that the total size of scaffolds was 711.92 Mb and the N50 scaffold length was 1522 bp. Additionally, 4,447,517 microsatellite motifs were identified from the genome survey assembly, and the most abundant motif type was found to be AC/GT. In summary, these data may facilitate the identification of molecular markers in Patagonian moray cod, which would be a good basis for further whole-genome sequencing with long read sequencing technology and chromosome conformation capture technology, as well as population genetics.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131608
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1609: Effects of Bacillus licheniformis on Growth
           Performance, Diarrhea Incidence, Antioxidant Capacity, Immune Function,
           and Fecal Microflora in Weaned Piglets

    • Authors: Xiaorong Yu, Zhenchuan Cui, Songke Qin, Ruiqiang Zhang, Yanping Wu, Jinsong Liu, Caimei Yang
      First page: 1609
      Abstract: Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) is a safe probiotic that can promote animal growth and inhibit pathogenic bacteria. This study aimed to assess the effects of B. licheniformis, one green feed additive, on growth performance, diarrhea incidence, immune function, fecal volatile fatty acids, and microflora structure in weaned piglets. Weaned piglets (n = 180) were randomly divided into three treatment groups and fed a basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 500 mg B. licheniformis per kg and 1000 mg B. licheniformis per kg, respectively. The dietary 500 mg/kg B. licheniformis inclusion improved the average daily gain, reduced diarrhea incidence, and strengthened antioxidant capacity. Piglets supplemented with B. licheniformis presented increased serum immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM) compared to the CON group. Meanwhile, the expression of anti-inflammation factors was increased, and the levels of pro-inflammation factors were reduced after B. licheniformis administration. Moreover, the levels of volatile fatty acids, including acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, isobutyric acid, and isovaleric acid, in the BL500 and BL1000 groups were increased compared with the CON group, and the concentration of valeric acid was higher in the BL500 group. Furthermore, piglets in the 500 mg/kg B. licheniformis addition group significantly altered fecal microbiota by increasing Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 and Oscillospira. In conclusion, dietary B. licheniformis relieved diarrhea, enhanced antioxidant capacity, immunity function, and fecal microflora structure in weaned pigs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131609
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1610: The Effect of Housing System on Disease
           Prevalence and Productive Lifespan of Dairy Herds—A Case Study

    • Authors: Dorota Witkowska, Aneta Ponieważ
      First page: 1610
      Abstract: Selected technological solutions can impact health status of animals. The aim of this case study was to determine the effect of different housing systems on disease prevalence and the productive lifespan of dairy cows. In total, 480 cows kept indoors on one farm in four buildings using four different housing systems (a free-stall barn with a slatted floor; a free-stall barn with a self-cleaning floor; an open-pack barn with deep litter; a tie-stall barn with shallow litter) were analyzed. The data from 6 years, based on veterinary reports, were processed statistically in Statistica 13.00. The study demonstrated that the average productive lifespan was longer (p ≤ 0.01), by up to more than 8 months, in the system with deep litter, which was also characterized by the lowest disease prevalence (p ≤ 0.01), especially foot and some reproductive disorders. This trend was maintained in each year of the study period (2015–2020). In the tie-stall barn, the prevalence of mastitis was reduced, but the risk of lameness, retained placenta, parturient paresis and displaced abomasum was higher in this system (p ≤ 0.01). Overall morbidity was highest in the free-stall barns. Lower morbidity was associated with an increase in productive herd life.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131610
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1611: A Holistic Approach to Evaluating Linear and
           Non-Linear Mixed Models to Predict Phosphorus Retention in Growing and
           Finishing Pigs

    • Authors: Christopher D. Powell, Jennifer L. Ellis, Raquel S. Dias, Secundino López, James France
      First page: 1611
      Abstract: The ability of four non-linear mixed models and one linear mixed model to describe phosphorus (P) retention as a function of dietary P intake, expressed on an available P (avP) basis, was assessed in growing and finishing pigs. Of the four non-linear models, the monomolecular and Michaelis-Menten describe diminishing returns behaviour, while the Richards and Morgan describe sigmoidal behaviour with the ability to also describe diminishing returns. Using a meta-analysis approach, models were fitted to avP intake vs. P retention data from P balance studies. Pig bodyweights (BW) ranged from 43.5 to 133 kg, P intake ranged from 0.055 to 0.468 g kg–1 BW0.75 d–1 for avP, and 0.151 to 0.806 g kg–1 BW0.75 d–1 for total P, with P retention ranging from 0.026 to 0.329 g kg–1 BW0.75 d–1. Models were evaluated using statistical measures of goodness-of-fit and inspection of residuals. The monomolecular and Michaelis-Menten best described the relationship between P retention and P intake. Endogenous P losses and P requirement for maintenance were found to be higher in finishing pigs compared to growing pigs as BW increased.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131611
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1612: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
           Infections in Alpacas (Vicugna pacos)

    • Authors: Reinhard Sting, Claudia Geiger, Wolfram Rietschel, Birgit Blazey, Ingo Schwabe, Jörg Rau, Lisa Schneider-Bühl
      First page: 1612
      Abstract: Alpacas are the major camelid species in Europe held for hobbies, animal-aided therapy, and commercial reasons. As a result, health-related issues associated with alpacas are of growing significance. This especially holds true for one of the most serious infectious diseases, caseous lymphadenitis, which is caused by the bacterial pathogen Corynebacterium (C.) pseudotuberculosis. Our study focuses on post-mortem examinations, the laboratory diagnostic tool ELISA, and the immunoblot technique for the detection of specific antibodies against C. pseudotuberculosis and detection of the causative pathogen in alpaca herds. We examined a total of 232 alpacas living in three herds. Four of these alpacas were submitted for post-mortem examination, revealing abscesses, apostematous and fibrinous inflammation in inner organs, pleura, and peritoneum. Serological investigation using a commercial ELISA based on phospholipase D (PLD) as antigen and an in-lab ELISA based on whole cell antigens (WCA) revealed an overall seroprevalence of 56% and 61.2%, respectively. A total of 247 alpaca sera originating from 232 animals were tested comparatively using the in-lab and the commercial ELISA and showed a substantial degree of agreement, of 89.5% (Cohen’s kappa coefficient of 0.784), for both tests. Further comparative serological studies using the two ELISAs and the immunoblot technique were carried out on selected sera originating from 12 breeding stallions and six breeding mares for which epidemiological data and partial C. pseudotuberculosis isolates were available. The results showed the immunoblot to have a sensitivity that was superior to both ELISAs. In this context, it should be emphasized that evaluation of these investigations and the epidemiological data suggest an incubation period of one to two months. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of 13 C. pseudotuberculosis isolates based on the determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations using the broth microdilution method revealed uniform susceptibility to aminopenicillins, cephalosporines, macrolides, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tetracycline, sulfonamid/trimethoprime, tiamulin, gentamicin, neomycin, spectinomycin, and vancomycin, but resistance to colistin, nitrofurantoin, and oxacillin.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131612
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1613: Neurotrophins in Zebrafish Taste Buds

    • Authors: Claudia Gatta, Valentina Schiano, Chiara Attanasio, Carla Lucini, Antonio Palladino
      First page: 1613
      Abstract: The neurotrophin family is composed of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Neurotrophin 3 (NT3) and NT4. These neurotrophins regulate several crucial functions through the activation of two types of transmembrane receptors, namely p75, which binds all neurotrophins with a similar affinity, and tyrosine kinase (Trk) receptors. Neurotrophins, besides their well-known pivotal role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system, also display the ability to regulate the development of taste buds in mammals. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate if NGF, BDNF, NT3 and NT4 are also present in the taste buds of zebrafish (Danio rerio), a powerful vertebrate model organism. Morphological analyses carried out on adult zebrafish showed the presence of neurotrophins in taste bud cells of the oropharyngeal cavity, also suggesting that BDNF positive cells are the prevalent cell population in the posterior part of the oropharyngeal region. In conclusion, by suggesting that all tested neurotrophins are present in zebrafish sensory cells, our results lead to the assumption that taste bud cells in this fish species contain the same homologous neurotrophins reported in mammals, further confirming the high impact of the zebrafish model in translational research.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131613
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1514: Genes Involved in Feed Efficiency Identified
           in a Meta-Analysis of Rumen Tissue from Two Populations of Beef Steers

    • Authors: Amanda K. Lindholm-Perry, Allison M. Meyer, Rebecca J. Kern-Lunbery, Hannah C. Cunningham-Hollinger, Taran H. Funk, Brittney N. Keel
      First page: 1514
      Abstract: In cattle, the rumen is an important site for the absorption of feed by-products released by bacterial fermentation, and variation in ruminal function plays a role in cattle feed efficiency. Studies evaluating gene expression in the rumen tissue have been performed prior to this. However, validating the expression of genes identified in additional cattle populations has been challenging. The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of the ruminal transcriptome of two unrelated populations of animals to identify genes that are involved in feed efficiency across populations. RNA-seq data from animals with high and low residual feed intake (RFI) from a United States population of cattle (eight high and eight low RFI) and a Canadian population of cattle (nine high and nine low RFI) were analyzed for differences in gene expression. A total of 83 differentially expressed genes were identified. Some of these genes have been previously identified in other feed efficiency studies. These genes included ATP6AP1, BAG6, RHOG, and YPEL3. Differentially expressed genes involved in the Notch signaling pathway and in protein turnover were also identified. This study, combining two unrelated populations of cattle in a meta-analysis, produced several candidate genes for feed efficiency that may be more robust indicators of feed efficiency than those identified from single populations of animals.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121514
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1515: Insects in Pet Food Industry—Hope
           or Threat'

    • Authors: Jagoda Kępińska-Pacelik, Wioletta Biel
      First page: 1515
      Abstract: Due to the increasing global population, the world cannot currently support the well-known techniques of food production due to their harmful effects on land use, water consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. The key answer is a solution based on the use of edible insects. They have always been present in the diet of animals. They are characterized by a very good nutritional value (e.g., high protein content and contents of essential amino acids and fatty acids, including lauric acid), and products with them receive positive results in palatability tests. Despite the existing literature data on the benefits of the use of insects as a protein source, their acceptance by consumers and animal caregivers remains problematic. In spite of the many advantages of using insects in pet food, it is necessary to analyze the risk of adverse food reactions, including allergic reactions that may be caused by insect consumption. Other hazards relate to the contamination of insects. For example, they can be contaminated with anthropogenic factors during breeding, packaging, cooking, or feeding. These contaminants include the presence of bacteria, mold fungi, mycotoxins, and heavy metals. However, insects can be used in the pet food industry. This is supported by the evolutionary adaptation of their wild ancestors to the eating of insects in the natural environment. The chemical composition of insects also corresponds to the nutritional requirements of dogs. It should be borne in mind that diets containing insect and their effects on animals require careful analysis. The aim of this article is to discuss the nutritional value of insects and their possible applications in the nutrition of companion animals, especially dogs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121515
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1516: Numerical Simulation of Airborne Disease
           Spread in Cage-Free Hen Housing with Multiple Ventilation Options

    • Authors: Long Chen, Eileen E. Fabian-Wheeler, John M. Cimbala, Daniel Hofstetter, Paul Patterson
      First page: 1516
      Abstract: The current ventilation designs of poultry barns have been present deficiencies with respect to the capacity to protect against disease exposure, especially during epidemic events. An evolution of ventilation options is needed in the egg industry to keep pace with the advancing transition to cage-free production. In this study, we analyzed the performances of four ventilation schemes for constraining airborne disease spread in a commercial cage-free hen house using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. In total, four three-dimensional models were developed to compare a standard ventilation configuration (top-wall inlet sidewall exhaust, TISE) with three alternative designs, all with mid-wall inlet and a central vertical exhaust. A one-eighth scale commercial floor-raised hen house with 2365 hens served as the model. Each ventilation configuration simulated airflow and surrogate airborne virus particle spread, assuming the initial virus was introduced from upwind inlets. Simulation outputs predicted the MICE and MIAE models maintained a reduced average bird level at 47% and 24%, respectively, of the standard TISE model, although the MIRE model predicted comparable virus mass fraction levels with TISE. These numerical differences unveiled the critical role of centrally located vertical exhaust in removing contaminated, virus-laden air from the birds housing environment. Moreover, the auxiliary attic space in the MIAE model was beneficial for keeping virus particles above the bird-occupied floor area.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121516
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1517: Toxocara canis Infection Alters mRNA
           Expression Profiles of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Beagle Dogs
           at the Lung Infection Period

    • Authors: Lang Cai, Yang Zou, Yue Xu, Hao-Yu Li, Shi-Chen Xie, Xing-Quan Zhu, Wen-Bin Zheng
      First page: 1517
      Abstract: Toxocara canis is a neglected zoonotic roundworm distributed all over the world, causing toxocariasis in humans and animals. However, so far, the immune mechanism of T. canis infection in definitive hosts remains to be clarified. In this study, the transcriptional alterations of Beagle dogs’ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) induced by T. canis infection during the lung infection period were analyzed using RNA-seq technology. A total of 2142 differentially expressed genes were identified, with 1066 upregulated genes and 1076 downregulated genes. Many differentially expressed genes participated in the biological process of intracellular signal transduction, as well as the immune- or inflammation-related KEGG signaling pathway, such as the Notch signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, and NF-kappa B signaling pathway, through KEGG enrichment analysis. This study indicated that T. canis infection could suppress the biological function of Beagle dogs’ PMBCs and provided basic data to further clarify the interaction mechanism between T. canis and host immune cells.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121517
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1518: Metabolomic Profiles of Multidrug-Resistant
           Salmonella Typhimurium from Humans, Bovine, and Porcine Hosts

    • Authors: Jessie M. Overton, Lyndsey Linke, Roberta Magnuson, Corey D. Broeckling, Sangeeta Rao
      First page: 1518
      Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health threat, yet tools for detecting resistance patterns are limited and require advanced molecular methods. Metabolomic approaches produce metabolite profiles and help provide scientific evidence of differences in metabolite expressions between Salmonella Typhimurium from various hosts. This research aimed to evaluate the metabolomic profiles of S. Typhimurium associated with AMR and it compares profiles across various hosts. Three samples, each from bovine, porcine, and humans (total n = 9), were selectively chosen from an existing library to compare these nine isolates cultured under no drug exposure to the same isolates cultured in the presence of the antimicrobial drug panel ACSSuT (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, tetracycline). This was followed by metabolomic profiling using UPLC and GC–mass spectrometry. The results indicated that the metabolite regulation was affected by antibiotic exposure, irrespective of the host species. When exposed to antibiotics, 59.69% and 40.31% of metabolites had increased and decreased expressions, respectively. The most significantly regulated metabolic pathway was aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, which demonstrated increased expressions of serine, aspartate, alanine, and citric acid. Metabolites that showed decreased expressions included glutamate and pyruvate. This pathway and associated metabolites have known AMR associations and could be targeted for new drug discoveries and diagnostic methods.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121518
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1519: An Extract of Artemisia argyi Leaves Rich in
           Organic Acids and Flavonoids Promotes Growth in BALB/c Mice by Regulating
           Intestinal Flora

    • Authors: Qianbo Ma, Dejin Tan, Xiaoxiao Gong, Huiming Ji, Kexin Wang, Qian Lei, Guoqi Zhao
      First page: 1519
      Abstract: In the context of global restrictions on the use of antibiotics, there has been increased research on natural plant-based ingredients as additives. It has been proved that many natural active ingredients contained in plants have positive effects on animal growth regulation. Artemisia argyi (A. argyi) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, and its extracts have been reported to have a variety of biological activities. Therefore, in order to explore the potential of the active extract of Artemisia argyi leaves (ALE) as a plant source additive, mice were fed with ALE at different concentrations for 60 days. Finally, the effects of ALE were evaluated by the growth indexes, blood indexes, and intestinal microflora changes of the mice. It was found that a medium concentration of ALE (150 mg/kg) could promote growth, and especially improved the feed efficiency of the mice. However, high concentrations of ALE (300 mg/kg) had some negative effects on the growth of mice, especially liver damage, which significantly increased AST and ALT levels in the blood. Therefore, the 150 mg/kg ALE treatment group was selected for 16S rDNA analysis. It was found that ALE could play a positive role by regulating the proportion of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes in the intestinal tract. In particular, it can significantly up-regulate the quantities of Akkermansia and Bifidobacterium. These results suggest that ALE at appropriate concentrations can positively regulate animal growth.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121519
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1520: Quality Assessment of Day-Old Chickens on
           the Broiler Farms of Hong Kong

