A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 103 journals)
The end of the list has been reached or no journals were found for your choice.
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Botanical Review
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.708
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1874-9372 - ISSN (Online) 0006-8101
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2468 journals]
  • A Review of Taxonomic Concepts and Species Delimitation in Cycadales

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Taxonomic data is essential to advance the discovery and description of biodiversity, as well as the study of evolutionary processes. Emerging large-scale datasets and new methods of analysis have provided different approaches to describe biodiversity. Here, we present a review of the taxonomic history in Cycadales including an analysis of historical taxonomic concepts and approaches used for species delimitation. We examine the trends in the publication of new species following taxonomic works in books, journals and horticultural catalogues, monographic projects and floras where species treatments were published. In addition, we review the studies concerning species delimitations using the literature available in scientific journals appearing in the database ISI Web of Knowledge. The approaches used were discussed throughout all research focused on empirical and theoretical considerations in each study. We review the current state of the studies on causal processes that have given rise to the currently recognized diversity. The trend shows that taxonomic work on discovery and description of species has been intensive in the last 40 years culminating in 38.8% of binomials published. As a result, we consider the relevance of the monographs and floras for identification of species for other biological disciplines and the content of these contributions is compared and discussed. A total of six criteria (diagnosability, phenetic, phylogenetic, genotypic cluster, niche specialization and coalescent) were detected from the following three approaches to species delimitation within Cycadales: traditional, integrative taxonomy, and monophyletic. In all cases, the results from these species delimitations not only provided a taxonomic treatment or proposed a new species, but also supposedly clarified the other species involved as a result of the new taxonomic concept of the new species described. Most investigations of species delimitation used the traditional approach or a phenetic criteria. Finally, we discuss evolutionary studies on causal processes involved in cycad diversity. This is considered in the context of species delimitation as hypothesis testing for a successful evaluation of variation in both genetic and morphological understanding.
      PubDate: 2023-11-16
       
  • The Remarkable Diversity of Parasitic Flowering Plants in Colombia

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Parasitic plants have evolved independently in 12 Angiosperm orders. Nine of them (Boraginales, Cucurbitales, Ericales, Lamiales, Laurales, Malvales, Santalales, Solanales, and Zygophyllales) are represented in Colombia by 17 families, 44 genera and 246 species, including facultative (37) and obligate (187) hemiparasites, holoexoparasites (19) and holoendoparasites (3). Cladocolea coriacea (Loranthaceae) is reported for the first time in Colombia. One genus (Sanguisuga, Cytinaceae) and 69 species (28.04%) are endemic to the country. Endemism decreases with elevation, ranging from 26 species (37.68%) below 1000 m, to one species (1.44%) above 4000 m. Speciation in Aetanthus, Psittacanthus and Tristerix (Loranthaceae), Dendrophthora and Phoradendron (Viscaceae), and Castilleja and Neobartsia (Orobanchaceae) was likely prompted by the Andean uplift. The highest number of species (169) are found in the Andean Region, whereas the Orinoco Region contains the lowest number (29). Dry forests and thickets, and coastal vegetation of the Caribbean Region are the preferred ecosystems for Krameria (Krameriaceae), Sanguisuga, Acanthosyris (Cervantesiaceae), Maracanthus (Loranthaceae), Ximenia (Ximeniaceae), Lennoa (Ehretiaceae), and Anisantherina (Orobanchaceae). Orobanche minor, recently introduced to the country, is the only potential weed for crops between 2500 and 3200 m in the Eastern Cordillera. Convergent lifeforms include: the obligate, twining stem holoparasitic Cassytha (Lauraceae) and Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae); the root holoexoparasitic Sanguisuga, Mitrastemon (Mitrastemonaceae), all Balanophoraceae, and Lennoa; and the root obligate hemiparasitic Krameria, Gaiadendron (Loranthaceae), and all Cervantesiaceae, Opiliaceae, Schoepfiaceae, Strombosiaceae and Ximeniaceae. Holoendoparasitism occurs only in Apodanthaceae, whereas root facultative hemiparasitism is restricted to the Orobanchaceae.
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
       
