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Botanical Review
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.708
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  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1874-9372 - ISSN (Online) 0006-8101
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Retraction Note: Ecological and Biological Features of the Primrose
           Distribution in Transbaikalia as the Model Territory of Eastern Siberia

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      PubDate: 2022-09-20
       
  • Richness, Endemism and Floristic Affinities of the Palms of Mexico

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      Abstract: Abstract The Arecaceae family is ecologically, ethnobotanically and floristically important in Mexico; however, an updated review is required. Here, we investigate the species richness, floristic geographic affinities, and conservation status of the native Mexican palm flora. We constructed a database of the distribution of species by state, performed a cluster analysis, and identified threatened species according to the Mexican red list (NOM-ECOL-059). We found that Mexico hosts 3 subfamilies, 10 tribes, 21 genera, and 99 species of palms (37.7% of which are endemic). Compred to other families, Arecaceae presents intermediate diversity, in which 62.7% of the species are considerd rare. Arecaceae is one of the most threatened families in Mexico. Five large regions are segregated according to species composition (similarity < 8%). Western Mexico exclusively presents Nearctic elements; the tribes Chamaedoreeae, Sabaleae, and Trachycarpeae are the most diversified. The genera Brahea, Sabal and Washingtonia prefer calcareous substrates, and are responsible for the distinctiveness of the Mexican palm flora. The species assemblage has South American and Laurasian origins. The remarkable species richness of Mexican palms is due to the speciation of these Chamaedoreeae, Sabaleae and Trachycarpeae tribes. The greatest species richness is presented in the South-Southeast region of the country (CAM, Q.ROO, YUC, CHIS, OAX, VER, TAB, PUE). Given the importance of palms for humans and the threatened status of the family in general, a more comprehensive analysis of the taxonomy and systematics of the family is required in Mexico, as well as to motivate the continued scientific study of these key plants. Specifically, more studies are required of the ecology, conservation, and sustainable management of the family in the southern states such as Chiapas, Oaxaca and Veracruz, which present the highest species richness, but also face rapid anthropogenic transformation.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
       
  • A Review on the Ecology, Evolution and Conservation of Piper (Piperaceae)
           in India: Future Directions and Opportunities

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      Abstract: Abstract The genus Piper (Family Piperaceae), consisting of more than 2000 species worldwide, is one of the most speciose genera of flowering plants that belong to the broad category known as basal angiosperms. Piper is known for the several medicinally and economically important species that have been used throughout their native range. Interestingly, this genus is also one of the most taxonomically challenging genera among the angiosperms. The presence of taxonomically complex as well as ecologically and economically important species makes Piper an excellent study system to address the evolution of tropical biodiversity. Being an early-diverging angiosperm genus, understanding Piper systematics and divergence patterns holds vital clues to plant evolution in the tropics. However, research on this plant group is still in a nascent stage, with the primary focus being on its medicinal importance and natural product chemistry. Its distribution, natural history, ecology, evolution and systematics remain less explored. Lack of such knowledge will impede the ongoing conservation effort and may affect the sustainable utilization of this valuable plant resource. The Indian subcontinent is an important center of Piper diversity harboring ca. 100 species, including several economically and medicinally important species such as Black pepper. Piper species in India have a high potential for future utilization; however, their conservation status and needs have not been widely reviewed. Here, we review the taxonomy, ecology and evolution, of Piper species, the threats they face, and further discuss future research directions and suggest ways forward in conserving and effectively utilizing this important plant group in India.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Overview of Cold Stress Regulation in Plants

