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  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 107 journals)
Showing 1 - 22 of 22 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acrocephalus     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Animal Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Animal Sentience : An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Animal Welfare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Botanical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
British Poultry Abstracts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Corpoica Ciencia y Tecnología Agropecuaria     Open Access  
Derecho Animal. Forum of Animal Law Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
European Journal of Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Human-Wildlife Interactions     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Animal Science and Products     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Learning and Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens     Open Access  
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Peternakan Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Ilmiah Peternakan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural History Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pastoralism : Research, Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
People and Animals : The International Journal of Research and Practice     Open Access  
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference     Open Access  
Rangifer     Open Access  
Research Journal of Parasitology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue de primatologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries     Open Access  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies     Open Access  
Social Choice and Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Society and Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
South African Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
TRACE ∴ Finnish Journal for Human-Animal Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Translational Animal Science     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
Uluslararası Tarım ve Yaban Hayatı Bilimleri Dergisi / International Journal of Agricultural and Wildlife Sciences     Open Access  
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access  
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)

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Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.744
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 11  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2076-2615
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1631: Effect of Femoral Head and Neck Osteotomy on
           Canines’ Functional Pelvic Position and Locomotion

    • Authors: Madeleine Engstig, Senni Vesterinen, Mikael Morelius, Jouni Junnila, Heli K. Hyytiäinen
      First page: 1631
      Abstract: The long-term effect of femoral head and neck osteotomy (FHO) on the locomotory system of dogs was evaluated. The study comprised an owner questionnaire and an orthopaedic examination, anatomical measurements, and pressure-sensitive walkway analysis for dogs. Linear mixed effect models were used for statistical analysis. Ten dogs with a median of 2.5 years since their unilateral FHO were included. According to the questionnaire results, nine dogs had returned to a normal physical activity level. Muscle atrophy (p = 0.005), less extension in the coxofemoral joint (p = 0.003), and less static weight bearing on the FHO limb (p = 0.003) were observed. No consistent pattern regarding tilt or position of the pelvis was noted when measuring height of the tuber ischii (p = 0.39). Five of the dogs tilted away from, and five towards the FHO side when measured from the tuber sacrale with a Myrin goniometer. No differences regarding stance time, swing time, or peak pressure between the FHO and non-FHO limb were seen in trot (p = 0.70, p = 0.26, and p = 0.91, respectively). Over the long term, the FHO limb has muscle atrophy, decreased coxofemoral extension, and decreased static weight bearing. However, this does not seem to affect the trot of the dogs. Dog owners considered the outcome of surgery to be good or excellent.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131631
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1632: Differential Gene Expression Associated with
           Soybean Oil Level in the Diet of Pigs

    • Authors: Simara Larissa Fanalli, Bruna Pereira Martins da Silva, Julia Dezen Gomes, Vivian Vezzoni de Almeida, Felipe André Oliveira Freitas, Gabriel Costa Monteiro Moreira, Bárbara Silva-Vignato, Juliana Afonso, James Reecy, James Koltes, Dawn Koltes, Luciana Correia de Almeida Regitano, Dorian John Garrick, Júlio Cesar de Carvalho Balieiro, Ariana Nascimento Meira, Luciana Freitas, Luiz Lehmann Coutinho, Heidge Fukumasu, Gerson Barreto Mourão, Severino Matias de Alencar, Albino Luchiari Filho, Aline Silva Mello Cesar
      First page: 1632
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEG) from the skeletal muscle and liver samples of animal models for metabolic diseases in humans. To perform the study, the fatty acid (FA) profile and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data of 35 samples of liver tissue (SOY1.5, n = 17 and SOY3.0, n = 18) and 36 samples of skeletal muscle (SOY1.5, n = 18 and SOY3.0, n = 18) of Large White pigs were analyzed. The FA profile of the tissues was modified by the diet, mainly those related to monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) FA. The skeletal muscle transcriptome analysis revealed 45 DEG (FDR 10%), and the functional enrichment analysis identified network maps related to inflammation, immune processes, and pathways associated with oxidative stress, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic dysfunction. For the liver tissue, the transcriptome profile analysis revealed 281 DEG, which participate in network maps related to neurodegenerative diseases. With this nutrigenomics study, we verified that different levels of soybean oil in the pig diet, an animal model for metabolic diseases in humans, affected the transcriptome profile of skeletal muscle and liver tissue. These findings may help to better understand the biological mechanisms that can be modulated by the diet.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131632
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1633: Lafora Disease and Alpha-Synucleinopathy in
           Two Adult Free-Ranging Moose (Alces alces) Presenting with Signs of
           Blindness and Circling

    • Authors: Madhu Ravi, Atilano Lacson, Margo Pybus, Mark C. Ball
      First page: 1633
      Abstract: Lafora disease is an autosomal recessive glycogen-storage disorder resulting from an accumulation of toxic polyglucosan bodies (PGBs) in the central nervous system, which causes behavioral and neurologic symptoms in humans and other animals. In this case study, brains collected from two young adult free-ranging moose (Alces alces) cows that were seemingly blind and found walking in circles were examined by light and electron microscopy. Microscopic analysis of the hippocampus of the brain revealed inclusion bodies resembling PGBs in the neuronal perikaryon, neuronal processes, and neuropil. These round inclusions measuring up to 30 microns in diameter were predominantly confined to the hippocampus region of the brain in both animals. The inclusions tested α-synuclein-negative by immunohistochemistry, α-synuclein-positive with PAS, GMS, and Bielschowsky’s staining; and diastase-resistant with central basophilic cores and faintly radiating peripheral lines. Ultrastructural examination of the affected areas of the hippocampus showed non-membrane-bound aggregates of asymmetrically branching filaments that bifurcated regularly, consistent with PGBs in both animals. Additionally, α-synuclein immunopositivity was noted in the different regions of the hippocampus with accumulations of small granules ultrastructurally distinct from PGBs and morphologically compatible with alpha-synucleinopathy (Lewy body). The apparent blindness found in these moose could be related to an injury associated with secondary bacterial invasion; however, an accumulation of neurotoxicants (PGBs and α-synuclein) in retinal ganglions cells could also be the cause. This is the first report demonstrating Lafora disease with concurrent alpha-synucleinopathy (Lewy body neuropathy) in a non-domesticated animal.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131633
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1634: The Digestive System of the Arctocephalus
           australis in Comparison to the Dog as a Land-Carnivore Model

    • Authors: Rosario Martín-Orti, Carlos Tostado-Marcos, Juan-Pablo Loureiro, Ignacio Molpeceres-Diego, Enrique Tendillo-Domínguez, Inmaculada Santos-Álvarez, Pilar Pérez-Lloret, Juncal González-Soriano
      First page: 1634
      Abstract: Marine mammals play a critical ecological role as both predator and prey. They are divided into three groups that share similar adaptations to their aquatic life, but that have very different origins and life patterns: sirenians, pinnipeds, cetaceans. The species object of our interest is the South American fur seal or Arctocephalus australis, a carnivore classified within the group of pinnipeds. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether the anatomical characteristics of the Arctocephalus australis’ digestive system are similar to that of other land-carnivores or if, on the contrary, this species shows anatomical adaptations related to their life in the ocean. The study was carried out on 11 cadavers of the species Arctocephalus australis, made up of two adults and nine juveniles, by means of the anatomical dissection of their entire isolated digestive system. We demonstrate that, with several exceptions, the anatomical characteristics of the digestive system of the Arctocephalus australis are similar to those in other carnivores. Therefore, our data constitute an important contribution for clinical diagnostic and conservation purposes, for both veterinarians and biologists.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131634
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1635: Effects of Selection on Breed Contribution
           in the Caballo de Deporte Español

    • Authors: Ester Bartolomé, Mercedes Valera, Jesús Fernández, Silvia Teresa Rodríguez-Ramilo
      First page: 1635
      Abstract: The equine breeding industry for sport’s performance has evolved into a fairly profitable economic activity. In particular, the Caballo de Deporte Español (CDE) is bred for different disciplines with a special focus on Show Jumping. The main aim of this study was to determine the effects of 15 years of selection and to find out whether it has been effective and adequate regarding the CDE main breeding objectives. The whole pedigree of 19,045 horses registered as CDE was used, comprising 47,884 animals (18,799 males and 29,085 females). An analysis performed to check for the pedigree completeness level yielded a number of equivalent complete generations (t) equal to 1.95, an average generation interval (GI) of 10.87 years, mean inbreeding coefficient (F) of 0.32%, an average relatedness coefficient (AR) of 0.09% and an effective population size (Ne) of 204. For the analyses, animals were divided into fourteen breed groups. Additionally, in order to study the evolution of these breeds over time and their influence on CDE pedigree, five different periods were considered according to the year of birth of the animals. Performance data used in the analyses were the estimated breeding values (EBV) of the Show Jumping sport discipline of 12,197 horses in the CDE pedigree, available from the 2020 routine genetic evaluations of the CDE breeding program (starting in 2004). Dressage and Eventing EBV values were also assessed. Results showed values of F higher than expected under random mating; this pointed to some degree of inbred matings. With regard to the evolution of breeding values, we found that, in general, EBVs of offspring were higher than the EBVs of parents. Notwithstanding, there is still a need for improvement in population management and the coordination of the breeders to get higher responses but controlling the loss of genetic diversity in the CDE breed.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131635
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1636: Assessment of Nasal Structure Using CT
           Imaging of Brachycephalic Dog Breeds

    • Authors: Ryo Oshita, Sakie Katayose, Eiichi Kanai, Satoshi Takagi
      First page: 1636
      Abstract: The response to treatment of brachycephalic airway syndrome (BAS) varies among brachycephalic dog breeds. We hypothesized that variations in nasal structure are one of the factors responsible for this difference. To confirm this variation, we measured the ratio of the airway cross-sectional area to the total nasal cavity area (AA/NC) in three brachycephalic dog breeds. Head CT images of French bulldogs, shih tzus, and pugs were retrospectively collected. Four specific transverse planes were used to calculate AA/NC ratios. Fifty brachycephalic dogs were included in the study: French bulldogs (n = 20), shih tzus (n = 20), and pugs (n = 10). The AA/NC ratio of Shih Tzus was larger in the rostral nasal cavity and smaller toward the caudal area, whereas the other two breeds showed an inverse tendency. The results obtained from the current research indicate that the AA/NC ratio can be used to evaluate the structure of the nasal cavity. Moreover, analyzing the point with the smallest AA/NC ratio can be useful in quantifying nasal airway obstruction and the severity of BAS. These results will be useful in understanding the complexity of BAS pathophysiology and in the implementation of treatment.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131636
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1637: Effects of Supplementing Finishing Goats
           with Mitragyna speciosa (Korth) Havil Leaves Powder on Growth Performance,
           Hematological Parameters, Carcass Composition, and Meat Quality

    • Authors: Pin Chanjula, Juraithip Wungsintaweekul, Rawee Chiarawipa, Kampanat Phesatcha, Chanon Suntara, Rittikeard Prachumchai, Patcharin Pakdeechanuan, Anusorn Cherdthong
      First page: 1637
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to see how dried Mitragyna speciosa Korth leaves (DKTL) affected growth, hematological parameters, carcass characteristics, muscle chemical composition, and fatty acid profile in finishing goats. In a randomized complete block design, twenty crossbred males (Thai Native x Boer) weaned goats (17.70 ± 2.50 kg of initial body weight (BW)) were provided to the experimental animals (5 goats per treatment) for 90 days. Individual dietary treatments of 0, 2.22, 4.44, and 6.66 g/d of DKTL on a dry matter basis were given to the goats. The diets were provided twice daily as total mixed rations ad libitum. In comparison to the control diet, DKTL supplementation had no effect on BW, average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass composition, meat pH, or meat color (p > 0.05). After DKTL treatment, the hot carcass weight, longissimus muscle area, oleic acid (C18:1n9), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and protein content increased, but saturated fatty acids (SFA) and ether extract decreased (p < 0.05). To summarize, DKTL supplementation can improve goat meat quality.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131637
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1638: Effect of Aqueous Extract of Maca Addition
           to an Extender for Chilled Canine Semen

    • Authors: Chiara Del Prete, Alfonso Calabria, Valentina Longobardi, Veronica Palumbo, Barbara Merlo, Eleonora Iacono, Simona Tafuri, Domenico Carotenuto, Francesca Ciani, Sara Damiano, Roberto Ciarcia, Natascia Cocchia
      First page: 1638
      Abstract: Antioxidant supplementation has been proposed as a new strategy to improve the long-term preservation of semen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Maca supplementation of semen extender on quality-related canine semen parameters during cooling. Ejaculates from nine dogs were cooled for 7 days in the absence (control group) or in the presence of 10, 20 and 50 μL/mL of an aqueous extract of Maca. Sperm were evaluated for sperm viability, motility, DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation after 3 h, 24 h, 4 days and 7 days of storage. The addition of 10 μL/mL of Maca preserved sperm DNA and plasma membrane integrity at 3 h and increased sperm curvilinear velocity after 24 h. Treatment with 20 and 50 μL/mL of Maca increased the percentage of hyperactivated sperm after 3 h. Moreover, semen treated with 20 μL/mL of Maca decreased lipid peroxidation at 24 h. A significant reduction of sperm DNA and plasma membrane integrity as well as of kinetics parameters between 3 and 24 h of refrigerated storage with the higher concentration tested was observed. Although Maca was not able to protect canine semen with extended refrigeration storage time, it increased hyperactivation and preserved DNA integrity in short-term storage.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131638
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1639: Oral Palatability Testing of a Medium-Chain
           Triglyceride Oil Supplement (MCT) in a Cohort of Healthy Dogs in a
           Non-Clinical Setting

    • Authors: Benjamin Andreas Berk, Rowena Mary-Anne Packer, Julia Fritz, Holger Andreas Volk
      First page: 1639
      Abstract: The oral palatability of functional foods such as medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) play a crucial role in owner and patient compliance when used as an adjunct in the management of health conditions such as epilepsy. Despite the promising benefits, the palatability of MCT has not undergone a more recent evaluation in dogs. The aim of this study was to assess the palatability and tolerance of short-term, daily supplementation of a 10% metabolic energy based MCT oil volume compared to a tasteless control oil in healthy dogs. An at-home, randomized, double-blinded, controlled single-bowl palatability test with three five-days phases was conducted. Data were collected from nineteen healthy dogs via study visits, feeding diary and eating questionnaires. No difference in the average food intake or intake ratio between food with and without oil supplementation or between the two oil groups was found. The mean food intake time was longer under MCT. In conclusion, MCT oil given as a short-term supplement is well tolerated and palatable in a healthy canine population, with only some changes in eating behaviour. Our results support earlier evidence that MCT oil is a well-tolerated additive in the nutritional management of different diseases such as epilepsy or dementia in dogs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131639
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1640: Otolith Weight as an Estimator of the Age of
           Seriola lalandi Valenciennes, 1833 (Carangidae), in the Southeastern

    • Authors: Tchimanda Simeão Imbo Ndjamba, Miguel Araya, Marcelo Enrique Oliva
      First page: 1640
      Abstract: The age and growth of fish populations is a critical issue for stock assessment, population dynamics and fishery management. Spawner biomass, mortality, growth, recruitment and age at maturity can be misconstrued if the age estimator is inaccurate. Age can be estimated by annuli count, but this requires expertise and is expensive. Otolith weight (OW) is a good indicator of how long a fish has lived, because OW increases during an individual’s life. Seriola lalandi is a migratory fish and is an important resource for local fishermen in northern Chile. Aspects of its biology, i.e., age and growth, remain unknown, at least for the population annually arriving in northern Chile. Fish of a known age (n = 105; from 5.5 to 25.7 cm in FL) from yellowtail aquaculture facilities at Universidad de Antofagasta allowed us to estimate the growth rate of OW, and fish obtained from local fishermen (n = 71; from 37.9 to 109 cm in FL) allowed us to estimate the age and growth of S. lalandi from the analysis of OW, without the need for calibration. The following four models were fitted with the known ages and fork lengths: the von Bertalanffy growth function, the Gompertz and logistic models and the seasonalized von Bertalanffy growth function. The latter model showed the best adjustment (according to the Akaike information criterion) with the following parameters: L∞, 98.58 cm.; K, 0.59; t0, 0.07; ts, 0.84; and C, 0.97.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131640
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1641: Alterations in Skeletal Muscle mRNA
           Abundance in Response to Ethyl-Cellulose Rumen-Protected Methionine during
           the Periparturient Period in Dairy Cows

    • Authors: Lam Phuoc Thanh, Qianming Jiang, Nithat Wichasit, Fernanda Batistel, Claudia Parys, Jessie Guyader, Juan J. Loor
      First page: 1641
      Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding ethyl cellulose rumen-protected methionine (RPM) on skeletal muscle mRNA abundance during the periparturient period. Sixty multiparous Holstein cows were used in a block design and assigned to either a control or RPM diet. The RPM was supplied from −28 to 60 days in milk (DIM) at a rate of 0.09% (prepartum) or 0.10% (postpartum) of dry matter (DM), ensuring a Lys:Met in the metabolizable protein of ~2.8:1. Muscle biopsies were collected at −21, 1, and 21 DIM. Thirty-five target genes associated with nutrient metabolism and biochemical pathways were measured via RT-qPCR. The mRNA abundance of genes associated with amino acid (AA) transport (SLC7A8, SLC43A2), carnitine transport (SLC22A5), insulin signaling (IRS1), and antioxidant response (NFE2L2) had diet × time effect (p < 0.05) due to greater abundance in RPM versus CON cows, especially at 1 and 21 DIM. Members of the AA transport (SLC7A8, SLC25A29, SCL38A9), fatty acid β-oxidation (ACADVL), vitamin transport (SLC5A6, SLC19A2), mTOR pathway (AKT1 and mTOR), antioxidant response (KEAP1, CUL3), CDP-Choline pathway and arginine metabolism had overall greater abundance (p < 0.05) in RPM versus CON cows. Overall, data indicate that RPM can alter nutrient metabolism in the skeletal muscle around parturition partly through alterations in mRNA abundance.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131641
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1642: Oilseed Supplementation Improves Milk
           Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Cow Milk: A Meta-Analysis and

    • Authors: Genaro Plata-Pérez, Juan C. Angeles-Hernandez, Ernesto Morales-Almaráz, Oscar E. Del Razo-Rodríguez, Felipe López-González, Armando Peláez-Acero, Rafael G. Campos-Montiel, Einar Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Rodolfo Vieyra-Alberto
      First page: 1642
      Abstract: Oilseed supplementation is a strategy to improve milk production and milk composition in dairy cows; however, the response to this approach is inconsistent. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oilseed supplementation on milk production and milk composition in dairy cows via a meta-analysis and meta-regression. A comprehensive and structured search was performed using the following electronic databases: Google Scholar, Primo-UAEH and PubMed. The response variables were: milk yield (MY), atherogenic index (AI), Σ omega-3 PUFA, Σ omega-6 PUFA, fat, protein, lactose, linoleic acid (LA), linolenic acid (LNA), oleic acid (OA), vaccenic acid (VA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) contents. The explanatory variables were breed, lactation stage (first, second, and third), oilseed type (linseed, soybean, rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower), way (whole, extruded, ground, and roasted), dietary inclusion level, difference of the LA, LNA, OA, forage and NDF of supplemented and control rations, washout period and experimental design. A meta-analysis was performed with the “meta” package of the statistical program R. A meta-regression analysis was applied to explore the sources of heretogeneity. The inclusion of oilseeds in dairy cow rations had a positive effect on CLA (+0.27 g 100 g−1 fatty acids (FA); p < 0.0001), VA (+1.03 g 100 g−1 FA; p < 0.0001), OA (+3.44 g 100 g−1 FA; p < 0.0001), LNA (+0.28 g 100 g−1 FA; p < 0.0001) and UFA (+8.32 g 100 g−1 FA; p < 0.0001), and negative effects on AI (−1.01; p < 0.0001), SFA (−6.51; p < 0.0001), fat milk (−0.11%; p < 0.001) and protein milk (−0.04%; p < 0.007). Fat content was affected by animal breed, lactation stage, type and processing of oilseed and dietary NDF and LA contents. CLA, LA, OA and UFA, desirable FA milk components, were affected by type, processing, and the intake of oilseed; additionally, the concentrations of CLA and VA are affected by washout and design. Oilseed supplementation in dairy cow rations has a positive effect on desirable milk components for human consumption. However, animal response to oilseed supplementation depends on explanatory variables related to experimental design, animal characteristics and the type of oilseed.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131642
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1643: Fatty Acid Content of Four Salmonid Fish
           Consumed by Indigenous Peoples from the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
           (Northwestern Siberia, Russia)