    • Authors: Omid Nekouei, Denis Yau, Brett MacKinnon, Ioannis Magouras, Anne Conan, Ibrahim Elsohaby, Surya Paudel, Dirk U. Pfeiffer
      First page: 1520
      Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate the quality of newly hatched broiler chicks delivered to Hong Kong (imported or local), and to develop tailored recommendations to improve their management. During 2019–2021, 70 batches (34 imported from mainland China and 36 local) of one/three day old chicks on 11 broiler farms were studied. From each batch, 23 or 24 chicks (1647 in total) were assessed for abnormalities in appearance, navel, crop filling, dehydration, body weight, and length uniformity. Chicks were sacrificed, and yolk sac residues in three day old chicks were measured. Maternally derived antibody levels against Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), and avian reovirus (ARV) were measured in all chicks using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The proportion of abnormal navel in most batches is high (median: 59%), ranging between 0 and 100%. The average length of chicks within batches ranges between 16.3 and 20.7 cm, and their average weights are 31–38.5 g upon delivery to the farms. On average, imported batches have a higher body weight and length than their local counterparts. The average yolk-free weight varies between 45 and 55 g, which is significantly lower in local batches (33–43 g). The mean antibody titers against NDV and ARV are higher in imported batches than in the local ones. In contrast, the mean antibody titer against IBDV is significantly lower in the imported batches. Concerning the overall lower quality of local chicks compared to the imported batches, establishing a well-managed broiler breeder farm and a hatchery in Hong Kong is highly recommended to enhance the health and productivity of the local broiler chicken industry.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121520
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1521: Estimation of the Production Economic
           Consequences of Stopping Partial Depopulation in Broiler Production

    • Authors: Nunzio Sarnino, Anna Catharina Berge, Ilias Chantziaras, Jeroen Dewulf
      First page: 1521
      Abstract: Partial depopulation is the removal and slaughter of part of a flock prior to the final slaughter age, and this practice allows broiler producers to optimize stocking density in broiler houses. However, this practice constitutes a serious break in farm biosecurity that can lead to the introduction of various pathogens in the flock, including Campylobacter spp. In this study, the production of a house performing partial depopulation of 25% of the flock at 35 days of age prior to the final slaughter at 42 days was compared with a production system where partial depopulation was not performed. The differences in production costs, profit, and technical performance parameters were evaluated. The model indicated that stopping partial depopulation reduces the production between 16 to 24%, which results in a 14% reduced profit per kg of live weight, and a 31% reduced profit per production cycle. To compensate the profit loss, it would be necessary to increase the meat price 3% from a starting price of 87.44 cents. For current conventional broiler production, it may be financially challenging to stop partial depopulation practices. Focusing on external biosecurity to avoid the introduction of Campylobacter into poultry houses may be the right compromise.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121521
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1522: IGF1R and LOX Modules Are Related to Antler
           Growth Rate Revealed by Integrated Analyses of Genomics and

    • Authors: Pengfei Hu, Zhen Wang, Jiping Li, Dongxu Wang, Yusu Wang, Quanmin Zhao, Chunyi Li
      First page: 1522
      Abstract: Deer antlers are organs of bone and have an extremely rapid growth rate. Thus far, the molecular mechanism underlying rapid antler growth has not been properly elucidated, and key genes driving this growth rate have not been fully identified. In this study, based on the newly assembled high-quality sika deer genome, we conducted an integrated analysis of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) using genome resequencing data from our previous GWAS, with weight and transcriptome sequencing data of faster- vs. slower-growing antlers of sika deer. The expressions of key genes were verified using Fragments Per Kilobase of transcript per Million fragments mapped (FPKM) in different tissue zones of the antler growth center, different types of sika deer tissues and antler tissues collected from faster and slower growth rates. The results show that a total of 49 genes related to antler growth rate were identified, and most of those genes were enriched in the IGF1R and LOX modules. The gene regulation network of antler growth rate through the IGF1R pathway was constructed. In conclusion, the integration of GWAS and WGCNA analyses had great advantages in identifying regulatory genes of complex antler growth traits over using singular methods individually, and we believe that our findings in the present study can provide further insight into unveiling the mechanism underlying extraordinary fast antler growth rate in particular, as well as the regulatory mechanism of rapid tissue proliferation in general.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121522
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1523: Functional Identification of Porcine DLK1
           during Muscle Development

    • Authors: Yu Fu, Xin Hao, Peng Shang, Yangzom Chamba, Bo Zhang, Hao Zhang
      First page: 1523
      Abstract: DLK1 is paternally expressed and is involved in metabolism switching, stem cell maintenance, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Porcine DLK1 was identified in our previous study as a candidate gene that regulates muscle development. In the present study, we characterized DLK1 expression in pigs, and the results showed that DLK1 was highly expressed in the muscles of pigs. In-vitro cellular tests showed that DLK1 promoted myoblast proliferation, migration, and muscular hypertrophy, and at the same time inhibited muscle degradation. The expression of myogenic and fusion markers and the formation of multinucleated myotubes were both upregulated in myoblasts with DLK1 overexpression. DLK1 levels in cultured myocytes were negatively correlated with the expression of key factors in the Notch pathway, suggesting that the suppression of Notch signaling pathways may mediate these processes. Collectively, our results suggest a biological function of DLK1 as an enhancer of muscle development by the inhibition of Notch pathways.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121523
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1524: Niacin Status Indicators and Their
           Relationship with Metabolic Parameters in Dairy Cows during Early

    • Authors: Kosta Petrović, Radojica Djoković, Marko Cincović, Talija Hristovska, Miroslav Lalović, Miloš Petrović, Mira Majkić, Maja Došenović Marinković, Ljiljana Anđušić, Gordana Devečerski, Dragica Stojanović, Filip Štrbac
      First page: 1524
      Abstract: Previous experimental models on cows have examined the difference in the metabolic adaptation in cows after niacin administration, without identifying the most important mediators between niacin administration and its biological effects, namely active forms of niacin. All tissues in the body convert absorbed niacin into its main metabolically active form, the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). The aim of this study was to determine the influence of niacin administration in periparturient period on NAD, NADP and the NAD:NADP ratio and to determine relationship between these indicators of an active form of niacin with metabolic parameters in cow blood. The study included 90 healthy cows: 45 cows receiving niacin and 45 cows were negative control. The niacin group was treated with nicotinic acid for two weeks before, as well as two weeks after parturition. Nicotinic acid was applied per os with feed. In cows receiving niacin, there was a significantly higher concentration of NAD and NADP, but the NAD:NADP ratio did not differ compared with control. All three indicators were able to separate cows who received and who did not receive additional niacin. NAD and NADP are good indicators of the availability of niacin from additional sources. The NAD:NADP ratio is a good indicator of the biological effect of applied niacin on metabolites in cows due to its correlation with a number of metabolites: positive correlation with glucose, insulin, glucose to insulin ratio and the revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (RQUICKIBHB) of insulin resistance, triglycerides and cholesterol, and a negative correlation with nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB), gamma-glutamyltranspherase (GGT) and urea in cows receiving niacin. The same amount of added niacin in feed can produce different concentrations of NAD, NADP and NAD:NADP in the blood, and this was not related to their concentration before the addition of niacin. The change in the concentration of the active form of niacin (NAD, NADP and NAD:NADP) further correlates with the concentration of metabolic parameters, which indicates that the intensity of the biological effect of additional niacin can be accurately determined only if we know the concentrations of its active forms in blood. Under basal conditions (without additional niacin), active forms of niacin that already exist in the blood do not show significant correlations with metabolic parameters.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121524
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1525: Bestiality Law in the United States:
           Evolving Legislation with Scientific Limitations

    • Authors: Brian James Holoyda
      First page: 1525
      Abstract: Societies have proscribed bestiality, or sex between humans and nonhuman animals, since the earliest recorded legal codes. In the early American colonies, religious prohibitions against bestiality provided the grounds for punishing those who engaged in such acts. In the 1800′s, Henry Bergh imported the animal welfare approach to the United States, which modernized the legislative treatment of animals in the country. Until recently, however, many laws in the U.S. have been outdated and vague and have utilized moralistic terminology. Since the 1960′s, a growing body of literature has developed suggesting that individuals who harm animals may also interpersonally offend. This concept, known as the Link, has served as a major motivation for advocates to promote new legislation criminalizing bestiality, to modernize old state statutes, and to expand penalties for individuals convicted of having sex with animals. Unfortunately, data supporting the Link between bestiality and interpersonal violence are limited and of questionable generalizability to the broad public. The Link’s weaknesses can assist in guiding further research. This article summarizes the history of bestiality law, the current state of bestiality legislation in the United States, the body of Link-related literature on bestiality and interpersonal violence and other problematic sexual behaviors, and the empirical weaknesses and needs revealed by this legislation.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121525
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1526: Effect of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum)
           Supplementation on Pork Offal Quality

    • Authors: Kinga Kropiwiec-Domańska, Marek Babicz, Monika Kędzierska-Matysek, Magdalena Szyndler-Nędza, Ewa Skrzypczak, Bartłomiej Woliński
      First page: 1526
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of milk thistle supplementation of fattener pig feeds on physical and chemical properties of pork offal. The experiments were conducted on 60 fatteners (group C—control (30 pigs) and group E—experimental (30 pigs)). The experimental group was supplemented with ground milk thistle (Silybum marianum) at 7 g/kg feed. The offal (tongues, kidneys, hearts, lungs and livers) was analyzed for weight, pH, WHC, water, protein, fat, energy value, fatty acid profile and content of major and trace elements. The present study shows that milk thistle added to fattener pig diets increased pH45 and pH24 values in most of the analyzed offal and significantly (p ≤ 0.01) decreased the weight of heart and lungs and increased the weight of liver and kidneys. Hearts, lungs and kidneys of the experimental group contained more fat and the liver less, than the same offal of the control group. As regards the content of elements, the dietary supplement most often had an effect on the heart and lungs. In general, milk thistle supplemented in fattener diets had modified the physical parameters and chemical composition of the analyzed products.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121526
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1527: Effects of Microalgae Addition and Fish Feed
           Supplementation in the Integrated Rearing of Pacific White Shrimp and Nile
           Tilapia Using Biofloc Technology

    • Authors: Vitor F. Silva, Patriula K. M. Pereira, Mateus A. Martins, Marco A. d. Lorenzo, Herculano Cella, Rafael G. Lopes, Roberto B. Derner, Paola Magallón-Servín, Felipe d. N. Vieira
      First page: 1527
      Abstract: This study aims to evaluate a Pacific white shrimp and Nile tilapia integrated system using biofloc technology with or without the addition of the microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus and with or without fish feed supplementation in a two-factor 62-day experiment. The shrimp (2.16 ± 0.01 g) were reared under a density of 400 shrimp m−3 and the fish (1.53 ± 0.12 g) were reared under a density of 522 fish m−3. The microalgae was added to the culture water two times a week. Growth performance, sludge production, and water microbiology were evaluated. Fish feed and the microalgae addition improved fish final biomass in 58% and 14%, respectively (p < 0.05). Fish survival was significantly higher when microalgae was added (93.9 ± 1.8%) compared with the treatments without microalgae addition (86.2 ± 7.6%) (p < 0.05). The yield of the overall system was higher in the treatments with fish feed supplementation (4.2 ± 0.2 kg m−3) compared with no addition (3.9 ± 0.2 kg m−3) (p < 0.05). These results suggest that fish feed supplementation at the rate of 1% of the biomass and microalgae inoculation can improve fish growth performance and system yield, without affecting sludge production and water microbiology. This work is an expansion of a conference paper with the same title.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121527
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1528: Fructooligosaccharide Supplementation Boosts
           Growth Performance, Antioxidant Status, and Cecal Microbiota Differently
           in Two Rabbit Breeds

    • Authors: Ayman H. Abd El-Aziz, Mahmoud M. Abo Ghanima, Walaa F. Alsanie, Ahmed Gaber, Abd El-Wahab Alsenosy, Ahmed A. Easa, Sherif A. Moawed, Sayed Haidar Abbas Raza, Ahmed Elfadadny, Hany Abo Yossef, Wafaa M. Ghoneem, Mustafa Shukry, Amin Omar Hendawy, Khalid Mahrose
      First page: 1528
      Abstract: The present study examined the effects of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) supplementation in drinking water on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, hematological and biochemical parameters, antioxidant status, and cecal microbiota of New Zealand White (NZW) and APRI rabbits. A total of 180 male NZW and APRI rabbits (aged five weeks; average live body weight 700 ± 39 g) were divided into six groups (30 rabbits/group; 5 replicates/group) in a two × three factorial arrangement. Rabbits of each breed were randomly assigned to one of three treatments of FOS (control; 0.00, FOS-0.5, and FOS-1.0). Results showed that rabbits’ final body weight, FBWG, and carcass traits were considerably enhanced compared to those in the control group. The interaction effect of the supplement with the rabbit breed increased the growth, carcass traits, and hematobiochemical and antioxidant parameters with increasing FOS levels. In the cecum of both rabbit breeds, the total bacterial count and Escherichiacoli population were considerably low, with a substantial increase in the number of Lactobacilli supplemented by FOS. In conclusion, FOS supplementation enhanced growth and carcass traits by improving the hematobiochemical parameters and antioxidant status and reducing cecal pathogenic bacteria in both breeds.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121528
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1529: Effects of Pasteurella multocida on
           Histopathology, miRNA and mRNA Expression Dynamics in Lung of Goats

    • Authors: Wencan Zhang, Zizhuo Jiao, Huixian Huang, Yanru Wu, Haotian Wu, Zhiyong Liu, Zhenxing Zhang, Qi An, Yiwen Cheng, Si Chen, Churiga Man, Li Du, Fengyang Wang, Qiaoling Chen
      First page: 1529
      Abstract: Pasteurella multocida (Pm) infection causes severe respiratory disease in goats. We investigated the effects of the Pm infection intratracheally on the histopathology, miRNA and mRNA expression dynamics in the lung of goats infected for 1, 2, 5 and 7 days. Pm infection caused fever, which significantly (p < 0.05) increased the body temperature of the goats from day 1 to 5. Haemotoxylin–eosin staining of the infected lung tissue showed characteristics of suppurative pneumonia with inflammatory cells infiltration and the lung structure destruction. During the Pm infection of the goats, compared with the control group, there were 3080, 3508, 2716 and 2675 differentially expressed genes and 42, 69, 91 and 108 significantly expressed miRNAs ( log2Fold Change > 1, p < 0.05) in the Pm_d1, Pm_d2, Pm_d5 and Pm_d7 groups, respectively. Five miRNAs and nine immune-related genes were selected for confirmation by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that the expression patterns of the miRNAs and genes were consistent with those determined by next-generation sequencing. The differentially expressed genes were enriched in cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction, cell adhesion molecules, complement and coagulation cascades, tight junction and phagosome Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways and cytokine production, leukocyte migration, myeloid leukocyte migration, cell periphery, plasma membrane, extracellular region part, extracellular region and other Gene Ontology terms. The differentially expressed genes were mapped to marker genes in human and mouse lung cells. The results showed the presence of some marker genes of the immune cells. Compared with the CK group, five miRNAs and 892 common genes were differentially expressed in the Pm_d1, Pm_d2, Pm_d5 and Pm_d7 groups. The target relationships between the common 5 miRNAs and 892 differentially expressed genes were explored and the miRNAs involved in the host immune reaction may act through the target genes. Our study characterized goats’ reaction in the lung from histopathological and molecular changes upon Pm infection, which will provide valuable information for understanding the responses in goats during Pm infection.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121529
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1530: Betaine Promotes Fat Accumulation and
           Reduces Injury in Landes Goose Hepatocytes by Regulating Multiple Lipid
           Metabolism Pathways

    • Authors: Jiying Liu, Ruilong Song, Shengyan Su, Nannan Qi, Qifa Li, Zhuang Xie, Shali Yu
      First page: 1530
      Abstract: Betaine is a well-established supplement used in livestock feeding. In our previous study, betaine was shown to result in the redistribution of body fat, a healthier steatosis phenotype, and an increased liver weight and triglyceride storage of the Landes goose liver, which is used for foie-gras production. However, these effects are not found in other species and strains, and the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we studied the underpinning molecular mechanisms by developing an in vitro fatty liver cell model using primary Landes goose hepatocytes and a high-glucose culture medium. Oil red-O staining, a mitochondrial membrane potential assay, and a qRT-PCR were used to quantify lipid droplet characteristics, mitochondrial β-oxidation, and fatty acid metabolism-related gene expression, respectively. Our in vitro model successfully simulated steatosis caused by overfeeding. Betaine supplementation resulted in small, well-distributed lipid droplets, consistent with previous experiments in vivo. In addition, mitochondrial membrane potential was restored, and gene expression of fatty acid synthesis genes (e.g., sterol regulatory-element binding protein, diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 and 2) was lower after betaine supplementation. By contrast, the expression of lipid hydrolysis transfer genes (mitochondrial transfer protein and lipoprotein lipase) was higher. Overall, the results provide a scientific basis and theoretical support for the use of betaine in animal production.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121530
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1531: Myogenic Determination and Differentiation
           of Chicken Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells under Different
           Inductive Agents