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      Abstract: Abstract Among different environmental stresses,cold stress can significantly affect plant’s physiological activity, biochemical metabolism, growth,development and crop productivity. Problems due to cold stress should be addressed seriously keeping in concern extreme temperature events due to climate change, alarming increase in population growth and demanding food needs. Cold signal is recognized by receptors of cell membrane,severity of which is determined by factors like light and temperature. The signal is transduced by cold responsive genes, second messengers like calcium and transcription factors to exert symptoms including decreased germination, stunted growth, chlorosis, wilting of leaves, compromised reproductive development and ultimately necrosis. Cold stress induces cell membrane damage, reduction in scavenging enzymes’ activity, loss of energy in photosynthetic apparatus and stability of proteins. This review presents a broader overview of components regulating cold stress responses, changes in physiological processes, transcriptional; post-transcriptional regulations,coldsignaling pathway and interactions with photoreceptors, phytohormones, pathogenesis-related genes, microbial interactions during cold stress.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Estimation of genetic diversity and its exploitation in plant breeding

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      Abstract: Abstract Estimation of genetic diversity is a prerequisite to select genetically diverse parents. Availability and collection of genetically diverse parents contribute significantly towards the selection and utilization of promising parents in plant breeding to develop a commercial variety or hybrid. Germplasm is an important source for various qualitative and quantitative traits that may be used to introgress through combination breeding for the improvement of the existing cultivars or development of new cultivars and hybrids by using marker assisted selection. Genetic diversity refers to the variations among the alleles of a gene and it may be examined at nucleotide level in the DNA sequence. Various classical and DNA tools are available to access genetic diversity at morphological and molecular levels and can be expressed in the form of dendrogram, percentage polymorphic loci and genetic distance. Estimation of genetic diversity using molecular techniques is more reliable as it is based on highly polymorphic molecular markers which remain unaffected by the influence of environment. Genetically diverse genotypes are used as valuable source by the plant breeders for the development of new or improved crop varieties with desirable traits to cope up the biotic and abiotic stresses such as drought tolerant, salt tolerant, insect pest and disease resistance etc. This article reviews various traditional to molecular methods used in estimation of genetic diversity and their exploitations in plant breeding programme.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Palynological Diversity of Melliferous flora around Apiaries from District
           Mardan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan

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      Abstract: Abstract The guiding principles for raising beekeeping products in developing countries provide support for commercializing honey production in order to generate income for beekeepers through the exploration of melliferous flora. The main objective of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation into the pollen morphology of selected melliferous species that are frequently visited by honeybees in the vicinity of apiaries in the district of Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. In this study, an updated overview was provided by reviewing the literature regarding palynological investigation of melliferous flora. The morpho-palynological features, dominant plant families visited by honeybees, and life forms of melliferous species were also discussed. The Acetolysis method was used to prepare the microscopic slides of pollen, measure and describe the qualitative and quantitative features using LM and SEM. Results showed maximum pollen polar and equatorial diameter in M. azadirachta (37.9 μm) and (40.9 μm) respectively. The polar to equatorial diameter ratio (P/E) was observed to be the highest in M. domestica (1.14). Colpi length was calculated to be the highest in the P. granatum (13.8 μm). The highest percentage of pollen fertility was calculated in V. tricolor (92.5%), whereas the lowest was in O. rosea (64.28%). Studied characters under LM and SEM have appeared as a useful tool for the delimitation of melliferous flora, which may lead to the correct identification of the potential and valuable bee floral resources for beekeepers. The outcomes of this study aid in the assessment of melliferous flora and help in providing conservation measures for the sustainable development of beekeeping and the honeybee flora of the region.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • The Ligule in Poaceae: a Historical and Evolutionary Review

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      Abstract: Abstract Ligules are classified, predominantly, on their position and morphology, which are still without a consensus as to their nature and diversity in an evolutionary context in Poaceae. Based on a broad review of this structure, we have identified five hypotheses for the definition of ligules, originating between the years 1800 and 1834; some of these hypotheses are still valid today. Our results also demonstrate that 95.28% of the family representatives have homoligulate ventral ligules and 1.75% have heteroligulate ventral ligules, with Panicoideae being the subfamily with the greatest morphological diversity of ligules. Dorsal and culm leaf ligules occur mainly in Puelioideae and Bambusoideae (except in Olyreae), and may occasionally occur in Pooideae, Panicoideae and Chloridoideae. Although homoligulate and ciliate ventral ligules are ancestral states in the Poaceae, several reversals occurred within the subfamilies so that the eciliate membrane type is more common (especially in the BOP clade).
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
       