    • Authors: Alexander G. Dvoretsky, Fatima A. Bichkaeva, Olga S. Vlasova, Sergei V. Andronov, Vladimir G. Dvoretsky
      First page: 1643
      Abstract: We assayed fatty acids in the flesh of Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis (adult and juvenile), least cisco Coregonus sardinella, muksun Coregonus muksun, and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus inhabiting water bodies of the Gydan Peninsula, Siberia, Russia. The highest concentrations of total and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found in Arctic charr (27.8 and 9.5 mg g−1) and adult Arctic cisco (20.2 and 7.6 mg g−1), while the lowest concentrations occurred in juvenile Arctic cisco (7.5 and 3.6 mg g−1). Multivariate analyses divided all studied fish into five distinct groups with the highest similarity between least cisco and muksun and the highest dissimilarity between juvenile Arctic cisco and Arctic charr. Coregonid fish from the study area had a higher content of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids than their conspecifics from subarctic and temperate habitats. The flesh of the studied fish is a source of a healthy diet for humans. Taking into account that all the studied fish are components of the traditional diet of indigenous peoples in northwestern Siberia, our data may be useful not only for local consumers and anglers but also for stakeholders focused on food policy and food security in the area.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131643
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1644: FTO Regulates Apoptosis in CPB2-Treated
           IPEC-J2 Cells by Targeting Caspase 3 Apoptotic Protein

    • Authors: Jiaojiao Yang, Juanli Zhang, Xiaoli Gao, Ruirui Luo, Kaihui Xie, Wei Wang, Jie Li, Qiaoli Yang, Xiaoyu Huang, Zunqiang Yan, Pengfei Wang, Shuangbao Gun
      First page: 1644
      Abstract: N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification can accommodate mRNA processing, stability, and translation in mammals, and fat mass and obesity associated protein (FTO) is a vital demethylase in the m6A modification pathway. Clostridium perfringens type C (C. perfringens type C) causes diarrhea in piglets and has a serious impact on the pig industry. However, our understanding of the effect of m6A in the process of C. perfringens type C infectious piglet diarrhea (CPTCIPD) is limited. Here, an in vitro model of CPTCIPD was constructed by treating the intestinal porcine epithelial cell line-J2 (IPEC-J2) with Clostridium perfringens beta2 (CPB2) toxin, and the role of FTO was analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and flow cytometry. The results revealed that the overall RNA m6A contents at the tissue and cell levels were significantly up-regulated after C. perfringens infection (p < 0.05). FTO expression was significantly reduced in CPB2-treated IPEC-J2 cells. Functionally, FTO knockdown in the treated cells inhibited their proliferation and promoted apoptosis and the inflammation phenotype, whereas FTO overexpression had the opposite effects. Inhibiting FTO prolonged the half-life and up-regulated the expression of Caspase 3, leading to apoptosis. Therefore, this work explored the regulation of FTO in IPEC-J2 cells after CPB2 treatment and enhanced our understanding of the effect of the m6A modification in CPTCIPD.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131644
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1645: Elucidating the Role of Innate and Adaptive
           Immune Responses in the Pathogenesis of Canine Chronic Inflammatory
           Enteropathy—A Search for Potential Biomarkers

    • Authors: Daniela Siel, Caroll J. Beltrán, Eduard Martínez, Macarena Pino, Nazla Vargas, Alexandra Salinas, Oliver Pérez, Ismael Pereira, Galia Ramírez-Toloza
      First page: 1645
      Abstract: Canine chronic inflammatory enteropathy (CIE) is one of the most common chronic gastrointestinal diseases affecting dogs worldwide. Genetic and environmental factors, as well as intestinal microbiota and dysregulated host immune responses, participate in this multifactorial disease. Despite advances explaining the immunological and molecular mechanisms involved in CIE development, the exact pathogenesis is still unknown. This review compiles the latest reports and advances that describe the main molecular and cellular mechanisms of both the innate and adaptive immune responses involved in canine CIE pathogenesis. Future studies should focus research on the characterization of the immunopathogenesis of canine CIE in order to advance the establishment of biomarkers and molecular targets of diagnostic, prognostic, or therapeutic utility.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131645
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1646: Thiamine Demonstrates Bio-Preservative and
           Anti-Microbial Effects in Minced Beef Meat Storage and Lipopolysaccharide
           (LPS)-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    • Authors: Anis Ben Hsouna, Alex Boye, Bouthaina Ben Ackacha, Wissal Dhifi, Rania Ben Saad, Faiçal Brini, Wissem Mnif, Miroslava Kačániová
      First page: 1646
      Abstract: This study assessed the anti-inflammatory effect of thiamine (TA) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and also assessed the preservative properties of TA in minced beef. TA demonstrated a concentration-dependent antimicrobial effect on microbial contaminants. Inhibition zones and MIC from the effect of TA on the tested bacterial strains were respectively within the ranges 15–20 mm and 62.5–700 µg/mL. TA significantly (p < 0.05) decreased all the pro-inflammatory factors [(nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)] monitored relative to LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. TA inhibited the expression of both iNOS and COX-2. In minced beef flesh, the growth of Listeria monocytogenes was inhibited by TA. TA improved physicochemical and microbiological parameters of stored minced beef meat compared to control. Principal component analyses and heat maps elucidate the quality of the tested meats.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131646
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1647: Molecular Epidemiological Survey for
           Degenerative Myelopathy in German Shepherd Dogs in Japan: Allele Frequency
           and Clinical Progression Rate

    • Authors: Shinichiro Maki, Md Shafiqul Islam, Tomohito Itoh, Masanobu Nurimoto, Akira Yabuki, Yu Furusawa, Hiroaki Kamishina, Yui Kobatake, Tofazzal Md Rakib, Martia Rani Tacharina, Osamu Yamato
      First page: 1647
      Abstract: Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is an adult-onset, chronic, progressive neurodegenerative disease reported in multiple canine breeds, including the German Shepherd Dog (GSD). Clinical signs include progressive motor neuron paralysis, which begins in the pelvic limbs and eventually leads to respiratory distress, which may necessitate euthanasia. A common DM-associated mutation is a single nucleotide substitution that causes an amino acid substitution (c.118G>A, p.E40K) in the canine SOD1 gene. This SOD1 mutation and the clinical progression rate of A/A risk genotype in the Japanese GSD population have not been analyzed before. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the mutated allele and analyze the clinical progression rate in the Japanese GSD population. We studied 541 GSDs registered with the Japanese German Shepherd Dog Registration Society between 2000 and 2019. Genotyping was performed using real-time PCR with DNA extracted from the hair roots of each dog. The study revealed 330 G/G dogs (61%), 184 G/A dogs (34%), and 27 A/A dogs (5%), indicating a frequency of the mutant allele of 0.220, which are in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. We analyzed the clinical signs in A/A dogs with an age limit of 10 years based on information obtained from the dogs’ owners. Of the seven A/A dogs older than 10 years, owners reported DM-related clinical signs, indicating a clinical progression rate of 100%. These results, further genotyping, and thorough clinical examinations of SOD1 A/A risk genotype will help control and prevent DM in the Japanese GSD population.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131647
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1648: The Promise of Behavioral Tracking Systems
           for Advancing Primate Animal Welfare

    • Authors: Brenna Knaebe, Claudia C. Weiss, Jan Zimmermann, Benjamin Y. Hayden
      First page: 1648
      Abstract: Recent years have witnessed major advances in the ability of computerized systems to track the positions of animals as they move through large and unconstrained environments. These systems have so far been a great boon in the fields of primatology, psychology, neuroscience, and biomedicine. Here, we discuss the promise of these technologies for animal welfare. Their potential benefits include identifying and reducing pain, suffering, and distress in captive populations, improving laboratory animal welfare within the context of the three Rs of animal research (reduction, refinement, and replacement), and applying our understanding of animal behavior to increase the “natural” behaviors in captive and wild populations facing human impact challenges. We note that these benefits are often incidental to the designed purpose of these tracking systems, a reflection of the fact that animal welfare is not inimical to research progress, but instead, that the aligned interests between basic research and welfare hold great promise for improvements to animal well-being.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131648
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1649: Retrospective Evaluation of Method of
           Treatment, Laboratory Findings, and Concurrent Diseases in Dairy Cattle
           Diagnosed with Left Displacement of the Abomasum during Time of

    • Authors: Theresa Tschoner, Yury Zablotski, Melanie Feist
      First page: 1649
      Abstract: Left displacement of the abomasum (LDA) is a disease often diagnosed in high-producing dairy cattle, resulting in direct and in indirect costs for the farmer, and discomfort and death for the cows. For the present retrospective study, the aims were to assess the effect of treatment on recovery during the time of hospitalization of the cows, to investigate the influence of concurrent diseases on the recovery, and to identify prognostic indicators in laboratory findings. Metritis/endometritis (38.4% of cows) was the concurrent disease diagnosed most often. Conservative treatment (abomasal rolling) was performed successfully in 92.8% of cows; the recurrence rate was 56.7%. Neither treatment with an oral drench nor treatment with analgesics had any influence on the recurrence of LDA following abomasal rolling during hospitalization. Endoscopic abomasopexy as described by Janowitz was performed more often than right flank laparotomy (40.8% and 40.2%, respectively). A significantly (p < 0.01) higher number of cows had the outcome “recovery” compared with “death”. The results of this study show that the outcome after surgery for LDA under clinical conditions does not depend on the method of surgery. Moreover, cows with LDA often suffer from concurrent diseases. If conservative treatment is decided on, farmers should be informed that there is a high recurrence rate, and other treatment options should be discussed.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131649
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1650: Transcriptome Comparison Reveals the
           Difference in Liver Fat Metabolism between Different Sheep Breeds

    • Authors: Taotao Li, Meilin Jin, Xiaojuan Fei, Zehu Yuan, Yuqin Wang, Kai Quan, Tingpu Wang, Junxiang Yang, Maochang He, Caihong Wei
      First page: 1650
      Abstract: Hu sheep and Tibetan sheep are two commonly raised local sheep breeds in China, and they have different morphological characteristics, such as tail type and adaptability to extreme environments. A fat tail in sheep is the main adipose depot in sheep, whereas the liver is an important organ for fat metabolism, with the uptake, esterification, oxidation, and secretion of fatty acids (FAs). Meanwhile, adaptations to high-altitude and arid environments also affect liver metabolism. Therefore, in this study, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) technology was used to characterize the difference in liver fat metabolism between Hu sheep and Tibetan sheep. We identified 1179 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (Q-value < 0.05) between the two sheep breeds, including 25 fat-metabolism-related genes. Through Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis, 16 pathways were significantly enriched (Q-value < 0.05), such as the proteasome, glutamatergic synapse, and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. In particular, one of these pathways was enriched to be associated with fat metabolism, namely the thermogenesis pathway, to which fat-metabolism-related genes such as ACSL1, ACSL4, ACSL5, CPT1A, CPT1C, SLC25A20, and FGF21 were enriched. Then, the expression levels of ACSL1, CPT1A, and FGF21 were verified in mRNA and protein levels via qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis between the two sheep breeds. The results showed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of these three genes were higher in the livers of Tibetan sheep than those of Hu sheep. The above genes are mainly related to FAs oxidation, involved in regulating the oxidation of liver FAs. So, this study suggested that Tibetan sheep liver has a greater FAs oxidation level than Hu sheep liver. In addition, the significant enrichment of fat-metabolism-related genes in the thermogenesis pathway appears to be related to plateau-adaptive thermogenesis in Tibetan sheep, which may indicate that liver- and fat-metabolism-related genes have an impact on adaptive thermogenesis.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131650
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1651: Zearalenone and Its Metabolites in Blood
           Serum, Urine, and Milk of Dairy Cows

    • Authors: Rimvydas Falkauskas, Bronius Bakutis, Jurgita Jovaišienė, Gintarė Vaičiulienė, Gediminas Gerulis, Sigita Kerzienė, Ingrida Jacevičienė, Eugenijus Jacevičius, Violeta Baliukonienė
      First page: 1651
      Abstract: After oral contamination, zearalenone (ZEN) is rapidly absorbed in organisms and can be detected in biological fluids. In this study, we investigated the metabolites of ZEN in the biological fluids of cows (blood, urine, milk). The study was divided into three stages: preparation (the first stage), investigation (the second stage), and final stage (the third stage). Samples of biological fluids were taken 7, 21, and 35 days after the beginning of the study. At the first stage and at the second stage, the cows were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) with naturally contaminated mycotoxin-zearalenone (500 ± 75 µg/kg). In the third stage, the cows were fed a TMR without mycotoxins. This study established that at the second stage, the alpha-zearalenol concentrations in the serum increased by 92% and the beta-zearalanol in the urine decreased by 48% compared to the first stage (p < 0.05). The beta-zearalenol and zearalanone concentrations in the urine were higher compared to that of the alpha-zearalenol. The zearalenone concentration in the milk at the second stage was 35% higher than at the first stage (p < 0.05). A significant negative correlation (r = –0.540) was determined between the beta-zearalenol and beta-zearalanol concentrations in the urine and the positive significant correlation (r = 0.826) between the beta-zearalanol and alpha-zearalenol concentrations in the serum (p < 0.05). During the study, it was determined that feeding cows for two weeks with a TMR without mycotoxins can reduce concentrations of alpha-zearalanol, beta-zearalenol, and beta-zearalanol in the biological fluids and can reduce the concentrations of ZEN in the milk, but does not reduce the concentration of zearalanone.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131651
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1652: Seasonal Variations in Voluntary Intake and

    • Authors: Alimu Shabier, Greta Jordan, Andreas Buerkert, Ximing Zhang, Eva Schlecht
      First page: 1652
      Abstract: Forage availability and quality directly impact animal performance, ultimately affecting productivity and health. This study aimed to understand the interaction between qualitative and quantitative vegetation availability and feed intake of goats on alpine pastures in the Chinese Altai Mountains. The daily grazing routes of three goats from a local herding family were monitored with GPS devices set at a logging rate of 64 s during spring and the early and late summer season in 2013 and 2014. The quantity and quality of vegetation along their grazing routes was determined, and the amount of feces excreted was measured in a total of five goats per season for the indirect determination of the animals’ feed intake. The grazing routes were longer in spring than in summer, leading to larger grazing areas visited in spring. Vegetation on offer ranged from 980 to 2400 kg dry mass per hectare and was similar in the spring and summer seasons but higher in 2013 than in 2014. Feed consumption of forage and nutrients did not significantly differ between seasons and years, respectively, suggesting that the goats’ nutrient intake was not restricted by interannual variability of forage on offer. Regular monitoring of animal numbers and of vegetation quantity and quality on the mountain rangelands can help responsible government agencies to estimate forage offtake of small ruminants in order to timely adjust grazing pressure in the study region.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131652
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1653: Combination of the Modified Loop Technique
           and De Vega Annuloplasty in Dogs with Mitral Regurgitation

    • Authors: Takuma Aoki, Takashi Miyamoto, Naoyuki Fukamachi, Seiya Niimi, Yao Jingya, Yoshito Wakao
      First page: 1653
      Abstract: Background: Detailed surgical techniques for treating canine mitral regurgitation have not been previously reported. Method: This case series included six consecutive client-owned dogs with mitral regurgitation. All dogs underwent a combined protocol, including the modified loop technique and De Vega annuloplasty (MODEL surgery), in 2021. Artificial loops covering 80% of the length of the strut chordae tendineae were used for chordal replacement. Mitral annuloplasty was subjectively performed, targeting the circumference of the septal leaflet. Results: The breeds were Chihuahua-mixed breed, Spitz, Pomeranian, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, and Chihuahua, with average ages and weights of 11.4 ± 2.3 years and 5.49 ± 2.98 kg, respectively. The aortic cross-clamp, pumping, and surgery times were 64.0 ± 7.5 min, 168.5 ± 39.1 min, and 321.0 ± 53.1 min, respectively. After MODEL surgery, left atrial-to-aortic ratios significantly decreased from 2.20 ± 0.18 to 1.26 ± 0.22 (p < 0.01), and left ventricular end-diastolic internal diameter normalized to body weight significantly decreased from 2.03 ± 0.26 to 1.48 ± 0.20 (p < 0.01). In all cases, the clinical signs disappeared or improved significantly. Conclusions: MODEL surgery increased mitral valve coaptation, normalized heart sizes, and significantly improved clinical signs in dogs with mitral regurgitation.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131653
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1654: Feeding Fiber-Bound Polyphenol Ingredients
           at Different Levels Modulates Colonic Postbiotics to Improve Gut Health in

    • Authors: Dennis E. Jewell, Matthew I. Jackson, Chun-Yen Cochrane, Dayakar V. Badri
      First page: 1654
      Abstract: Consumption of fiber in its different forms can result in positive health effects. Prior studies in dogs found that addition of a fiber bundle (composed of pecan shells, flax seed, and powders of cranberry, citrus, and beet) to food resulted in a shift in fecal bacterial metabolism from proteolysis to saccharolysis. The present study evaluated the changes in fecal metabolites and microbiota in healthy cats following the consumption of this fiber bundle. Following a 28-day pre-feed period, 56 healthy adult cats received food with none or one of three concentrations (0%, 1%, 2%, and 4%) of the fiber bundle for a 31-day period. In cats that consumed the 4% fiber bundle, levels of ammonium and fecal branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) decreased from baseline and compared with the other groups. Addition of any level of the fiber bundle resulted in increases in beneficial metabolites: polyphenols hesperidin, hesperetin, ponciretin, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, secoisolariciresinol, and enterodiol. Little change in fecal microbiota was observed. Since higher levels of ammonia and BCFAs indicate putrefactive metabolism, the decreases in these with the 4% fiber bundle indicate a shift toward saccharolytic metabolism despite little change in the microbiota composition.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131654
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1655: Optimization of Milk Substitutes for the
           Artificial Rearing of Chinese Tree Shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis)

    • Authors: Jia-Qi Chen, Qingyu Zhang, Dandan Yu, Rui Bi, Yuhua Ma, Yijiang Li, Long-Bao Lv, Yong-Gang Yao
      First page: 1655
      Abstract: The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) has the potential to replace the use of non-human primates in biomedical research. To increase the availability of this species, we have undertaken the ambitious task of establishing inbred lines of the Chinese tree shrew; however, we have been hindered by a low survival rate of inbred pups. Here, we report our artificial rearing (AR) of Chinese tree shrew pups using four different milk substitutes: the formula described by Tsang and Collins (milk TC) and three commercially available milk substitutes intended for possums (milk A and milk C) and for guinea pigs (milk B). We compared the effects of these milk substitutes and maternal milk on the daily milk consumption, growth performance, and survival of the pups. We also assessed the life span and reproductive performance of the F1 individuals given the best milk substitute as compared to the maternally reared (MR) pups. Milk B was found to be appropriate for AR. Pups fed with milk B had a high survival rate at the weaning age compared to those fed with the other milk substitutes. The AR pups fed with milk B had a life span similar to that of MR pups. AR females fed with milk B had an earlier age of the first reproduction, a larger number of litters, and a higher rate of survival of the offspring at the weaning age compared with the MR females. The successful optimization of a milk substitute for AR of Chinese tree shrew pups will undoubtedly facilitate the wide usage of this experimental animal.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131655
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1656: Identification of Estrus in Sows Based on
           Salivary Proteomics