  • Deforestation Impacts on Diversity of Orchids with Inference on the
           Conservation Initiatives: Malaysia Case Study

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Monitoring the impact of anthropogenic and naturogenic threats on orchid community through diversity, taxonomy and conservation studies is necessary. Reintroduction of these species to their natural habitat associates with their resilience, selection of suitable trees and sites for regeneration and restoration efforts, drives the conservation initiative. Upon obtaining an accurate estimate of the diversity for genetic resource conservation, integrative methods of classical morphological taxonomy, anatomy (micromorphology), and molecular genetics are crucial to solve the taxonomic uncertainty. Changes in microclimatic conditions and habitat structures are the key determinants of both epiphytic and terrestrial orchids assemblages following disturbance. Any assessments of biodiversity and ecosystem service must include variable forest types and management regimes to provide impartial views on the effect of forest and ecological disturbance on the orchid community. Accordingly, a plant-microbial ecology study should be included to study the extent of human-induced climatic variability towards the orchid diversification.
      PubDate: 2023-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-023-09292-y
       
  • A Review of Breeding Systems in the Pineapple Family (Bromeliaceae,
           Poales)

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Breeding systems play an essential role in plant sexual reproduction and influence speciation and extinction processes. However, our understanding of the breeding systems for particular neotropical angiosperm families is inadequate. The Pineapple family (Bromeliaceae) is one of the few indigenous and highly diverse plant lineages native to the American Continent and is a resource for the ornamental plant industry. Bromeliads have a remarkable history of adaptive radiation, yet the role of breeding systems in their evolution and ecology is still unknown. This review aims to establish the current state of knowledge on breeding systems in Bromeliaceae by identifying general patterns, data limitations, and information gaps. We compiled data on self-compatibility (SC), autonomous self-fertilization (selfing), and apomixis based on a thorough review of the scientific literature from 1990 to 2020. The final database included 177 entries, which represented 26 genera and 152 species (4.1% of the family). Two-thirds of the studies were conducted on species from highly diverse genera: Aechmea, Pitcairnia, Tillandsia, and Vriesea. Bromeliaceae exhibit a wide variety of breeding systems (SC and selfing). Subfamilies Pitcairnioideae (sensu stricto) and Tillandsioideae had higher values of SC and selfing, although some of the most investigated genera in each subfamily exhibited contradictory patterns and data for subfamilies considered ancestral were absent. Complete apomixis was rare, but it was more prevalent in Pitcairnioideae. The evolution of autofertility is likely the combined result of floral herkogamy as well as the species’ self-compatibility. Our present understanding of the evolutionary advantages of selfing in Bromeliaceae is limited and deserves further investigation.
      PubDate: 2023-07-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-023-09290-0
       
  • Calculating the Growth of Vascular Cambium in Woody Plants as the
           Cylindrical Surface

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The expansion of the vascular cambium cylinder in the stem of woody plants has been modeled many times, using different approaches and focusing on contributions of different cell events (cell divisions, intrusive cell growth and symplastic cell growth). Although there are many case studies in the literature, a universal model is still lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study is to estimate the quantitative changes in the contribution of symplastic growth of a single cambial cell (a sector of the cambial circumference) to the expansion of the vascular cambium cylinder, as the stem increases in girth. The proposed calculations, using the number π, and considering the actual dimensions of cambial cells, show (a) that the average symplastic increase per one initial cell in the circumferential direction decreases exponentially with the enlargement of cambial circumference, and (b) that the significant difference in the magnitude of symplastic increment of a single initial in the radial and circumferential directions increases proportionally to the increase in the circumference of the cambial cylinder. The proposed mathematical formula helps to understand the general rules that govern the gradual increase of the vascular cambium cylinder during wood production and would further facilitate the description/modeling of stem growth and formation of wood structural patterns.
      PubDate: 2023-06-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-023-09291-z
       