  • Development, Diversity and Dynamics of Plant Architecture in Utricularia
           subgenus Polypompholyx – Towards Understanding Evolutionary Processes in
           the Lentibulariaceae

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      Abstract: Abstract To uncover the nature of various kinds of stolons of Utricularia subgenus Polypompholyx (Lentibulariaceae) we studied branching of stolons by scanning electron microscopy, statistically investigated correlations of stolon types and other traits across 56 species, and evaluated seedling development and process morphological aspects. Some results were compared to the sister genera Pinguicula and Genlisea. A key to nine stolon types in Polypompholyx is provided. Predominant stolon types were rhizoids, runner stolons with rhizoids on nodes, and runner stolons without rhizoids on nodes but with bladders on internodes. Stolon types were taxonomically relevant and correlated to the distribution/climate. They obviously diverged with speciation events in Australia. Examined seedlings of Genlisea and Polypompholyx showed similar developmental patterns. Stolons were homologous to traps and leaves. Selected subterranean organs contained specific but similar process combinations of roots, shoots and/or leaves. We assume the Genlisea-Utricularia ancestor trap included processes of a Pinguicula root and leaf.
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
       
  • Kaplan’s Principles of Plant Morphology: A Critical Review

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      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-022-09280-8
       
  • Vascular epiphytes in Argentinian Yungas: distribution, diversity, and
           ecology

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      Abstract: Abstract Vascular epiphytes are an important component of the flora of subtropical regions, but they remain understudied compared to tropical regions. Subtropical montane region of Yungas in Argentina has high epiphyte diversity, but information on epiphytes remain in little disseminated sources such as herbariums, theses and publications not available on the web. The objective of this study was to describe the distribution and diversity of epiphytes and to review ecological research on epiphytes in Yungas of northwestern Argentina. Occurrence records of epiphytes were compiled to prepare a floristic list, to describe spatial bias, and latitudinal and altitudinal patterns. There are 168 epiphyte species in Argentinian Yungas, which belong mainly to the families Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae, and Polypodiaceae. Most species are holoepiphytes and facultative epiphytes (83%), and the rest are trees, herbs, and shrubs that occasionally occur as epiphytes. The species richness of the 14 most abundant epiphyte species in this region peaks at 1500 m, and decreases at higher and lower elevations. Most trees with a diameter at breast height ≥ 10 cm (62.2%) are epiphyte hosts, and epiphytes are most diverse in larger than in smaller native trees of this region. Species richness and cover of epiphytes increased with the diameter at breast height of Ocotea porphyria, the most important host tree for epiphytes in this region. It is expected that this study will serve to acknowledge the high diversity of epiphytes in the region and identify gaps in knowledge for new sampling and studies.
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-022-09281-7
       
  • Apomixis: A Foresight from Genetic Mechanisms to Molecular Perspectives

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      Abstract: Apomixis is considered to be a natural mode of clonal propogation from seed to seed, in which progeny serves as a replica of maternal genotype. The process evades creation of variation by circumventing sexual fusion and recombination, offering great advantage to fix heterosis or hybrid vigour in plants. As this would permit the conservation of complex favourable genotypes that are of agricultural value, it has immense potential in crop seed production. In order to accomplish this, a comprehensive knowledge on the genetic basis and the molecular mechanisms regulating different components of apomixis stands as a key prerequisite. So far, despite of the persistent interest and extensive research on apomixis, the underlying gene regulatory networks and their evolutionary origins are not well deciphered and still remain unclear. From the developmental perspective, apomixis is widely accepted to be controlled or deviated form of sexual reproduction and studies based on comparative analysis of genes or mutants regulating sexual and apomictic pathways revealed their resemblance across various plant species. Since apomixis is a complex, yet well regulated phenomenon that constantly requires action of specific genes during all developmental stages, the present review summarises recent advances in apomixis and compiles information on vital genes and mutants involved in regulating apomixis during various stages of development. Graphical abstract Graphical abstract: Brief illustration on mechanisms of apomictic and sexual life cycle in angiosperms. Apomixis avoids the process of meiosis and recombination offering  advantage over sexuals by conservation of heterosis or vigor for several generations, easy maintenance of superior genotypes and rapid production of homozygous lines. In sexuals owing to nuclear division and fertilization, fixation of heterosis cannot be achieved and maintenance/development of homozygous lines becomes intricate.*Based on the fertilization the ploidy of endosperm may vary.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09266-y
       
