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  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 107 journals)
Showing 1 - 22 of 22 Journals sorted by number of followers
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Animal Welfare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Society and Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Social Choice and Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Learning and Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acrocephalus     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Animal Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Natural History Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
British Poultry Abstracts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
South African Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research Journal of Parasitology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pastoralism : Research, Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Botanical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Ilmiah Peternakan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
TRACE ∴ Finnish Journal for Human-Animal Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Science and Products     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Derecho Animal. Forum of Animal Law Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue de primatologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Animal Sentience : An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens     Open Access  
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access  
Human-Wildlife Interactions     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Peternakan Indonesia     Open Access  
People and Animals : The International Journal of Research and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Uluslararası Tarım ve Yaban Hayatı Bilimleri Dergisi / International Journal of Agricultural and Wildlife Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan     Open Access  
Translational Animal Science     Open Access  
Corpoica Ciencia y Tecnología Agropecuaria     Open Access  
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries     Open Access  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Rangifer     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  

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Botanical Review
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.708
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1874-9372 - ISSN (Online) 0006-8101
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Kaplan’s Principles of Plant Morphology: A Critical Review

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      PubDate: 2022-06-08
       
  • Vascular epiphytes in Argentinian Yungas: distribution, diversity, and
           ecology

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      Abstract: Abstract Vascular epiphytes are an important component of the flora of subtropical regions, but they remain understudied compared to tropical regions. Subtropical montane region of Yungas in Argentina has high epiphyte diversity, but information on epiphytes remain in little disseminated sources such as herbariums, theses and publications not available on the web. The objective of this study was to describe the distribution and diversity of epiphytes and to review ecological research on epiphytes in Yungas of northwestern Argentina. Occurrence records of epiphytes were compiled to prepare a floristic list, to describe spatial bias, and latitudinal and altitudinal patterns. There are 168 epiphyte species in Argentinian Yungas, which belong mainly to the families Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae, and Polypodiaceae. Most species are holoepiphytes and facultative epiphytes (83%), and the rest are trees, herbs, and shrubs that occasionally occur as epiphytes. The species richness of the 14 most abundant epiphyte species in this region peaks at 1500 m, and decreases at higher and lower elevations. Most trees with a diameter at breast height ≥ 10 cm (62.2%) are epiphyte hosts, and epiphytes are most diverse in larger than in smaller native trees of this region. Species richness and cover of epiphytes increased with the diameter at breast height of Ocotea porphyria, the most important host tree for epiphytes in this region. It is expected that this study will serve to acknowledge the high diversity of epiphytes in the region and identify gaps in knowledge for new sampling and studies.
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
       
  • Apomixis: A Foresight from Genetic Mechanisms to Molecular Perspectives

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      Abstract: Apomixis is considered to be a natural mode of clonal propogation from seed to seed, in which progeny serves as a replica of maternal genotype. The process evades creation of variation by circumventing sexual fusion and recombination, offering great advantage to fix heterosis or hybrid vigour in plants. As this would permit the conservation of complex favourable genotypes that are of agricultural value, it has immense potential in crop seed production. In order to accomplish this, a comprehensive knowledge on the genetic basis and the molecular mechanisms regulating different components of apomixis stands as a key prerequisite. So far, despite of the persistent interest and extensive research on apomixis, the underlying gene regulatory networks and their evolutionary origins are not well deciphered and still remain unclear. From the developmental perspective, apomixis is widely accepted to be controlled or deviated form of sexual reproduction and studies based on comparative analysis of genes or mutants regulating sexual and apomictic pathways revealed their resemblance across various plant species. Since apomixis is a complex, yet well regulated phenomenon that constantly requires action of specific genes during all developmental stages, the present review summarises recent advances in apomixis and compiles information on vital genes and mutants involved in regulating apomixis during various stages of development. Graphical abstract Graphical abstract: Brief illustration on mechanisms of apomictic and sexual life cycle in angiosperms. Apomixis avoids the process of meiosis and recombination offering  advantage over sexuals by conservation of heterosis or vigor for several generations, easy maintenance of superior genotypes and rapid production of homozygous lines. In sexuals owing to nuclear division and fertilization, fixation of heterosis cannot be achieved and maintenance/development of homozygous lines becomes intricate.*Based on the fertilization the ploidy of endosperm may vary.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • The Calix Tube and Floral Nectar Tissue in Passiflora L.: What Can they
           Tell us about the Flower Structure Evolution'