  • Cytogenetic Diversity in Scilloideae (Asparagaceae): a Comprehensive
           Recollection and Exploration of Karyo-Evolutionary Trends

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The family Asparagaceae (subfamily Scilloideae, APG III, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161:105–121, 2009) constitutes approximately 1000 species in about 33 genera of deciduous bulbous geophytes with long history of medicinal utilities. However, satisfactory delimitation of genera as well as species boundaries within most genera still remain doubtful for the lack of reliable discriminating characters with morphological traits showing continuous variation. Detailed cytogenetic characterization and thorough comparative analysis is still scanty in this group and thus can provide supportive taxonomical data besides serving as basis for further genomic studies. This group showcases diverse cytogenetic characters studied across 4 tribes: Hyacintheae, Urgineeae, Ornithogaleae and Oziroëeae. Cytogenetic investigation has not yet been initiated in more than 50% of accepted species, studies mostly limited to chromosome counts or conventional karyotyping methods. Somatic chromosome counts have been reported in around 378 species varying from 2n = 4 in Ornithogaleae to 2n = 150 in Hyacintheae and the basic ancestral chromosome number of x = 10 is proposed for the subfamily and secondary base numbers presumed to arise by descending dysploidy followed by polyploidization leading to such variation. Meiotic analysis and genome size estimation is reported in very few species and requires further investigation. Karyotype in most taxa exhibits a general pattern characterized by asymmetry with predominance of acrocentric chromosomes. Fluorochrome banding by CMA/DAPI staining and FISH although reported in very few species revealed characteristic patterns in different taxa, with potential taxonomic utilities. Thus, comparison of compiled data depicted some patterns of chromosomal diversity within the subfamily Scilloideae but study of more taxa is required for prediction of trends.
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-022-09279-1
       
  • Global Plant Ecology of Tropical Ultramafic Ecosystems

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Ultramafic ecosystems are renowned for high endemism and habitat specialization. However, most of our understanding of ultramafic plant ecology comes from Mediterranean and temperate climes, raising questions about the generalizability of plant responses to ultramafic soils. This is especially apparent in tropical ultramafic ecosystems which exhibit a wide range of endemism and differentiation between ultramafic and adjacent non-ultramafic soils. Our objectives were two-fold: 1) synthesize our understanding of tropical ultramafic plant ecology, paying particular attention to generalities that may explain variation in endemism and habitat specialization among tropical ultramafic ecosystems; and 2) define an interdisciplinary research agenda using tropical ultramafic ecosystems as a macroecological model. We demonstrate that tropical ultramafic floras are diverse and variable in plant form and function due to the interactive effects of biogeography, climate, and edaphic properties. The variable rates of endemism, specialization, and stress tolerance traits across tropical ultramafic ecosystems have implications for the management and conservation of these diverse systems. Resumen. Los ecosistemas ultramáficos son reconocidos por su endemismo y especialización del hábitat. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de nuestra comprensión de la ecología vegetal ultramáfica proviene de climas mediterráneos y templados, lo que plantea dudas sobre la generalización de las respuestas de las plantas a los suelos ultramáficos. Esto es especialmente evidente en los ecosistemas tropicales ultramáficos que exhiben una amplia gama de endemismo y diferenciación entre suelos tropicales ultramáficos y no ultramáficos adyacentes. Nosotros teníamos dos objetivos: 1) sintetizar nuestra comprensión actual de la ecología de las plantas tropicales ultramáficas, prestando especial atención a las generalidades que pueden explicar la variación en el endemismo y la especialización del hábitat entre los ecosistemas tropicales ultramáficos; y 2) definir una agenda de investigación interdisciplinaria utilizando ecosistemas ultramáficos tropicales como modelo macroecológico. Las floras tropicales ultramáficas son diversas y variables en la forma y función de las plantas debido a los efectos interactivos de la biogeografía, el clima y las propiedades edáficas. Las tasas variables de endemismo, especialización y rasgos de tolerancia al estrés en los ecosistemas tropicales ultramáficos tienen implicaciones para el manejo y conservación de estos diversos sistemas.
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-022-09278-2
       