    • Authors: Chenlei Li, Chenglei Song, Kunlong Qi, Yingke Liu, Yaqing Dou, Xiuling Li, Ruimin Qiao, Kejun Wang, Xuelei Han, Xinjian Li
      First page: 1656
      Abstract: The estrus cycle of multiparous Large White sows was divided into three stages to solve the problems of heavy workload and low accuracy of the traditional estrus identification method in pig production. Saliva protein was extracted from the oral saliva of multiparous sows. Label-free quantitative proteomics was used to detect salivary proteome, and MaxQuant software was used for quality control. Results showed that 246 proteins were identified in the three stages, where 40 proteins were significantly different (p < 0.05). The total proteins identified were enriched by STEM software and the protein function was annotated by using the ClueGO plug-in in the Cytoscape software. The results were enriched to eight different trends. The annotated items were related to protein synthesis and processing and estrogen response. Gene ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis of differential proteins involved in the pathways and entries included oocyte meiosis, response to estradiol, and oogenesis. Further interaction analysis showed that an interaction occurred between P00355, F1SHL9, P28491, F1SDR7, F2Z558, F1RYY6, and F2Z5G3 proteins. The findings served as a basis for revealing the changes in salivary protein content in the sow estrus cycle and provided a reference for the development of an estrus identification kit/test strip in the next step.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131656
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1657: Camera Trapping Reveals Spatiotemporal
           Partitioning Patterns and Conservation Implications for Two Sympatric
           Pheasant Species in the Qilian Mountains, Northwestern China

    • Authors: Dexi Zhang, Bei An, Liuyang Chen, Zhangyun Sun, Ruirui Mao, Changming Zhao, Lixun Zhang
      First page: 1657
      Abstract: Studying the spatio-temporal niche partitioning among closely related sympatric species is essential for understanding their stable coexistence in animal communities. However, consideration of niche partitioning across multiple ecological dimensions is still poor for many sympatric pheasant species. Here, we studied temporal activity patterns and spatial distributions of the Blue Eared Pheasant (EP, Crossoptilon auritum) and Blood Pheasant (BP, Ithaginis cruentus) in the Qilian Mountains National Nature Reserve (QMNNR), Northwestern China, using 137 camera traps from August 2017 to August 2020. Kernel density estimation was applied to analyze diel activity patterns, and the Maxent model was applied to evaluate their suitable distributions and underlying habitat preferences. Eight Galliformes species were captured in 678 detection records with 485 records of EP and 106 records of BP over a total of 39,206 camera days. Their monthly activity frequencies demonstrate temporal partitioning but their diel activity patterns do not. Furthermore, 90.78% of BP distribution (2867.99 km2) overlaps with the distribution of EP (4355.86 km2) in the QMNNR. However, BP manifests a high dependence on forest habitats and shows larger Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values, while EP showed obvious avoidance of forest with NDVI greater than 0.75. Hence, differentiation in monthly activity patterns and partitioning in habitat preference might facilitate their coexistence in spatiotemporal dimensions. Conservation actions should give priority to highly overlapping areas in the center and east of the QMNNR and should strengthen forest landscape connectivity, as they provide irreplaceable habitats for these threatened and endemic Galliformes.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131657
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1658: Modulation of Antioxidant Defense, Immune
           Response, and Growth Performance by Inclusion of Propolis and Bee Pollen
           into Broiler Diets

    • Authors: Saad N. AL-Kahtani, Abdulaziz A. Alaqil, Ahmed O. Abbas
      First page: 1658
      Abstract: (1) Background: Propolis and bee pollen have natural bioactive compounds that may support the performance and immunological response of broilers. (2) Methods: The study included 300 1 d old Cobb-500 broiler chicks. Starting from 22–42 d of age, chicks were divided according to a 2 × 2 factorial design into one of the four treatment groups (5 replicates × 15 chicks per replicate); a basal diet without supplementation (CONT) or supplemented with 1 g/kg of propolis (PR) or bee pollen (BP) separately or in an even combination (PR + BP). (3) Results: A significant (p < 0.05) increase was obtained in the body-weight gain of broilers treated with PR, BP, and PR + BP compared to the CONT. The total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase were highly (p < 0.05) activated in all treated groups compared to the CONT. Immunological parameters, especially the leukocyte cell viability, T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation, immunoglobulins (IgA and IgM), antibody titers, and wattle-swelling test were significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced in the treated broilers with PR and/or BP compared to the CONT. (4) Conclusions: The dietary supplementation of PR and/or BP could be beneficial for broiler growth through maximizing the antioxidant- and immune-system defenses.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131658
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1659: Efficacy of Lidocaine Topical Solution in
           Reducing Discomfort Reaction of Horses to Intramuscular Vaccination

    • Authors: Catherine Torcivia, Sue McDonnell
      First page: 1659
      Abstract: Vaccinations via intramuscular injection are a key component of preventative health care in horses. Development of problematic behavioral aversion to injections is quite common. Our clinical impression has been that topical anesthetic applied to injection sites can reduce the behavioral reaction; however, this has not been critically tested. To blindly evaluate efficacy, either 5% or 10% topical lidocaine solution or 0% control was applied to injection sites for 78 ponies two minutes before intramuscular vaccination. Mean reaction scores on a scale of 0–3 were 0.84 (se 0.18) for 5% lidocaine solution, 0.62 (se 0.14) for 10% lidocaine solution, compared to 1.30 (se 0.19) for 0% control solution. Reaction scores for both the 5% and 10% lidocaine were significantly lower than for the control group. Additionally, the proportion of subjects with a reaction greater than a slight flinch was 2 of 25 for the 5% lidocaine, 5 of 26 for the 10% lidocaine and 15 of 27 for the 0% lidocaine control. For both the 5% and 10% lidocaine groups, the proportion differed significantly from the control. The difference between the 5% and 10% lidocaine groups was not statistically significant. These findings confirm our clinical impression that application of topical anesthetic just two minutes in advance of intramuscular injection can effectively reduce the behavior reaction of horses.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131659
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1660: Apex and ApeTouch: Development of a Portable
           Touchscreen System and Software for Primates at Zoos

    • Authors: Christopher Flynn Martin, Akiho Muramatsu, Tetsuro Matsuzawa
      First page: 1660
      Abstract: We report on the development and testing of a portable touchscreen apparatus and accompanying software program for primate enrichment, cognitive research, and husbandry applications. For zoos considering using technology to bolster scientific efforts or enhance the welfare of primates in their care, touchscreen activities offer a solution that has a long and proven record of primate use in laboratory settings as well as a history of usage in the zoo world. We review the options that are available for zoos to build their own touchscreen systems and we offer as an alternative our pre-built apparatus, Apex, and primate software suite, ApeTouch, both of which are tailored for use in a zoo setting. The efficacy and utility of these tools are demonstrated in a training study with four macaque groups of different species that were previously naïve to touchscreens. All of the groups in the study learned to use the device and displayed a consistent engagement with the touchscreen tasks over 95 daily sessions of exposure. In the final stage of the training, two of the four groups displayed an above-chance level performance on a numerical sequencing task.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131660
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1661: Effects of Vine Tea Extract on Meat Quality,
           Gut Microbiota and Metabolome of Wenchang Broiler

    • Authors: Luli Zhou, Hui Li, Guanyu Hou, Jian Wang, Hanlin Zhou, Dingfa Wang
      First page: 1661
      Abstract: This study investigates the effects of vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) extract (AGE) on meat quality, gut microbiota and cecal content metabolites of Wenchang broilers. A total of 240 female Wenchang broilers aged 70 days were randomly allocated into four groups with five replicates of twelve broilers each. Broilers were fed a corn-soybean basal diet supplemented with AGE at 0 (T1), 0.2% (T2), 0.4% (T3) and 0.6% (T4) until 124 days of age. The whole feeding trial lasted 54 days. Results suggest that the content of total triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum of broilers are linearly reduced with dietary AGE supplementation (p < 0.05). The T3 and T4 groups had higher (p < 0.05) a* value in thigh and breast muscles than the T1 group. Additionally, the dietary supplementation of AGE decreased the shear force and drip loss of both thigh and breast muscles linearly (p < 0.05). Compared with the T1 group, AGE supplementation increased the levels of inosine monophosphate (IMP) significantly (p < 0.05) in both the thigh and breast muscles. Furthermore, an increase (p < 0.05) in the total unsaturated fatty acid (USFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acid (USFA: SFA) in both the thigh and breast muscles in the T3 group was observed. Higher abundance of Bacteroidota (p < 0.05) and lower abundance of Firmicutes (p < 0.05) were observed in the T3 group. The abundance of Faecalibacterium was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the T3 group compared with the T1 group. Cholesterol sulfate and p-cresol sulfate were identified as differential metabolites between the T1 and T3 groups. It suggested that 0.4% of AGE supplementation significantly downregulated the levels of p-cresol sulfate and cholesterol sulfate (p < 0.05) and the hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity compared with the control. Our present study demonstrates that dietary supplementation with AGE can improve the quality and flavor by increasing the IMP and PUFA content in the muscle of Wenchang broilers. Furthermore, dietary AGE supplementation with 0.4% can regulate the cholesterol metabolism of Wenchang broilers.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131661
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1662: cd26 Knockdown Negatively Affects Porcine
           Parthenogenetic Preimplantation Embryo Development

    • Authors: In-Sul Hwang, Joohyun Shim, Keon Bong Oh, Haesun Lee, Mi-Ryung Park
      First page: 1662
      Abstract: cd26 is ubiquitously distributed in the body, particularly in the endothelial and epithelial cells, with the highest expression in the kidney, liver, and small intestine. In humans, cd26 serves as a marker for the embryo implantation phase. However, little is known about the role of cd26 in porcine pre-implantation embryo development. Here, we aimed to examine siRNA-induced cd26 downregulation in the cytoplasm of MII oocytes, to determine whether cd26 is involved in the regulation of porcine pre-implantation embryonic development. The cd26 siRNA was micro-injected into the cytoplasm of MII oocytes, which were then parthenogenetically activated electrically in a medium containing 0.3M Mannitol. Inhibition of the cd26 expression did not affect cleavage but stopped development in the blastocyst stage. Additionally, the cd26 siRNA-treated blastocysts had significantly more apoptotic cells than the untreated blastocysts. Among the 579 transcripts evaluated with transcriptome resequencing, 38 genes were differentially expressed between the treatment and control blastocysts (p < 0.05). Twenty-four genes were upregulated in cd26 siRNA-injected blastocysts, whereas 14 were downregulated. These genes are involved in apoptosis, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and aberrant expression of ribosomal protein genes. Our results indicate that cd26 is required for proper porcine parthenogenetic activation during embryonic development.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131662
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1663: Guidelines for Telemetry Studies on Snow

    • Authors: Örjan Johansson, Shannon Kachel, Byron Weckworth
      First page: 1663
      Abstract: Animal-borne tracking devices have generated a wealth of new knowledge, allowing us to better understand, manage and conserve species. Fitting such tracking devices requires that animals are captured and often chemically immobilized. Such procedures cause stress and involve the risk of injuries and loss of life even in healthy individuals. For telemetry studies to be justifiable, it is vital that capture operations are planned and executed in an efficient and ethical way. Project objectives must be clearly articulated to address well-defined knowledge gaps, and studies designed to maximize the probability of achieving those goals. We provide guidelines for how to plan, design, and implement telemetry studies with a special emphasis on snow leopards that are typically captured using foot snares. We also describe the necessary steps to ensure that captures are conducted safely, and with minimal stress to animals.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131663
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1664: Refining the APGAR Score Cutoff Values and
           Viability Classes According to Breed Body Size in Newborn Dogs

    • Authors: Maria Cristina Veronesi, Massimo Faustini, Monica Probo, Alessandro Rota, Jasmine Fusi
      First page: 1664
      Abstract: The Apgar score (AS) represents a key tool for neonate assessment, but the possible breed effect on AS in newborn puppies has never been investigated. Therefore, data from 234 dog litters born by caesarean section, grouped according to breed body size (BBS) (small, medium, large), were evaluated. Live-birth puppies were assessed through AS within 5 min of delivery, and classified in viability classes: 0–3 severely distressed, 4–6 moderately distressed, 7–10 not distressed. Statistical analysis evaluated possible differences of AS and viability class according to BBS, and between BBS and puppies’ mortality. Results showed no differences in the distribution of mortalities among BBSs. However, an effect of BBS on the AS was found, with small-sized puppies being the most represented in the severely distressed class, but having the best survival chance compared to large-sized newborns. Through receiver-operating-characteristics analysis, the AS new cutoff values for survival and for death < 24 h and 24 h–7 days of age were identified, and the viability classes were redefined, with a narrower class of moderately distressed puppy specific for each BBS. In conclusion, the refining of the AS in dog species is imperative, with cutoff values and viability classifications that must be adapted to the BBS.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131664
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1665: Delayed First Milking in Unassisted
           Overnight Calving Did Not Affect the Quality of Colostrum but Influenced
           Serum Brix Refractometry in Holstein Calves at Two Days of Life

    • Authors: Daniel Gustavo Manosalva, Luca Grispoldi, Marco Spagnolo, Martina Crociati
      First page: 1665
      Abstract: Timely administration of good-quality colostrum represents the first farm strategy to avoid the failure of passive transfer (FPT). However, calves born during the night are likely to be fed later than recommended. Our aim was to evaluate whether night-occurring calving and delayed first milking affected colostrum quality and immune passive transfer. The dataset included 463 calvings. Four liters of colostrum were administered by an esophageal tube feeder. The mean Brix% of colostrum was 27.43%, while serum Brix% at two days of life in calves was 10.19%. According to the Generalized Linear Model, parity ≥ 4, calving months of March, April, and from September to November positively influenced the quality of colostrum. Dams carrying a male calf produced lower quality colostrum compared with those carrying a female calf (−2.78 ± 1.04 % Brix, p = 0.008); heavier female calves were associated with greater colostrum quality (0.29 ± 0.05 for each Kg increase, p < 0.001). Night- or day-calving had no effect on the quality of colostrum. The only factor influencing the serum Brix% of female Holstein calves at two days of life was the day- or night-occurring birth (−0.386 ± 0.188 Brix% in calves born during the night, p = 0.04). Our results showed that calves born overnight and fed the day after had decreased serum Total Protein concentrations as indicated by reduced Brix refractometer readings, compared with calves born during the day and fed quickly after birth. However, the administration of 4 L of high-quality colostrum likely improved their serum Brix% at two days of life. Alternatively, where the prevalence of good-quality colostrum is lower, improving calving supervision and ensuring timely feeding are important to reduce the risk of FPT.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131665
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1666: Temporal and Spatial Activity Patterns of
           Sympatric Wild Ungulates in Qinling Mountains, China

    • Authors: Jia Li, Yadong Xue, Mingfu Liao, Wei Dong, Bo Wu, Diqiang Li
      First page: 1666
      Abstract: Dramatic increases in populations of wild ungulates have brought a new ecological issue in the Qinling mountains. Information on species’ niche differentiation will contribute to a greater understanding of the mechanisms of coexistence, so as to ultimately benefit the conservation and management of ecological communities. In this study, camera trapping was used to investigate spatial and temporal activity patterns of sympatric wild ungulates in the Qinling Mountains of China, where top predators were virtually absent. We obtained 15,584 independent detections of seven wild ungulate species during 93,606 camera-trap days from April 2014 to October 2017. Results showed that (i) the capture rate differed significantly across species, with the capture rate of reeve muntjac being significantly higher than that of other species; (ii) the wild boar had a higher occupancy rates (ψ = 0.888) than other six ungulates, and distance to settlements had a negative relationship with wild boar (β = −0.24 ± 0.17); (iii) the forest musk deer and mainland serow had low spatial overlaps with other five wild ungulates, while spatial overlap indices of any two given pairs of wild ungulates were relatively high; (iv) all wild ungulates species (expect wild boar) were mainly active during crepuscular and diurnal periods, and showed bimodal activity peaks at around 05:00–07:00 and 17:00–19:00; and finally, (v) all wild ungulates showed moderate to high temporal overlaps. The results provided detailed information of the spatial and temporal ecology of wild ungulate communities in forest ecosystems of China, which also would be a guide to establish conservation priorities as well as efficient management programs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131666
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1667: Effects of Replacing Fishmeal and Soybean
           Protein Concentrate with Degossypolized Cottonseed Protein in Diets on
           Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Intestinal Morphology, Cecum
           Microbiome and Fermentation of Weaned Piglets

    • Authors: Li Wang, Wenjun Gao, Huangwei Shi, Qile Hu, Changhua Lai
      First page: 1667
      Abstract: The inclusion of high-quality proteins is commonly used in swine production, especially in weaned pigs. Our research investigated the effects of replacing fishmeal (FM) and soybean protein concentrate (SPC) with degossypolized cottonseed protein (DCP) on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology, cecum microbiota and fermentation in weaned pigs. A total of 90 pigs were used in a 4-week trial. Pigs were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments (initial BW 8.06 ± 0.26 kg; six pigs per pen; five pens per treatment), including a basal diet group (CON) with a 6% SPC and 6% FM; two experimental diets group (SPCr and FMr) were formulated by replacing SPC or FM with 6% DCP, respectively. There were no differences in growth performance and diarrhea rate among three treatments except for the ADFI during day 14 to day 28. Using the DCP to replace FM would weaken the jejunum morphology and decrease the nutrient digestibility of pigs during day 0 to day 14. However, replacing FM with DCP can improve the community structure of cecum microbiota, and may relieve these negative effects. In conclusion, DCP can be used as a cost-effective alternative protein supplement.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131667
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1668: Yucca schidigera Improves Performance and
           Lowers Oocyst Counts in Eimeria Challenged Broilers

    • Authors: Krzysztof Kozłowski, Peggy Vervenne-Zetteler, Paweł Konieczka, Łukasz Szymański, Anouk van Vilsteren
      First page: 1668
      Abstract: Coccidiosis is one of the main challenges for the worldwide poultry industry, and several anticoccidial treatments have been used to fight these protozoa. Resistance of Eimeria parasites against anticoccidials—and the public opinion about these treatments—demands for alternatives. In this trial, we tested Yucca schidigera (500 g/T) as a natural alternative in broilers challenged with Eimeria. This treatment was compared to three other treatments: An unchallenged control, a challenged control, and a challenged anticoccidial (625 g/T) treatment with focus on performance, oocyst per gram counts (OPG), and lesion scores. Both the anticoccidial and the Yucca schidigera group showed significant improvement in body weight (2.150 and 2.058 vs. 1.998 and 1.971 kg). growth (60.2 and 57.6 vs. 55.8 and 55.1 g/d). and feed-conversion ratio (1.456 and 1.510 vs. 1.527 and 1.575), compared to both control groups. No significant differences were found between the treatments on OPG collection days 18 and 25. On day 35, lowest OPG counts were found in the unchallenged group (93), followed by the Yucca schidigera group (114), the anticoccidial group (243), and the challenged group (650). Adding Yucca schidigera abolished the effect of the challenge resulting in comparable (FCR) or better (ADG) performance results compared to the unchallenged birds. Yucca schidigera consistently showed lower numbers for OPG counts compared to the anticoccidial and challenged group. Therefore, Yucca schidigera can be considered as an effective alternative for anticoccidial treatment in broilers.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131668
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1669: The Growth Performance, Nutrient
           Digestibility, Gut Bacteria and Bone Strength of Broilers Offered
           Alternative, Sustainable Diets Varying in Nutrient Specification and
           Phytase Dose