  • The Calix Tube and Floral Nectar Tissue in Passiflora L.: What Can they
           Tell us about the Flower Structure Evolution'

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      Abstract: Abstract Reproduction in Passifloraceae Juss. ex Roussel can involve self-compatible and self-incompatible systems, where the participation of biotic pollinators is necessary. The behavior of pollinators can be influenced by chemical and morphological characteristics of flowers, and among the kind rewards offered to pollinators is nectar. This study analyzed the anatomy of the calyx tube and floral nectar of t species of Passiflora L., as it relates to different pollination syndromes. For anatomical studies, analyzes were performed using optical microscopy. The anatomy and morphology of the calyx tube demonstrated that plants with the same pollination syndrome possess similar anatomical and morphological characteristics, and these attributes may are adapted to the biotic pollinators. The ornithophily and chiropterophily probably evolved from melittophylous flowers in passionflowers, being more diversified in the subgenus Passiflora. Histological analysis identified the location of secretory tissue, such as the exudation of nectar by stomata, papillae or by the epidermis itself. A reprodução em Passifloraceae Juss. O ex Roussel envolve sistemas auto-compatíveis ou auto-incompatíveis, onde a participação de polinizadores bióticos é necessária. O comportamento dos polinizadores pode ser influenciado pelas características químicas e morfológicas das flores, e entre as recompensas oferecidas está o néctar. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a anatomia do tubo de cálice e néctar floral de espécies de Passiflora L., com diferentes síndromes de polinização. Para os estudos anatômicos foi realizado análise em microscopia ótica. A anatomia e morfologia do tubo cálice demonstraram que plantas com a mesma síndrome de polinização possuem características anatômicas e morfológicas semelhantes, atributos que podem ser adaptados aos polinizadores bióticos. Provavelmente a ornitofilia e quiropterofilia evoluíram de flores melitófilas, sendo mais diversificadas no subgênero Passiflora. A análise histológica identificou a localização do tecido secretor, com exsudação do néctar pelos estômatos, papilas ou pela própria epiderme.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09257-z
       
  • Distribution and Morphological Diversity of Palaeocarpinus (Betulaceae)
           from the Paleogene of the Northern Hemisphere

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      Abstract: Abstract The extinct betulaceous genus Palaeocarpinus accommodates fossils with a mixture of characters shared by fruits of the extant genera Carpinus and Corylus. Originally described from the Paleocene of southeastern England, the genus has since been recognized in other parts of Europe, North America and Asia, and into the Eocene. Currently, descriptions exist for ten named Palaeocarpinus species. Here we present a comparative review of all known Palaeocarpinus species to evaluate morphology and diversity. We recognize a broader North American range for the Paleocene species P. joffrensis, and establish three new species, including two from the Paleocene of Wyoming, P. pterabaratra and P. pteravestigia, and one from the Eocene of Oregon, P. parva. We also update nomenclature for the species previously recognized from the Paleocene of France. Lastly, we discuss the morphological diversity and characteristics of bracts within Palaeocarpinus, and compare the involucres and nuts to those of extant Carpinus and Corylus to, and consider the evolutionary implications.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09258-y
       
  • Characteristics of the Adaptations of Epilithic Mosses to High-Calcium
           Habitats in the Karst Region of Southwest China