    • Authors: Zhen Zhou, Changbin Zhao, Bolin Cai, Manting Ma, Shaofen Kong, Jing Zhang, Xiquan Zhang, Qinghua Nie
      First page: 1531
      Abstract: Poultry plays an important role in the meat consumer market and is significant to further understanding the potential mechanism of muscle development in the broiler. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) can provide critical insight into muscle development due to their multi-lineage differentiation potential. To our knowledge, chicken BM-MSCs demonstrate limited myogenic differentiation potential under the treatment with dexamethasone (DXMS) and hydrocortisone (HC). 5-azacytidine (5-Aza), a DNA demethylating agent, which has been widely used in the myogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs in other species. There is no previous report that applies 5-Aza to myogenic-induced differentiation of chicken BM-MSCs. In this study, we evaluated the myogenic determination and differentiation effect of BM-MSCs under different inductive agents. BM-MSCs showed better differentiation potential under the 5-Aza-treatment. Transcriptome sequence analysis identified 2402 differentially expressed DEGs including 28 muscle-related genes after 5-Aza-treatment. The DEGs were significantly enriched in Gene Ontology database terms, including in the cell plasma membrane, molecular binding, and cell cycle and differentiation. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that DEGs were enriched in myogenic differentiation-associated pathways containing the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, the TGF-β signaling pathway, Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which suggested that BM-MSCs differentiated into a muscle-like phenotype under 5-Aza-treatment. Although BM-MSCs have not formed myotubes in our study, it is worthy of further study. In summary, our study lays the foundation for constructing a myogenic determination and differentiation model in chicken BM-MSCs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121531
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1532: Genome-Wide Association Study of Feed
           Efficiency Related Traits in Ducks

    • Authors: Qixin Guo, Lan Huang, Yong Jiang, Zhixiu Wang, Yulin Bi, Guohong Chen, Hao Bai, Guobin Chang
      First page: 1532
      Abstract: Feed efficiency (FE) is the most important economic trait in the poultry and livestock industry. Thus, genetic improvement of FE may result in a considerable reduction of the cost and energy burdens. As genome-wide association studies (GWASs) can help identify candidate variants influencing FE, the present study aimed to analyze the phenotypic correlation and identify candidate variants of the seven FE traits in ducks. All traits were found to have significant positive correlations with varying degrees. In particular, residual feed intake presented correlation coefficients of 0.61, 0.54, and 0.13 with feed conversion ratio, and feed intake, respectively. Furthermore, data from seven FE-related GWAS revealed 4 (FCR), 3 (FI), 36 (RFI), 6 (BWG), 8 (BW21), and 10 (BW42) SNPs were significantly associated with body weight gain, feed intake, residual feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and weight at 21 and 42 days, respectively. Candidate SNPs of seven FE trait-related genes were involved in galactose metabolism, starch, propanoate metabolism, sucrose metabolism and etc. Taken together, these findings provide insight into the genetic mechanisms and genes involved in FE-related traits in ducks. However, further investigations are warranted to further validate these findings.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121532
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1533: Developmental Alterations of Colonic
           microRNA Profiles Imply Potential Biological Functions in Kid Goats

    • Authors: Qiongxian Yan, Lina Tian, Wenxun Chen, Jinhe Kang, Shaoxun Tang, Zhiliang Tan
      First page: 1533
      Abstract: The colon is a crucial digestive organ of the hind gut in ruminants. The bacterial diversity and mucosal immune maturation in this region are related to age. However, whether the microRNA expression in the colon of goats is affected by age is still unclear. In the current study, we analyzed the transcriptomes of colon microRNAs during preweaning (Day 10 and Day 25) and postweaning (Day 31). A total of 1572 microRNAs were identified in the colon tissues. Of these, 39 differentially expressed microRNAs (DEmiRNAs) and 88 highly expressed microRNAs (HEmiRNAs) were screened. The target genes regulated by the DEmiRNAs and HEmiRNAs were commonly enriched in the MAPK signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, Hippo signaling pathway, cell adhesion molecules, focal adhesion, and adherens junction. Remarkably, the targeted genes of the DEmiRNAs were highly enriched for the prevention of microbial invasion via the Erbb−MAPK network while the targeted genes of HEmiRNAs contributed to the permeable barrier maintenance and cell damage surveillance. Additionally, there were eight different expression profiles of 87 dynamic miRNAs, in which approximately half of them were affected by age. Taken together, our study reveals the different roles of DEmiRNAs, HEmiRNAs, and dynamic microRNAs in the development of the colon and gives new insights into the regulatory mechanism of colon development in goats.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121533
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1534: Correction: Felisberto et al.
           Ultrasound-Guided Saphenous Nerve Block in Rabbits (Oryctolagus
           cuniculus): A Cadaveric Study Comparing Two Injectate Volumes. Animals
           2022, 12, 624

    • Authors: Ricardo Felisberto, Derek Flaherty, Hamaseh Tayari
      First page: 1534
      Abstract: The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper [...]
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121534
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1535: Assessment of Neurodegenerative Changes in
           Turkeys Fed Diets with Different Proportions of Arginine and Methionine
           Relative to Lysine

    • Authors: Magdalena Krauze, Katarzyna Ognik, Dariusz Mikulski, Jan Jankowski
      First page: 1535
      Abstract: We postulated that the use of optimal levels and proportions of Arg and Met relative to a low or high concentration of Lys in diets for meat turkeys would reduce the occurrence of metabolic disturbances in the nervous tissue that can lead to neurodegenerative changes. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of various proportions of Lys, Arg, and Met in diets for turkeys, with a low content of Lys in accordance with NRC (Experiment 1) recommendations, and in diets with high Lys levels that are close to the recommendations of breeding companies (Experiment 2) on selected indicators of potential neurodegenerative effects in the brain and liver of turkeys. The Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 was conducted using 864 day-old turkey chicks randomly assigned to six groups, in eight replicates (6 groups × 18 birds × 8 replicates). A full description of the methodology can be found in previously published papers using the same experimental design. Indicators informing about the presence or advancement of neurodegenerative processes in the nervous tissue were determined in the brain and liver (level of: AChE, amyloid-β, GAChE, Tau protein, LRP1, and the degree of DNA methylation). It was established that in the case of both a low (National Research Council, NRC) and a high (British United Turkeys, BUT) level of Lys in the diet of turkeys, the Arg level can be reduced to 90% of the Lys level and Met to 30% of the Lys level, because this does not cause neurodegenerative changes in turkeys. Unfavorable neurodegenerative changes may appear if the Arg level is increased from 100 to 110% of the Lys level recommended by the NRC. However, due to the lack of such a relationship when Arg is increased from 100 to 110% of the Lys level recommended by BUT, at this stage of research no definitive conclusions can be drawn regarding the risk of neurodegenerative changes caused by increasing Arg in the diet of turkeys.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121535
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1536: Dominant Components of the Giant Panda
           Seminal Plasma Metabolome, Characterized by 1H-NMR Spectroscopy

    • Authors: Chenglin Zhu, Lei Jin, Bo Luo, Qiang Zhou, Li Dong, Xiaoyan Li, Hemin Zhang, Yan Huang, Caiwu Li, Likou Zou, Luca Laghi
      First page: 1536
      Abstract: As an assisted breeding technique, artificial insemination has become the main effective practical approach in the captive breeding programs of giant panda worldwide. The composition of seminal plasma plays an important role in the success of breeding. The present work is the first attempt to characterize, by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR), the metabolome of healthy giant panda seminal plasma. A total of 35 molecules were quantified, with the concentration of 2,3-butanediol being significantly different between individuals younger than 8 years and older than 13 years, and other distinct age-related trends were highlighted by a multivariate analysis. Isopropanol’s concentration was significantly linked to estrus stages. Besides, the variations in the metabolome’s profile during storage were also evaluated. This study may serve as a reference for further research wishing to shed light on the biological mechanisms affecting giant panda sperm’s overall quality and may ultimately lead to novel approaches to giant panda artificial insemination.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121536
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1537: Proximate Chemical Composition, Amino Acids
           Profile and Minerals Content of Meat Depending on Carcass Part, Sire
           Genotype and Sex of Meat Rabbits

    • Authors: Robert Gál, David Zapletal, Petra Jakešová, Eva Straková
      First page: 1537
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to assess the effects of the sire genotype, sex and carcass part on the composition of the meat of rabbits, which were fattened under conditions where no synthetic drugs were used. As for carcass parts, the higher content of both total amino acids (AA) and all essential AA (EAA) monitored was found in the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle as compared to hind leg meat (p ˂ 0.001). Significant effects of the rabbit sire genotype and the genotype x sex interaction on proportions of some AA in meat were found (p ˂ 0.001). Crossbreeding of the Mecklenburger Schecke (MS) sires with a commercial dam line of HYLA rabbits resulted in a lower proportion of the total AA and all EAA monitored in meats of MS sired males as compared to MS sired females and HYLA rabbits (p ˂ 0.05). The sex-related effect on AA profile was not so noticeable in final commercial crossbreds of HYLA rabbits when compared to MS sired progeny. These findings point to a possible risk of alterations in the nutritional quality of meat proteins when using different rabbit sire genotypes than those originally intended for the specific commercial crossbreeding scheme. However, on the contrary, higher contents of magnesium (p ˂ 0.05), manganese (p ˂ 0.001) and zinc (p ˂ 0.05) were found in meats of MS sired progeny as compared to HYLA rabbits.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121537
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1538: The Hard Choice about Dry Pet Food:
           Comparison of Protein and Lipid Nutritional Qualities and Digestibility of
           Three Different Chicken-Based Formulations

    • Authors: Nicolò Montegiove, Eleonora Calzoni, Alessio Cesaretti, Roberto Maria Pellegrino, Carla Emiliani, Alessia Pellegrino, Leonardo Leonardi
      First page: 1538
      Abstract: Dry pet food, made of fresh meats and especially meat meals, represents one of the main types of complete food available on the market by virtue of its practicality and long shelf life. The kibble production process includes mixed thermal and mechanical treatments that help to improve the palatability and durability of the final product but may have undesirable effects on nutrient bioavailability and digestibility. An analysis of the protein and lipid content of different dry pet food formulations, together with an in vitro digestibility analysis, can reveal which formulation can provide a more nourishing diet for pets. In this study, a quantitative and qualitative analysis was performed on three different formulations of chicken-based dry pet food, consisting of fresh meats, meat meals, or a mix of these two. The soluble protein concentration was determined by the Bradford assay, while the crude protein content was assessed through the Kjeldahl method. Quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (Q-TOF LC/MS) was used to analyze the amino acid (AA) and lipid compositions. Finally, a gastric and small intestinal digestion simulation was used to determine the in vitro digestibility. The results show that dry pet food consisting only of chicken fresh meats has the highest content of soluble protein; it also contains more Essential AAs, Branched-Chain AAs, and Taurine, as well as a greater quantity of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In addition, its in vitro digestibility was the highest, exceeding 90% of its dry weight, in agreement with the soluble protein content. These findings thus make the fresh-meat-based formulation a preferable choice as dry pet food.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121538
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1539: Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity
           of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Cervids from Milu Park in Beijing, China

    • Authors: Qingxun Zhang, Zhenyu Zhong, Zhiqiang Xia, Qinghui Meng, Yunfang Shan, Qingyun Guo, Zhibin Cheng, Peiyang Zhang, Hongxuan He, Jiade Bai
      First page: 1539
      Abstract: Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most prevalent microsporidian species that can cause zoonotic diseases in humans and animals. Despite receiving increasing attention in relation to domestic animals, there has been limited information on the infection burden of E. bieneusi in cervids. Altogether, 215 fecal samples collected from four deer species in Beijing, China were examined by nested- Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi in deer was 21.9% (47/215), with 30.0% (24/80) in Pere David’s deer, 27.3% (15/55) in fallow deer, 12.5% (5/40) in sika deer, and 7.5% (3/40) in Chinese water deer. Thirteen E. bieneusi genotypes were identified, including six known (HLJD-V, MWC_d1, BEB6, CGC2, JLD-XV, and HND-I) and seven novel genotypes (BJED-I to BJED-V, BJFD, and BJCWD). A phylogenetic analysis showed that 38.3% of the isolates belonged to zoonotic Group 1. In addition, E. bieneusi infection was first detected in fallow deer and Chinese water deer, which could act as potential zoonotic reservoirs. Our findings suggest that E. bieneusi circulates in deer and might be of importance to public health.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121539
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1540: The Distribution Characteristics of Aerosol
           Bacteria in Different Types of Pig Houses

    • Authors: Huan Cui, Cheng Zhang, Juxiang Liu, Shishan Dong, Kui Zhao, Ligong Chen, Zhaoliang Chen, Yucheng Sun, Zhendong Guo
      First page: 1540
      Abstract: With the development of modern pig raising technology, the increasing density of animals in pig houses leads to the accumulation of microbial aerosols in pig houses. It is an important prerequisite to grasp the characteristics of bacteria in aerosols in different pig houses to solve the problems of air pollution and disease prevention and control in different pig houses. This work investigated the effects of growth stages on bacterial aerosol concentrations and bacterial communities in pig houses. Three traditional types of closed pig houses were studied: farrowing (FAR) houses, weaning (WEA) houses, and fattening (FAT) houses. The Andersen six-stage sampler and high-volume air sampler were used to assess the concentrations and size distribution of airborne bacteria, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to identify the bacterial communities. We found that the airborne bacterial concentration, community richness, and diversity index increased with pig age. We found that Acinetobacter, Erysipelothrix, Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Aerococcus in the microbial aerosols of pig houses have the potential risk of causing disease. These differences lead us to believe that disinfection strategies for pig houses should involve a situational focus on environmental aerosol composition on a case-by-case basis.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121540
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1541: Genome-Wide Association Study for Lactation
           Performance in the Early and Peak Stages of Lactation in Holstein Dairy

    • Authors: Mahsa Zare, Hadi Atashi, Miel Hostens
      First page: 1541
      Abstract: This study aimed to detect genomic loci associated with the lactation performance during 9 to 50 days in milk (DIM) in Holstein dairy cows. Daily milk yield (MY), fat yield (FY), and protein yield (PY) during 9 to 50 DIM were recorded on 134 multiparous Holstein dairy cows distributed in four research herds. Fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM), fat-corrected milk (FCM), and energy-corrected milk (ECM) were predicted. The records collected during 9 to 25 DIM were put into the early stage of lactation (EARLY) and those collected during 26 to 50 DIM were put into the peak stage of lactation (PEAK). Then, the mean of traits in each cow included in each lactation stage (EARLY and PEAK) were estimated and used as phenotypic observations for the genome-wide association study. The included animals were genotyped with the Illumina BovineHD Genotyping BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) for a total of 777,962 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). After quality control, 585,109 variants were analyzed using GEMMA software in a mixed linear model. Although there was no SNP associated with traits included at the 5% genome-wide significance threshold, 18 SNPs were identified to be associated with milk yield and composition at the suggestive genome-wide significance threshold. Candidate genes identified for milk production traits showed contrasting results between the EARLY and PEAK stages of lactation. This suggests that differential sets of candidate genes underlie the phenotypic expression of the considered traits in the EARLY and PEAK stages of lactation. Although further functional studies are needed to validate our findings in independent populations, it can be concluded that in any genomic study it should be taken into account that the genetic effects of genes related to the lactation performance are not constant during the lactation period.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121541
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1542: The Role of Peroxisome
           Proliferator-Activated Receptors in PGF2α-Induced Luteolysis in the
           Bovine Corpus Luteum