  • Critical Factors Responsible for Potato Tuberization

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the fourth most cultivated and consumed crop worldwide. The swelled stolonic region of the plant is economically important due to its considerable quantities of carbohydrates plus modest quantities of minerals and vitamins. Tuber formation is governed by various external and internal factors including light, oxygen concentration, photosynthate availability, phytochromes, transcription factors, and metabolite availability. This review updates and expands upon our current knowledge regarding the involvement of these variables in the tuberization process. Tuber formation starts at the onset of the supportive season under optimal light conditions where phytochromes in leaves sense the signal. The transmittance of the signal results in photosynthate accumulation, phloem loading with sucrose, phloem transport and unloading at the stolonic region, sucrose entry into the tuber cell, and conversion of sucrose to starch, all under the direction of regulatory enzymes. Several genes are associated with tuberization and regulated either positively or negatively. During the course of these cellular micro-reactions, a very fine stolonic tip will ultimately be transformed into a fully matured potato tuber. Tuber formation can be increased by genetic modifications, that further improve tuber yield and quality.
      PubDate: 2023-05-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-023-09289-7
       
  • Seed Dispersal in Pines (Pinus)

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Pines (n = 121 species) are important elements of forest ecosystems. They are economically and ecologically valuable and are often at the center of efforts to manage forests to reduce the risk of wildland fires. The pattern and process of pine seed dispersal and seedling establishment have important implications for maintaining healthy forests. 75% of pines are dispersed by wind, and 25% are dispersed by scatter-hoarding birds and rodents. Among the wind-dispersed pines, there are about 20 species that attract the attention of seed-caching animals that gather seeds and cache them in soil, so these species are dispersed by a combination of wind and animals. Animal-dispersed pines often occur in semi-arid ecosystems. The seeds cached by animals are a dynamic resource. Animals pilfer each other’s caches, move them to new sites and recache them. Some seed reside in dozens of different cache sites between seed maturation and seed germination. Many pines are adapted to fire. This involves serotinous cones (about 24 species), which are dense, woody, and lignified and remain closed at maturity. Serotiny establishes a canopy seed bank that can persist for several decades. Shortly after fire, these cones open and shed seeds onto the burned landscape. Pines often mast, producing large crops of seeds at intervals of several years. These large cone crops satiate the appetites of specialist seed predators, resulting in increased seedling establishment and also increases the effectiveness of seed dispersal. In the past, pines have responded to climate change by shifting geographic ranges, and some pines appear to be responding to warming climates in a similar way.
      PubDate: 2023-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-023-09288-8
       
  • Leaf Secretory Structures in Asteraceae: A Synthesis of Their Diversity
           and Evolution

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract This study presents the first comparative analysis of the leaf secretory structures across Asteraceae. In this work, the leaf secretory structures of more than 500 species of 35 of the 40 tribes and 11 of the 13 subfamilies of Asteraceae are described and compared to evaluate their diversity at the tribe level and to identify evolutionary patterns. Leaf secretory structures are present in 28 of the 35 analyzed tribes and correspond to canals (recorded in 17 tribes), secretory cavities (1 tribe), hydathodes (19 tribes), laticifers (4 tribes) and glandular trichomes (24 tribes). Canals are mostly associated with vascular bundles and predominate in Asteroideae, while cavities were only present within Tageteae. Hydathodes occur in leaves without divisions and with well-developed teeth. Laticifers were observed only in the tribes of Cichorioideae. Seven glandular trichome morphotypes were differentiated by their cellular composition and shape. These observations together with the available information showed that secretory structures are found in 80% of the Asteraceae tribes. Four of the 40 tribes did not present any type of secretory structure. Our study reveals that almost all of the tribes possess one to three types of secretory structures, and are absent in some early-diverging clades. Character evolution analyses show that glandular trichomes are plesiomorphic in Asteraceae. This study found that secretory structures prevail in late-diverging lineages and were taxonomically informative at different levels. Our comparative study of the secretory structures in Asteraceae is essential for the standardization of its terminology and will provide a frame of reference for future studies.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-022-09276-4
       