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      Abstract: Abstract A high calcium level is an important ecological factor in karst regions. Studying the adaptation mechanism of karst plants to high-calcium environments can provide a theoretical support for revealing biodiversity maintenance mechanisms and for the comprehensive management of rocky desertification. Based on a field investigation, 59 common epilithic moss species were selected for the determination of the calcium content of the plants and soils. By chemical measurement and biostatistical analysing the calcium contents in the soil and epilithic mosses. It was found that the average calcium content of the epilithic mosses was 19.03 mg/g and the average calcium content of the soil was 14.41 ± 8.41 g/kg. The effect of soil calcium content on plant calcium content is not significant, indicating that soil is not the main source of calcium in mosses. There were significant differences in the calcium contents of different families and genus. The average calcium content of Pottiaceae was highest in different regions and habitats than that of other families, and the average calcium content of Brachytheciaceae was loweret. Based on the relationship between the calcium content in epilithic mosses and soil to classify the adaptation methods of the epilithic mosses to the high-calcium environment in karst. The strategies of epilithic mosses adapting to high-calcium environment can be categorised into 3 types: 1) Random, in which the calcium content in plants varies widely with the change in the soil calcium content, which does not significantly affect the growth of the plant; 2) High-calcium, in which the calcium content in the plant remains high at different soil calcium levels; and 3) Low-calcium, in which the calcium content in the plant remains low at different soil calcium levels.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09263-1
       
  • Pollen morphology and its implication in the taxonomy of some selected
           tribes of the Asteraceae of Hainan Island South China

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      Abstract: Abstract Pollen morphological traits are mostly used in resolving taxonomic problems at various taxonomic ranks to define species boundaries for long in the systematics and evolution. This study aims to provide new and useful information regarding the extent of pollen morphological diversity among the Asteraceae taxa and thus to contribute a better understanding of the taxonomy of studied species. These species belonged to three subfamilies Asteroideae having eight tribes (Senecioneae, Heliantheae, Milleriae, Eupatorieae, Coreopsideae, Inulaceae, Plucheeae, Tageteae, followed by Cichorioideae (Cichorieae) and the Vernonioideae (Vernonieae). Both light and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate the ultrastructure of the exine. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to show the relationship among the Asteraceae taxa. The results showed two main types the echinolophate and echinate pollen. The echinate and echinolophate features were found to have a significant taxonomic value at the family level that delimits the Asteraceae from rest of the families. Besides, the ehinolophate feature was found to be the diagnostic trait of the tribe Vernonieae (Elephantopus tomentosus), Cichorieae (Youngia japonica) and echinate mixed with other morphological features in the inter-spinal area i.e. perforate, verrucate, scabrate, micro-reticulate and psilate were found in rest of the tribes. Aperture traits were found useful to differentiate between tribes. The maximum spines length was found in Bidens pilosa (5.43 μm) while maximum pollen size was observed in Elephantopus tomentosus (28.43 × 21.93 μm) followed by Tagetes erecta (28.36 × 19.51 μm). Furthermore, the size, spines length, density, arrangement and number of the spines at the apocolpium region were found useful taxonomically important to discriminate the species. The overlapped features showed interspecies relationships because to be in the same families while the interspecies variation in pollen traits validate their existence as distinct species. The PCA analysis showed that the spine length, polar axis, equatorial diameter, colpus length and width, P/E ratio and inter-spinal area were found useful pollen morphological traits. In conclusion, our results showed that pollen morphology has a significant taxonomic potential to identify and define species boundaries at the tribe and generic levels. Hence, the pollen features can be used as an additional tool for regrouping taxa within the family Asteraceae by using both light and scanning electron microscopic techniques.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-022-09277-3
       
  • Cytogenetic Diversity in Scilloideae (Asparagaceae): a Comprehensive
           Recollection and Exploration of Karyo-Evolutionary Trends