    • Authors: Barbara Maria Socha, Piotr Łada, Agnieszka Walentyna Jończyk, Anna Justyna Korzekwa, Dariusz Jan Skarżyński
      First page: 1542
      Abstract: The participation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in ovarian function in cattle is still not fully understood. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine: (i) the immunolocalization, mRNA expression and tissue concentration of PPARα, PPARδ and PPARγ in the bovine corpus luteum (CL) (n = 40) throughout the estrous cycle, and (ii) the involvement of PPAR in PGF2α-induced processes related to luteolysis. CL (n = 9) explants were cultured in the presence of PPAR antagonists (10−5 M) in combination with or without PGF2α receptor antagonist (10−5 M) and PGF2α (10−6 M). The mRNA and protein expression of PPARs was evaluated through qPCR, IHC, and ELISA, respectively. The results showed that PPAR mRNA and protein expression differed according to the luteal stages. PGF2α upregulated PPARδ and PPARγ mRNA expression in the bovine CL in vitro, whereas PPARγ increased the inhibitory effect of PGF2α by decreasing progesterone secretion and the mRNA expression of hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 β- and steroid delta-isomerase 1 (HSD3B1) in the CL explants; mRNA transcription of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was increased. The obtained results indicate that the mRNA and protein expression of PPARs changes in the bovine CL throughout the estrous cycle and under the influence of PGF2α. We suggest that isoform γ, among all examined PPARs, could be a factor involved in the regulation of PGF2α-induced processes related to luteolysis in the bovine CL. Further studies are needed to understand the role of PPAR in luteal regression in the CL of cattle.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121542
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1543: Effects of Dietary Fiber, Crude Protein
           Level, and Gestation Stage on the Nitrogen Utilization of Multiparous
           Gestating Sows

    • Authors: Min Yang, Lun Hua, Zhengyu Mao, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Jian Li, Xuemei Jiang, De Wu, Yong Zhuo, Jiankui Huang
      First page: 1543
      Abstract: To investigate the effects of dietary fiber (DF), crude protein (CP) level, and gestation stage on nitrogen utilization, 28 Landrace-Yorkshire cross gestating sows at parity two were randomly divided into four dietary treatments with seven duplicates of one pig with a repeated-measures design. The diets comprised one with normal crude protein (CP) of 13.3%, one with a low CP diet of 10.1%, and two diets, one with dietary fiber (DF) supplementation of inulin and cellulose at the ratio of 1:1 and one without DF. The total litter size, litter size alive, and newborn birthweight of piglets did not differ between treatment groups. Sows that received high DF levels had greater nitrogen output in feces, lower urinary nitrogen, and increased nitrogen retention. Sows that received a low CP diet had reduced nitrogen excretion in feces and urine, lower nitrogen retention, and an unchanged nitrogen retention ratio. Sows at the late stage of gestation on days 95 to 98 had lower nitrogen excretion in urine and greater nitrogen retention than in the early stage of gestation on days 35 to 38, associated with a significant decrease in serum amino acids in late gestation. Maternal protein deposition was increased by high DF, decreased by low CP, and lower in late gestation compared with early gestation. Collectively, DF improved nitrogen utilization by decreasing urine nitrogen output, and nitrogen utilization increased as gestation advanced.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121543
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1544: Temporal Changes of Fish Diversity and
           Driver Factors in a National Nature Reserve, China

    • Authors: Dongmei Luo, Ziwei Wan, Chenchen Jia, Yiqiu Zhu, Qin Zou, Fangfei Ye, Yan Feng, Mi Zhang, Xiaoping Wu, Xiongjun Liu, Shan Ouyang
      First page: 1544
      Abstract: Freshwater-fish diversity declined rapidly due to multiple anthropogenic disturbances. The loss of fish diversity often manifested itself in taxonomic homogenization over time. Knowledge of multi-faceted diversity (i.e., species, functional, and phylogenetic diversity) perspectives is important for biodiversity assessment and conservation planning. Here, we analyzed the change of the species diversity and phylogenetic diversity of fish in 2008 and 2021 as well as explored the driver factors of the biodiversity patterns in the Lushan National Nature Reserve. The results showed that the species diversity and phylogenetic diversity of fish have declined from 2008 to 2021, with five species lost over time. We found an overall homogenization trend in the fish fauna of the study area, with a 4% increase in taxonomic similarity among the rivers. Additionally, we found that community structure of fish was significantly different among the rivers, and environmental filtering was the main contributor to the phylogenetic diversity of fish in 2008 and 2021. This study provides new insight into the patterns and drivers of fish-biodiversity change in the broader Yangtze River basin and informs management efforts.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121544
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1545: An IoT-Based Breeding Egg Identification and
           Coding System for Selection of High-Quality Breeding Geese

    • Authors: Yanjun Zhang, Yujie Ge, Tian Yang, Yangyang Guo, Jian Yang, Jiawen Han, Daoqing Gong, Hong Miao
      First page: 1545
      Abstract: The selection of breeding geese requires the recording of egg production information to correspond to the identity of the breeding geese. However, due to the special physiological characteristics of breeding geese, manual recording in practice can affect the egg-laying performance of breeding geese and can also lead to problems of missing and confusing individual breeding goose data with the number of eggs laid by the geese. For contactless recording of breeding goose identity and egg production information for high-quality breeding, this paper proposes an Internet of things (IoT)-based breeding egg identification and coding method for the selection of high-quality breeding geese. At the sensing level, we deployed a radiofrequency identification (RFID)-based sensor. Each breeding goose wore a foot ring RFID tag on its leg, and the individual information was read by foot ring RFID readers placed at the bottom of the devices. Individual information was uploaded to the cloud server for database management through structured query language (MySQL). The target detection modules were mounted on top of the devices, and the breeding geese and eggs were detected in the delivery rooms by an improved single-shot multi-box detector (SSD) target detection algorithm. The egg body limit transmission device and contactless coding device were activated only in the case of breeding eggs, and the breeding goose information was printed on the egg bodies in the form of quick response codes (QR codes), which enabled the breeding egg information to correspond with the breeding goose information. An evaluative experiment was performed using a system for the selection of high-quality breeding geese, with web cameras and a cloud monitoring platform. The breeding geese were allowed 14 days to become accustomed to the experimental environment before monitoring began. The evaluative experiment results showed that the pass rate of egg body coding reached 98.25%, the improved SSD algorithm was 8.65% more accurate and 62.6 ms faster than traditional SSD, and the accuracy rate corresponding to the individual information of the breeding geese and the surface information of the goose eggs was 97.8%. The experimental results met the requirements of accurate marking of individual information of breeding geese, which can provide technical support for the selection of high-quality breeding geese.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121545
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1546: Runs of Homozygosity and Quantitative Trait
           Locus/Association for Semen Parameters in Selected Chinese and South
           African Beef Cattle

    • Authors: Mamokoma Cathrine Modiba, Khathutshelo Agree Nephawe, Jun Wang, Nompilo Hlongwane, Khanyisile Hadebe, Wenfa Lu, Bohani Mtileni
      First page: 1546
      Abstract: In this study, runs of homozygosity (ROH) and quantitative trait locus/association (QTL) for semen parameters in selected Chinese and South African beef cattle breed were estimated. The computed results showed 7516 ROH were observed between classes 0–5 Mb with no ROH observed in classes >40 Mb. Distribution of ROH showed high level of genomic coverage for ANG, NGU, CSI, and BEL breeds. Approximately 13 genomic regions with QTL were controlling sperm motility, sperm concentration, semen volume, sperm count, sperm head abnormalities, sperm tail abnormalities, sperm integrity, and percentage of abnormal sperm traits. Nine candidate genes, CDF9, MARCH1, WDR19, SLOICI, ST7, DOP1B, CFAF9, INHBA, and ADAMTS1, were suggested to be associated with above mentioned QTL traits. The results for inbreeding coefficient showed moderate correlation between FROH vs FHOM at 0.603 and high correlation between FROH 0–5 Mb 0.929, and lowest correlation for 0–>40 Mb 0.400. This study suggested recent inbreeding in CSI, BEL, ANG, BON, SIM, and NGU breeds. Furthermore, it highlighted varied inbreeding levels and identified QTL for semen traits and genes of association. These results can assist in implementation of genetic improvement strategies for bulls and provide awareness and proper guidelines in developing breeding programs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121546
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1547: Are Copy Number Variations within the FecB
           Gene Significantly Associated with Morphometric Traits in Goats'

    • Authors: Yi Bi, Zhiying Wang, Qian Wang, Hongfei Liu, Zhengang Guo, Chuanying Pan, Hong Chen, Haijing Zhu, Lian Wu, Xianyong Lan
      First page: 1547
      Abstract: The Booroola fecundity (FecB) gene is a major fertility-related gene first identified in Booroola sheep. Numerous studies have investigated whether the FecB gene is a major fecundity gene in goats or whether there are other genes that play a critical role in goat fertility. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the role of the FecB gene in the body morphometric traits of goats, despite the positive relationship discerned between litter size and growth. We identified five copy number variations (CNVs) within the FecB gene in 641 goats, including 318 Shaanbei white cashmere (SBWC) goats, 203 Guizhou Heima (GZHM) goats, and 120 Nubian goats, which exhibited different distributions among these populations. Our results revealed that these five CNVs were significantly associated with goat morphometric traits (p < 0.05). The normal type of CNV3 was the dominant type and displayed superior phenotypes in both litter size and morphometric traits, making it an effective marker for goat breeding. Consequently, LD blocks in the region of 10 Mb upstream and downstream from FecB and potential transcription factors (TFs) that could bind with the CNVs were analyzed via bioinformatics. Although no significant LD block was detected, our results illustrated that these CNVs could bind to growth-related TFs and indirectly affect the growth development of the goats. We identified potential markers to promote litter size and growth, and we offer a theoretical foundation for further breeding work.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121547
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1548: A Comparative Study of the Effects of
           Osaterone Acetate and Deslorelin Acetate on Sperm Kinematics and
           Morpho-Functional Parameters in Dogs

    • Authors: Wojciech Niżański, Maria Eberhardt, Małgorzata Ochota, Christelle Fontaine, Xavier Levy, Joanna Pasikowska
      First page: 1548
      Abstract: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common problems in older male dogs that often has a huge impact on their health and welfare. This article presents a comparison between osaterone acetate (Ypozane®; Virbac®)(OA) and deslorelin acetate (Suprelorin®; Virbac®)(DA), medications that are the main therapeutic alternative to castration in dogs with BPH. Forty dogs were divided into four groups: I—negative control (five dogs without BPH); II—positive control (10 individuals diagnosed with BPH); III—15 dogs treated with DA, and IV—10 individuals treated with OA. Semen fractions were collected on days 0 (day of treatment), 7, 14, and 21, and weeks 8, 12, 16, and 20. Macroscopic, microscopic and CASA analyses were performed. Both DA and OA significantly affected the properties of the canine ejaculate. The DA lead to the lack of libido and had lesser effects to the sperm function before it caused azoospermia, whereas OA had no effect on libido and only temporary reduction in seminal plasma volume was observed, which resulted in temporary deterioration in the percentage of motile and progressive spermatozoa.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121548
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1549: Horses in Lithuania in the Late
           Roman–Medieval Period (3rd–14th C AD) Burial Sites: Updates on
           Size, Age and Dating

    • Authors: Giedrė Piličiauskienė, Laurynas Kurila, Žilvinas Ežerinskis, Justina Šapolaitė, Andrius Garbaras, Aurelija Zagurskytė, Viktorija Micelicaitė
      First page: 1549
      Abstract: The tradition of burying horses in Lithuania lasted from the Early Roman period until the late 14th C AD. It was the longest-lasting custom in Europe, which has left about 2000 known horse burials. This paper publishes the osteometric data and age of horses found in Lithuanian cemeteries and castles of the 3rd–14th C AD, over 200 individuals in total. These are the remains of all the horses still stored in Lithuanian institutions. The paper discusses the dynamics of horse body size in order to test previously suggested hypotheses regarding the relationship between large horse body size and its military use, possibly non-local breed, and high social status of the owner. Moreover, we are publishing the AMS 14C dates of 13 horses previously assigned to the Migration period. The research results corrected the existing chronology. The abundant data also allowed an assessment of the development of the size and age of the horses in Lithuania between the 3rd and 14th C AD. Osteometric analyses have shown that Late Roman–post-Migration-period horses were unusually large compared to the Viking and medieval horses in Lithuania. Meanwhile, we suggest that the semi-slender-legged 118–125-cm-tall horse, which predominated in the Viking period, is the most consistent with the local horse type. In general, the horses in Lithuania in the 3rd–11th C AD were small compared to those in Central and Western Europe or Scandinavia. More significant changes can be observed in the Middle Ages. In the 12–14th C AD, there was a much greater variety of horses and the expansion of taller (140–150 cm) individuals. However, the continued abundance of small horses in the medieval times, found buried with saddles and other equipment, allows one to renew the debate on the formation of the cavalry, the tactics of combat, and the social composition of horsemen in Lithuania.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121549
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1550: Fat Deposition and Fat Effects on Meat
           Quality—A Review

    • Authors: Madison Schumacher, Hannah DelCurto-Wyffels, Jennifer Thomson, Jane Boles
      First page: 1550
      Abstract: Growth is frequently described as weight gain over time. Researchers have used this information in equations to predict carcass composition and estimate fat deposition. Diet, species, breed, and gender all influence fat deposition. Alterations in diets result in changes in fat deposition as well as the fatty acid profile of meat. Additionally, the amount and composition of the fat can affect lipid stability and flavor development upon cooking. Fat functions not only as a storage of energy and contributor of flavor compounds, but also participates in signaling that affects many aspects of the physiological functions of the animal. Transcription factors that are upregulated in response to excess energy to be stored are an important avenue of research to improve the understanding of fat deposition and thus, the efficiency of production. Additionally, further study of the inflammation associated with increased fat depots may lead to a better understanding of finishing animals, production efficiency, and overall health.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121550
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1551: Impact of Super-High Density Olive Orchard
           Management System on Soil Free-Living and Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in
           Central and South Italy

    • Authors: Silvia Landi, Giada d’Errico, Rossella Papini, Ilaria Cutino, Stefania Simoncini, Andrea Rocchini, Giorgio Brandi, Roberto Rizzo, Giovanni Gugliuzza, Giacinto Salvatore Germinara, Salvatore Nucifora, Gaetana Mazzeo, Pio Federico Roversi
      First page: 1551
      Abstract: The soil nematode community plays an important role in ecosystem services. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Super-high density (SHD) olive orchards on the nematode community in five sites with different soils, climates, and cultivars. At each site, the SHD management system was compared to the adjacent olive orchard traditional (TRAD) system, in which the same soil management and phytosanitary measures were applied. Soil management was assessed by total organic carbon content (TOC), while the soil nematode community was evaluated using the nematode taxa abundances and soil nematode indicators. TOC was significantly decreased in the SHD olive orchard system compared to TRAD in the sites characterized by conventional tillage and mineral fertilization. The two-way ANOSIM analysis on nematode abundance showed no difference between the two olive management methods, instead showing only a significant difference per site mainly due to variabilities in plant-parasitic nematode assemblage. However, a negative impact of SHD management was evident in environments stressed by summer droughts and conventional tillage: the ratio of obligate plant-parasites to bacterivores and fungivores (Pp/(B+F)) was significantly higher in SHD than in the TRAD olive orchard system, and the prey-to-predator θ mass ratio showed the lowest values in the sites under organic fertilization or green manure. The canonical correspondence analysis showed that the free-living nematodes were only slightly affected by SHD olive orchards; instead, the presence of plant-parasitic nematodes families such as Telotylenchidae, Paratylenchidae, Meloidogynidae, and Criconematidae was favored, in comparison to Longidoridae, Heteroderidae, and Pratylenchidae.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121551
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1552: Determination of the Optimal Level of
           Dietary Zinc for Newly Weaned Pigs: A Dose-Response Study

    • Authors: Sally V. Hansen, Natalja P. Nørskov, Jan V. Nørgaard, Tofuko A. Woyengo, Hanne D. Poulsen, Tina S. Nielsen
      First page: 1552
      Abstract: One hundred and eighty individually housed piglets with an initial body weight of 7.63 ± 0.98 kg (at 28 days of age) were fed a diet containing either 153, 493, 1022, 1601, 2052 or 2407 mg zinc/kg (added Zn as zinc oxide; ZnO) from day 0–21 post weaning to determine the optimal level of Zn for weaned piglets. Body weight, feed intake and faecal scores were recorded, and blood and faecal samples were collected. Dietary Zn content quadratically affected both feed intake and gain in the first two weeks, with an approximately 1400 mg Zn/kg diet and a Zn intake of 400 mg/day as the optimal levels. The relative risk of diarrhoea increased up to 60% at day 7 and 14 if serum Zn status dropped below the weaning level (767 µg/L), and maintain the weaning serum Zn status required approximately 1100 mg Zn/kg (166 mg Zn/day) during week 1. Blood markers of intestinal integrity (D-lactate and diamine oxidase) were unaffected by dietary Zn, and dietary Zn levels of 1022 and 1601 mg/kg did not affect the faecal numbers of total bacteria, Lactobacilli and E. Coli bacteria compared to 153 mg Zn/kg. These results indicate that the requirement for Zn in newly weaned piglets may be substantially higher than currently assumed.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121552
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1553: Development of a Slow Loris Computer Vision
           Detection Model