    • Authors: Christina C. Mulvenna, Ursula M. McCormack, Elizabeth Magowan, John McKillen, Mike R. Bedford, Carrie L. Walk, Michael Oster, Henry Reyer, Klaus Wimmers, Dario A. Fornara, M. Elizabeth E. Ball
      First page: 1669
      Abstract: This study assessed the use of locally sourced sustainable feed ingredients, rapeseed meal (RSM) and maize dried distiller grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets over traditional ingredients on the growth performance, bone strength and nutrient digestibility of broilers. This work also investigated the effects of supplementing exogenous phytase in two doses (500 vs. 1500 FTU/kg). Using male Ross 308 chicks (n = 320) assigned to receive one of four experimental diets: (1) Positive control diet 1 (PC1), a wheat, soya-based diet + 500 FTU/kg phytase. (2) Positive control diet 2, RSM/DDGS diet + 500 FTU/kg phytase (PC2). (3) Negative control (NC) reduced nutrient RSM/DDGS diet, no phytase. (4) The NC diet plus 1500 FTU/kg phytase (NC+). PC1 birds displayed higher feed intake and body weight gain consistently throughout the trial (p < 0.001) as well as increased body weight by 28 d and 42 d (p < 0.001). Whole-body dual emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) analysis revealed PC1 birds also had higher bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), total bone mass, total lean mass and total fat mass than birds offered other treatments (p < 0.01). Diet had no significant effect on bone strength. Phytase superdosing improved the digestibility of dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), gross energy (GE), calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) compared to birds in other treatment groups. The phytase superdose also improved performance in comparison to birds offered the NC diet. Phytase superdosing increased the IP6 and IP5 degradation and increased the ileal inositol concentration of the birds. N excretion was lower for birds offered the traditional wheat–soya diet and highest for those offered the high-specification RSM/DDGS diet with a commercial dose of phytase. The addition of a phytase superdose to the negative control diet (NC+) reduced P excretion of birds by 15% compared to birds offered NC.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131669
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1670: Automated Cardiac Chamber Size and Cardiac
           Physiology Measurement in Water Fleas by U-Net and Mask RCNN Convolutional

    • Authors: Ferry Saputra, Ali Farhan, Michael Edbert Suryanto, Kevin Adi Kurnia, Kelvin H.-C. Chen, Ross D. Vasquez, Marri Jmelou M. Roldan, Jong-Chin Huang, Yih-Kai Lin, Chung-Der Hsiao
      First page: 1670
      Abstract: Water fleas are an important lower invertebrate model that are usually used for ecotoxicity studies. Contrary to mammals, the heart of a water flea has a single chamber, which is relatively big in size and with fast-beating properties. Previous cardiac chamber volume measurement methods are primarily based on ImageJ manual counting at systolic and diastolic phases which suffer from low efficiency, high variation, and tedious operation. This study provides an automated and robust pipeline for cardiac chamber size estimation by a deep learning approach. Image segmentation analysis was performed using U-Net and Mask RCNN convolutional networks on several different species of water fleas such as Moina sp., Daphnia magna, and Daphnia pulex. The results show that Mask RCNN performs better than U-Net at the segmentation of water fleas’ heart chamber in every parameter tested. The predictive model generated by Mask RCNN was further analyzed with the Cv2.fitEllipse function in OpenCV to perform a cardiac physiology assessment of Daphnia magna after challenging with the herbicide of Roundup. Significant increase in normalized stroke volume, cardiac output, and the shortening fraction was observed after Roundup exposure which suggests the possibility of heart chamber alteration after roundup exposure. Overall, the predictive Mask RCNN model established in this study provides a convenient and robust approach for cardiac chamber size and cardiac physiology measurement in water fleas for the first time. This innovative tool can offer many benefits to other research using water fleas for ecotoxicity studies.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131670
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1671: Comparison of Pure and Crossbred Japanese
           Black Steers in Growth Performance and Metabolic Features from Birth to
           Slaughter at a Spanish Fattening Farm

    • Authors: Juan M. Vázquez-Mosquera, Eduardo de Mercado, Aitor Fernández-Novo, Juan C. Gardón, José L. Pesántez-Pacheco, María Luz Pérez-Solana, Ángel Revilla-Ruiz, Daniel Martínez, Arantxa Villagrá, Francisco Sebastián, Sonia S. Pérez-Garnelo, Susana Astiz
      First page: 1671
      Abstract: Japanese Black (Wagyu) cattle produce high-quality beef. However, whether Wagyu steers can be profitably raised under conditions different than the traditional Japanese ones remains unclear. From 2018 to 2020, we raised 262 Wagyu purebred steers, 103 Wagyu-by-Angus (Wangus) crossbred steers, and 43 Angus-by-European (ACL) crossbred steers on a Spanish farm with high welfare standards and a locally sourced, high-olein diet. Factors and factors’ interactions impacting steer growth were analyzed using generalized linear models. ACL steers grew faster than the other two groups, with Wangus showing intermediate fattening and muscle development. Average daily weight gains (kg/day) were 0.916 for Wagyu, 1.046 for Wangus, and 1.293 for ACL during the weaning to growing period, and 0.628 for Wagyu, 0.64 for Wangus, and 0.802 for ACL during the growing to fattening phase. ACL showed the lowest marbling rates. Wagyu and Wangus usually showed higher cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein than ACL. ACL calves may experience greater stress at weaning, as suggested by higher glucose, lactate, and β-hydroxybutyrate than the other groups. The results suggest that Wagyu and Wangus steers showed adequate growth, health, and metabolic development in this type of production system, with Wagyu purebreds probably being more profitable than Wangus crossbreeds.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131671
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1672: Quantitative Protein Analysis of ZPB2, ZPB1
           and ZPC in the Germinal Disc and a Non-Germinal Disc Region of the Inner
           Perivitelline Layer in Two Genetic Lines of Turkey Hens That Differ in

    • Authors: Andrew Benson, Josh Steed, Mia Malloy, Adam J. Davis
      First page: 1672
      Abstract: The avian inner perivitelline layer (IPVL), containing the zona pellucida (ZP) family of proteins, surrounds the ovulated ovum. In mammalian species, ZP proteins serve as key component(s) in binding sperm and initiating the acrosome reaction. Sperm binding at the germinal disc (GD) region of the IPVL initiates fertilization in avian species, and the amount of sperm binding at the GD reflects female fertility. The current research determined whether reported differences in mRNA expression in two genetic lines of turkey hens (E, high fertility and F, low fertility) translated to the protein level. ZPB2 in the IPVL is greater in the GD region compared with the nongerminal disc (NGD) region, as indicated by both mRNA and protein expression. However, protein expressions of ZPB1 and ZPC in the IPVL of E- and F-line turkey hens was in contrast to previously reported mRNA expression. The results indicate that the mRNA expression of ZP proteins at their site of synthesis in E- and F-line hens often does not directly correlate with the IPVL abundance of these proteins. The greater protein concentration of ZPB2 in the GD region compared with the NGD regions suggests that this protein may be critical for sperm binding at the GD region.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131672
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1673: Distinct Amphibian Elevational and Seasonal
           Phylogenetic Structures Are Determined by Microhabitat Variables in
           Temperate Montane Streams

    • Authors: Xi-Wen Peng, Jing Lan, Zi-Jian Sun, Wen-Bo Zhu, Tian Zhao
      First page: 1673
      Abstract: Phylogenetic structure is a key facet of biodiversity, reflecting the evolutionary history of species, and thus can be used to understand various ecological patterns. Although amphibian phylogenetic structures have been tested across space and time separately, simultaneous quantifications are still needed. In the present study, amphibians in streams of Tianping mountain, China, were selected as the model to investigate their elevational spatial and seasonal temporal patterns of phylogenetic diversity. Specifically, 13 streams located in lowland and highland sites were sampled for amphibians and measured for microhabitat variables in April, June, August, and October 2017, separately. Four phylogenetic structural indices, including Faith’s PD, standardized effect size (SES) of Faith’s PD, mean pairwise phylogenetic distance index (MPD), and SES.MPD, were calculated. Our results revealed that amphibian phylogenetic patterns were not significantly different between lowland and highland sites, but differed significantly between four seasons, associated with distinct community assembly rules (phylogenetically overdispersed vs. phylogenetically clustered). Importantly, these patterns were strongly determined by microhabitat variables such as rock cover, water temperature, and water depth. Our results provide fundamental knowledge to better protect amphibian diversity. Both elevational and seasonal variations are important to understanding the general patterns of amphibian community assembly rules.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131673
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1674: First Complete Cytochrome B Sequences and
           Molecular Taxonomy of Bat Species from Sri Lanka

    • Authors: Thejanee Perera, Franziska Schwarz, Therese Muzeniek, Sahan Siriwardana, Beate Becker-Ziaja, Inoka C. Perera, Shiroma Handunnetti, Jagathpriya Weerasena, Gayani Premawansa, Sunil Premawansa, Andreas Nitsche, Wipula Yapa, Claudia Kohl
      First page: 1674
      Abstract: This is the first report on the molecular identification and phylogeny of the Rousettus leschenaultii Desmarest, 1810, Rhinolophus rouxii Temminck, 1835, Hipposideros speoris Schneider, 1800, Hipposideros lankadiva Kelaart, 1850, and Miniopterus fuliginosus Kuhl, 1817, bat species in Sri Lanka, inferred from analyses by mitochondrially encoded cytochrome b gene sequences. Recent research has indicated that bats show enormous cryptic genetic diversity. Moreover, even within the same species, the acoustic properties of echolocation calls and morphological features such as fur color could vary in different populations. Therefore, we have used molecular taxonomy for the accurate identification of five bat species recorded in one of the largest cave populations in Sri Lanka. The bats were caught using a hand net, and saliva samples were collected non-invasively from each bat by using a sterile oral swab. Nucleic acids were extracted from the oral swab samples, and mitochondrial DNA was amplified by using primers targeting the mitochondrially encoded cytochrome b gene. This study reports the first molecular evidence for the identification of five bat species in Sri Lanka. Our findings will contribute to future conservation and systematic studies of bats in Sri Lanka. This study will also provide the basis for a genetic database of Sri Lankan bats which will contribute significantly to the investigation of potentially zoonotic bat viruses.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131674
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1675: Welfare Assessment of Invertebrates:
           Adapting the Animal Welfare Assessment Grid (AWAG) for Zoo Decapods and

    • Authors: Tanya M. Narshi, Danielle Free, William S. M. Justice, Sarah Jayne Smith, Sarah Wolfensohn
      First page: 1675
      Abstract: Consumer demand for invertebrates is on the rise as their numbers in the wild dwindle. However, with the growing conservation efforts of modern zoos and aquariums, and evidence from over 300 studies showing that invertebrates are capable of sentience, public interest, and moral concern for welfare of invertebrates have increased. The challenge for zoos and aquariums is in developing an objective and repeatable method for evaluating welfare that can be applied to invertebrates in zoological collections. Recently introduced into zoological collection management is the Animal Welfare Assessment Grid (AWAG). The AWAG helps to identify negative and positive welfare states, through assessing animal- and environmental-based indicators to make changes that lead to a better quality of life. Originally developed for the assessment of laboratory primates, the system has been successfully adapted to assess a variety of taxa across different environments, facilitated by the development of cloud-based software. In this study, the AWAG has been adapted to assess the cumulative lifetime experience of captive decapods and cephalopods at two different institutions, Marwell Zoo and National Marine Aquarium. This study has provided further evidence that the AWAG is adaptable and demonstrates the first time any objective scoring system has been successfully adapted for use in invertebrates. Through graphical representation, the results show that the AWAG identifies changes in welfare scores that can be attributed to specific events and can be used to predict the future vulnerability of species to welfare changes and suggest alternative management methods. This monitoring tool provides a versatile method of implementing practical welfare monitoring in zoos and aquariums.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131675
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1676: Uterine Inflammation Changes the Expression
           of Cholinergic Neurotransmitters and Decreases the Population of
           AChE-Positive, Uterus-Innervating Neurons in the Paracervical Ganglion of
           Sexually Mature Gilts

    • Authors: Bartosz Miciński, Barbara Jana, Jarosław Całka
      First page: 1676
      Abstract: The focus of this study was based on examining the impact of endometritis on the chemical coding of the paracervical ganglion (PCG) perikaryal populations supplying pig uterus. Four weeks after the injection of Fast Blue retrograde tracer into uterine horns, either the Escherichia coli (E. coli) suspension or saline solution was applied to both horns. Laparotomy treatment was performed for the control group. Uterine cervices containing PCG were extracted on the eighth day after previous treatments. Subsequent macroscopic and histopathologic examinations acknowledged the severe form of acute endometritis in the E. coli-treated gilts, whereas double-labeling immunofluorescence procedures allowed changes to be analyzed in the PCG perikaryal populations coded with vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and/or somatostatin (SOM), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), a neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), galanin (GAL). The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) detection method was used to check for the presence and changes in the expression of this enzyme and further confirm the presence of cholinergic perikarya in PCG. Treatment with E. coli resulted in an increase in VAChT+/VIP+, VAChT+/VIP−, VAChT+/SOM+, VAChT+/SOM−, VAChT+/GAL− and VAChT+/nNOS− PCG uterine perikarya. An additional increase was noted in the non-cholinergic VIP-, SOM- and nNOS-immunopositive populations, as well as a decrease in the number of cholinergic nNOS-positive perikarya. Moreover, the population of cholinergic GAL-expressing perikarya that appeared in the E. coli-injected gilts and E. coli injections lowered the number of AChE-positive perikarya. The neurochemical characteristics of the cholinergic uterine perikarya of the PCG were altered and influenced by the pathological state (inflammation of the uterus). These results may indicate the additional influence of such a state on the functioning of this organ.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131676
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1677: New Insights into the Diurnal Rhythmicity of
           Gut Microbiota and Its Crosstalk with Host Circadian Rhythm

    • Authors: Hongyu Wang, He Zhang, Yong Su
      First page: 1677
      Abstract: Unlike the strictly hierarchical organization in the circadian clock system, the gut microbiota rhythmicity has a more complex multilayer network of all taxonomic levels of microbial taxa and their metabolites. However, it is worth noting that the functionality of the gut microbiota rhythmicity is highly dependent on the host circadian clock and host physiological status. Here, we discussed the diurnal rhythmicity of the gut microbiota; its crucial role in host physiology, health, and metabolism; and the crosstalk between the gut microbial rhythmicity and host circadian rhythm. This knowledge lays the foundation for the development of chronotherapies targeting the gut microbiota. However, the formation mechanism, its beneficial effects on the host of gut microbial rhythmicity, and the dynamic microbial–host crosstalk are not yet clear and warrant further research.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131677
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1678: Comparative Study of the Effects of Two
           Dietary Sources of Vitamin D on the Bone Metabolism, Welfare and Birth
           Progress of Sows Fed Protein- and Phosphorus-Reduced Diets

    • Authors: Michael Lütke-Dörhoff, Jochen Schulz, Heiner Westendarp, Christian Visscher, Mirja R. Wilkens
      First page: 1678
      Abstract: To investigate the influence of two dietary sources of vitamin D on the vitamin D status, bone metabolism, welfare and birth progress of gestating and lactating sows, forty-nine multiparous sows were randomly assigned to one of two diets: “CON” (n = 25; 50 μg vitamin D3/kg feed) and “HYD” (n = 24; 50 μg 25-hydroxycholecalciferol/kg feed). The basal diets were protein- and phosphorus-reduced. The trial started on day 3 ante insemination of the sows and ended with weaning of the piglets on day 28 postpartum. Dietary supplementation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol resulted in improved maternal vitamin D status (p < 0.001), fewer gait changes (p < 0.01) and longer standing time after feeding (day 5 ante partum; p < 0.05) compared to vitamin D3. However, the bone markers CrossLaps and osteocalcin were not affected. Overall, the present results suggest that sows fed 25-hydroxycholecalciferol instead of vitamin D3 showed improved locomotion and stance strength. However, this outcome is probably not related to altered bone metabolism. The underlying mechanisms must be investigated in further studies.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131678
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1679: Genetic Basis of Dilated Cardiomyopathy in
           Dogs and Its Potential as a Bidirectional Model

    • Authors: Karen R. Gaar-Humphreys, Talitha C. F. Spanjersberg, Giorgia Santarelli, Guy C. M. Grinwis, Viktor Szatmári, Bernard A. J. Roelen, Aryan Vink, J. Peter van Tintelen, Folkert W. Asselbergs, Hille Fieten, Magdalena Harakalova, Frank G. van Steenbeek
      First page: 1679
      Abstract: Cardiac disease is a leading cause of death for both humans and dogs. Genetic cardiomyopathies, including dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), account for a proportion of these cases in both species. Patients may suffer from ventricular enlargement and systolic dysfunction resulting in congestive heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias with high risk for sudden cardiac death. Although canine DCM has similar disease progression and subtypes as in humans, only a few candidate genes have been found to be associated with DCM while the genetic background of human DCM has been more thoroughly studied. Additionally, experimental disease models using induced pluripotent stem cells have been widely adopted in the study of human genetic cardiomyopathy but have not yet been fully adapted for the in-depth study of canine genetic cardiomyopathies. The clinical presentation of DCM is extremely heterogeneous for both species with differences occurring based on sex predisposition, age of onset, and the rate of disease progression. Both genetic predisposition and environmental factors play a role in disease development which are identical in dogs and humans in contrast to other experimental animals. Interestingly, different dog breeds have been shown to develop distinct DCM phenotypes, and this presents a unique opportunity for modeling as there are multiple breed-specific models for DCM with less genetic variance than human DCM. A better understanding of DCM in dogs has the potential for improved selection for breeding and could lead to better overall care and treatment for human and canine DCM patients. At the same time, progress in research made for human DCM can have a positive impact on the care given to dogs affected by DCM. Therefore, this review will analyze the feasibility of canines as a naturally occurring bidirectional disease model for DCM in both species. The histopathology of the myocardium in canine DCM will be evaluated in three different breeds compared to control tissue, and the known genetics that contributes to both canine and human DCM will be summarized. Lastly, the prospect of canine iPSCs as a novel method to uncover the contributions of genetic variants to the pathogenesis of canine DCM will be introduced along with the applications for disease modeling and treatment.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131679
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1680: Prevalence, Antimicrobial Resistance, and
           Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Subclinical Bovine
           Mastitis in East Coast Malaysia