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      Abstract: Abstract Reproduction in Passifloraceae Juss. ex Roussel can involve self-compatible and self-incompatible systems, where the participation of biotic pollinators is necessary. The behavior of pollinators can be influenced by chemical and morphological characteristics of flowers, and among the kind rewards offered to pollinators is nectar. This study analyzed the anatomy of the calyx tube and floral nectar of t species of Passiflora L., as it relates to different pollination syndromes. For anatomical studies, analyzes were performed using optical microscopy. The anatomy and morphology of the calyx tube demonstrated that plants with the same pollination syndrome possess similar anatomical and morphological characteristics, and these attributes may are adapted to the biotic pollinators. The ornithophily and chiropterophily probably evolved from melittophylous flowers in passionflowers, being more diversified in the subgenus Passiflora. Histological analysis identified the location of secretory tissue, such as the exudation of nectar by stomata, papillae or by the epidermis itself. A reprodução em Passifloraceae Juss. O ex Roussel envolve sistemas auto-compatíveis ou auto-incompatíveis, onde a participação de polinizadores bióticos é necessária. O comportamento dos polinizadores pode ser influenciado pelas características químicas e morfológicas das flores, e entre as recompensas oferecidas está o néctar. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a anatomia do tubo de cálice e néctar floral de espécies de Passiflora L., com diferentes síndromes de polinização. Para os estudos anatômicos foi realizado análise em microscopia ótica. A anatomia e morfologia do tubo cálice demonstraram que plantas com a mesma síndrome de polinização possuem características anatômicas e morfológicas semelhantes, atributos que podem ser adaptados aos polinizadores bióticos. Provavelmente a ornitofilia e quiropterofilia evoluíram de flores melitófilas, sendo mais diversificadas no subgênero Passiflora. A análise histológica identificou a localização do tecido secretor, com exsudação do néctar pelos estômatos, papilas ou pela própria epiderme.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Distribution and Morphological Diversity of Palaeocarpinus (Betulaceae)
           from the Paleogene of the Northern Hemisphere

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      Abstract: Abstract The extinct betulaceous genus Palaeocarpinus accommodates fossils with a mixture of characters shared by fruits of the extant genera Carpinus and Corylus. Originally described from the Paleocene of southeastern England, the genus has since been recognized in other parts of Europe, North America and Asia, and into the Eocene. Currently, descriptions exist for ten named Palaeocarpinus species. Here we present a comparative review of all known Palaeocarpinus species to evaluate morphology and diversity. We recognize a broader North American range for the Paleocene species P. joffrensis, and establish three new species, including two from the Paleocene of Wyoming, P. pterabaratra and P. pteravestigia, and one from the Eocene of Oregon, P. parva. We also update nomenclature for the species previously recognized from the Paleocene of France. Lastly, we discuss the morphological diversity and characteristics of bracts within Palaeocarpinus, and compare the involucres and nuts to those of extant Carpinus and Corylus to, and consider the evolutionary implications.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Characteristics of the Adaptations of Epilithic Mosses to High-Calcium
           Habitats in the Karst Region of Southwest China

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      Abstract: Abstract A high calcium level is an important ecological factor in karst regions. Studying the adaptation mechanism of karst plants to high-calcium environments can provide a theoretical support for revealing biodiversity maintenance mechanisms and for the comprehensive management of rocky desertification. Based on a field investigation, 59 common epilithic moss species were selected for the determination of the calcium content of the plants and soils. By chemical measurement and biostatistical analysing the calcium contents in the soil and epilithic mosses. It was found that the average calcium content of the epilithic mosses was 19.03 mg/g and the average calcium content of the soil was 14.41 ± 8.41 g/kg. The effect of soil calcium content on plant calcium content is not significant, indicating that soil is not the main source of calcium in mosses. There were significant differences in the calcium contents of different families and genus. The average calcium content of Pottiaceae was highest in different regions and habitats than that of other families, and the average calcium content of Brachytheciaceae was loweret. Based on the relationship between the calcium content in epilithic mosses and soil to classify the adaptation methods of the epilithic mosses to the high-calcium environment in karst. The strategies of epilithic mosses adapting to high-calcium environment can be categorised into 3 types: 1) Random, in which the calcium content in plants varies widely with the change in the soil calcium content, which does not significantly affect the growth of the plant; 2) High-calcium, in which the calcium content in the plant remains high at different soil calcium levels; and 3) Low-calcium, in which the calcium content in the plant remains low at different soil calcium levels.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Pollen morphology and its implication in the taxonomy of some selected
           tribes of the Asteraceae of Hainan Island South China