    • Authors: Yujie Lei, Ying Xiang, Yuhui Zhu, Yan Guan, Yu Zhang, Xiao Yang, Xiaoli Yao, Tingxuan Li, Meng Xie, Jiong Mu, Qingyong Ni
      First page: 1553
      Abstract: The slow loris (Genus Nycticebus) is a group of small, nocturnal and venomous primates with a distinctive locomotion mode. The detection of slow loris plays an important role in the subsequent individual identification and behavioral recognition and thus contributes to formulating targeted conservation strategies, particularly in reintroduction and post-release monitoring. However, fewer studies have been conducted on efficient and accurate detection methods of this endangered taxa. The traditional methods to detect the slow loris involve long-term observation or watching surveillance video repeatedly, which would involve manpower and be time consuming. Because humans cannot maintain a high degree of attention for a long time, they are also prone to making missed detections or false detections. Due to these observational challenges, using computer vision to detect slow loris presence and activity is desirable. This article establishes a novel target detection dataset based on monitoring videos of captive Bengal slow loris (N. bengalensis) from the wildlife rescue centers in Xishuangbanna and Pu’er, Yunnan, China. The dataset is used to test two improvement schemes based on the YOLOv5 network: (1) YOLOv5-CBAM + TC, the attention mechanism and deconvolution are introduced; (2) YOLOv5-SD, the small object detection layer is added. The results demonstrate that the YOLOv5-CBAM + TC effectively improves the detection effect. At the cost of increasing the model size by 0.6 MB, the precision rate, the recall rate and the mean average precision (mAP) are increased by 2.9%, 3.7% and 3.5%, respectively. The YOLOv5-CBAM + TC model can be used as an effective method to detect individual slow loris in a captive environment, which helps to realize slow loris face and posture recognition based on computer vision.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121553
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1554: Heat Stress Alters the Effect of Eimeria
           maxima Infection on Ileal Amino Acids Digestibility and Transporters
           Expression in Meat-Type Chickens

    • Authors: Ahmed F. A. Ghareeb, Gustavo H. Schneiders, James C. Foutz, Marie C. Milfort, Alberta L. Fuller, Jianmin Yuan, Romdhane Rekaya, Samuel E. Aggrey
      First page: 1554
      Abstract: Eimeria (E.) maxima invades the midgut of chickens and destroys the intestinal mucosa, impacting nutrient digestibility and absorption. Heat stress (HS) commonly affects the broiler chicken and contributes to inflammation and oxidative stress. We examined the independent and combined effects of HS and E. maxima infection on apparent amino acid ileal digestibility (AID) and mRNA expression of amino acid transporters in broiler chickens (Ross 708). There were four treatment groups: thermoneutral-control (TNc) and infected (TNi), heat-stress control (HSc) and infected (HSi), six replicates of 10 birds/treatment. Ileal content and tissue were sampled at 6 d post infection to determine AID and transporters expression. Surprisingly, the HSi chickens exposed to two critical stressors exhibited normal AID. Only the TNi group displayed reduction in AID. Using TNc as control, the HSc group showed upregulated CAT1, LAT4, TAT1, SNAT1, and SNAT7. The HSi group showed upregulated CAT1 and LAT1, and downregulated b0,+AT, rBAT, SNAT1, and SNAT2. The TNi group showed upregulated CAT1, LAT1, and SNAT1 and downregulated B0AT1, b0,+AT, rBAT, LAT4, and TAT1. The expression of all enterocytic-apical and about half of the basolateral transporters was higher in the HSi group than in the TNi group, indicating that HS can putatively alleviate the E. maxima adverse effect on ileal digestion and absorption.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121554
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1555: Effects of Different Moisture Levels and
           Additives on the Ensiling Characteristics and In Vitro Digestibility of
           Stylosanthes Silage

    • Authors: Jinze Bao, Lei Wang, Zhu Yu
      First page: 1555
      Abstract: The present study aims to estimate the dynamic effects of moisture levels and inoculants on the fermentation quality and in vitro degradability of Stylosanthes silage. In this experiment, Stylosanthes was ensiled with (1) no additive (control), (2) Lactobacillus plantarum (LP), (3) Lactobacillus plantarum carrying heterologous genes encoding multifunctional glycoside hydrolases (xg), or (4) LP + xg and was wilted until different moisture levels (60% and 72%) were attained. The ensiled bags were unpacked after different storage periods to determine the chemical composition and fermentation quality of the Stylosanthes silage. Moreover, the in vitro degradability was also determined 45 days after the ensiling process. The results show that the silage prepared with freshly mowed Stylosanthes also had a lower pH and NH3- N content. Adding transgenic engineered lactic acid bacteria xg not only decreased the NDF and ADF content of the silage, but also improved the in vitro digestibility significantly. We concluded that the addition of xg to Stylosanthes silage can improve its quality and increase in vitro digestibility and gas production. The results provide technical support and a theoretical basis for the utilization of warm-season forage silage.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121555
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1556: Chemical Composition of the “Galo de
           Barcelos” (Barcelos Rooster Raw Meat)

    • Authors: Isabel Maria Afonso, Susana Casal, Júlio César Lopes, Jéssica Domingues, Ana Paula Vale, Márcio Meira, Maria Conceição Marinho, Pedro Santos Vaz, Nuno V. Brito
      First page: 1556
      Abstract: Ten roosters produced according to “Barcelos Confraria” rules and ten roosters of autochthonous “Amarela” breed, reared on a similar traditional production system, were analyzed, and the chemical profile of two of the most significant meat portions, breast and drumstick, was determined. The results demonstrated that the “Barcelos” rooster raw meat is rich in proteins (22.3%) and fat (4.31%), particularly in monounsaturated fatty acids (39.1%). Significant differences (p ≤ 0.01) were observed, with the breast having a higher protein content (25.1 vs. 19.7%) and less fat (1.9% vs. 6.7%), compared to the drumstick. The fatty acid profile revealed (SFA 30.0%, MUFA 39.1%, and PUFA 24.6%) a similar composition to the roosters reared in the traditional or organic production systems, such as the “Amarela” autochthonous rooster. The “Barcelos” rooster can be regarded as a highly nutritional meat, with an interesting chemical profile ensuring a high-quality traditional product to consumers.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121556
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1557: Influence of Spinal Shock on the
           Neurorehabilitation of ANNPE Dogs

    • Authors: Débora Gouveia, Ana Cardoso, Carla Carvalho, Ana Rita Gonçalves, Óscar Gamboa, Rute Canejo-Teixeira, António Ferreira, Ângela Martins
      First page: 1557
      Abstract: Acute noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusion (ANNPE) is related to contusive spinal cord injuries, and dogs usually appear to be exercising vigorously at the time of onset. ANNPE has a characteristic peracute onset of clinical signs during exercise or following trauma, with non-progressive signs during the first 24 h and possibly signs of spinal shock. The main aim was to assess if the presence of spinal shock affects the neurorehabilitation outcomes of ANNPE dogs. This prospective controlled cohort clinical study was conducted at the Arrábida Rehabilitation Center. All of the dogs had T3–L3 injuries and were paraplegic/monoplegic with/without nociception, the study group (n = 14) included dogs with ANNPE spinal shock dogs, and the control group (n = 19) included ANNPE dogs without spinal shock. The study group was also evaluated using a new scale—the Spinal Shock Scale (SSS)—and both groups were under the same intensive neurorehabilitation protocol. Spinal shock was a negative factor for a successful outcome within less time. SSS scores > 4 required additional hospitalization days. The protocol was safe, tolerable, and feasible and accomplished 32% ambulation within 7 days, 29% in 14 days, and 29% in 30 days. The results were better than those obtained in previous studies—94% at 60 days—and 75% of the dogs without nociception recovered ambulation. Long-term follows-ups carried out 4 years later revealed a positive evolution.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121557
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1558: Effect of Dietary Supplementation of
           Bacillus subtilis on Growth Performance, Organ Weight, Digestive Enzyme
           Activities, and Serum Biochemical Indices in Broiler

    • Authors: Taha M. Mohamed, Weizhong Sun, Gifty Z. Bumbie, Waleed M. Dosoky, Zebin Rao, Ping Hu, Liuting Wu, Zhiru Tang
      First page: 1558
      Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementing Bacillus subtilis and an antibiotic (Zinc bacitracin) in the diet of broilers on growth performance, organ weight, blood metabolites, and digestive enzymes of broiler chickens. A total of 600 1-d Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to five treatments. Each treatment consisted of six replicates with four pens, and each pen had five birds. The chicks were fed (1) the basal diet (control), (2) the basal diet with 500 mg/kg Zinc bacitracin (APZ), (3) the basal diet with B. subtilis at 1 × 108 CFU/g (B.Sut-1), (4) the basal diet with B. subtilis at 3 × 108 CFU/g (B.Sut-3), and (5) the basal diet with B. subtilis at 5 × 108 CFU/g (B.Sut-5). The experiment lasted for 42 days. In this study, the supplementation of diets with B. subtilis (B.Sut-3 and B.Sut-5 groups) increased body weight gain from 1 to 21 days compared with control (p < 0.05). Additionally, the B.Sut-3 group had a significantly heavier bursa of Fabricius than control at 21 days (p < 0.05). Serum total protein, albumin, and high-density lipoprotein concentrations were increased in B.Sut-5 and APZ groups (p < 0.05) over the whole period. Serum low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, and total cholesterol concentrations were decreased in B.Sut-5 and APZ groups at 21 and 42 days (p < 0.05). Chicks in the B.Sut-5 and APZ groups had higher serum lipase, pepsin, and amylase activities (p < 0.05) at 21 and 42 days. From the results obtained from the study, it can be concluded that Bacillus subtilis ATCC19659 at 5 × 108 CFU/g could be applied as an alternative to antibiotics in poultry diets.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121558
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1559: Relationship between Plasma Pituitary
           Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Level and Proteome
           Profile of Cows

    • Authors: Levente Czegledi, Eva Csosz, Gabriella Gulyas
      First page: 1559
      Abstract: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic and multifunctional neuropeptide; it takes part in the regulation of various physiological processes, such as feeding, reproduction, catecholamine synthesis, thermoregulation, motor activity, brain development and neuronal survival. Since PACAP plays important regulatory roles, we hypothesized that the level of PACAP in blood is associated with expression of other proteins, which are involved in different metabolic pathways. The objective of the present study was to compare plasma protein profiles of cows with high and low plasma PACAP levels. Differential proteome analyses were performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) followed by tryptic digestion and protein identification by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS). A total of 210 protein spots were detected, and 16 protein spots showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in the expression levels between groups. Ten spots showed a higher intensity in the high-PACAP-concentration group, while six spots were more abundant in the low-PACAP-concentration group. The functions of the differentially expressed proteins indicate that the PACAP level of plasma is related to the lipid metabolism and immune status of cattle.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121559
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1560: Cross-Sectional Survey of Antibiotic
           Resistance in Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing
           Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Pigs in Greece

    • Authors: Nikolaos Tsekouras, Zoi Athanasakopoulou, Celia Diezel, Polychronis Kostoulas, Sascha D. Braun, Marina Sofia, Stefan Monecke, Ralf Ehricht, Dimitris C. Chatzopoulos, Dominik Gary, Domenique Krähmer, Vassiliki Spyrou, Georgios Christodoulopoulos, Charalambos Billinis, Vasileios G. Papatsiros
      First page: 1560
      Abstract: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing (ESBL) bacteria in swine. Thus, 214 fecal samples were collected from suckling and weaned piglets from 34 farms in Greece (out of an overall population of about 14,300 sows). A subset of 78 (36.5%) ESBL producers were identified as E. coli (69/78, 88.5%), K. pneumoniae spp. pneumoniae (3.8%), P. mirabilis (5.1%), E. cloacae complex (1.3%) and S. enterica spp. diarizonae (1.3%). Resistance to at least one class of non-β-lactam antibiotics was detected in 78 isolates. Among the E. coli strains, resistance was identified with regard to aminoglycosides (n = 31), fluoroquinolones (n = 49), tetracycline (n = 26) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (n = 46). Of the three K. pneumoniae spp. pneumoniae, two displayed resistances to aminoglycosides and all were resistant to fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. As for the four P. mirabilis isolates, three had a resistant phenotype for aminoglycosides and all were resistant to imipenem, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Molecular characterization of the isolates revealed the presence of CTX-M, SHV and TEM genes, as well as of genes conferring resistance to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, macrolides and colistin. High levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) were demonstrated in Greek swine herds posing a concern for the efficacy of treatments at the farm level as well as for public health.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121560
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1561: Influence of Elective Cesarean Calving (with
           and without Dexamethasone Induction) on the Erythrogram and Iron Serum
           Profiles in Nellore Calves

    • Authors: Luan Ricci Silva, Renan Braga Paiano, Mariana Guimarães de Oliveira Diogo, Melina Marie Yasuoka, Ana Claúdia Birali, Mayara Berto Massuda, Maria Luiza Kuhne Celestino, Daniela Becker Birgel, Flávio José Minieri Marchese, Paulo Fantinato Neto, Vanessa Martins Storillo, Eduardo Harry Birgel Junior
      First page: 1561
      Abstract: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the erythrogram and iron serum profiles of neonatal calves born spontaneously or born by elective cesarean section with or without dexamethasone induction. The research was performed on 38 newborn Nellore calves. Three groups of calves were assigned according to the type of birth: calves born by spontaneous vaginal calving (n = 10), calves born by elective cesarean section without inducing labor (n = 14), and calves born by elective cesarean section with labor induction with dexamethasone (n = 14). Blood samples to assess red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), concentration of mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCHC), serum iron (SFe), total capacity to bind iron to transferrin (TIBIC), and transferrin saturation index (TSI) were performed at calving (0, 3, 6, and 12 h of life) and on 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 30 days of life. Regardless of the experimental group (calves born spontaneously, or born by elective cesarean section with or without dexamethasone induction), in the first day of life there was a decrease in the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin rates, and values of the globular volume. In the period of the first 10 days of life, animals from spontaneous vaginal delivery quickly recovered values of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume, whereas animals born by elective C-section (induced and uninduced) did not recover as quickly in their rates of hemoglobin and packed cell volume values. In calves born by elective C-section (induced and uninduced), it was observed in their period between 10 and 30 days of life that the MCV and MCH were reduced by passing the presenting microcytic hypochromic when compared with calves obtained by spontaneous vaginal delivery. In the period between 10 and 30 days of life, the levels of SFe and TSI in animals born by elective C-section (induced and uninduced) are significantly lower. The differences in the erythrogram values between Nellore calves born spontaneously and those by elective C-section with or without induction must be considered consequent to the process of neonatal adaptation to extrauterine life. Iron supplementation in the first month of life in calves from cesarean could be recommended to prevent anemia of this iron deficiency.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121561
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1562: Association between Head-to-Chest
           Circumference Ratio and Intrauterine Growth-Retardation Related Outcomes
           during Preweaning and Postweaning

    • Authors: Diego Manriquez, Guilhem Poudevigne, Etienne Roche, Agnes Waret-Szkuta
      First page: 1562
      Abstract: The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between the head-to-chest circumference ratio (HCR) and birth weight (BW), colostrum intake, and average daily weight gain (ADG) at preweaning and postweaning periods. Additionally, associations between HCR and PCV-2 serum antibody titers and the PCV-2 seroconversion ratio (SCR) were assessed. Head and chest circumferences were measured at birth, and HCR was calculated from 110 piglets born from 8 pregnant sows randomly selected from maternity pens. Linear mixed models were used to test whether changes in HCR were associated with fluctuations of BW, colostrum intake, and ADG. In addition, HCR least-square means were compared between piglets classified as lower or greater BW, colostrum intake, and ADG. Finally, receiving operating characteristic curve analyses were performed to estimate HCR thresholds for discriminating between lower and greater performance piglets during preweaning and postweaning periods. Increments in HCR were associated with lower BW, colostrum intake, and ADG. An HCR threshold of 0.82 maximized sensibility and specificity for the classification of lower and greater performance piglets regarding BW, colostrum intake, and ADG during the periods of 0 to 7 and 0 to 69 days of life. When piglets were categorized into HCR ≤ 0.82 and HCR > 0.82 groups, piglets with HCR ≤ 0.82 had lower (log10) PCV-2 serum antibody titers at 26 days of life compared with piglets with HCR > 0.82 (3.30 ± 0.05 vs. 3.47 ± 0.05 g/dL). On the other hand, piglets that showed low SCR between 26 and 69 days of life had greater HCRs compared with piglets with high SCRs (0.83 ± 0.008 vs. 0.8 ± 0.008). The use of HCRs allowed us to identify piglets with lower performance and impaired immune response against PCV-2. The HCR indicator could be used as a selection criterion for preventive management for piglets showing delayed performance potentially associated with IUGR.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121562
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1563: Upper and Lower Airways Evaluation and Its
           Relationship with Dynamic Upper Airway Obstruction in Racehorses