    • Authors: Shamsaldeen Ibrahim Saeed, Khairun Anisa Mat Yazid, Hidayatul Athirah Hashimy, Siti Khadijah Dzulkifli, Fatihah Nordin, Nik Azmi Nik Him, Mohd Fikry Fahmi bin Omar, Erkihun Aklilu, Maizan Mohamad, Che Wan Salma Zalati, Nor Fadhilah Kamaruzzaman
      First page: 1680
      Abstract: S. aureus is the pathogen that is commonly associated with subclinical mastitis, causing significant economic losses to dairy farms. This infection responds poorly to antimicrobial treatment, which could be due to the development of AMR, biofilm formation, and the intracellular invasion of S. aureus into bovine mammary cells leading to treatment failure. Thus, it is important to understand the challenge of this problem. Therefore, the present study aims to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and characterization of S. aureus that was isolated from subclinical bovine mastitis in East Coast Malaysia. A total of 235 milk samples from dairy cows were collected from selected farms in Kelantan and Pahang. The samples were subjected to a somatic cell analysis to identify subclinical mastitis, followed by bacteria isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The isolated S. aureus were further analyzed for their ability to form biofilms and invade the bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T cells) in in vitro infections modeling using a gentamicin protection assay. The overall total of 74/235 (31.4%; 95%CI = 0.31; 0.32) of the milk samples demonstrated >200,000 somatic cells/mL, suggesting the presence of subclinical mastitis in the animals. A total of 39/235 (16.5%; 95% CI = 0.16, 0.17) of the milk samples harbored S. aureus which demonstrated resistance towards the following antimicrobials: penicillin (18/39, 46%), ampicillin (17/39, 43.6%), oxacillin (12/39, 31%), tetracycline (10/39, 26%), and erythromycin (7/39, 18%). AMR was recorded for a total of (17/39, 43.6%) of S. aureus isolates. All isolates formed biofilms, with (8/30, 27%) strongly biofilm-forming, (18/30, 60%) moderately biofilm-forming, and the remaining (4/30, 13%) of isolates weakly biofilm-forming. Interestingly, the AMR isolates appear to produce weak and moderate biofilm. Moreover, (6/20, 30%) of the S. aureus isolates were invasive towards MAC-T cells, as indicated by their ability to evade gentamicin treatment. The study demonstrated the presence of AMR, invasiveness, and biofilm formation in S. aureus that was isolated from subclinical mastitis. This characteristic presents additional challenges to existing antimicrobial therapy.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131680
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1681: Fatty Acid Composition of Muscle and Adipose
           Tissue in Pigs Fed with Addition of Natural Sorbents

    • Authors: Piotr Domaradzki, Bożena Nowakowicz-Dębek, Łukasz Wlazło, Mateusz Ossowski, Małgorzata Dmoch, Mariusz Florek
      First page: 1681
      Abstract: The fatty acid composition of meat and fat was studied in Choice Genetics line pigs fed a diet with three natural sorbents. Control (C1 and C2), biochar (D, 0.5%), bentonite–montmorillonite (A, 1.5%) and zeolite–clinoptilolite (B, 1.5%) diets were used in two trials. The samples of back fat, kidney fat and Longissimus lumborum (MLL) and Semimembranosus (MSM) muscle were examined. All sorbents (D, A and B) had no effect on fatty acid composition in MLL, whereas in MSM turned out to be very limited and inconsistent. Although A and B sorbents had a significant impact on the fatty acid profile of kidney fat, their effect was often opposite. Sorbent B’s effects were less beneficial due to a significantly higher proportion of saturated fatty acids, higher value of thrombogenic and atherogenic indexes, n-6/n-3 ratio but lower h/H ratio. Sorbent A’s effects significantly increased polyunsaturated fatty acids, and positively influenced lipid health quality indices. In summary, the feeding of natural sorbents slightly modified the fatty acid profile of muscle tissue, kidney fat and back fat; however, it did not have a negative effect on the indices of nutritional and pro-health quality of adipose tissue of pigs during fattening.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131681
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1682: Changes to Adult Dog Social Behaviour during
           and after COVID-19 Lockdowns in England: A Qualitative Analysis of Owner

    • Authors: Holly Boardman, Mark James Farnworth
      First page: 1682
      Abstract: Reports suggest that dogs have experienced more quality time with their owners and have exhibited less separation-related behaviour during COVID-19. This study aims to define and explore the changes in the social behaviour of adult dogs, identify any perceived short- and long-term effects and identify the implications that future events may have due to the implementation and withdrawal of COVID-19 restrictions. Owners of dogs aged between 3 and 6 years living in England were recruited for semi-structured interviews about their dogs’ social behaviours before, during and after lockdown. Interviews were transcribed and thematic analysis was used to identify key themes. Fifteen owners of eighteen dogs were interviewed in December 2021 to January 2022. All owners interviewed noticed a change in behaviour either during or following the COVID-19 lockdowns. Many owners found that fear-related and aggressive behaviours increased, particularly after lockdown restrictions had been lifted. There is a risk to human and animal safety if fear-related behaviours are not properly managed and there is a danger to dog welfare through relinquishment as owners struggle to cope with problematic behaviours. An increase in the duration of walks is comparable to other studies; however, this study found that many owners continued to walk their dogs more than restrictions allowed. Reliable information or behavioural support by qualified professionals may be needed to aid owners in mitigating the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Behaviour modification plans or information could include positive techniques such as desensitisation and counterconditioning. More widely, owners should be prepared for any future behavioural changes due to unpredictable events which may alter the dog–owner dynamic. Results can be adapted to the increase in at-home working following the pandemic or other novel experiences and changes of routine such as retirement, job change or relocation. More awareness of the long-term implications of the COVID-19 pandemic is needed to prepare dog behaviour professionals for future owner concerns.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131682
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1683: Effect of Prepartum Dietary Energy Level on
           Production and Reproduction in Nili Ravi Buffaloes

    • Authors: Muhammad Binyameen, Muhammad Irfan ur Rehman Khan, Muhmmad Naveed Ul Haque, Burhan E. Azam, Akke Kok, Ariette T. M. Van Knegsel, Muhammad Zahid Tahir
      First page: 1683
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prepartum dietary energy level on postpartum production and reproduction in Nili Ravi buffaloes (n = 21). The buffaloes were offered low energy (LE: 1.31 Mcal/kg DM NEL (net energy for lactation)), medium energy (ME: 1.42 Mcal/kg DM NEL) or high energy (HE: 1.54 Mcal/kg DM NEL) diet for 63 days prepartum, and received the same lactation diet (LD: 1.22 Mcal/kg DM NEL) during 14 weeks postpartum. The effects of dietary energy level and week were analyzed with Proc GLIMMIX model. Dry matter intake (DMI) was lower in buffaloes fed the LE diet compared with buffaloes fed the ME or HE diet. Calf birth weight (CBW) was higher in buffaloes fed the HE diet compared with buffaloes fed the ME or LE diet. Milk production was similar in buffaloes fed the HE, ME or LE diet within 14 weeks postpartum and throughout the lactation. Milk fat was higher in buffaloes fed the LE diet compared with buffaloes fed the ME or HE diet. Milk protein and lactose yields was high in buffaloes fed the HE diet compared with buffaloes fed the ME or LE diet. Body condition score was high in HE and was affected by diet × week interactions during pre and postpartum period. The concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and triglycerides in serum was lowest in buffaloes fed the HE diet compared with the buffaloes fed the ME or LE diet. The buffaloes fed the HE diet had early uterine involution (UI), first estrus, short dry days, and calving interval (CI) compared with buffaloes fed the ME or LE diet. None of buffaloes fed the LE diet exhibited estrus during the first 14 weeks postpartum compared with buffaloes fed the ME or HE diet. In conclusion, prepartum feeding of high energy diet can be helpful in improving the postpartum productive and reproductive performance in Nili Ravi buffaloes.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131683
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1684: Gills Just Want to Have Fun: Can Fish Play
           Games, Just like Us'

    • Authors: Sofia Eisenbeiser, Étienne Serbe-Kamp, Gregory J. Gage, Timothy C. Marzullo
      First page: 1684
      Abstract: It is common to observe play in dogs, cats, and birds, but have we been ignoring play in one of the most common house pets of all… fish' Aquarium fish are often used as meditative decoration in family households, but it could be that fish have similarly diverse behavioral repertoires as mammals and birds. To examine this theory, we conducted field tests at local pet stores where a range of aquarium fish species was tested for responsiveness to laser pointer stimuli. Out of 66 species of fish tested, over 80% showed a tendency to be interested in the moving laser spots, particularly red ones. Whether this behavior constitutes play is an active topic of investigation that we examine in this work.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131684
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1685: Anthelmintic Efficacy of Palmarosa Oil and
           Curcuma Oil against the Fish Ectoparasite Gyrodactylus kobayashii

    • Authors: Shun Zhou, Qiuhong Yang, Jing Dong, Yongtao Liu, Ning Xu, Yibin Yang, Xiaohui Ai
      First page: 1685
      Abstract: Monogeneans are a serious threat to the development of aquaculture due to the severe economic losses they cause. The prevention and treatment of this disease are increasingly difficult because of the environmental and health concerns caused by the use of chemical anthelmintics and the emergence of drug resistance. It is thus necessary to search for effective alternatives for the treatment of monogenean infections. In the current study, anthelmintic efficacy of 16 selected essential oils (EOs) was investigated using the goldfish (Carassius auratus)–Gyrodactylus kobayashii model. The screening experiment indicated that palmarosa oil and curcuma oil had satisfactory anthelmintic activity against G. kobayashii with EC100 values of 10 and 12 mg/L after 24-h exposure, respectively. The in vivo and in vitro assays indicated anthelmintic efficacy of palmarosa oil against G. kobayashii was in a time and dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, curcuma oil showed an anesthetic effect on G. kobayashii, and its anthelmintic activity was dose-dependent rather than time-dependent in the concentration range tested in this study. Additionally, the 24-h LC50 (50% lethal concentration) against goldfish of these two EOs was 8.19-fold and 5.54-fold higher than their corresponding EC50 (50% effective concentration) against G. kobayashii, respectively. Moreover, exposure to these two EOs at 100% effective concentration against G. kobayashii had no serious physiological and histopathological influence on goldfish. These results demonstrated a high safety for goldfish of these two EOs. Overall, palmarosa oil and curcuma oil could be potential candidates for the treatment of G. kobayashii infections in aquaculture.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131685
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1686: The Role of Women on Dairy Goat Farms in
           Southern Spain

    • Authors: Cristina Arce, Cipriano Díaz-Gaona, Manuel Sánchez-Rodríguez, Santos Sanz-Fernández, Mª. Dolores López-Fariña, Vicente Rodríguez-Estévez
      First page: 1686
      Abstract: One of the factors involved in goat milk production is the role of women as farmers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of women on dairy goat farms, considering: (1) the profile of women occupationally involved, (2) the organization of the women’s work, (3) the degree of involvement by women in the decision-making on these farms, and (4) the influence of women’s work on productive results. This study was conducted on 52 dairy goat farms in southern Spain. A descriptive analysis and means comparisons were performed to describe the farms where any women were involved or not. In 61.5% of the farms, at least one woman was involved, with an age of 42.2 ± 8.8 years. Very few women were farm owners, although women took binding decisions in 81.25% of these farms. Their work is dedicated to milking and caring for the kids. Women had a positive influence on the productive variables analysed, and for mastitis in herds, the incidence was lower in herds where women participated (p < 0.01). In conclusion, it is recommended to include women’s work as a factor when characterizing dairy goats farms’ systems to evaluate their positive effect on a farm’s performance.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131686
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1687: Influence of Heifer Post-Weaning Voluntary
           Feed Intake Classification on Lifetime Productivity in Black Angus Beef

    • Authors: Krista R. Wellnitz, Cory T. Parsons, Julia M. Dafoe, Darrin L. Boss, Samuel A. Wyffels, Timothy DelCurto, Megan L. Van Emon
      First page: 1687
      Abstract: This study evaluated heifer post-weaning voluntary feed intake (g/kg BW) classification on performance and reproductive measures, as well as impacts on lifetime productivity of 519 commercial Angus beef females. Heifer post-weaning voluntary feed intake (g/kg BW) was calculated over 80 test days following weaning using GrowSafe units. Heifers were categorized based on voluntary feed intake (g/kg BW) as either low (<−0.50 SD from the mean), average (±0.50 SD from the mean), or high (>0.50 SD from the mean) within year. Cow body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) at breeding displayed an age effect (p < 0.001), with 2- and 3-year-old cows having lighter BW and lower BCS than 4-yr-old and older cows. Cow BW at weaning showed significance for age and intake (p < 0.001) with younger cows being lighter than older cows, while low intake classified females had greater BW at weaning compared to average and high intake females. Additionally, calf 205-d weights and calf weaning weights (p < 0.01) were significant for age with calves born from older cows weighing more than younger cows. Weaning weight ratio displayed a linear increase with increasing intake classification (p < 0.01). Heifer yearling BW was significant for intake (p < 0.01) with low and average intake heifer classifications having greater heifer yearling BW than cows that had high intake classification as a heifer. Age and intake classification did not impact (p ≥ 0.22) pregnancy status or AI conception. In summary, heifer post-weaning feed intake classification had only minor impacts compared to age effects on lifetime productivity of Angus beef females.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131687
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1688: Computed Tomography-Guided Fine Needle
           Biopsies of Vertebral and Paravertebral Lesions in Small Animals

    • Authors: Patricia Laborda-Vidal, Myriam Martín, Marc Orts-Porcar, Laura Vilalta, Antonio Melendez-Lazo, Alejandra García de Carellán, Carlos Ros
      First page: 1688
      Abstract: Fine needle biopsy (FNB) is an effective, minimally invasive and inexpensive diagnostic technique. Under computed tomography (CT)-guidance, lesions that have a difficult approach can be sampled to reach a diagnosis. The aim of this study is to describe the use of CT-guidance to obtain FNB from vertebral and paravertebral lesions in small animals. Ten dogs and one ferret that had undergone CT-guided FNB of vertebral and paravertebral lesions and had a cytological or a histological diagnosis were included in this retrospective study. The FNB samples were taken in four cases from the vertebra, in two cases from the intervertebral disc and in five cases from the intervertebral foramen. Two infectious and nine neoplastic lesions were diagnosed. The percentage of successful FNB was 91%. The percentage of samples with a cytological diagnosis was 80%. The percentage of complications was 9%. Limitations were the small number of animals in the study, the lacking complementary percutaneous biopsies for comparison, the lacking final histological diagnoses in some cases and the intervention of multiple operators. Computed tomography-guided FNB is a useful and safe technique for the diagnosis of vertebral and paravertebral lesions in small animals. However, a degree of expertise is important.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131688
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1689: Velvet Antler Production and Hematological
           Changes in Male Sika Deers Fed with Spent Mushroom Substrate

    • Authors: Chongshan Yuan, Min Wu, Syed Muhammad Tahir, Xinyuan Chen, Changze Li, Aiwu Zhang, Wenfa Lu
      First page: 1689
      Abstract: At present, spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is a waste resource that is producing a pollution problem in China, and which has some use as animal feed or fertilizer, has not been assessed as a feed for deer. The purpose of this study is to expand the feed of male sika deer and reduce the feeding cost by using the waste resource of SMS. The 10% concentrated supplement was replaced with SMS and the feed intake, apparent digestibility, blood index and velvet production of male sika deer were measured. As the results showed, compared to the control group, the substitution of SMS for 10% of the concentrate supplement decreased the concentration of IgA (p < 0.01), replacing 10% concentrated supplement with SMS of Pleurotus ostreatus (SMS-MP) reduced the intake of organic matter (OMI) and improved the digestibility of ether extract (EE), while replacing 10% concentrated supplement with SMS of Flammulina velutipes (SMS-MF) had no effect on apparent nutrient digestibility, feed intake, velvet antler production, and biochemical indexes. In conclusion, SMS had no effect on serum biochemical indexes and the ratio of the feed weight of the deer supplement to the weight of velvet antler (p > 0.05). At the same time, SMS could reduce the feed consumption and improve the economy by using SMS as a waste resource.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131689
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1690: Disenfranchised Guilt—Pet
           Owners’ Burden

    • Authors: Lori R. Kogan, Cori Bussolari, Jennifer Currin-McCulloch, Wendy Packman, Phyllis Erdman
      First page: 1690
      Abstract: Guilt refers to an unpleasant emotional state associated with one’s behaviors, thoughts, or intentions, and it is based on the possibility that one may be in the wrong or that others may have this perception. Parental guilt is one common subtype and is often associated with work–family conflict (WFC). WFC and related guilt have been found to be associated with depression and anxiety. Through an online anonymous survey, the current study was designed to explore dog owners’ guilt surrounding their dogs. Results suggest that dog owners’ guilt and WFC associated with their dog are at levels similar to those reported in human family studies. Additionally, the relationship between dog owners’ guilt and discrepancy between participants’ actual and ideal self, in regard to the role of a dog owner, also mirrored human-only family research. Because pet-related guilt is unrecognized, acknowledged, or supported, we suggest it is disenfranchised. As people return to work, in this period of post-COVID-19 pandemic time, it is paramount that companies and communities acknowledge pet owner guilt and WFC and help owners find practical, effective solutions.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131690
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1691: Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of
           Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone, and Its Possible Role in Gonadal
           Differentiation in Rice Field eel Monopterus albus

    • Authors: Ke Feng, Jialin Su, Zhengli Wu, Shengqi Su, Weizhi Yao
      First page: 1691
      Abstract: Rice field eel (Monopterus albus), a protogynous hermaphrodite fish, is a good model for the research of sex determination and gonadal differentiation in teleosts. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of trh, which encoded a predicted protein with 270 amino acids. Trh mainly expressed in the brain, followed by the ovary, testis, muscle and pituitary, and had low levels in other peripheral tissues. During natural sex reversal, trh mRNA expression levels exhibited a significant increase at the late intersexual stage in the hypothalamus. In the gonad, trh mRNA expression levels showed a trend of increase followed by decrease, and only increased significantly at the middle intersexual stage. No matter static incubation or intraperitoneal (IP) injection, TRH had no significant effect on trh and thyroid-stimulating hormone βsubunit (tshβ) mRNA expression levels, and serum T3, T4 and TRH release. After static incubation of ovarian fragments by TRH, the expression of gonadal soma derived factor (gsdf) was up-regulated significantly at both the doses of 10 and 100 nM. IP injection of TRH stimulated the expression of gsdf, and inhibited the expression of ovarian aromatase gene (cyp19a1a), accompanied by the increase of serum 11-KT levels. The results indicated that TRH may play a novel role in gonadal differentiation by the regulation of gonadal differentiation-related gene expression and sex steroid hormone secretion in rice field eel.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131691
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1692: Chitosan Oligosaccharide Inhibits the
           Synthesis of Milk Fat in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells through
           AMPK-Mediated Downstream Signaling Pathway

    • Authors: Jing Fan, Jiayi Chen, Haochen Wu, Xin Lu, Xibi Fang, Fuquan Yin, Zhihui Zhao, Ping Jiang, Haibin Yu
      First page: 1692
      Abstract: Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) is a variety of oligosaccharides, and it is also the only abundant basic amino oligosaccharide in natural polysaccharides. Chitosan oligosaccharide is a low molecular weight product of chitosan after enzymatic degradation. It has many biological effects, such as lipid-lowering, antioxidant and immune regulation. Previous studies have shown that chitosan oligosaccharide has a certain effect on fat synthesis, but the effect of chitosan oligosaccharide on milk fat synthesis of bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) has not been studied. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate chitosan oligosaccharide’s effect on milk fat synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells and explore the underlying mechanism. We treated bovine mammary epithelial cells with different concentrations of chitosan oligosaccharide (0, 100, 150, 200, 400 and 800 μg/mL) for 24 h, 36 h and 48 h respectively. To assess the effect of chitosan oligosaccharide on bovine mammary epithelial cells and determine the concentration and time for chitosan oligosaccharide treatment on cells, several in vitro cellular experiments, including on cell viability, cycle and proliferation were carried out. The results highlighted that chitosan oligosaccharide (100, 150 μg/mL) significantly promoted cell viability, cycle and proliferation, increased intracellular cholesterol content, and reduced intracellular triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acids content. Under the stimulation of chitosan oligosaccharide, the expression of genes downstream of Phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (P-AMPK) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway changed, increasing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), but the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1) and its downstream target gene stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) decreased. In conclusion, these results suggest that chitosan oligosaccharide may inhibit milk fat synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells by activating the AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, promoting the oxidative decomposition of fatty acids and inhibiting fatty acid synthesis.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131692
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1693: Weighted Single-Step Genomic Best Linear
           Unbiased Prediction Method Application for Assessing Pigs on Meat
           Productivity and Reproduction Traits