  • Phylogenetic, Developmental and Functional Aspects of Stomatal Patterning:
           Lessons from Magnoliids

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The magnoliid clade encompasses 18 extant families arranged in four orders, plus several extinct taxa, including some of the most ancient angiosperm fossils. The clade is characterized by paracytic stomata with a distinct pair of lateral subsidiary cells that flank the guard cells, though other stomatal types are also reported, including anomocytic and anisocytic. In contrast with monocots, the paracytic stomata of magnoliids develop from linear triads, and the lateral subsidiary cells are stomatal-lineage ground cells (SLGCs). Anisocytic stomata typically possess three SLGCs. Amplifying divisions are rare in magnoliids, but occur in some Piperales, in association with anisocytic stomata. Differences in mature stomatal types result from differences in cell shape and polarity at critical developmental stages. Stomatal clusters have been reported in Cinnamomum (Lauraceae) and Galbulimima (Himantandraceae), but neither are apparently formed by amplifying divisions, in contrast with eudicots. In Galbulimima, each peltate scale hair is surrounded by a ring of 3–8 non-contiguous stomata, each derived from different initial meristemoids.
      PubDate: 2023-01-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-023-09287-9
       
  • A Comprehensive Review on the Taxonomy, Ecology, Reproductive Biology,
           Economic Importance and Conservation Status of Indian Himalayan
           Rhododendrons

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The Indian Himalaya is characterized by high plant diversity and endemism levels. Here, the genus Rhododendron is one of the largest flowering plant genera. The flowering of rhododendrons across elevations in the Himalaya supports insects, birds, and animal movements seasonally. Their diverse life forms and habits also form an important structural component of diverse vegetation types from tropical to temperate forests and alpine thickets. Rhododendrons are also a source of livelihood for many rural communities in the Himalaya. The high ecological and economic significance of rhododendrons in this mountain region qualifies it as an important genus for further investigation and exploration. However, over time, climate change and the ever‐increasing demand for natural resources have collectively exerted considerable pressure on Indian Himalayan rhododendrons in their natural habitats. Available data on various aspects of taxonomy, ecology and conservation status are scanty. There is an urgent need to assess the potential ecological and economic benefits that rhododendrons provide to local mountain communities and associated wildlife. This critical review provides comprehensive detail on taxonomy, evolutionary history, ecology, reproductive biology, hybridization, economic importance, impact of climate change on its ecology and evolution, and the conservation status of rhododendrons in the Indian Himalaya. Further, we conclude with a discussion of the strategies to be adopted for the conservation of Rhododendron-dominated forests in the Indian Himalaya. This comprehensive compilation will open new perspectives for future studies and improve ongoing conservation efforts to manage valuable plant resources.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09273-z
       
  • Composition of Sexual Fluids in Cycas revoluta Ovules During Pollination
           and Fertilization

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The composition of fluids that mediate fertilization in cycads is described for the first time. Using tandem mass spectrometry, proteomes of two stages of fluid production, megagametophyte fluid and archegonial chamber fluid production, are compared in Cycas revoluta. These were compared with the proteome of another sexual fluid produced by ovules, the pollination drop proteins. Cycad ovules produce complex liquids immediately prior fertilization. Compared with the pollination drops that mainly had few proteins in classes involved in defense and carbohydrate modification, megagametophyte fluid and archegonial chamber fluid had larger proteomes with many more protein classes, e.g. proteins involved in programmed cell death. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, megagametophyte fluid and archegonial chamber fluid were shown to have elevated concentrations of smaller molecular weight molecules including glucose, pectin and glutamic acid. Compared to megagametophyte fluid, archegonial chamber fluid had elevated pH as well as higher osmolality.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09271-1
       
  • Leaflet Anatomical Diversity in Zamia (Cycadales: Zamiaceae) Shows Little
           Correlation with Phylogeny and Climate