    • Authors: Chiara Maria Lo Feudo, Giovanni Stancari, Federica Collavo, Luca Stucchi, Bianca Conturba, Enrica Zucca, Francesco Ferrucci
      First page: 1563
      Abstract: Dynamic upper airway obstructions (DUAO) are common in racehorses, but their pathogenetic mechanisms have not been completely clarified yet. Multiple studies suggest that alterations of the pharyngo-laryngeal region visible at resting endoscopy may be predictive of the onset of DUAO, and the development of DUAO may be associated with pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia (PLH), lower airway inflammation (LAI) and exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH). The present study aims to investigate the possible relationship between the findings of a complete resting evaluation of the upper and lower airways and DUAO. In this retrospective study, 360 racehorses (Standardbreds and Thoroughbreds) referred for poor performance or abnormal respiratory noises were enrolled and underwent a diagnostic protocol including resting and high-speed treadmill endoscopy, cytological examination of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and radiographic assessment of the epiglottis length. In this population, epiglottis flaccidity was associated with dorsal displacement of the soft palate, while no relationship was detected between DUAO and epiglottis length. No associations were detected between DUAO and PLH, LAI or EIPH. In conclusion, it is likely that epiglottis plays a role in upper airway stability, while airways inflammation does not seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of DUAO.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121563
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1564: The Microbiota and Cytokines Correlation
           between the Jejunum and Colon in Altay Sheep

    • Authors: Mengjun Ye, Meng Hou, Qimin Peng, Sheng Jia, Bin Peng, Fangfang Yin, Na Li, Jinquan Wang
      First page: 1564
      Abstract: Both the jejunum and colon release cytokines that interact with intestinal microbiota. However, it is largely unclear which cytokines and microbial populations are involved in the homeostasis of the intestinal ecosystem for sheep health. To address this, we collected contents for isolating microbiota and tissues for determining cytokines from the jejunum and colon of 7-month-old Altay sheep. We used the techniques of 16S rRNA sequencing and ELISA to detect microbial population and cytokine level, respectively. Correlations between microbial population and cytokines were analyzed by Spearman correlation coefficient. The correlation analysis revealed higher populations of Bacteroides, Fibrobacteres and Spirochetes in the colon than in the jejunum, and IL-6 and IL-12 levels were higher in the jejunum than in the colon. Association analysis further revealed a positive association between IL-10 level and both Ruminococcus_2 and norank_f_Bifidobacteriaceae population in the jejunum. The analysis also revealed positive associations between IL-6 level and Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014 and Ruminococcaceae_UCG-013 population, IL-10 and Prevotellaceae_UCG-004, as well as TNF-α and Prevotellaceae_UCG-003 in the colon. These results indicate a potential interaction between the intestinal microbiota and the host immune system that needs to be further clarified for considering dietary formulations to maintain animal health and disease prevention.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121564
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1565: The Alimentary Tract of African Bony-Tongue,
           Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier, 1829): Morphology Study

    • Authors: Maria Cristina Guerrera, Marialuisa Aragona, Marilena Briglia, Caterina Porcino, Kamel Mhalhel, Marzio Cometa, Francesco Abbate, Giuseppe Montalbano, Rosaria Laurà, Maria Levanti, Germana Germanà, Giacomo Zaccone, Krystyna Zuwala, Michal Kuciel, Antonino Germanà
      First page: 1565
      Abstract: A morphological study of the alimentary tract, from the oropharyngeal cavity to the rectum, including the attached glands, of African bony-tongue, Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier, 1829) was carried out by gross anatomy, and light microscope analysis. This study aimed to give a deeper knowledge of the alimentary tract morphological features of this species of commercial interest. H. niloticus is distinguished by individual morphological characteristics showing a digestive tract similar to that of reptiles and birds. Within the oropharyngeal cavity, two tubular structures with digitiform ends are arranged on both lateral sides of the triangular tongue. The oropharyngeal cavity connects the stomach by a short esophagus. This latter is adapted to mechanical trituration, and it is divided into a pars glandularis and a thick-walled pars muscularis. The gizzard flows into the anterior intestine and two blind pyloric appendages, which exhibit specific functions, including immune defense for the presence of secondary lymphoid organs. The anterior intestine continues with the middle and posterior tracts up into the rectum. According to the histological observations, all regions of the alimentary tract have common structural features, typical of hollow organs, with differences in the mucosa structure that reflects the different functions of the apparatus, from mouth to anus. Within this study, we provided the first basis for future studies on optimizing rearing conditions, feed conversion ratio, and the digestive capacity, improving the growth performance of this species, and ensuring its conservation.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121565
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1566: Molecular Characterization of Anaplasma spp.
           among Dairy, Cashmere, and Meat Goats in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern

    • Authors: Xin Yang, Mingzhe Fu, Zhengqing Yu, Junwei Wang, Junke Song, Guanghui Zhao
      First page: 1566
      Abstract: Anaplasma spp. are important tick-borne pathogens endangering the health of humans and various animals. Although several studies have reported Anaplasma infection in livestock in China, little is known about the impact of production categories on the occurrence of Anaplasma species. In the present study, PCR tools targeting the 16S rRNA and msp4 genes were applied to investigate the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. in 509 blood samples of dairy (n = 249), cashmere (n = 139), and meat (n = 121) goats from Shaanxi province. The prevalence of Anaplasma spp. was 58.5% (298/509) in goats, and significant differences (p < 0.001) were identified in the prevalence among production categories, with the highest in meat goats (84.3%, 102/121), followed by cashmere goats (58.3%, 81/139) and dairy goats (46.2%, 115/249). Significant differences (p < 0.001) in prevalence were also found among sampling sites and age groups. Meanwhile, the prevalence was 36.9% (188/509) for A. phagocytophilum, 36.1% (184/509) for A. bovis, and 11.0% (56/509) for A. ovis, and significant differences (p < 0.001) in prevalence of A. phagocytophilum, A. bovis and A. ovis were recognized among production categories and sampling sites. A. phagocytophilum, A. bovis and A. ovis were dominant species in meat, dairy, and cashmere goats, respectively, and A. ovis was absent in meat goats. Co-infections were found in 124 (24.4%) investigated samples. Goats aged < 2, 3–6, and 7–12 months, and goats from Qingjian and Zhenba were risk factors associated with the occurrence of Anaplasma. Phylogenetic analysis indicated separate clades for the distribution of A. phagocytophilum from different ruminant, reflecting potential host adaption within this species. This study reported the colonization occurrence of Anaplasma spp. among production categories in goats in Shaanxi province and enriched our knowledge on the transmission of Anaplasma spp. in goats in China. Considering the existence of zoonotic A. phagocytophilum in goats in this study and previous reports, interventions based on One Health are needed to be developed to control the transmission of Anaplasma spp. between humans and animals.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121566
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1567: Association of Serum Glucose, Serotonin,
           Aspartate Aminotransferase, and Calcium Levels with Meat Quality and
           Palatability Characteristics of Broiler Pectoralis Major Muscle

    • Authors: Boin Lee, Young Min Choi
      First page: 1567
      Abstract: This study investigated the correlations between apoptosis-related blood biochemical parameters measured at exsanguination and the meat and sensory quality characteristics of broiler pectoralis major muscle. The concentration of serotonin showed a positive correlation with aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity (p < 0.001) and a negative correlation with calcium content (p < 0.01). All serum parameters showed relationships with muscle pH at 15 min and/or 24 h postmortem (p < 0.05). Serum AST activity, which had a negative correlation with calcium content (p < 0.01), was positively related with muscle pH and negatively correlated with Warner–Bratzler shear force values (WBS, p < 0.05). Principal component analysis results revealed the associations between AST activity and meat quality traits, including pH24h, lightness, and WBS. Furthermore, cooked breast with higher AST activity and lower calcium level tended to exhibit higher scores of tenderness and overall acceptability than that with lower AST activity and higher calcium level (p < 0.05).
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121567
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1568: Iturin A Rescued STb-R-Induced Pork Skeletal
           Muscle Growth Restriction through the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-mTORC1 Growth

    • Authors: Mao Ye, Zhenhua Liu, Chunqi Gao, Huichao Yan, Xiuqi Wang, Liufa Wen, Chenglong Jin
      First page: 1568
      Abstract: The engineered STb-Rosetta Escherichia coli (STb-R) was designed to investigate the effects of Iturin A on the skeletal muscle growth of weaned piglets. A total of 28 piglets were randomly divided into 4 groups (7 piglets per group): the control group (100 mL PBS), the Iturin A group (100 mL 320 mg/kg body weight (BW) Iturin A), the STb-R group (100 mL 1 × 1010 CFU/mL STb-R), and the Iturin A + STb-R group (100 mL 320 mg/kg BW Iturin A + 1 × 1010 CFU/mL STb-R). Compared with the control, STb-R-reduced body weight gain were rescued by Iturin A. The semimembranosus muscle weight recovered to normal level in the Iturin A + STb-R group. The level of relevant genes of the growth axis were elevated by Iturin A, including GHRH in the hypothalamus, GHRHR and GH in the pituitary, and GHR, IGF-1 and IGF-1R in the semimembranosus muscle. Moreover, Iturin A increased the mean fiber area and the number of proliferating cells in the semimembranosus muscle, which were decreased by STb-R. Additionally, the mTORC1 pathway was reactivated by Iturin A to relieve the suppression of STb-R. Collectively, the hypothalamic-pituitary growth axis-mediated Iturin A reactivated the mTORC1 pathway to rescue STb-R-restricted pork skeletal muscle growth.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121568
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1569: Tracing the Fate of the Northern Bald Ibis
           Over Five Millennia: An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Extinction and
           Recovery of an Iconic Bird Species

    • Authors: Johannes Fritz, Jiří Janák
      First page: 1569
      Abstract: We trace the history of the endangered Northern Bald Ibis through different epochs to the present. A particular focus is placed on its life in and disappearance from ancient Egypt, where the bird attained great cultural and religious significance, and on the modern endeavour to re-wild the species. Due to the characteristic appearance, behaviour and habitat of the species as well as its need for open foraging areas, a close mutualistic relationship between humans and the birds was formed in ancient Egypt, as in other cultures. A clear benefit for the Northern Bald Ibis was the availability of feeding habitats, which were cleared by humans for farming or grazing. The benefit to people was rather cultural because the bird attracted religious veneration or symbolic meanings from ancient Egypt to medieval Europe. The proximity to humans, however, carried a high risk as well. We discuss various types of impact (including human impacts as well as climate change) as triggers for the extinction of the species. The evidence for a triple disappearance of the Northern Bald Ibis (around 2000 BCE, around 1600 CE and in modern time) represents a unique basis for studying both the bird’s habitat preferences and its vulnerability. This is because different, mainly anthropogenic, causes stood behind these three historical disappearances, although the disappearances in all three epochs occurred during a period of climate change.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121569
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1570: Serum Insulin−like Growth
           Factor−1 Is a Biomarker of Testosterone Production and Intact
           Acrosome in Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus)

    • Authors: Yuqing Yang, Junpen Suwimonteerabutr, Taweepoke Angkawanish, Kaywalee Chatdarong
      First page: 1570
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to find relationships among serum IGF−1, serum testosterone, seminal plasma IGF−1 concentrations and semen parameters in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). A total of 17 ejaculates (one to three ejaculates/bull) were collected from seven captive elephant bulls by performing rectal massage. Before each ejaculation, blood samples were obtained for serum IGF−1 and testosterone assays. Subsequently, the semen characteristics of each ejaculate were evaluated. Mean serum IGF−1 concentration of elephant bulls was estimated as 326.3 ± 114.6 ng/mL (median, 286.2 ng/mL; range, 167.4–542.7 ng/mL). An increase in serum IGF−1 concentration was found to correlate with the percentage of spermatozoa with intact acrosomes. In addition, IGF−1 concentration was positively correlated with testosterone level. However, seminal IGF−1 concentrations could not be detected. In conclusion, our findings suggest that serum IGF−1 concentration is likely a biomarker of normal testicular functions, particularly spermatogenesis in elephants. Moreover, this commercial IGF−1 ELISA is eligible for analyzing serum IGF−1 concentration in Asian elephants.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121570
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1571: The Mitochondrial Genome of Cylicocyclus
           elongatus (Strongylida: Strongylidae) and Its Comparative Analysis with
           Other Cylicocyclus Species

    • Authors: Yuan Gao, Zhonghuai Zhang, Chunren Wang, Kai Zhao
      First page: 1571
      Abstract: Cylicocyclus elongatus (Cc. elongatus) is one of the species in Cylicocyclus, subfamily Cyathostominae, but its taxonomic status in Cylicocyclus is controversial. Mitochondrial (mt) genome is an excellent gene marker which could be used to address the taxonomy controversy. In the present study, the complete mt genome of Cc. elongatus was determined, and sequence and phylogenetic analyses were performed based on mtDNA data to determine the classification of Cc. elongatus. The circular complete mt genome of Cc. elongatus was 13875 bp in size, containing 12 protein-coding genes (12 PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and 2 non-coding regions (NCRs). The A + T content of Cc. elongatus complete mt genome was 76.64%. There were 19 intergenic spacers with lengths of 2–53 bp and 2 overlaps with lengths of 1–2 bp in the impact complete mt genome. ATT and TAA were the most common start and termination codons of 12 PCGs, respectively. Comparative analyses of mt genomes nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence showed that there were higher identities between Cc. elongatus and five other Cylicocyclus, rather than with P. imparidentatum. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated nucleotide sequences of 12 PCGs of 23 species in the family Strongylidae showed that Cc. elongatus was closely related to Cylicocyclus species, rather than P. imparidentatum. We concluded that Cc. elongatus was a member in Cylicocyclus based on comparative and phylogenetic analyses of mt genome sequences. The data of the complete mt genome sequence of Cc. elongatus provide a new and useful genetic marker for further research on Cyathostominae nematodes.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121571
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1572: Investigation of Bacterial Isolations and
           Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Chronic Rhinitis in Cats

    • Authors: Wannisa Meepoo, Tassanee Jaroensong, Chantima Pruksakorn, Jatuporn Rattanasrisomporn
      First page: 1572
      Abstract: Chronic rhinitis is a quite common upper respiratory tract (URT) disease in cats. As a result of unclear etiology, frequently, multidrug-resistant bacteria are identified. This study investigated bacterial isolations and an antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) in chronic rhinitis in cats. The medical records of 395 cats with chronic URT signs were reviewed at the Kasetsart University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (KUVTH) between 2016 and 2021 to survey the underlying causes of URT. Then, apart from rhinitis, other causes were excluded to identify the bacterial species and antimicrobial susceptibility. The results indicated that the most frequent finding was neoplasia, followed by rhinitis and anatomical defects. Furthermore, the only significant association was between the age range and disease group, with gender, FIV, or FeLV infection not being significant. Rhinitis was 4.7 times more likely to occur than neoplasia in younger and young adult cats in the age range < 1–3 years compared to the group > 10 years. The main bacterial species was the Pseudomonas species. Antimicrobials with a susceptibility rate of more than 90% were amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, marbofloxacin, imipenem, and meropenem. In conclusion, rhinitis was the second most common chronic URT disease in cats and was more common in younger and young adult cats. The predominant bacteria with AST in this study reflect the antimicrobial resistance situation. Thus, antimicrobial usage should follow antimicrobial use guidelines first.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121572
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1573: Anatomy of the Palmar Region of the Carpus
           of the Dog

    • Authors: Sonia González-Rellán, Andrés Barreiro, José Manuel Cifuentes, Patricia Fdz-de-Trocóniz
      First page: 1573
      Abstract: The palmar region of the canine carpus is anatomically complex, and the information found in the literature about its anatomy is inconsistent. The aims of this prospective, descriptive, anatomic study were (1) the clarification and (2) the description of the precise anatomic composition of the palmar region of the canine carpus, with special reference to the canalis carpi. For this study, 92 cadaveric specimens were obtained from 46 dogs that had died for reasons unrelated to this study. Of these, 43 medium-to-large-breed dogs were randomly selected for the dissection of transverse slices of the carpus. Samples of the flexor retinaculum and flexor carpi radialis tendon and surrounding tissues were taken for complementary histology. For additional histology of the palmar structures in their anatomical position, three small breed dogs were randomly selected for obtaining transverse slices. The anatomic characteristics of the components of the palmar region of the canine carpus were qualitatively described, with special attention to the following structures: flexor retinaculum, flexor carpi radialis muscle, arteria and vena mediana, nervus medianus, interflexorius muscle, flexor digitorum profundus muscle, canalis carpi, and arteria and nervus ulnaris. The findings from this study provide reference information about the anatomy of the palmar region of the canine carpus.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121573
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1574: Pet dogs’ Behavioural Reaction to
           Their Caregiver’s Interactions with a Third Party: Join in or