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      Abstract: Abstract The family Asparagaceae (subfamily Scilloideae, APG III, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161:105–121, 2009) constitutes approximately 1000 species in about 33 genera of deciduous bulbous geophytes with long history of medicinal utilities. However, satisfactory delimitation of genera as well as species boundaries within most genera still remain doubtful for the lack of reliable discriminating characters with morphological traits showing continuous variation. Detailed cytogenetic characterization and thorough comparative analysis is still scanty in this group and thus can provide supportive taxonomical data besides serving as basis for further genomic studies. This group showcases diverse cytogenetic characters studied across 4 tribes: Hyacintheae, Urgineeae, Ornithogaleae and Oziroëeae. Cytogenetic investigation has not yet been initiated in more than 50% of accepted species, studies mostly limited to chromosome counts or conventional karyotyping methods. Somatic chromosome counts have been reported in around 378 species varying from 2n = 4 in Ornithogaleae to 2n = 150 in Hyacintheae and the basic ancestral chromosome number of x = 10 is proposed for the subfamily and secondary base numbers presumed to arise by descending dysploidy followed by polyploidization leading to such variation. Meiotic analysis and genome size estimation is reported in very few species and requires further investigation. Karyotype in most taxa exhibits a general pattern characterized by asymmetry with predominance of acrocentric chromosomes. Fluorochrome banding by CMA/DAPI staining and FISH although reported in very few species revealed characteristic patterns in different taxa, with potential taxonomic utilities. Thus, comparison of compiled data depicted some patterns of chromosomal diversity within the subfamily Scilloideae but study of more taxa is required for prediction of trends.
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-022-09279-1
       
  • Global Plant Ecology of Tropical Ultramafic Ecosystems

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      Abstract: Abstract Ultramafic ecosystems are renowned for high endemism and habitat specialization. However, most of our understanding of ultramafic plant ecology comes from Mediterranean and temperate climes, raising questions about the generalizability of plant responses to ultramafic soils. This is especially apparent in tropical ultramafic ecosystems which exhibit a wide range of endemism and differentiation between ultramafic and adjacent non-ultramafic soils. Our objectives were two-fold: 1) synthesize our understanding of tropical ultramafic plant ecology, paying particular attention to generalities that may explain variation in endemism and habitat specialization among tropical ultramafic ecosystems; and 2) define an interdisciplinary research agenda using tropical ultramafic ecosystems as a macroecological model. We demonstrate that tropical ultramafic floras are diverse and variable in plant form and function due to the interactive effects of biogeography, climate, and edaphic properties. The variable rates of endemism, specialization, and stress tolerance traits across tropical ultramafic ecosystems have implications for the management and conservation of these diverse systems. Resumen. Los ecosistemas ultramáficos son reconocidos por su endemismo y especialización del hábitat. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de nuestra comprensión de la ecología vegetal ultramáfica proviene de climas mediterráneos y templados, lo que plantea dudas sobre la generalización de las respuestas de las plantas a los suelos ultramáficos. Esto es especialmente evidente en los ecosistemas tropicales ultramáficos que exhiben una amplia gama de endemismo y diferenciación entre suelos tropicales ultramáficos y no ultramáficos adyacentes. Nosotros teníamos dos objetivos: 1) sintetizar nuestra comprensión actual de la ecología de las plantas tropicales ultramáficas, prestando especial atención a las generalidades que pueden explicar la variación en el endemismo y la especialización del hábitat entre los ecosistemas tropicales ultramáficos; y 2) definir una agenda de investigación interdisciplinaria utilizando ecosistemas ultramáficos tropicales como modelo macroecológico. Las floras tropicales ultramáficas son diversas y variables en la forma y función de las plantas debido a los efectos interactivos de la biogeografía, el clima y las propiedades edáficas. Las tasas variables de endemismo, especialización y rasgos de tolerancia al estrés en los ecosistemas tropicales ultramáficos tienen implicaciones para el manejo y conservación de estos diversos sistemas.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-022-09278-2
       