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      Abstract: Abstract Pollen morphological traits are mostly used in resolving taxonomic problems at various taxonomic ranks to define species boundaries for long in the systematics and evolution. This study aims to provide new and useful information regarding the extent of pollen morphological diversity among the Asteraceae taxa and thus to contribute a better understanding of the taxonomy of studied species. These species belonged to three subfamilies Asteroideae having eight tribes (Senecioneae, Heliantheae, Milleriae, Eupatorieae, Coreopsideae, Inulaceae, Plucheeae, Tageteae, followed by Cichorioideae (Cichorieae) and the Vernonioideae (Vernonieae). Both light and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate the ultrastructure of the exine. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to show the relationship among the Asteraceae taxa. The results showed two main types the echinolophate and echinate pollen. The echinate and echinolophate features were found to have a significant taxonomic value at the family level that delimits the Asteraceae from rest of the families. Besides, the ehinolophate feature was found to be the diagnostic trait of the tribe Vernonieae (Elephantopus tomentosus), Cichorieae (Youngia japonica) and echinate mixed with other morphological features in the inter-spinal area i.e. perforate, verrucate, scabrate, micro-reticulate and psilate were found in rest of the tribes. Aperture traits were found useful to differentiate between tribes. The maximum spines length was found in Bidens pilosa (5.43 μm) while maximum pollen size was observed in Elephantopus tomentosus (28.43 × 21.93 μm) followed by Tagetes erecta (28.36 × 19.51 μm). Furthermore, the size, spines length, density, arrangement and number of the spines at the apocolpium region were found useful taxonomically important to discriminate the species. The overlapped features showed interspecies relationships because to be in the same families while the interspecies variation in pollen traits validate their existence as distinct species. The PCA analysis showed that the spine length, polar axis, equatorial diameter, colpus length and width, P/E ratio and inter-spinal area were found useful pollen morphological traits. In conclusion, our results showed that pollen morphology has a significant taxonomic potential to identify and define species boundaries at the tribe and generic levels. Hence, the pollen features can be used as an additional tool for regrouping taxa within the family Asteraceae by using both light and scanning electron microscopic techniques.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-022-09277-3
       
  • Cytogenetic Diversity in Scilloideae (Asparagaceae): a Comprehensive
           Recollection and Exploration of Karyo-Evolutionary Trends

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      Abstract: Abstract The family Asparagaceae (subfamily Scilloideae, APG III, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161:105–121, 2009) constitutes approximately 1000 species in about 33 genera of deciduous bulbous geophytes with long history of medicinal utilities. However, satisfactory delimitation of genera as well as species boundaries within most genera still remain doubtful for the lack of reliable discriminating characters with morphological traits showing continuous variation. Detailed cytogenetic characterization and thorough comparative analysis is still scanty in this group and thus can provide supportive taxonomical data besides serving as basis for further genomic studies. This group showcases diverse cytogenetic characters studied across 4 tribes: Hyacintheae, Urgineeae, Ornithogaleae and Oziroëeae. Cytogenetic investigation has not yet been initiated in more than 50% of accepted species, studies mostly limited to chromosome counts or conventional karyotyping methods. Somatic chromosome counts have been reported in around 378 species varying from 2n = 4 in Ornithogaleae to 2n = 150 in Hyacintheae and the basic ancestral chromosome number of x = 10 is proposed for the subfamily and secondary base numbers presumed to arise by descending dysploidy followed by polyploidization leading to such variation. Meiotic analysis and genome size estimation is reported in very few species and requires further investigation. Karyotype in most taxa exhibits a general pattern characterized by asymmetry with predominance of acrocentric chromosomes. Fluorochrome banding by CMA/DAPI staining and FISH although reported in very few species revealed characteristic patterns in different taxa, with potential taxonomic utilities. Thus, comparison of compiled data depicted some patterns of chromosomal diversity within the subfamily Scilloideae but study of more taxa is required for prediction of trends.
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-022-09279-1
       