    • Authors: Sabrina Karl, Kristina Anderle, Christoph J. Völter, Zsófia Virányi
      First page: 1574
      Abstract: Pet dogs are promising candidates to study attachment-related and potentially jealousy-like behaviours in non-human animals, as they form a strong and stable bond with their human caregivers who often engage in affiliative interactions with diverse social partners. Nevertheless, it is still debated whether non-human animals are capable of experiencing such complex emotions. Even though caregivers frequently report observations of jealousy-like behaviours in dogs, behavioural studies in dogs have thus far led to contradictory results. Adding to this complexity, dogs appear extraordinarily skilled in understanding humans’ communicative behaviour and can flexibly and diversely interact with them in social contexts. Here, we aimed at investigating (1) whether dogs indeed respond in a jealousy-consistent manner when seeing their caregiver interact in an affiliative way with a remotely controlled, realistic-looking fake dog, or (2) whether they would rather synchronize their reaction to the fake dog with the caregiver’s behaviour, or (3) whether they respond directly to the caregiver without paying much attention to the third party. To address what drives the dogs’ behaviours in this triadic situation, we compared four groups of dogs who first observed and then joined the interaction of either the caregiver or a stranger greeting or medically examining the fake dog. We found that the dogs initially responded negatively or neutrally when the fake dog entered the room but changed to more positive reactions when the caregiver approached the fake dog, especially if initiating a positive interaction. When being released, more dogs showed friendly behaviours towards the fake dog when the caregiver—rather than the stranger—was interacting with it. At the same time, however, the dogs tried to block the interaction of the caregiver with the fake dog more often than the one of the stranger. In conclusion, we did not find clear evidence for jealousy-like behaviours in dogs during the human–fake dog interactions, but we observed indicators of behavioural synchronization with the caregivers, suggesting that the caregivers’ affiliative behaviours directed at a third party may more often facilitate positive than negative interactions in dogs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121574
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1575: Urinary Protein/Creatinine Ratio in Feline
           Medicine: Reasons to Perform It and Its Role in Clinical Practice—A
           Retrospective Study

    • Authors: Maria Ana Fidalgo, Rodolfo Oliveira Leal, José Henrique Duarte-Correia
      First page: 1575
      Abstract: This study aimed at understanding the reasons veterinarians conduct a urinary protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR) in cats, correlating it with signalment, dipstick proteinuria tests, and urine specific gravity (USG) and assessing its role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) diagnosis and monitoring. A retrospective study was conducted, including medical data from cats consulted between 2016 and 2018 in a veterinary teaching hospital and submitted to at least one UPCR measurement. A total of 140 cats were included: 35% non-proteinuric (UPCR < 0.2), 25% borderline proteinuric (0.2 < UPCR < 0.4), and 40% overtly proteinuric (UPCR > 0.4). In contrast to other studies, there was no association between UPCR and male reproductive status. UPCR was mainly requested for CKD diagnosis and monitoring. Correlation between UPCR and combined results from dipstick tests and USG was low and inconsistent. Proteinuric CKD cats had a worse outcome at both 6 (odds ratio (OR 4.04) and 12 months (OR 4.36)), and this finding was more pronounced for severely proteinuric cases in which the OR for death was 4.36 and 6.00 at 6 and at 12 months, respectively. In addition to reinforcing the negative prognostic value of proteinuria, this study stresses the low and the inconsistent agreement between UPCR and the combined results of dipstick tests and USG in cats.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121575
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1576: The Use of Live Action, Animation, and

    • Authors: Alexandra Martinez, Marco Campera, K. A. I. Nekaris
      First page: 1576
      Abstract: For over 100 years, non-human primates (primates) have been a part of the now hundred-billion-dollar global film industry in a variety of capacities. Their use in the film industry is of concern due to the negative welfare effects on individuals, the potential for increased pet trade, and the conservation impacts of public perception. While the effects on human perception of using live primates in film have been studied, little research has been performed on their appearance in animation and none in computer-generated imagery (CGI). We aimed to investigate how the portrayal of primates varied between depiction medium types and how this related to the films’ performance with critics and in the box office. We observed 151 primates in 101 different English-speaking films that debuted between 2000 and 2019. For each appearance we recorded aspects of primate portrayals based on accuracy, anthropomorphism, environment, and agency displayed, along with the depiction medium. We used structural equation models to depict the highest likelihood of the portrayal aspects on the medium’s relationship to the films gross profit worldwide and film critic consensus scores. We found that over the 20-year time frame, use of live primates has decreased, CGI has increased, and animations have remained relatively steady. While animation had no significant relationship to gross profit or critic consensus, both were significantly lower for films that used live primates and were significantly higher for films that used CGI primates. Due to the steady increase in the use of the CGI medium and its positive relationship with gross profit and critic consensus, it could have great effects on people’s perceptions of primates and implications for conservation efforts.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121576
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1577: Biogenic Amines in Poultry Meat and Poultry
           Products: Formation, Appearance, and Methods of Reduction

    • Authors: Wojciech Wójcik, Monika Łukasiewicz-Mierzejewska, Krzysztof Damaziak, Damian Bień
      First page: 1577
      Abstract: Poultry meat is a source of many important nutrients, micro- and macro-elements, and biologically active substances. During meat storage, many physicochemical changes take place, also affecting the content of biologically active substances, including biogenic amines.They are formed as a result of three processes: decarboxylation of amino acids by microorganisms, reductive amination, and transamination of aldehydes and ketones, and as a result of activity of body tissues. Excessive consumption of biogenic amines shows toxic properties. The increasing consumption of poultry meat and the lack of established limits for biogenic amine content is a major challenge for scientists, producers, and consumer organisations, which have not yet established limits for biogenic amine content in meat (including poultry meat). Analyses of biogenic amine content in meat account for less than 10% of scientific papers, which raises the scope of the problem of limiting biogenic amines in meat. Among the methods of amine reduction are methods of destroying or reducing microorganisms’ high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), ozonisation, radiation, or the use of essential oils.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121577
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1578: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Prevention of
           Sparganosis in Asia

    • Authors: Wei Liu, Tengfang Gong, Shuyu Chen, Quan Liu, Haoying Zhou, Junlin He, Yong Wu, Fen Li, Yisong Liu
      First page: 1578
      Abstract: Sparganosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the larvae (spargana) of the genus Spirometra, which is widely distributed globally and threatens human health. More than 60 species of Spirometra have already been identified, and over 2000 cases have been reported. This review summarizes the prevalence of humans, frogs, snakes, and other animals with spargana. Furthermore, the infection mode, distribution, and site are summarized and analyzed. We also describe the epidemiology, molecular diagnosis, and other aspects which are of considerable significance to preventing sparganum.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121578
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1579: Effects of Dietary Fiber Type on Growth
           Performance, Serum Parameters and Fecal Microbiota Composition in Weaned
           and Growing-Finishing Pigs

    • Authors: Zhiqian Lv, Zeyu Zhang, Fenglai Wang, Jiyu Guo, Xiaogang Zhao, Jinbiao Zhao
      First page: 1579
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different SDF to IDF ratios on growth performance, serum indexes and fecal microbial community in pigs. Weaned and growing-finishing pigs were fed a diet containing five different ratios of SDF to IDF from 1:5 to 1:9 and from 1:3 to 1:7, respectively. Results showed a linear tendency that average daily gain (ADG) of weaned pigs decreased but the feed intake to weight gain ratio (F/G) increased as the ratio of SDF to IDF increased from 1:5 to 1:9 (p = 0.06). The ADG of growing-finishing pigs showed quadratic changes (p < 0.05) as ratios of SDF to IDF increased from 1:3 to 1:7. The Shannon index of fecal microbial diversity increased first and then decreased as the SDF to IDF ratio increased from 1:5 to 1:9 (p < 0.05). The Shannon and Chao indexes of fecal microbial diversity in growing-finishing pigs showed significant incremental linearly as the SDF to IDF ratio increased from 1:3 to 1:7 (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the recommended inclusion ratios of SDF to IDF in weaned and growing-finishing pigs diets are 1:7 and 1:5.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121579
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1580: The Effects of Pen Size and Design, Bedding,
           Rooting Material and Ambient Factors on Pen and Pig Cleanliness and Air
           Quality in Fattening Pig Houses

    • Authors: Marko Ocepek, Inger Lise Andersen
      First page: 1580
      Abstract: There are several environmental and ambient factors that can affect pig eliminative behaviour. The aim of this survey was to investigate factors related to the physical and ambient environment that have the strongest effects on pig and pen cleanliness and ammonia concentration. Data were collected from 87 pig farms and analysed using mixed (ammonia concentration) or generalized linear (pen and pig cleanliness) model in SAS. The pen was cleaner when pen partitions were open compared to closed (p = 0.010) and increased with increasing amount of litter (p = 0.002), using straw (p = 0.002) as rooting material. Pig cleanliness was higher when pen partitions in the eliminative area were open compared to closed (p = 0.007) and increased with increasing space per pig in the resting area (p < 0.001), with decreasing temperature (p < 0.001), and lowering of air velocity (p = 0.003). Other factors that increased cleanliness was using straw as rooting material (p = 0.028) and increasing amount of litter in the resting area (p = 0.002). Ammonia concentration was reduced with increasing floor space in the eliminative area (p < 0.001) and increasing amount of litter (p = 0.006). Our results pinpoint physical and ambient conditions affecting pen and pig cleanliness and air quality.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121580
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1581: Risk Factors and Clinical Presentation in
           Dogs with Increased Serum Pancreatic Lipase Concentrations—A
           Descriptive Analysis

    • Authors: Harry Cridge, Nicole Scott, Jörg M. Steiner
      First page: 1581
      Abstract: Limited data exist regarding the full array of clinical signs seen in dogs with pancreatitis and potential risk factors for the disease. Laboratory submissions from the Gastrointestinal Laboratory at Texas A&M University were retrospectively reviewed for dogs with an increased serum pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) concentration (≥400 µg/L), and an internet-based survey was distributed to the attending veterinarian and/or technician on each case. The survey contained questions related to (i) clinical signs, (ii) prior gastrointestinal upset, (iii) comorbidities, (iv) pre-existing medical therapies, and (v) dietary history. One hundred and seventy (170) survey responses were recorded. The top three clinical signs reported were inappetence (62%), diarrhea (53%), and vomiting (49%). Abdominal pain was noted in only 32% of dogs, likely associated with poor pain detection. Additionally, the majority of dogs (71%) had prior episodes of gastrointestinal upset within the past 12 months, lending support for the commonality of recurrent acute pancreatitis, or acute on chronic disease. Hepatobiliary abnormalities (24%) were the most common concurrent disease, and endocrine disorders were seen in a low proportion of respondents (5–8%). Adult maintenance diets (65%), dog treats (40%), and human foods (29%) were commonly consumed by dogs prior to the discovery of increased cPLI concentration.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121581
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1582: Has the Australian Endemic Grey Falcon the
           Most Extreme Dietary Specialization among all Falco Species'

    • Authors: Jonny Schoenjahn, Chris R. Pavey, Gimme H. Walter
      First page: 1582
      Abstract: A clear understanding of a species’ diet is crucial in understanding its spatio-temporal dynamics, and is, therefore, pertinent to conservation considerations. The diet of the Grey Falcon (Falco hypoleucos), a rare and threatened predator endemic to the Australian arid and semi-arid zone, is subject to diverging assertions; therefore, we studied its diet through direct observation of food ingestion during more than 17 years of fieldwork across the species’ distribution. We found that Grey Falcons of all ages fed almost exclusively on a single type of food, namely, birds, and non-avian food items never constituted a substantial portion of any individual’s diet. The extraordinary circumstances that were associated with the ingestion of non-avian food suggest strongly that, across its vast distribution, throughout the year, and throughout its life, the Grey Falcon feeds almost exclusively on birds. Further, we compared the diets of all Falco species and found that the dietary specialization is most extreme in the Grey Falcon, more so than even in the Taita (F. fasciinucha) and Peregrine Falcons (F. peregrinus). Based on aspects of the species’ environment and relative prey availability, we offer an evolutionary explanation of the apparently unique dietary specialization of the arid-adapted Grey Falcon.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121582
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1583: Ecofriendly Usability of Mushroom
           Cultivation Substrate as a Ruminant Feed: Anaerobic Digestion Using Gas
           Production Techniques

    • Authors: Valiollah Palangi, Adem Kaya, Ali Kaya, Ilias Giannenas
      First page: 1583
      Abstract: The current study was carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of mushroom-uncultivated and -cultivated substrates, and their in vitro gas and methane production. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, and analyzed with GLM using SAS 9.4. Analysis of the structural morphology of mushroom-cultivated substrate was performed using a scanning electron microscope. Mushroom cultivation led to lower ether extract, acid detergent fiber, and crude fiber level of substrate (p < 0.05). Mushroom-cultivated substrate showed higher in vitro cumulative gas production (p < 0.05). Moreover, mushroom cultivation led to a higher sample surface, and improved the microorganisms’ access to feed materials, thus stimulating rumen fermentation and increasing methane production (p < 0.05). The organic matter digestibility, metabolizable energy, and net energy lactation values were higher for mushroom-cultivated substrate than uncultivated substrate. The results demonstrate that mushroom-cultivation not only increases the contact surface of cellulose, leading to higher ruminal microorganisms’ access to feedstuff, but could also had higher nutritive value; this material might be used in ruminant ration formulation, to reduce environmental pollution and feed costs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121583
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1584: Identification of Genomic Regions and
           Candidate Genes for Litter Traits in French Large White Pigs Using
           Genome-Wide Association Studies

    • Authors: Jianmei Chen, Ziyi Wu, Ruxue Chen, Zhihui Huang, Xuelei Han, Ruimin Qiao, Kejun Wang, Feng Yang, Xin-Jian Li, Xiu-Ling Li
      First page: 1584
      Abstract: The reproductive traits of sows are one of the important economic traits in pig production, and their performance directly affects the economic benefits of the entire pig industry. In this study, a total of 895 French Large White pigs were genotyped by GeneSeek Porcine 50K SNP Beadchip and four phenotypic traits of 1407 pigs were recorded, including total number born (TNB), number born alive (NBA), number healthy piglets (NHP) and litter weight born alive (LWB). To identify genomic regions and genes for these traits, we used two approaches: a single-locus genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a single-step GWAS (ssGWAS). Overall, a total of five SNPs and 36 genomic regions were identified by single-locus GWAS and ssGWAS, respectively. Notably, fourof all five significant SNPs were located in 10.72–11.06 Mb on chromosome 7, were also identified by ssGWAS. These regions explained the highest or second highest genetic variance in the TNB, NBA and NHP traits and harbor the protein coding gene ENSSSCG00000042180. In addition, several candidate genes associated with litter traits were identified, including JARID2, PDIA6, FLRT2 and DICER1. Overall, these novel results reflect the polygenic genetic architecture of the litter traits and provide a theoretical reference for the following implementation of molecular breeding.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121584
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1585: Evaluation of a Treadmill-Based Submaximal
           Fitness Test in Pugs, and Collecting Breed-Specific Information on
           Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome

    • Authors: Rebekka Mach, Pia S. Wiegel, Jan-Peter Bach, Martin Beyerbach, Lothar Kreienbrock, Ingo Nolte
      First page: 1585
      Abstract: Despite efforts of veterinarians and breeders, brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) is still a common problem in pugs, underlining the need for objective tests to identify and prevent breeding with affected dogs. In the current study, a submaximal, treadmill-based fitness test was evaluated as a tool to identify signs of airway obstruction not recognisable under rest conditions. In addition to this, different body conformation and measurements were assessed regarding their association with BOAS. A total of 62 pugs and 10 mesocephalic dogs trotted with an individual comfort speed on a treadmill for 15 min. Before and during the examination, dogs were examined for signs of respiratory distress, and a functional BOAS grading was applied. The influence of body conformation on BOAS grading was tested in a univariable and multivariable logistic regression model. During exercise, more respiratory noises were observed, and existing respiratory noises became more apparent in comparison to when at rest. In the multivariable logistic regression model, no factor had a statistically significant influence on BOAS classification. Submaximal fitness testing helped to identify signs of respiratory distress not apparent under resting conditions, and could be a valuable addition for identifying dogs with BOAS. Performing testing on a treadmill facilitates continuous observation of the patients, and enables standardisation of the test regarding the test environment, as well as provides an uninterrupted, steady workload.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121585
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1586: Immune Modulation Ability of Hepcidin from
           Teleost Fish