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Cycads (Cycadales) are among the most ancient lineages of extant seed-bearing plants and are the most threatened plant order on Earth, with circa 75% of the 356 accepted species endangered or threatened with extinction. Zamia is the most species-rich (81 spp.) and widely distributed cycad genus in the Americas, notable for its morphological and ecological diversity. Across the genus, there appears to be a high degree of convergence among macromorphological traits, with many characters that are useful for species identification proving uninformative for elucidating relationships among species. However, it remains unknown whether anatomical variation in leaflet structure corresponds with phylogenetic or geographic patterns, as has been investigated in Dioon and Cycas. Here, we present a broad comparative survey of leaflet anatomy across Zamia species with the goals of describing anatomical diversity and uncovering diagnostic characters for resolved clades. Anatomical characters were scored based on the literature and newly prepared sections of leaflets from 20 Zamia species plus the outgroup species Microcycas calocoma. The resulting matrix covers 39 Zamia species representing all five major clades and spanning the geographic distribution of the genus. Anatomical characters scored from leaflet sections were mapped onto a previously published phylogeny and evaluated for their phylogenetic signal. Most anatomical characters examined are not diagnostic for clades, but newly reported mesophyll sclereids may be unique to one large lineage. Given the widespread incongruence between phylogenetic relationships and the distribution of anatomical traits, we tested the relationship between anatomical characters and environmental signals but did not uncover significant correlations between anatomy and ecology. While further work is required to elucidate the evolutionary history of anatomical characters in this genus, this research improves our understanding of micromorphological character evolution, anatomical diversity, and phylogenetic relationships within this highly threatened lineage of plants.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09272-0
       
  • An Overview on Orchids and their Interaction with Endophytes

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Orchids, being one of nature’s most magnificent as well as abundant plant species, are often a bit of an enigma because their seeds lack endosperm and rely on endophytes for seedlings, development, as well as evolution. Orchids are valued by ecologists as well as the community at large for their decorative, therapeutic, as well as nutritional content. Many orchid species have become affected and extinct as a result of growers’ eagerness to obtain them. The current orchid study has concentrated on isolating and identifying mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal endophytes that lead to orchid growth and development and also the synthesis of useful bioactive compounds. In the large-scale biosynthetic pathway of industrially as well as pharmaceutically essential biomolecule derivatives, the biodynamics of orchid-fungal endophytes is assisted for renewable production of bio-applications and technologies. The associations between orchids as well as endophytes are the focus of the study.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-022-09275-5
       
  • Retraction Note: Ecological and Biological Features of the Primrose
           Distribution in Transbaikalia as the Model Territory of Eastern Siberia

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-022-09286-2
       
  • Richness, Endemism and Floristic Affinities of the Palms of Mexico

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The Arecaceae family is ecologically, ethnobotanically and floristically important in Mexico; however, an updated review is required. Here, we investigate the species richness, floristic geographic affinities, and conservation status of the native Mexican palm flora. We constructed a database of the distribution of species by state, performed a cluster analysis, and identified threatened species according to the Mexican red list (NOM-ECOL-059). We found that Mexico hosts 3 subfamilies, 10 tribes, 21 genera, and 99 species of palms (37.7% of which are endemic). Compred to other families, Arecaceae presents intermediate diversity, in which 62.7% of the species are considerd rare. Arecaceae is one of the most threatened families in Mexico. Five large regions are segregated according to species composition (similarity < 8%). Western Mexico exclusively presents Nearctic elements; the tribes Chamaedoreeae, Sabaleae, and Trachycarpeae are the most diversified. The genera Brahea, Sabal and Washingtonia prefer calcareous substrates, and are responsible for the distinctiveness of the Mexican palm flora. The species assemblage has South American and Laurasian origins. The remarkable species richness of Mexican palms is due to the speciation of these Chamaedoreeae, Sabaleae and Trachycarpeae tribes. The greatest species richness is presented in the South-Southeast region of the country (CAM, Q.ROO, YUC, CHIS, OAX, VER, TAB, PUE). Given the importance of palms for humans and the threatened status of the family in general, a more comprehensive analysis of the taxonomy and systematics of the family is required in Mexico, as well as to motivate the continued scientific study of these key plants. Specifically, more studies are required of the ecology, conservation, and sustainable management of the family in the southern states such as Chiapas, Oaxaca and Veracruz, which present the highest species richness, but also face rapid anthropogenic transformation.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-022-09284-4
       