  • Rhizanthes, the Forgotten Relative of Rafflesia in the Rafflesiaceae

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      Abstract: Abstract Rhizanthes is a holoparasitic plant of the Rafflesiaceae, and, just like Rafflesia, its host is Tetrastigma (Vitaceae). Unlike Rafflesia, very little research has been conducted on Rhizanthes other than a few studies focusing on its taxonomy and anatomy, and limited studies on its propagation, despite some ethnomedicinal uses in several regions of Indonesia. Wild populations of Rhizanthes are declining due to deforestation and overharvesting by locals. Artificial pollination and possible seed spread, which are similar to Rafflesia, may be useful for future propagation-based studies, which are generally very difficult and challenging for members of the Rafflesiaceae. This paper emphasizes the cultural and ethnomedicinal importance of Rhizanthes and seeks to define a conservation road-map that incorporates a scientifically-based approach to research while also seeking a four-pronged approach to the conservation of Rhizanthes: 1) conventional and biotechnology-based conservation; 2) germplasm multiplication and preservation; 3) reintroduction into the wild and conservation of wild populations; 4) policy-based protective measures.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09261-3
       
  • Plant Biogeography and Vegetation Patterns of the Mediterranean Islands

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      Abstract: Abstract With about 11,100 islands and islets of which ca. 250 are regularly inhabited by human, the Mediterranean Sea represents one of the regions of the world with the most islands and archipelagos. These numerous islands represent a significant component of the Mediterranean biodiversity, notably with the presence of range-restricted species and peculiar vegetation types. The aim of this review is to provide a balanced view of this highly diverse phytoecological heritage, but also taking into account the medium sized islands and the smaller ones that have not been highlighted so far. Mediterranean islands constitute both a museum for ancient lineages (paleoendemic taxa) and cradle for recent plant diversification. The complex historical biogeography (paleogeographical events of the Neogene, Messinian salinity crisis, climatic and eustatic changes of the Pleistocene, influence of glacial events) has profoundly influenced the current patterns of plant diversity. These insular landscapes were also precociously impacted by prehistoric man, possibly by Neanderthals. Among the 157 large Mediterranean islands (i.e. with a surface area exceeding 10 km2), 49 have a surface greater than 100 km2. The main patterns and dynamics of vegetation on the largests islands (Balearic Islands, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Croatian islands, Greek islands, Crete, Cyprus) are summarized. Then, the specific ecosystem functioning (disturbance, plant-animal interactions) and vegetation structures of the small Mediterranean islands (i.e. a surface area less than 10 km2 or 1000 ha), are highlighted by evoking successively the small rocky islands, the volcanic ones, and the sandy and flat islands. Owing to their uniqueness and fragility, Mediterranean islands urgently need some integrated and ambitious conservation planning, aiming at the long-term preservation of their outstanding biotic and cultural heritage.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09245-3
       
  • Phytogeographic Meta-Analysis of the Vascular Epiphytes in the Neotropical
           Region

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      Abstract: Abstract The Neotropical Region (NR) is one of the areas with the most plant diversity globally, and its richness of vascular epiphyte (VE) species is higher than Africa and Asia combined. This richness is a consequence of the heterogeneous climate and geological history of the region, both factors also being responsible for the plant distribution patterns. Here, we aimed to explore the phytogeographic relationships of the VE in the NR using 14,636 identified records from 173 surveys exclusively of VE, carried out in 14 countries and 23 biogeographic provinces, comprising 3849 identified species. We assessed the floristic patterns and relationships with climatic variables by multivariate analysis (cluster and ordination analyses). The clustering formed 13 main groups, partly corresponding to the biogeographic units of the NR. Our results demonstrate consistent floristic patterns confirmed through the analysis of floristic similarity, corroborating previous biogeographic classifications in well-studied areas, while broader patterns were found in poorly studied areas. We found a floristic gradient pattern, which allowed us to understand the relationships between environmental conditions and floristic patterns. Furthermore, we discuss our results under the light of the history that likely shaped the current distribution patterns and richness of the VE in the NR. The VE proved to be an important model for testing biogeographic classifications. We encourage the studies of this synusia in the several geographical gaps that remain in the NR, which undoubtedly will improve further studies and support conservationist policies.
      PubDate: 2022-01-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09270-2
       
 
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