    • Authors: Artem Kabanov, Ekaterina Melnikova, Sergey Nikitin, Maria Somova, Oleg Fomenko, Valeria Volkova, Olga Kostyunina, Tatiana Karpushkina, Elena Martynova, Elena Trebunskikh
      First page: 1693
      Abstract: Changes in the accuracy of the genomic estimates obtained by the ssGBLUP and wssGBLUP methods were evaluated using different reference groups. The weighting procedure’s reasonableness of application Pwas considered to improve the accuracy of genomic predictions for meat, fattening and reproduction traits in pigs. Six reference groups were formed to assess the genomic data quantity impact on the accuracy of predicted values (groups of genotyped animals). The datasets included 62,927 records of meat and fattening productivity (fat thickness over 6–7 ribs (BF1, mm)), muscle depth (MD, mm) and precocity up to 100 kg (age, days) and 16,070 observations of reproductive qualities (the number of all born piglets (TNB) and the number of live-born piglets (NBA), according to the results of the first farrowing). The wssGBLUP method has an advantage over ssGBLUP in terms of estimation reliability. When using a small reference group, the difference in the accuracy of ssGBLUP over BLUP AM is from −1.9 to +7.3 percent points, while for wssGBLUP, the change in accuracy varies from +18.2 to +87.3 percent points. Furthermore, the superiority of the wssGBLUP is also maintained for the largest group of genotyped animals: from +4.7 to +15.9 percent points for ssGBLUP and from +21.1 to +90.5 percent points for wssGBLUP. However, for all analyzed traits, the number of markers explaining 5% of genetic variability varied from 71 to 108, and the number of such SNPs varied depending on the size of the reference group (79–88 for BF1, 72–81 for MD, 71–108 for age). The results of the genetic variation distribution have the greatest similarity between groups of about 1000 and about 1500 individuals. Thus, the size of the reference group of more than 1000 individuals gives more stable results for the estimation based on the wssGBLUP method, while using the reference group of 500 individuals can lead to distorted results of GEBV.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131693
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1694: Testing Two Somatic Cell Count Cutoff Values
           for Bovine Subclinical Mastitis Detection Based on Milk Microbiota and
           Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Transcriptome Profile

    • Authors: Jinning Zhang, Wenlong Li, Yongjie Tang, Xueqin Liu, Hailiang Zhang, Yueling Zhou, Yachun Wang, Wei Xiao, Ying Yu
      First page: 1694
      Abstract: Somatic cell count (SCC) is an important indicator of the health state of bovine udders. However, the exact cut-off value used for differentiating the cows with healthy quarters from the cows with subclinical mastitis remains controversial. Here, we collected composite milk (milk from four udder quarters) and peripheral blood samples from individual cows in two different dairy farms and used 16S rRNA gene sequencing combined with RNA-seq to explore the differences in the milk microbial composition and transcriptome of cows with three different SCC levels (LSCC: <100,000 cells/mL, MSCC: 100,000–200,000 cells/mL, HSCC: >200,000 cells/mL). Results showed that the milk microbial profiles and gene expression profiles of samples derived from cows in the MSCC group were indeed relatively easily discriminated from those from cows in the LSCC group. Discriminative analysis also uncovered some differentially abundant microbiota at the genus level, such as Bifidobacterium and Lachnospiraceae_AC2044_group, which were more abundant in milk samples from cows with SCC below 100,000 cells/mL. As for the transcriptome profiling, 79 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found to have the same direction of regulation in two sites, and functional analyses also showed that biological processes involved in inflammatory responses were more active in MSCC and HSCC cows. Overall, these results showed a similarity between the milk microbiota and gene expression profiles of MSCC and HSCC cows, which presented further evidence that 100,000 cells/ml is a more optimal cut-off value than 200,000 cells/mL for intramammary infection detection at the cow level.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131694
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1695: Differential Responses of Digesta- and
           Mucosa-Associated Jejunal Microbiota of Hu Sheep to Pelleted and
           Non-Pelleted High-Grain Diets

    • Authors: Zhiqiang Zhong, Yuning Zhang, Xiaotong Li, Lingyun Li, Ruiyang Zhang, Shuyi Zhang
      First page: 1695
      Abstract: In the present study, we utilized 16S rRNA sequencing to uncover the impacts of non-pelleted (HG) or high-grain pelleted (HP) diets on the microbial structure and potential functions of digesta- and mucosa-associated microbiota in the jejunum of Hu sheep. Here, we randomly assigned 15 healthy male Hu sheep into three groups and fed the control diets (CON), HG, and HP diets, respectively. The experiment period was 60 days. The HP diets had the same nutritional ingredients as the HG diets but in pelleted form. At the finish of the experiment, the jejunal digesta and mucosa were gathered for microbial sequencing. The results of PCoA and PERMANOVA showed that different dietary treatments had significant impact (p < 0.05) on digesta- and mucosa-associated microbiota in the jejunum of Hu sheep. For specific differences, HG diets significantly increased (p < 0.05) the abundance of some acid-producing bacteria in both jejunal digesta (Bifidobacterium, OTU151, and OTU16) and mucosa (Rikenellaceae RC9 gut group, and Bifidobacterium) of Hu sheep compared with the CON diets. Besides the similar effects of the HG diets (increased the acid-producing bacteria such as Olsenella, Pseudoramibacter, and Shuttleworthia), our results also showed that the HP diets significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the abundance of some pro-inflammatory bacteria in the jejunal digesta (Mogibacterium, and Marvinbryantia) and mucosa (Chitinophaga, and Candidatus Saccharimonas) of Hu sheep compared with the HG diets. Collectively, these findings contributed to enriching the knowledge about the effects of HG diets on the structure and function of intestinal microbiota in ruminants.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131695
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1696: Genotype VII.1.1-Based Newcastle Disease
           Virus Vaccines Afford Better Protection against Field Isolates in
           Commercial Broiler Chickens

    • Authors: Abdelmonem A. A. Dewidar, Walid H. Kilany, Azza A. El-Sawah, Salama A. S. Shany, Al-Hussien M. Dahshan, Islam Hisham, Magdy F. Elkady, Ahmed Ali
      First page: 1696
      Abstract: This study evaluated the efficacy of live and inactivated conventional GII LaSota and recombinant GVII Newcastle disease vaccines in commercial broilers. The experimental groups (G2–G7) were vaccinated on day 7 and day 21 of age with live vaccines from the same vaccine type “GII LaSota, GVII vaccine (A), GVII vaccine (B)” via eye drop; however, G3, G5, and G7 received a single dose from inactivated counterpart vaccines subcutaneously on day 7 of age. Vaccine efficacy was evaluated based on elicited humoral immunity, clinical protection, and reduction in virus shedding after challenge with virulent GVII 1.1. strain. Results demonstrated that live and inactivated recombinant GVII vaccine based on VG/GA strain backbone elicited superior protection parameters (100% protection). Although the conventional GII LaSota live and inactivated vaccination regime protected 93.3% of vaccinated birds, the virus shedding continued until 10 DPC. The post-vaccination serological monitoring was consistent with protection results. The study concludes that conventional GII ND vaccines alone are probably insufficient due to the current epidemiology of the GVII 1.1 NDV strains. Our findings further support that protection induced by recombinant GVII 1.1. ND vaccines are superior. Interestingly, the efficacy of recombinant ND vaccines seemed to be influenced by the backbone virus since the VG/GA backbone-based vaccine provided better protection and reduced virus shedding.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131696
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1697: Viral Co-Infections of Warthogs in Namibia
           with African Swine Fever Virus and Porcine Parvovirus 1

    • Authors: Umberto Molini, Giovanni Franzo, Tirumala B. K. Settypalli, Maria Y. Hemberger, Siegfried Khaiseb, Giovanni Cattoli, William G. Dundon, Charles E. Lamien
      First page: 1697
      Abstract: Understanding virus circulation in wild animals, particularly those that have contact with domestic animals, is crucial for disease management and control. In Africa, warthogs are known to be asymptomatic carriers of porcine pathogens; a recent study in Namibia has shown them to be positive for Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2). In this study, the same samples used for the PCV-2 investigation in Namibia were further screened for the presence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) and porcine parvovirus 1 (PPV1) by PCR. Of the 42 animals tested, 2 (4.8%) and 13 (31%) were positive for AFSV and PPV1, respectively. The two AFSV were also co-infected with PPV1. Combing the results of this study with the results of the previous PCV-2 investigation, four warthogs were shown to be co-infected with both PPV1 and PCV-2. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the AFSV belonged to genotype (Ib) but were from different serogroups. Unexpectedly, the ASFVs from the warthogs were genetically distinct to those observed in an outbreak in the same region of Namibia that occurred less than fifteen months prior to the sampling of the warthogs. In fact, a stronger genetic relationship was observed between the warthog viruses and historical Namibian and South African ASFVs identified in 1980, 2004 and 2008. For the PPV1s, the closest relative to the Namibian PPV1 were viruses identified in wild boar in Romania in 2011. This study confirms that warthogs are carriers of porcine pathogens and the data should encourage further studies on larger populations of wild and domestic swine to more fully understand the epidemiology and transmission of viral pathogens from these species.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131697
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1698: Growth and Welfare of Rainbow Trout
           (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Response to Graded Levels of Insect and Poultry
           By-Product Meals in Fishmeal-Free Diets

    • Authors: Gloriana Cardinaletti, Patrizia Di Marco, Enrico Daniso, Maria Messina, Valeria Donadelli, Maria Grazia Finoia, Tommaso Petochi, Francesca Fava, Filippo Faccenda, Michela Contò, Roberto Cerri, Donatella Volpatti, Chiara Bulfon, Alberta Mandich, Alessandro Longobardi, Giovanna Marino, Lina Fernanda Pulido-Rodriguez, Giuliana Parisi, Emilio Tibaldi
      First page: 1698
      Abstract: This study compared the nutrient-energy retention, digestive function, growth performance, and welfare of rainbow trout (ibw 54 g) fed isoproteic (42%), isolipidic (24%), fishmeal-free diets (CV) over 13 weeks. The diets consisted of plant-protein replacement with graded levels (10, 30, 60%) of protein from poultry by-product (PBM) and black soldier fly H. illucens pupae (BSFM) meals, either singly or in combination. A fishmeal-based diet was also tested (CF). Nitrogen retention improved with moderate or high levels of dietary PBM and BSFM relative to CV (p < 0.05). Gut brush border enzyme activity was poorly affected by the diets. Gastric chitinase was up-regulated after high BSFM feeding (p < 0.05). The gut peptide and amino acid transport genes were differently regulated by protein source and level. Serum cortisol was unaffected, and the changes in metabolites stayed within the physiological range. High PBM and high BSFM lowered the leukocyte respiratory burst activity and increased the lysozyme activity compared to CV (p < 0.05). The BSFM and PBM both significantly changed the relative percentage of lymphocytes and monocytes (p < 0.05). In conclusion, moderate to high PBM and BSFM inclusions in fishmeal-free diets, either singly or in combination, improved gut function and nutrient retention, resulting in better growth performance and the good welfare of the rainbow trout.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131698
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1699: First Documentation of Exophiala spp.
           Isolation in Psittaciformes

    • Authors: Gonçalo N. Marques, João B. Cota, Miriam O. Leal, Nuno U. Silva, Carla A. Flanagan, Lorenzo Crosta, Luís Tavares, Manuela Oliveira
      First page: 1699
      Abstract: Several fungi species are reported to act as opportunistic agents of infection in avian species. After the isolation of Exophiala spp., a dematiaceous fungal pathogen associated with a mucosal lesion in a military macaw (Ara militar), samples were collected from another 24 birds of the order Psittaciformes to study the possibility of Exophiala spp. being part of the commensal microbiota of these animals or its possible association with other clinical conditions. Swab samples were collected from the trachea and/or choanae of the birds and inoculated in Sabouraud chloramphenicol agar for fungal isolation. After incubation, fungal species were identified through their macroscopic and microscopic morphology. The presence of Exophiala spp. was identified in 15 of the 25 birds sampled and no statistical association was found between the clinical record of the birds and the fungal isolation. Our results suggest that Exophiala spp. can colonize the upper respiratory airways of psittaciform birds and has a low pathogenic potential in these animals. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of Exophiala spp. isolation from samples of the upper respiratory tract of Psittaciformes.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131699
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1700: Can Insect Meal Replace Fishmeal' A
           Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Black Soldier Fly on Fish Growth
           Performances and Nutritional Values

    • Authors: Armel Gougbedji, Johann Detilleux, Philippe A. Lalèyè, Frédéric Francis, Rudy Caparros Megido
      First page: 1700
      Abstract: The search for quality alternatives to fishmeal and fish oil in the fish feed industry has occupied many researchers worldwide. The use of black soldier fly meal (BSFM) as a substitute has increased. This study evaluated the effect of this substitution on fish growth and nutritional quality through a meta-analysis of the literature. A list of studies was selected after an exhaustive literature search followed by the extraction of growth and nutritional parameters. Two random-effects models were used to estimate the differences between the experimental parameters and the controls. The results showed significant heterogeneity between studies for all parameters. The sources of heterogeneity between studies were mainly fish species and protein substitution rate. High substitutions can be considered without necessarily worrying about an adverse effect. Financial profitability studies of the fish production chain from BSFM should be carried out to validate or invalidate the economic viability of this substitution.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131700
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1701: Effects of Raw and Pasteurized Camel Milk on
           Metabolic Responses in Pigs Fed a High-Fat Diet

    • Authors: Kristy DiGiacomo, Fernanda Zamuner, Yushu Sun, Frank R. Dunshea, Jared K. Raynes, Brian J. Leury
      First page: 1701
      Abstract: Evidence suggests that camel milk (CM) can have insulin-like actions, although the mode of action is not understood. Using the pig as a monogastric model, this pilot experiment examined the effects of CM consumption on metabolic responses to an in vitro glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Twenty female Large White × Landrace pigs were individually housed for 6 wks and randomly allocated to one of the following four diets (fed ad libitum; n = 5): control (Con); high fat (HF; ~16% fat); raw CM (the HF diet plus 500 mL CM/ day); or pasteurized CM (PCM). Blood samples were collected on two occasions (weeks 2 and 5). At week 6, the pigs were fitted with an ear vein cannula and the following day an in vitro glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was conducted (0.3 g/kg BW glucose). Plasma fatty acids and cholesterol concentrations were greater in the pigs fed the HF diet and greatest in those fed CM, while there was no effect of diet on insulin concentrations. The pigs fed CM tended to have a reduced peak insulin (p = 0.058) and an increased glucose nadir (p = 0.009) in response to the IVGTT. These preliminary results tend to support the hypothesis that feeding CM can improve glycemic control in pigs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131701
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1702: Ground Reaction Forces and Center of
           Pressure within the Paws When Stepping over Obstacles in Dogs

    • Authors: Danae Charalambous, Therese Strasser, Alexander Tichy, Barbara Bockstahler
      First page: 1702
      Abstract: Walking over obstacles is a widely used physiotherapy exercise in dogs. Current research is limited to the effect of this exercise in kinematics and muscle activation in dogs. The present study assessed the influence of walking over obstacles on the ground reaction forces (GRFs) and center of pressure (COP) in dogs. Data of dogs walking over one and two obstacles over a pressure platform were retrospectively analyzed and compared to normal walking. Walking over one obstacle did not affect the GRFs and COP of the forelimbs; however, significant changes were observed for the hindlimbs, especially the leading hindlimb. Walking over two obstacles caused significant changes to only one value at the forelimbs, whereas multiple significant changes in the GRFs and COP values were observed at the hindlimbs. Walking over obstacles seems to be challenging even for healthy adult dogs. Further studies are needed to investigate how different heights of obstacles and distances between them can further challenge the animals. The combination of kinetics and kinematics during walking over obstacles may be used in future as a diagnostic tool in geriatric and neurological patients in order to assess their proprioception awareness or to assess the improvement after an intervention, e.g., physiotherapy treatment.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131702
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1703: Comparison of Female Verzaschese and
           Camosciata delle Alpi Goats’ Hematological Parameters in The Context
           of Adaptation to Local Environmental Conditions in Semi-Extensive Systems
           in Italy

    • Authors: Stella Agradi, Laura Menchetti, Giulio Curone, Massimo Faustini, Daniele Vigo, Luca Villa, Sergio Aurelio Zanzani, Rezart Postoli, Tana Shtylla Kika, Federica Riva, Susanna Draghi, Sebastiano Luridiana, Ivonne Archetti, Gabriele Brecchia, Maria Teresa Manfredi, Alessia Libera Gazzonis
      First page: 1703
      Abstract: Local livestock breeds are pivotal to ensure sustainable agriculture and represent a real genetic resource in the context of genetic variability reduction. This study aimed at broadening the knowledge about hematological values in female Verzaschese and Camosciata delle Alpi goats (an Italian local and a cosmopolitan goat breed, respectively) and investigating factors affecting them (i.e., breed, age, season). Blood samples were collected monthly from 34 Verzaschese and 37 Camosciata delle Alpi female goats kept under the same semi-extensive farming system for a whole year. The main hematological parameters were evaluated, and descriptive as well as inferential statistical analyses were performed. Reference intervals for complete blood cell count were established and several inter-breed differences were found. In particular, most of the red blood cell parameters were higher in Verzaschese than Camosciata delle Alpi (p < 0.05) suggesting a greater gastrointestinal parasites’ resilience of the local breed. The age effect (p < 0.05) was consistent with the literature while the season effect (p < 0.05) could be explained by the melatonin immunostimulant action and gastrointestinal parasitism influence. Overall, differences in blood values could be attributed to physiological changes and adaptive strategies developed through centuries highlighting the remarkable rusticity and adaptation to the environment and farming system of the local breed.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131703
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1704: Impacts of Heifer Post-Weaning Intake
           Classification on Performance Measurements of Lactating and Non-Lactating
           Two-, Five-, and Eight-Year-Old Angus Beef Females

    • Authors: Krista R. Wellnitz, Cory T. Parsons, Julia M. Dafoe, Darrin L. Boss, Samuel A. Wyffels, Timothy DelCurto, Megan L. Van Emon
      First page: 1704
      Abstract: Heifer post-weaning intake classification was utilized to evaluate subsequent intake and performance measurements of 2-, 5-, and 8-year-old lactating and non-lactating Angus females. For both studies, heifers were categorized based on voluntary feed intake (expressed as g/kg BW) as either low (<−0.50 SD from the mean), average (±0.50 SD from the mean), or high (>0.50 SD from the mean) within one year. Intake and production data of pregnant, non-lactating (n = 59; Study 1) and lactating, non-pregnant (n = 54; Study 2) females were evaluated. Heifer post-weaning voluntary feed intake was calculated over 80 test days post-weaning using GrowSafe feed intake units. Cow body-weight (BW) for non-lactating cows showed a tendency for age × intake interaction (p = 0.10), with older cows weighing more than younger cows. Milk production expressed as kilograms and g/kg BW of the cow had an age × intake (p < 0.001) effect. Two-year-old cows with low- and average-intake classifications had greater milk production (p < 0.001) and milk produced expressed as g/kg BW (p < 0.001) than 2-year-old cows with high-intake classifications. Additionally, 5-year-old cows with average and high-intake classifications had greater milk production (p < 0.001) and g/kg BW (p < 0.001) compared to 5-year-old cows classified as low-intake. In summary, heifer post-weaning intake classification had minor impacts on performance measurements in the three age classes of beef females at two different production levels.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131704
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1705: Recent Advances in Fish Nutrition: Insights
           on the Nutritional Implications of Modern Formulations