  • The Ligule in Poaceae: a Historical and Evolutionary Review

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Ligules are classified, predominantly, on their position and morphology, which are still without a consensus as to their nature and diversity in an evolutionary context in Poaceae. Based on a broad review of this structure, we have identified five hypotheses for the definition of ligules, originating between the years 1800 and 1834; some of these hypotheses are still valid today. Our results also demonstrate that 95.28% of the family representatives have homoligulate ventral ligules and 1.75% have heteroligulate ventral ligules, with Panicoideae being the subfamily with the greatest morphological diversity of ligules. Dorsal and culm leaf ligules occur mainly in Puelioideae and Bambusoideae (except in Olyreae), and may occasionally occur in Pooideae, Panicoideae and Chloridoideae. Although homoligulate and ciliate ventral ligules are ancestral states in the Poaceae, several reversals occurred within the subfamilies so that the eciliate membrane type is more common (especially in the BOP clade).
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-022-09285-3
       
  • Development, Diversity and Dynamics of Plant Architecture in Utricularia
           subgenus Polypompholyx – Towards Understanding Evolutionary Processes in
           the Lentibulariaceae

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract To uncover the nature of various kinds of stolons of Utricularia subgenus Polypompholyx (Lentibulariaceae) we studied branching of stolons by scanning electron microscopy, statistically investigated correlations of stolon types and other traits across 56 species, and evaluated seedling development and process morphological aspects. Some results were compared to the sister genera Pinguicula and Genlisea. A key to nine stolon types in Polypompholyx is provided. Predominant stolon types were rhizoids, runner stolons with rhizoids on nodes, and runner stolons without rhizoids on nodes but with bladders on internodes. Stolon types were taxonomically relevant and correlated to the distribution/climate. They obviously diverged with speciation events in Australia. Examined seedlings of Genlisea and Polypompholyx showed similar developmental patterns. Stolons were homologous to traps and leaves. Selected subterranean organs contained specific but similar process combinations of roots, shoots and/or leaves. We assume the Genlisea-Utricularia ancestor trap included processes of a Pinguicula root and leaf.
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-022-09283-5
       
  • Vascular epiphytes in Argentinian Yungas: distribution, diversity, and
           ecology

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Vascular epiphytes are an important component of the flora of subtropical regions, but they remain understudied compared to tropical regions. Subtropical montane region of Yungas in Argentina has high epiphyte diversity, but information on epiphytes remain in little disseminated sources such as herbariums, theses and publications not available on the web. The objective of this study was to describe the distribution and diversity of epiphytes and to review ecological research on epiphytes in Yungas of northwestern Argentina. Occurrence records of epiphytes were compiled to prepare a floristic list, to describe spatial bias, and latitudinal and altitudinal patterns. There are 168 epiphyte species in Argentinian Yungas, which belong mainly to the families Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae, and Polypodiaceae. Most species are holoepiphytes and facultative epiphytes (83%), and the rest are trees, herbs, and shrubs that occasionally occur as epiphytes. The species richness of the 14 most abundant epiphyte species in this region peaks at 1500 m, and decreases at higher and lower elevations. Most trees with a diameter at breast height ≥ 10 cm (62.2%) are epiphyte hosts, and epiphytes are most diverse in larger than in smaller native trees of this region. Species richness and cover of epiphytes increased with the diameter at breast height of Ocotea porphyria, the most important host tree for epiphytes in this region. It is expected that this study will serve to acknowledge the high diversity of epiphytes in the region and identify gaps in knowledge for new sampling and studies.
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-022-09281-7
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 3.239.2.192
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-