    • Authors: Claudio Andrés Álvarez, Paula A. Santana, Nicolás Salinas-Parra, Dina Beltrán, Fanny Guzmán, Belinda Vega, Félix Acosta, Luis Mercado
      First page: 1586
      Abstract: Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) play an essential role in the innate immune system, modulating the defense response. In a previous study, we demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of synthetic hepcidin (hep20) from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and its protective effect in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) challenged with Vibrio anguillarum. Additionally, we described the uptake and distribution of hep20 in different tissues and leukocyte cells. Interestingly, various AMPs characterized in high vertebrates, called host defense peptides (HDPs), also possess immunomodulation activity. For that reason, the present study explores the immunomodulatory abilities of hep20 through in vitro and in vivo studies. First, a monocyte/macrophage RTS-11 cell line from rainbow trout was used to evaluate hep20 effects on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in fish leukocyte cells. Next, the European sea bass juveniles were used to determine if hep20 can regulate the expression of cytokines in fish immune tissues. The results show that hep20 was uptake inner to RTS-11 cells and was able to induce the expression of IL-10, IL-1β, and TNFα at transcriptional and protein levels. Then, the European sea bass juveniles were given intraperitoneal injections of the peptide. At 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days post-injection (dpi), IL-10, IL -1β, and TNFα mRNA were quantified in the anterior gut, spleen, and head kidney. The hep20 was able to up-regulate cytokine gene expression in these tissues, mainly in the head kidney. Furthermore, the evaluated cytokines showed a cyclical tendency of higher to lesser expression. Finally, a bioinformatics analysis showed that the structure adopted by hep20 is similar to the γ-core domain described for cysteine-stabilized AMP, defined as immunomodulatory and antimicrobial, which could explain the ability of hep20 to regulate the cytokine expression. This study provides new insights into immunomodulatory function complementary to the previously established antimicrobial activity of hep20, suggesting a role as an HDP in teleost fish. These facts are likely to be associated with molecular functions underpinning the protective effect of fish hepcidin against pathogens.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121586
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1587: Two Different Copy Number Variations of the
           SOX5 and SOX8 Genes in Yak and Their Association with Growth Traits

    • Authors: Zhilong Zhang, Min Chu, Qi Bao, Pengjia Bao, Xian Guo, Chunnian Liang, Ping Yan
      First page: 1587
      Abstract: Copy number variation (CNV) is a structural variant with significant impact on genetic diversity. CNV has been widely used in breeding for growth traits, meat production or quality, and coat color. SRY-like box genes (SOXs) are a class of transcription factors that play a regulatory role in cell fate specification and differentiation. SOX5 and SOX8 belong to subgroups D and E of the SOXs, respectively. Previous studies have shown that SOX5 and SOX8 are essential in the development of bones. In this study, we explored the association between the growth traits and CNVs of SOX5 and SOX8 in 326 Ashidan yaks and detected mRNA expression levels in different tissues. Our results illustrated that CNVs of SOX5 and SOX8 were significantly associated with withers height at 18 months of age and chest girth at 30 months of age (p < 0.05). The CNV combination of SOX5 and SOX8 was significantly associated with withers height at 18 months of age (p < 0.01). SOX5 expression in the lung was significantly higher than in the heart, spleen, kidney, and muscle (p < 0.05). SOX8 expression in the lung was significantly higher than in the liver and muscle (p < 0.05). Our results provide evidence that the CNVs of SOX5 and SOX8 genes could be used as new markers for the selection of yak growth traits.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121587
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1588: Prevalence and Evolution Analysis of Porcine
           Circovirus 3 in China from 2018 to 2022

    • Authors: Dengjin Chen, Yi Huang, Yating Guo, Lihong Wang, Yongning Zhang, Lei Zhou, Xinna Ge, Jun Han, Xin Guo, Hanchun Yang
      First page: 1588
      Abstract: Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) is an emerging virus, causing substantial economic losses in pig populations, that was first detected in 2016. Furthermore, the virus has already been reported in Europe, the Americas, and Asia, including China, indicating that the virus has spread worldwide. However, the molecular epidemiology of PCV3 still needs further study. To investigate PCV3 epidemiological characteristics in China, 2707 serum samples of pigs were randomly collected from 17 provinces in China between September 2018 and March 2022 and analyzed via PCR assays. The study showed that PCV3 infection was prevalent in the overall population with 31.07% (841/2707) and 100.0% (17/17) at sample and province levels, respectively, though the positivity rate of PCV3 varied from 7.41 to 70.0% in different provinces, suggesting that PCV3 infection has a widespread distribution in China. We selected 22 serum samples from different regions that had high levels of viral DNA for amplification and sequenced their ORF2 (Cap) gene. According to the phylogenetic analysis, all isolates in the current study could be grouped into two separate subclades, with 15 strains belonging to clade 3a and 7 strains belonging to clade 3b, indicating that PCV3a and PCV3b were the predominant subtypes in the regions of China studied. Meanwhile, additional analysis revealed that the capsid gene sequences identified in this study displayed 97.46~99.8% nucleotide (nt) and 97.06~100% amino acid (aa) sequence similarity with other PCV3 available reference strains, respectively. In general, our studies provide important insights for understanding the prevalence and evolution of PCV3 in China and will guide future efforts to develop measures for preventing and controlling the disease.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121588
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1589: Replacing the Concentrate Feed Mixture with
           Moringa oleifera Leaves Silage and Chlorella vulgaris Microalgae Mixture
           in Diets of Damascus Goats: Lactation Performance, Nutrient Utilization,
           and Ruminal Fermentation

    • Authors: Ahmed E. Kholif, Gouda A. Gouda, Amgad A. Abu Elella, Amlan K. Patra
      First page: 1589
      Abstract: Exploring suitable alternatives for high-cost concentrate feeds is a critical factor for successful livestock production. The present experiment aimed to evaluate the dietary inclusion of Moringa oleifera silage and Chlorella vulgaris microalgae (at 1% of total diet, DM basis) in a quintuplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design for milk production performance, nutrient utilization and ruminal fermentation in Damascus goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided into three groups to be fed a diet composed of a concentrate mixture and rice straw at 60:40 (DM basis) in the control group and fed for 30 days in each period. The concentrate mixture in the control treatment was replaced with M. oleifera silage and C. vulgaris microalgae at 20% (MA20 treatment) or 40% (MA40 treatment). Treatments did not affect total feed intake but increased (p < 0.01) crude protein (CP) and fiber intakes while decreasing nonstructural carbohydrates intake. The digestibility of CP and acid detergent fiber increased due to silage supplementation compared to the control treatment. Treatments increased (p < 0.05) ruminal pH and the concentrations of total volatile fatty acids, acetate, and propionate; however, they decreased (p < 0.05) the concentrations of ammonia-N. Treatments increased (p < 0.05) the concentrations of serum glucose and antioxidant capacity. Both MA20 and MA40 treatments increased the daily milk production, the concentrations of milk fat and lactose, and feed efficiency compared to the control treatment. Additionally, MA20 and MA40 treatments increased the proportions of total polyunsaturated fatty acids and total conjugated linoleic acids. It is concluded that the concentrate feed mixture in the diet of lactating goats can be replaced up to 40% (equals to 24% of total diet) with M. oleifera silage to improve feed intake and nutrient utilization, and milk production performance.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121589
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1590: Yellow Lamb Disease (Clostridium perfringens
           Type A Enterotoxemia of Sheep): A Review

    • Authors: Francisco A. Uzal, Federico Giannitti, Javier Asin
      First page: 1590
      Abstract: Yellow lamb disease is an infrequent disease in sheep for which there is scant literature, and that has been reported in the US, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Europe, although anecdotal evidence indicates that it may have also been diagnosed in South America. The disease is produced by some strains of Clostridium perfringens type A that produce unusually high levels of alpha- toxin. Because C. perfringens type A is ubiquitous and is found in the intestine of most clinically healthy sheep, diagnosis of yellow lamb disease is challenging and requires quantitating the amount of this microorganism present in feces and/or intestinal content. Clinically, yellow lamb disease is characterized by depression, anemia, icterus and hemoglobinuria. Occasionally, sudden death may occur. Gross findings include generalized icterus, red urine in the bladder, enlarged, pale, and friable spleen, enlarged liver with an acinar pattern, and dark, swollen kidneys. Microscopically, yellow lamb disease is characterized by centrilobular necrosis of the liver, hemoglobinuria-associated acute tubular injury, splenic congestion, pulmonary congestion and edema. Although there are no vaccines specifically designed to prevent yellow lamb disease, several vaccines against the different types of C. perfringens may afford at least some level of protection against yellow lamb disease.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121590
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1591: Effects of Dietary Fucoidan Supplementation
           on Serum Biochemical Parameters, Small Intestinal Barrier Function, and
           Cecal Microbiota of Weaned Goat Kids

    • Authors: Weiguang Yang, Guangzhen Guo, Jiayi Chen, Shengnan Wang, Zhenhua Gao, Zhihui Zhao, Fuquan Yin
      First page: 1591
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of fucoidan supplementation on serum biochemical parameters, small intestinal barrier function, and cecal microbiota of weaned goat kids. A total of 60 2-month-old weaned castrated male goat kids (Chuanzhong black goat) were used in this 30-day experiment. The goat kids were randomly divided into four groups: a control group (CON) fed the basal diet, and three other groups supplemented with 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% fucoidan in the basal diet (denoted as F1, F2, and F3 groups, respectively). The results indicated that dietary fucoidan supplementation decreased (p < 0.05) the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the content of glucose (GLU) as measured on day 15. As measured on day 30, dietary fucoidan increased (p < 0.05) the content of total protein (TP) and decreased the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and supplementation with 0.3% and 0.5% fucoidan decreased (p < 0.05) the activity of LDH. Dietary fucoidan decreased (p < 0.05) the content of D-lactic acid (D-LA) and the activity of diamine oxidase (DAO). Dietary fucoidan increased (p < 0.05) the activity of catalase (CAT) in the duodenum. Dietary 0.3% and 0.5% fucoidan enhanced (p < 0.05) the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the ileum, the activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) in the jejunum and ileum, and the activity of CAT in the ileum. Dietary 0.3% and 0.5% fucoidan reduced the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum and the content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the duodenum. Dietary fucoidan increased (p < 0.05) the content of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in the duodenum. Supplementation of 0.3% and 0.5% fucoidan upregulated (p < 0.05) the gene expression of ZO-1 and claudin-1 in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, and dietary supplementation of 0.3% and 0.5% fucoidan upregulated (p < 0.05) the gene expression of occludin in the jejunum and ileum. The 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing results showed that at the phylum level, dietary fucoidan increased (p < 0.05) the abundance of Bacteroidetes while decreasing (p < 0.05) the abundance of Firmicutes. At the genus level, dietary 0.3% and 0.5% fucoidan increased (p < 0.05) the abundances of Unspecified_Ruminococcaceae, Unspecified_Bacteroidale, Unspecified_Clostridiales, and Akkermansia. In conclusion, dietary fucoidan supplementation had positive effects on intestinal permeability, antioxidant capacity, immunity function, tight junctions, and the cecal microflora balance in weaned goat kids.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121591
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1592: Before Azaria: A Historical Perspective on
           Dingo Attacks

    • Authors: Adam Brumm
      First page: 1592
      Abstract: This paper investigates the origin of the once popular belief in Australian society that wild dingoes do not attack humans. To address this problem, a digital repository of archived newspaper articles and other published texts written between 1788 and 1979 were searched for references to dingoes attacking non-Indigenous people. A total of 52 accounts spanning the period between 1804 and 1928 was identified. A comparison of these historical accounts with the details of modern dingo attacks suggests that at least some of the former are credible. The paper also examined commonly held attitudes towards dingoes in past Australian society based on historical print media articles and other records. Early chroniclers of Australian rural life and culture maintained that dingoes occasionally killed and ate humans out of a predatory motivation. By the early decades of the 20th century, however, an opposing view of this species had emerged: namely, that dingoes were timid animals that continued to pose a danger to livestock, but never to people. This change in the cultural image of dingoes can possibly be linked to more than a century of lethal dingo control efforts greatly reducing the frequency of human–dingo interactions in the most populous parts of the country. This intensive culling may also have expunged the wild genetic pool of dingoes that exhibited bold behaviour around people and/or created a dingo population that was largely wary of humans.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121592
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1593: Influenza A in Wild Boars: Viral Circulation
           in the Emilia-Romagna Region (Northern Italy) between 2017 and 2022

    • Authors: Alice Prosperi, Laura Soliani, Elena Canelli, Laura Baioni, Valentina Gabbi, Camilla Torreggiani, Roberta Manfredi, Irene Calanchi, Giovanni Pupillo, Filippo Barsi, Patrizia Bassi, Laura Fiorentini, Matteo Frasnelli, Maria Cristina Fontana, Andrea Luppi, Chiara Chiapponi
      First page: 1593
      Abstract: A systematic surveillance against influenza A viruses (IAVs) in the Suidae population is essential, considering their role as IAV mixing vessels. However, the viral circulation in wild Sus scrofa species is poorly investigated in comparison to the knowledge of IAV infection dynamics in domestic pigs. This study investigated the circulation and the genetic diversity of wild boars’ IAVs detected in the Emilia-Romagna region (2017–2022). A total of 4605 lung samples were screened via an M gene real-time RT-PCR for SwIAV; positive samples were subtyped by multiplex RT-PCR, and viral isolation was attempted. Isolated strains (3 out of the 17 positives) were fully sequenced to evaluate viral genotypic diversity. H1N1 was the most frequently detected subtype, with identification of H1pdm09N1 and H1avN1. Whole-genome phylogenetic analysis revealed SwIAVs belonging to different genotypes, with different genetic combinations, and highlighted the simultaneous circulation of the same genotypes in both pigs and wild boars, supporting the hypothesis of SwIAV spillover events at the wildlife–livestock interface. This study represents an update on the wild boar SwIAV Italian situation, and the strains’ complete genome analysis showed an evolving and interesting situation that deserves further investigation.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121593
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1594: A Preliminary Study of Modulen IBD Liquid
           Diet in Hospitalized Dogs with Protein-Losing Enteropathy

    • Authors: Aarti Kathrani, Gina Parkes
      First page: 1594
      Abstract: Modulen IBD is an enteral liquid diet that can induce remission rates similar to glucocorticoids in children with inflammatory bowel disease. The Modulen IBD liquid diet has not been previously investigated in dogs. Our study aimed to describe the use of the Modulen IBD liquid diet in hospitalized dogs with inflammatory protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), including its tolerance and effects on appetite and gastrointestinal signs, and laboratory parameters during hospitalization. Of the 14 dogs hospitalized for PLE that had an esophagostomy feeding tube placed at the time of endoscopy, 5 were eligible and prospectively enrolled. The Modulen IBD liquid diet was supplemented with whey powder isolate and a multivitamin/mineral blend to ensure the diet was complete and balanced for canine adult maintenance and had a macronutrient profile desirable for PLE. All five dogs tolerated tube feedings with the Modulen IBD liquid diet, allowing an increase of 75 to 100% of the resting energy requirement (RER) by day 3 to 4. The diet was administered without glucocorticoid in all five dogs. All five of these dogs had a resolution of anorexia allowing the voluntary intake of a commercial hydrolyzed protein diet prior to the use of glucocorticoids. Of these five dogs, three (60%) had stable or improved serum albumin concentrations (median % increase: 10.3, range: 0–31.1), four (80%) had improved or normalized serum globulin concentrations (median % increase: 12.9, range: 5.1–66.2) and four (80%) had improved or normalized serum cholesterol concentrations (median % increase: 31.5, range: 4.8–63) 2–3 days after initiating the diet. However, there were no significant differences in these selected biochemical parameters pre- and post-feeding with the diet (p > 0.080). In conclusion, the Modulen IBD liquid diet, fed via an esophagostomy feeding tube was well-tolerated in-hospital and resolved anorexia in all dogs and helped to improve selected biochemical parameters in some dogs. Further studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of feeding this diet on the rate of serum albumin increase and remission in dogs with inflammatory PLE.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121594
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
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