    • Authors: Artur Rombenso, Bruno Araujo, Erchao Li
      First page: 1705
      Abstract: Fish nutrition has driven advances in the efficiency, sustainability, and product quality of aquaculture production, facilitating its expansion of aquaculture production [...]
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131705
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1706: Comparative Proteomic Analyses of Poorly
           Motile Swamp Buffalo Spermatozoa Reveal Low Energy Metabolism and
           Deficiencies in Motility-Related Proteins

    • Authors: Runfeng Liu, Xingchen Huang, Qinqiang Sun, Zhen Hou, Weihan Yang, Junjun Zhang, Pengfei Zhang, Liangfeng Huang, Yangqing Lu, Qiang Fu
      First page: 1706
      Abstract: The acquisition of mammalian sperm motility is a main indicator of epididymal sperm maturation and helps ensure fertilization. Poor sperm motility will prevent sperm cells from reaching the fertilization site, resulting in fertilization failure. To investigate the proteomic profiling of normal and poorly motile buffalo spermatozoa, a strategy applying liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry combined with tandem mass targeting was used. As a result, 145 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified in poorly motile spermatozoa (fold change > 1.5), including 52 upregulated and 93 downregulated proteins. The upregulated DEPs were mainly involved in morphogenesis and regulation of cell differentiation. The downregulated DEPs were involved with transport, oxidation-reduction, sperm motility, regulation of cAMP metabolism and regulation of DNA methylation. The mRNA and protein levels of PRM1 and AKAP3 were lower in poorly motile spermatozoa, while the expressions of SDC2, TEKT3 and IDH1 were not correlated with motility, indicating that their protein changes were affected by transcription or translation. Such changes in the expression of these proteins suggest that the formation of poorly motile buffalo spermatozoa reflects a low efficiency of energy metabolism, decreases in sperm protamine proteins, deficiencies in motility-related proteins, and variations in tail structural proteins. Such proteins could be biomarkers of poorly motile spermatozoa. These results illustrate some of the molecular mechanisms associated with poorly motile spermatozoa and provide clues for finding molecular markers of these pathways.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131706
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1707: Interactions between Ewes and Rams during
           Mating Can Be Used to Predict Lambing Dates Accurately, but Not Sire

    • Authors: Kirsty Cunningham, Andrew Van Burgel, Khama R. Kelman, Claire M. Macleay, Beth L. Paganoni, Andrew N. Thompson
      First page: 1707
      Abstract: Ewes often lamb over extended periods so the level of nutrition during pregnancy and lambing may be suboptimal for ewes that conceived later during mating. Predicting lambing dates would allow cohorts of ewes with similar gestational ages to be managed more precisely to achieve targets for ewe nutrition, feed on offer, mob sizes and access to shelter to improve lamb survival. The interactions between ewes and rams during mating have been used to predict the time of oestrus and lambing dates successfully, but this has not been tested at a commercial scale. In this study, proximity sensors were used to measure interactions between inexperienced Merino ewes (n = 317) and experienced rams (n = 9) during a 27-day mating period under commercial production conditions. When the gestation length was assumed to be 150 days, 91% of lambing dates were predicted within ±6 days of the actual birth date of lambs and 84% of lambing dates were predicted within ±3 days. The use of proximity sensors during mating was an effective means of predicting lambing dates, and there was no significant difference in accuracy for single bearing verses multiple bearing ewes. However, DNA parentage data showed the ram corresponding with the maximum daily interactions ratio was the sire for only 16% of all progeny, suggesting they could not be used to indicate the sire of the progeny.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131707
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1708: Molecular Survey and Genetic
           Characterization of Anaplasma marginale in Ticks Collected from Livestock
           Hosts in Pakistan

    • Authors: Zaibullah Khan, Shehla Shehla, Abdulaziz Alouffi, Muhammad Kashif Obaid, Alam Zeb Khan, Mashal M. Almutairi, Muhammad Numan, Ome Aiman, Shumaila Alam, Shafi Ullah, Sher Zaman Safi, Tetsuya Tanaka, Abid Ali
      First page: 1708
      Abstract: Ticks transmit pathogens to animals and humans more often than any other arthropod vector. The rural economy of Pakistan mainly depends on livestock farming, and tick infestations cause severe problems in this sector. The present study aimed to molecularly characterize the Anaplasma spp. in hard ticks collected from six districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Ticks were collected from various livestock hosts, including cattle breeds (Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, Sahiwal, and Achai), Asian water buffaloes, sheep, and goats from March 2018 to February 2019. Collected ticks were morphologically identified and subjected to molecular screening of Anaplasma spp. by amplifying 16S rDNA sequences. Six hundred seventy-six ticks were collected from infested hosts (224/350, 64%). Among the nine morphologically identified tick species, the highest occurrence was noted for Rhipicephalus microplus (254, 37.6%), followed by Hyalomma anatolicum (136, 20.1%), Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides (119, 17.6%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (116, 17.1%), Haemaphysalis montgomeryi (14, 2.1%), Hyalomma dromedarii (11, 1.6%), Haemaphysalis bispinosa (10, 1.5%), Hyalomma scupense (8, 1.2%), and Haemaphysalis kashmirensis (8, 1.2%). The occurrence of tick females was highest (260, 38.5%), followed by nymphs (246, 36.4%) and males (170, 25.1%). Overall, the highest occurrence of ticks was recorded in the Peshawar district (239, 35.3%), followed by Mardan (183, 27.1%), Charsadda (110, 16.3%), Swat (52, 7.7%), Shangla (48, 7.1%), and Chitral (44, 6.5%). Among these ticks, Anaplasma marginale was detected in R. microplus, R. turanicus, and R. haemaphysaloides. The 16S rDNA sequences showed high identity (98–100%) with A. marginale reported from Australia, China, Japan, Pakistan, Thailand, Uganda, and the USA. In phylogenetic analysis, the sequence of A. marginale clustered with the same species reported from Australia, China, Pakistan, Thailand, Uruguay, and the USA. Further molecular work regarding the diversity of tick species and associated pathogens is essential across the country.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131708
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1709: Aliens Coming by Ships: Distribution and
           Origins of the Ocellated Skink Populations in Peninsular Italy

    • Authors: Emiliano Mori, Franco Andreone, Andrea Viviano, Francesco Paolo Faraone, Matteo Riccardo Di Nicola, Bernardo Borri, Giacomo Bruni, Giuseppe Mazza, Riccardo Banchi, Marco Zaccaroni, Sergio Mezzadri, Mariella Baratti
      First page: 1709
      Abstract: The ocellated skink (Chalcides ocellatus) is a widespread lizard, naturally distributed between the Maghreb and coastal Pakistan, with few insular populations in the Mediterranean coastal area. Some populations of this species have also been recorded in peninsular Italy, Campania and Southern Tuscany due to accidental introductions via touristic and commercial routes. In this work, we conducted genetic analyses on mitochondrial DNA COXI, cytb and 16S mtDNA genes on a sample of Italian insular and peninsular populations. Differently from what previously suggested, the nucleus in Portici (Southern Italy) may have originated from Sardinia. The intense trade and touristic traffic between Sardinia and Southern Tuscany may have been responsible for the introduction of this lizard also to Central Italy.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131709
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1710: Dietary Inclusion of Dried Chicory Root
           Affects Cecal Mucosa Proteome of Nursery Pigs

    • Authors: Agnieszka Herosimczyk, Adam Lepczyński, Martyna Werkowska, Marcin Barszcz, Marcin Taciak, Anna Tuśnio, Andrzej Krzysztof Ciechanowicz, Magdalena Kucia, Karolina Susfał, Sandra Cabała, Małgorzata Ożgo
      First page: 1710
      Abstract: Prebiotics are known to have many beneficial effects on intestinal health by modulating the gut microbiota composition, thereby affecting epithelial cell proliferation and metabolism. This study had two aims: (1) to identify the protein constituents in the cecal mucosa of 50-day-old healthy (PIC x Penarlan P76) barrows, and (2) to assess the effects of 4% inclusion of dried chicory root in a cereal-based diet on the cecal mucosa proteome changes. Pigs (eight per group) were randomly allotted to the groups and were fed a control diet from the tenth day of life (C) or a diet supplemented with 4% of died chicory root (CR), for 40 days. At the age of 50 days, animals were sacrificed and cecal tissue samples were collected. It was found that feeding a CR diet significantly decreased the expression of 16 cecal mucosa proteins. Among them, fifteen proteins were down-regulated, while only one (KRT20) was shown to be up-regulated when compared to the C group. Dietary supplementation with CR caused down-expression of metabolism-associated proteins including enzymes involved in the process of glycolysis (G6PD, TPI1, ALDH9A1, CKMT1 and AKR1A1) as well as those engaged in transcriptional and translational activity (PRPF19, EEF1G) and several structural proteins (ACTR3, KRT77, CAP1 and actin). From our findings, it is possible to conclude that dietary chicory root at 4% had beneficial effects on the gut health of pigs as indicated by a changed abundance of certain cecal proteins such as KRT20, SERPINB1, HSP27, ANAXA2 and ANAXA4.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131710
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1711: The Future of Artificial Intelligence in
           Monitoring Animal Identification, Health, and Behaviour

    • Authors: Jenna V. Congdon, Mina Hosseini, Ezekiel F. Gading, Mahdi Masousi, Maria Franke, Suzanne E. MacDonald
      First page: 1711
      Abstract: With many advancements, technologies are now capable of recording non-human animals’ location, heart rate, and movement, often using a device that is physically attached to the monitored animals. However, to our knowledge, there is currently no technology that is able to do this unobtrusively and non-invasively. Here, we review the history of technology for use with animals, recent technological advancements, current limitations, and a brief introduction to our proposed novel software. Canadian tech mogul EAIGLE Inc. has developed an artificial intelligence (AI) software solution capable of determining where people and assets are within public places or attractions for operational intelligence, security, and health and safety applications. The solution also monitors individual temperatures to reduce the potential spread of COVID-19. This technology has been adapted for use at the Toronto Zoo, initiated with a focus on Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) given the close physical similarity between orangutans and humans as great ape species. This technology will be capable of mass data collection, individual identification, pose estimation, behaviour monitoring and tracking orangutans’ locations, in real time on a 24/7 basis, benefitting both zookeepers and researchers looking to review this information.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131711
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1712: Sexual Dimorphism in the Chinese Endemic
           Species Hynobius maoershanensis (Urodela: Hynobiidae)

    • Authors: Huiqun Chen, Rongping Bu, Meihong Ning, Bo Yang, Zhengjun Wu, Huayuan Huang
      First page: 1712
      Abstract: Sexual dimorphism is common in most vertebrate species and has diverse manifestations. The study of sexual dimorphism has critical significance for evolutionary biological and ecological adaptation. In this study, we analysed the morphometric data of Hynobius maoershanensis, a rare and endangered species, to examine sexual dimorphism in size and shape. A total of 61 H. maoershanensis individuals (9 adult females and 52 adult males) were used in this study. We measured 14 morphological variables and weight of each individual. Analysis of covariance using snout–vent length (SVL) as the covariate showed significant differences in head width (HW), tail length (TL), tail height (TH), forelimb length (FLL), hindlimb length (HLL) and space between axilla and groin (AGS) between the male and female. The female AGS was greater than that of the male, whereas males had greater HW, TL, TH, FLL and HLL than females. The findings show that sexual dimorphism is present in terms of shape but not in terms of size. The wider head of the male could improve mating success, and its thicker limbs and longer tail might facilitate courtship. The females’ wider AGS may increase reproductive output. Our results support sexual dimorphism in H. maoershanensis, which could be explained by the sexual selection and fecundity theory hypothesis.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131712
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1713: Metabolic Fate Is Defined by Amino Acid
           Nature in Gilthead Seabream Fed Different Diet Formulations

    • Authors: Rita Teodósio, Claúdia Aragão, Luís E. C. Conceição, Jorge Dias, Sofia Engrola
      First page: 1713
      Abstract: The sustainability of the Aquaculture industry relies on optimising diets to promote nitrogen retention and maximise fish growth. The aim of this study was to assess how different dietary formulations influence the bioavailability and metabolic fate of distinct amino acids in gilthead seabream juveniles. Amino acids (lysine, tryptophan, and methionine) were selected based on their ketogenic and/or glucogenic nature. Seabream were fed practical diets with different protein (44 and 40%) and lipid contents (21 and 18%): 44P21L, 44P18L, 40P21L, and 40P18L. After three weeks of feeding, the fish were tube-fed the correspondent diet labelled with 14C-lysine, 14C-tryptophan, or 14C-methionine. The amino acid utilisation was determined based on the evacuation, retention in gut, liver, and muscle, and the catabolism of the tracer. The metabolic fate of amino acids was mainly determined by their nature. Tryptophan was significantly more evacuated than lysine or methionine, indicating a lower availability for metabolic purposes. Methionine was more retained in muscle, indicating its higher availability. Lysine was mainly catabolised, suggesting that catabolism is preferentially ketogenic, even when this amino acid is deficient in diets. This study underpins the importance of optimising diets considering the amino acids’ bioavailability and metabolic fate to maximise protein retention in fish.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131713
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1714: The Composition of the Carcass,
           Physicochemical Properties, Texture and Microstructure of the Meat of D11
           Dworka and P9 Pekin Ducks

    • Authors: Dariusz Kokoszyński, Joanna Żochowska-Kujawska, Marek Kotowicz, Grzegorz Skoneczny, Svitlana Kostenko, Karol Włodarczyk, Kamil Stęczny, Mohamed Saleh, Marcin Wegner
      First page: 1714
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine the effects of genotype and sex on carcass composition and selected meat quality parameters of Dworka and Pekin ducks after two reproductive seasons. The research material consisted of 24 carcasses of Dworka ducks (breeding strain D11) and 24 carcasses of Pekin ducks from the herd of genetic resources (French Pekin, strain P-9). After cooling the carcasses (18 h, 2 °C), the pH values and electrical conductivity of the pectoral and leg muscles were determined, and then the carcass was dissected using a simplified method. After dissection, the pectoral and leg muscles were sampled for quality characteristics assessment. The Dworka ducks from breeding strain D11 compared to Pekin duck from conservative strain P9 were characterized by significantly (p < 0.05) higher carcass weight, protein and salt content, thermal drip, yellowness, thickness of perymisium and endomysium and lower water content of the pectoral muscle. Dworka ducks were also characterized by higher protein, salt and collagen content and higher electrical conductivity (EC24) of leg muscles than Pekin ducks. Regardless of genotype, male ducks had a higher gutted carcass weight with neck, salt content, muscle fiber cross-sectional area, fiber perimeter and diameters of pectoral muscle, and also higher protein and collagen, and lower fat content, pH24 and electrical conductivity of leg muscles. The genotype by sex interaction was significant (p < 0.05) for water, protein, fat content, perimisium thickness, cohesiveness, springiness of the pectoral major muscle, and for water content and protein of the leg muscles. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the effects of genotype and sex on the nutritional value and some technological parameters of duck meat. The studied ducks after two reproductive seasons satisfactorily meet the requirements of duck meat for consumers and duck meat processing plants.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131714
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1715: Comparing Blend of Essential Oils Plus
           25-Hydroxy-Vit-D3 Versus Monensin Plus Virginiamycin Combination in
           Finishing Feedlot Cattle: Growth Performance, Dietary Energetics, and
           Carcass Traits

    • Authors: Alfredo Estrada-Angulo, Daniel A. Mendoza-Cortez, Jorge L. Ramos-Méndez, Yesica J. Arteaga-Wences, Jesús D. Urías-Estrada, Beatriz I. Castro-Pérez, Francisco G. Ríos-Rincón, Miguel A. Rodríguez-Gaxiola, Alberto Barreras, Richard A. Zinn, Alejandro Plascencia
      First page: 1715
      Abstract: Ninety crossbreed bulls (349.5 ± 8.25 kg initial weight) were used in an 87day trial to compare the effects of a blend of essential oils plus 25-hydroxy-Vit-D3 (EO + HyD) versus the combination of monensin with virginiamycin (MON + VM) on feedlot growth performance and carcass characteristics. Dietary treatments (nine replicates/treatment) were supplemented with 40 mg/kg diet dry matter of MON + VM (equal parts) or with 120.12 mg/kg diet dry matter of a combination of standardized mixture of essential oils (120 mg) plus 0.12 mg of 25-hydroxy-vitamin-D3 (EO + HyD). There were no treatment effects on dry matter intake (DMI, p = 0.63). However, the coefficient of variation in day-to-day DMI was greater for EO + HyD than for MON + VM (11.4% vs. 3.88%, p = 0.04). There were no treatment effects (p ≥ 0.17) on daily weight gain, gain-to-feed ratio, and estimated dietary net energy. Cattle supplemented with EO + HyD had greater Longissimus muscle area (7.9%, p < 0.01) and estimated retail yield (1.6%, p = 0.03), and tended to have heavier (1.7%, p = 0.10) carcass weight. Differences among treatments in dressing percentage, fat thickness, kidney–pelvic–heart fat, and marbling score were not appreciable (p > 0.10). It is concluded that growth performance response and dietary energetic are similar for finishing cattle supplemented with EO + HyD vs. MON + VM. However, compared with MON + VM, supplementation with EO + HyD during the finishing phase may improve carcass Longissimus area and carcass yield.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131715
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1716: Enrichment of Ewe’s Milk with Dietary

    • Authors: Teresa Manso, Beatriz Gallardo, Paz Lavín, Ángel Ruiz Mantecón, Carmen Cejudo, Pilar Gómez-Cortés, Miguel Ángel de la Fuente
      First page: 1716
      Abstract: Increasing the levels of n-3 fatty acids (FA) in dairy products is an important goal in terms of enhancing the nutritional value of these foods for the consumer. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of linseed and algae oil supplements in ovine isoenergetic diets on healthy milk fatty acid composition, mainly n-3. Seventy-two Churra dairy ewes were divided and randomly assigned to four experimental treatments for 6 weeks. The treatments consisted of a TMR (40:60 forage:concentrate ratio) that varied according to the inclusion of different types of fat (23 g/100 g TMR): hydrogenated palm oil (control), linseed oil (LO), calcium soap of linseed oil (CaS-LO) and marine algae oil (AO). The most effective lipid supplement to increase n-3 FA in milk was AO. 22:6 n-3 and total n-3 PUFA content increased from 0.02 and 0.60% (control) to 2.63 and 3.53% (AO), respectively. All diets supplemented with n-3 FA diminished the content of saturated FA in milk and its atherogenic index, while the levels of trans-11 18:1 and cis-9 trans-11 18:2 significantly increased. Overall, the enhancement of n-3 FA in ewe’s milk would be advantageous for the manufacture of nutritionally improved cheeses.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131716
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1717: Coexistence between Humans and
           ‘Misunderstood’ Domestic Cats in the Anthropocene: Exploring
           Behavioural Plasticity as a Gatekeeper of Evolution

    • Authors: Eugenia Natoli, Carla Litchfield, Dominique Pontier
      First page: 1717
      Abstract: Welfare and management decisions for unowned free-ranging cats in urban environments should no longer be based on knowledge about behavioural ecology of solitary cats living and breeding in more natural ‘wild’ environments. We provide evidence that urban free-ranging domestic cats in the Anthropocene have responded to rapidly changing environments, such as abundance of food and higher population densities of conspecifics by adapting their behaviour (behavioural plasticity—the ability of a genotype (individual) to express different behaviours according to its environment) and social organisation to living in complex social groups, especially those living in colonies. Urban free-ranging cats are now more social, as demonstrated by different breeding patterns, lower infanticide, more frequent affiliative interactions in general, and different spatial groupings. We argue that this knowledge should be disseminated widely, and inform future research and strategies used to manage free-ranging cats across environments. Understanding behavioural plasticity and other recently evolved traits of domestic cats may lead to management strategies that maximise health and welfare of cats, wildlife, and humans—otherwise domestic cat behaviour may be ‘misunderstood’. Importantly, interdisciplinary research using expertise from biological and social sciences, and engaging human communities, should evaluate these management strategies to ensure they maintain optimal welfare of free-ranging domestic cats while preserving biodiversity and protecting wildcats.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131717
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1718: Proteomics Insights into the Gene Network of
           cis9, trans11-Conjugated Linoleic Acid Biosynthesis in Bovine Mammary
           Gland Epithelial Cells

    • Authors: Liying Peng, Ge Bai, Chunzheng Wang, Jianan Dong, Yongjun Liu, Zhe Sun, Yuguo Zhen, Guixin Qin, Xuefeng Zhang, Natnael Demelash, Tao Wang
      First page: 1718
      Abstract: The objective of the study was to elucidate the stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD1)-dependent gene network of c9, t11-CLA biosynthesis in MAC-T cells from an energy metabolism perspective. The cells were divided into the CAY group (firstly incubated with CAY10566, a chemical inhibitor of SCD1, then incubated with trans-11-octadecenoic acid, (TVA)), the TVA group (only TVA), and the control group (without CAY, TVA). The c9, t11-CLA, and TVA contents were determined by gas chromatography. The mRNA levels of SCD1 and candidate genes were analyzed via real-time PCR. Tandem mass tag (TMT)-based quantitative proteomics, bioinformatic analysis, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM), and small RNA interference were used to explore genes involved in the SCD1-dependent c9, t11-CLA biosynthesis. The results showed that the SCD1 deficiency led by CAY10566 blocked the biosynthesis of c9, t11-CLA. In total, 60 SCD1-related proteins mainly involved in energy metabolism pathways were primarily screened by TMT-based quantitative proteomics analysis. Moreover, 17 proteins were validated using PRM analysis. Then, 11 genes were verified to have negative relationships with SCD1 after the small RNA interference analysis. Based on the above results, we concluded that genes involved in energy metabolism pathways have an impact on the SCD1-dependent molecular mechanism of c9, t11-CLA biosynthesis.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131718
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1719: A Review of Non-Invasive Sampling in
           Wildlife Disease and Health Research: What’s New'

    • Authors: Anna-Katarina Schilling, Maria Vittoria Mazzamuto, Claudia Romeo
      First page: 1719
      Abstract: In the last decades, wildlife diseases and the health status of animal populations have gained increasing attention from the scientific community as part of a One Health framework. Furthermore, the need for non-invasive sampling methods with a minimal impact on wildlife has become paramount in complying with modern ethical standards and regulations, and to collect high-quality and unbiased data. We analysed the publication trends on non-invasive sampling in wildlife health and disease research and offer a comprehensive review on the different samples that can be collected non-invasively. We retrieved 272 articles spanning from 1998 to 2021, with a rapid increase in number from 2010. Thirty-nine percent of the papers were focussed on diseases, 58% on other health-related topics, and 3% on both. Stress and other physiological parameters were the most addressed research topics, followed by viruses, helminths, and bacterial infections. Terrestrial mammals accounted for 75% of all publications, and faeces were the most widely used sample. Our review of the sampling materials and collection methods highlights that, although the use of some types of samples for specific applications is now consolidated, others are perhaps still underutilised and new technologies may offer future opportunities for an even wider use of non-invasively collected samples.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131719
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1720: Effect on Broiler Production Performance and
           Meat Quality of Feeding Ulva lactuca Supplemented with Carbohydrases

    • Authors: Mónica M. Costa, José M. Pestana, Patrícia Carvalho, Cristina M. Alfaia, Cátia F. Martins, Daniela Carvalho, Miguel Mourato, Sandra Gueifão, Inês Delgado, Inês Coelho, José P. C. Lemos, Madalena M. Lordelo, José A. M. Prates
      First page: 1720
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to test if feeding 15% U. lactuca to broilers, alone or combined with carbohydrases, enhanced meat nutritional quality, without compromising growth performance. One hundred and twenty 22-day-old broilers were allocated to the following diets and replicated 10 times for 14 days: (1) maize and soy-based diet (control); (2) control with 15% U. lactuca (UL); (3) UL diet with 0.005% commercial carbohydrase mixture (ULC); and (4) UL diet with 0.01% ulvan lyase (ULE). Final body weight and average daily gain decreased (p < 0.050) with the ULE diet compared with the control, but no significant differences were found for the other diets. The intestinal viscosity increased (p < 0.001) with all alga diets but was lowered (p < 0.050) in the ileum with the ULE diet, relative to UL and ULC diets. Meat lightness and redness values, off-flavours, and total carotenoids increased (p < 0.001), while yellow values, tenderness, juiciness, overall acceptability, α- and γ-tocopherol, and total lipids decreased (p < 0.001) with alga diets. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (p < 0.050), and the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio decreased (p < 0.001) with the ULE diet. Total minerals in meat increased (p < 0.001) with alga diets, conversely to sodium and zinc (p < 0.001). Feeding 15% of U. lactuca to broilers did not impair growth but increased meat nutritional value through the accumulation of health-promoting antioxidant carotenoids, n-3 PUFA and total minerals, although reducing overall meat acceptability.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131720
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1721: Signals of Potential Species Associations
           Offer Clues about Community Organisation of Stream Fish across Seasons

    • Authors: Chen Zhang, Yuzhou Zhang, Jorge García-Girón, Kai Tan, Lei Wang, Yihao Ge, Yunzhi Yan
      First page: 1721
      Abstract: Environmental filtering, spatial factors and species interactions are fundamental ecological mechanisms for community organisation, yet the role of such interactions across different environmental and spatial settings remains mostly unknown. In this study, we investigated fish community organisation scenarios and seasonal species-to-species associations potentially reflecting biotic associations along the Qiupu River (China). Based on a latent variable approach and a tree-based method, we compared the relative contribution of the abiotic environment, spatial covariates and potential species associations for variation in the community structure, and assessed whether different assembly scenarios were modulated by concomitant changes in the interaction network structure of fish communities across seasons. We found that potential species associations might have been underestimated in community-based assessments of stream fish. Omnivore species, since they have more associations with other species, were found to be key components sustaining fish interaction networks across different stream orders. Hence, we suggest that species interactions, such as predation and competition, likely played a key role in community structure. For instance, indices accounting for network structure, such as connectance and nestedness, were strongly correlated with the unexplained residuals from our latent variable approach, thereby re-emphasising that biotic signals, potentially reflecting species interactions, may be of primary importance in determining stream fish communities across seasons. Overall, our findings indicate that interaction network structures are a powerful tool to reflect the contribution of potential species associations to community assembly. From an applied perspective, this study should encourage freshwater ecologists to empirically capture and manage biotic constraints in stream ecosystems across different geographical and environmental settings, especially in the context of the ever-increasing impacts of human-induced local extinction debts and species invasions.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-03
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131721
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1722: Is the Use of Bisphosphonates Putting Horses
           at Risk' An Osteoclast Perspective

    • Authors: Fernando B. Vergara-Hernandez, Brian D. Nielsen, Aimee C. Colbath
      First page: 1722
      Abstract: Osteoclasts are unique and vital bone cells involved in bone turnover. These cells are active throughout the individual’s life and play an intricate role in growth and remodeling. However, extra-label bisphosphonate use may impair osteoclast function, which could result in skeletal microdamage and impaired healing without commonly associated pain, affecting bone remodeling, fracture healing, and growth. These effects could be heightened when administered to growing and exercising animals. Bisphosphonates (BPs) are unevenly distributed in the skeleton; blood supply and bone turnover rate determine BPs uptake in bone. Currently, there is a critical gap in scientific knowledge surrounding the biological impacts of BP use in exercising animals under two years old. This may have significant welfare ramifications for growing and exercising equids. Therefore, future research should investigate the effects of these drugs on skeletally immature horses.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-03
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131722
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1723: Reproductive Injury in Male Rats from
           Acrylamide Toxicity and Potential Protection by Earthworm Methanolic

    • Authors: Mohamed M. Ahmed, Amany A. Hammad, Sahar H. Orabi, Hamed T. Elbaz, Ahmed E. Elweza, Enas A. Tahoun, Mona M. Elseehy, Ahmed M. El-Shehawi, Ahmed A. Mousa
      First page: 1723
      Abstract: This study examined the protective effect of earthworm extract (EE) on acrylamide (ACR)-induced reproductive dysfunction. Forty male rats were allocated into four groups (n = 10). The G I (control) group received distilled water (D.W.). The G II group received ACR (5 mg kg−1 B.W. in D.W.) 5 days per week, orally, for 3 weeks. The G III group was administered EE (300 mg kg−1 B.W in D.W.) 5 days per week, orally, for 3 weeks. The G IV group was pretreated with EE for 3 weeks and then co-treated with EE and ACR for an additional 3 weeks. ACR decreased the number of sperm, sperm viability, and total motility. However, it increased testosterone levels with no effect on the FSH or LH levels. Moreover, ACR increased the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO). Meanwhile, it decreased the glutathione (GSH) concentration in testicular tissues. Notably, the expression levels of p53 and Ki-67 were increased in the degenerated spermatogenic cells and in the hyperplastic Leydig cells of the testis of the ACR-treated group, respectively. Acrylamide induced alterations in the testicular tissue architecture. Interestingly, EE restored the sperm parameters and recovered the testicular histological structures and the biochemical alterations induced by ACR. In conclusion, earthworm extract ameliorated ACR-induced reproductive toxicity via restoring the testicular antioxidant balance and suppressing p53 and Ki-67 expressions in testicular tissues.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131723
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1724: Establishment of the Primary Avian Gonadal
           Somatic Cell Lines for Cytogenetic Studies

    • Authors: Inna E. Pristyazhnyuk, Lyubov P. Malinovskaya, Pavel M. Borodin
      First page: 1724
      Abstract: The last decade was marked by a steep rise in avian studies at genomic and cellular levels. Cell lines are important tools for in vitro studies in cell biology and cytogenetics. We developed a simple method of primary somatic cell culture establishment from the ovaries of the great tits (Parus major) and testes of ten Passerine species, characterized the cellular composition of the ovary-derived lines using RT-PCR and immunolocalization of the tissue-specific markers and tested the efficiency of two methods of genetic transformation of the ovary-derived cell line. We found that the ovary-derived cell cultures of the great tit were composed of fibroblasts mainly, but also contained interstitial and granulosa cells. They were cultivated until the 10th passage without any noticeable decrease in their proliferative activity. The testis-derived cell cultures had lower proliferative potential. However, both ovary- and testis-derived cell cultures provided enough material for high quality mitotic metaphase chromosome preparations. The efficiency of its transduction with lentivirus containing a GFP reporter was very low, while electroporation with episomal vectors expressing GFP resulted in a high yield of GFP-positive cells. The proposed method could be used for the generation of high quality material for various cytogenetic and genomic studies.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131724
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1725: Analysis of Movements and Behavior of
           Bighead Carps (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) Considering Fish Passage
           Energetics in an Experimental Vertical Slot Fishway

    • Authors: Junjun Tan, Zhenbiao Liu, Yu Wang, Yuanyang Wang, Senfan Ke, Xiaotao Shi
      First page: 1725
      Abstract: An understanding of fish movement behavior in response to flow field variables is important for exploring the hydrodynamic strategies of fish in fish passages. In this paper, bighead carps were taken as an example. The fish movement behavior response to water flow field information by means of estimating the energetic expenditure using an IBM approach in an experimental fishway was investigated. Fish swimming velocity, drag force, and energy expenditure were analyzed in varied flow conditions related to hydraulic variables, including velocity (V), turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and strain rate (SR). The result indicated that the fish will require more energy in high TKE zones. This study provides a reference for optimizing the design of fish passages and fisheries management. This method can be applied to assess the efficiency of fish bypass structures and conduct fish survival studies.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131725
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1726: Carboxylated ε-Poly-L-Lysine
           Supplementation of the Freezing Extender Improves the Post-Thawing Boar
           Sperm Quality

    • Authors: Weijing Zhang, Yajing Li, Zhendong Zhu
      First page: 1726
      Abstract: Frozen boar sperm is used on a minimal scale in consequence of the cryo-injuries induced by biochemical and physical modifications during the freezing and thawing processes. The present study investigates whether the addition of carboxylated ε-poly-L-lysine (CPLL) to the freezing medium could improve post-thaw boar sperm quality or not. Boar sperm was diluted with freezing medium contained different doses of carboxylated ε-poly-L-lysine (0, 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1%; v/v). The motility patterns, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, NADH-CoQ activity, ATP level, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and antioxidant defense system, as well as apoptosis in post-thaw boar sperm, were measured. It was observed that 0.25% CPLL treatment significantly improved the post-thaw boar sperm total motility, progressive motility, straight-linear velocity (VSL), curvilinear velocity (VCL), average path velocity (VAP), linearity (LIN), straightness (STR), membrane integrity, and acrosome integrity. Interestingly, the addition of CPLL also significantly increased the post-thaw sperm mitochondrial membrane potential, NADH-CoQ activity, and ATP level. Moreover, post-thaw boar sperm catalase (CAT) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were increased with the addition of CPLL from 0.125% to 0.5% concentration levels. Furthermore, reduction of post-thaw sperm MDA level and apoptosis in 0.25% CPLL treatment was also observed. Those observations suggested that the addition of 0.25% CPLL to the freezing medium increased post-thaw boar sperm quality by protecting sperm mitochondrial function and antioxidant defense system. These findings provided novel insights that CPLL can be used as an efficient cryoprotectant to improve the post-thaw boar sperm quality during cryopreservation.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131726
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1727: The Role of Dogs in the Relationship between
           Telework and Performance via Affect: A Moderated Moderated Mediation

    • Authors: Ana Junça-Silva, Margarida Almeida, Catarina Gomes
      First page: 1727
      Abstract: Although there is evidence that pets may help individuals facing significant daily stressors, and that they may enhance the well-being of their owners, little is known about the benefits of pets for job performance. Since the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, teleworking was a strategy implemented in many countries to reduce the virus widespread and to assure organizational productivity. Those who work from home and who own pets may work close to them. Based on the conservation of resources theory, this study aimed to analyze whether positive affect mediated the relationship between telecommuting and self-reported job performance and if psychological and physical closeness to the pet would moderate this relationship in such a way that it would be stronger for those who worked closer to their pet, and who were more emotionally attached to them. For this study, we collected data from 81 teleworkers who did not own pets, and from 320 teleworkers who owned pets. Both answered an online questionnaire. Findings: Results from the study showed the existence of significant differences between those who owned and who did not own pets regarding positive affect and performance, in which those who owned pets reported higher levels of positive affect and self-reported performance and perceived telework more positively. Moreover, positive affect mediated the relationship between telework and self-reported job performance. Furthermore, emotional and physical closeness moderated the mediating effect. This study contributes to a better understanding of the human-animal interaction and how pets can be a personal resource able to change their owners’ affective experiences and job performance while they are working from home. The findings demonstrate that telework may be a suitable organizational strategy for pet-owners.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131727
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1728: Is Pet Health Insurance Able to Improve
           Veterinary Care' Why Pet Health Insurance for Dogs and Cats Has
           Limits: An Ethical Consideration on Pet Health Insurance

    • Authors: Michelle Becker, Holger Volk, Peter Kunzmann
      First page: 1728
      Abstract: Background: Owners often feel the cost of veterinary care is too high, as there remains a limited understanding of the cost of health care in human and veterinary medicine alike. Pet health insurance is often seen as a universal solution. However, especially for patient owners with few financial resources, both the bill at the vet and the monthly premium for pet health insurance can become a challenge. Hypothesis: Pet health insurance can prevent or ease many price discussions at the vet, but it does not offer a solution for patient owners with little financial means. Methods: In order to verify for which patient owners pet health insurance can be a solution, four theoretical groups were formed depending on the patient owner’s willingness to pay and his/her dispensable funds based on a theoretical model. Results: Dispensable funds are a factor that cannot be influenced by the veterinary surgeon. However, low dispensable funds as a result of an insufficient willingness to save (whether due to a lack of financial education or a lack of will) can be solved by pet health insurance. Willingness to pay, on the other hand, can be influenced by empathetic communication from the veterinary surgeon and thus also from pet health insurance. Nevertheless, situations remain where pet health insurance is not a solution either, because owners can neither afford the veterinary costs nor a premium for a pet health insurance.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131728
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1729: Dietary Glutamine Supplementation Alleviated
           Inflammation Responses and Improved Intestinal Mucosa Barrier of
           LPS-Challenged Broilers

    • Authors: Bolin Zhang, Qingzhen Zhong, Ning Liu, Peiyong Song, Peng Zhu, Caichao Zhang, Zewei Sun
      First page: 1729
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of glutamine (Gln) supplementation on intestinal inflammatory reaction and mucosa barrier of broilers administrated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimuli. A total of 120 1-d-old male broilers were randomly divided into four treatments in a 2 × 2 experimental arrangement, containing immune challenge (injected with LPS in a dose of 0 or 500 μg/kg of body weight) and dietary treatments (supplemented with 1.22% alanine or 1% Gln). The results showed that growth performance of broilers intra-abdominally injected with LPS was impaired, and Gln administration alleviated the adverse effects on growth performance induced by LPS challenge. Furthermore, Gln supplementation reduced the increased concentration of circulating tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β induced by LPS challenge. Meanwhile, D-lactic acid and diamine oxidase concentration in plasma were also decreased by Gln supplementation. In addition, the shorter villus height, deeper crypt depth and the lower ratio of villus height to crypt depth of duodenum, jejunum and ileum induced by LPS stimulation were reversed by Gln supplementation. Gln administration beneficially increased LPS-induced reduction in the expression of intestine tight junction proteins such as zonula occludens protein 1 (ZO-1), claudin-1 and occludin except for the ZO-1 in duodenum and occludin in ileum. Moreover, Gln supplementation downregulated the mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 4, focal adhesion kinase, myeloid differentiation factor 88 and IL-1R-associated kinase 4 in TLR4/FAK/MyD88 signaling pathway. Therefore, it can be concluded that Gln administration could attenuate LPS-induced inflammatory responses and improve intestinal barrier damage of LPS-challenged broilers.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131729
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1730: Three-Dimensional Investigations of
           Virus-Associated Structures in the Nuclei with White Spot Syndrome Virus
           (WSSV) Infection in Red Swamp Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii)

    • Authors: Yovita Permata Budi, Li-Chi Lin, Chang-Hsien Chung, Li-Li Chen, Yi-Fan Jiang
      First page: 1730
      Abstract: White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been reported to cause severe economic loss in the shrimp industry. With WSSV being a large virus still under investigation, the 3D structure of its assembly remains unclear. The current study was planned to clarify the 3D structures of WSSV infections in the cell nucleus of red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). The samples from various tissues were prepared on the seventh day post-infection. The serial sections of the intestinal tissue were obtained for electron tomography after the ultrastructural screening. After 3D reconstruction, the WSSV-associated structures were further visualized, and the expressions of viral proteins were confirmed with immuno-gold labeling. While the pairs of sheet-like structures with unknown functions were observed in the nucleus, the immature virions could be recognized by the core units of nucleocapsids on a piece of the envelope. The maturation of the particle could include the elongation of core units and the filling of empty nucleocapsids with electron-dense materials. Our observations may bring to light a possible order of WSSV maturation in the cell nucleus of the crayfish, while more investigations remain necessary to visualize the detailed viral–host interactions.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131730
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
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