  • Global Plant Ecology of Tropical Ultramafic Ecosystems

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      Abstract: Abstract Ultramafic ecosystems are renowned for high endemism and habitat specialization. However, most of our understanding of ultramafic plant ecology comes from Mediterranean and temperate climes, raising questions about the generalizability of plant responses to ultramafic soils. This is especially apparent in tropical ultramafic ecosystems which exhibit a wide range of endemism and differentiation between ultramafic and adjacent non-ultramafic soils. Our objectives were two-fold: 1) synthesize our understanding of tropical ultramafic plant ecology, paying particular attention to generalities that may explain variation in endemism and habitat specialization among tropical ultramafic ecosystems; and 2) define an interdisciplinary research agenda using tropical ultramafic ecosystems as a macroecological model. We demonstrate that tropical ultramafic floras are diverse and variable in plant form and function due to the interactive effects of biogeography, climate, and edaphic properties. The variable rates of endemism, specialization, and stress tolerance traits across tropical ultramafic ecosystems have implications for the management and conservation of these diverse systems. Resumen. Los ecosistemas ultramáficos son reconocidos por su endemismo y especialización del hábitat. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de nuestra comprensión de la ecología vegetal ultramáfica proviene de climas mediterráneos y templados, lo que plantea dudas sobre la generalización de las respuestas de las plantas a los suelos ultramáficos. Esto es especialmente evidente en los ecosistemas tropicales ultramáficos que exhiben una amplia gama de endemismo y diferenciación entre suelos tropicales ultramáficos y no ultramáficos adyacentes. Nosotros teníamos dos objetivos: 1) sintetizar nuestra comprensión actual de la ecología de las plantas tropicales ultramáficas, prestando especial atención a las generalidades que pueden explicar la variación en el endemismo y la especialización del hábitat entre los ecosistemas tropicales ultramáficos; y 2) definir una agenda de investigación interdisciplinaria utilizando ecosistemas ultramáficos tropicales como modelo macroecológico. Las floras tropicales ultramáficas son diversas y variables en la forma y función de las plantas debido a los efectos interactivos de la biogeografía, el clima y las propiedades edáficas. Las tasas variables de endemismo, especialización y rasgos de tolerancia al estrés en los ecosistemas tropicales ultramáficos tienen implicaciones para el manejo y conservación de estos diversos sistemas.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-022-09278-2
       
  • Rhizanthes, the Forgotten Relative of Rafflesia in the Rafflesiaceae

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      Abstract: Abstract Rhizanthes is a holoparasitic plant of the Rafflesiaceae, and, just like Rafflesia, its host is Tetrastigma (Vitaceae). Unlike Rafflesia, very little research has been conducted on Rhizanthes other than a few studies focusing on its taxonomy and anatomy, and limited studies on its propagation, despite some ethnomedicinal uses in several regions of Indonesia. Wild populations of Rhizanthes are declining due to deforestation and overharvesting by locals. Artificial pollination and possible seed spread, which are similar to Rafflesia, may be useful for future propagation-based studies, which are generally very difficult and challenging for members of the Rafflesiaceae. This paper emphasizes the cultural and ethnomedicinal importance of Rhizanthes and seeks to define a conservation road-map that incorporates a scientifically-based approach to research while also seeking a four-pronged approach to the conservation of Rhizanthes: 1) conventional and biotechnology-based conservation; 2) germplasm multiplication and preservation; 3) reintroduction into the wild and conservation of wild populations; 4) policy-based protective measures.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09261-3
       
  • Plant Biogeography and Vegetation Patterns of the Mediterranean Islands

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      Abstract: Abstract With about 11,100 islands and islets of which ca. 250 are regularly inhabited by human, the Mediterranean Sea represents one of the regions of the world with the most islands and archipelagos. These numerous islands represent a significant component of the Mediterranean biodiversity, notably with the presence of range-restricted species and peculiar vegetation types. The aim of this review is to provide a balanced view of this highly diverse phytoecological heritage, but also taking into account the medium sized islands and the smaller ones that have not been highlighted so far. Mediterranean islands constitute both a museum for ancient lineages (paleoendemic taxa) and cradle for recent plant diversification. The complex historical biogeography (paleogeographical events of the Neogene, Messinian salinity crisis, climatic and eustatic changes of the Pleistocene, influence of glacial events) has profoundly influenced the current patterns of plant diversity. These insular landscapes were also precociously impacted by prehistoric man, possibly by Neanderthals. Among the 157 large Mediterranean islands (i.e. with a surface area exceeding 10 km2), 49 have a surface greater than 100 km2. The main patterns and dynamics of vegetation on the largests islands (Balearic Islands, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Croatian islands, Greek islands, Crete, Cyprus) are summarized. Then, the specific ecosystem functioning (disturbance, plant-animal interactions) and vegetation structures of the small Mediterranean islands (i.e. a surface area less than 10 km2 or 1000 ha), are highlighted by evoking successively the small rocky islands, the volcanic ones, and the sandy and flat islands. Owing to their uniqueness and fragility, Mediterranean islands urgently need some integrated and ambitious conservation planning, aiming at the long-term preservation of their outstanding biotic and cultural heritage.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09245-3
       
  • Ecological and Biological Features of the Primrose Distribution in
           Transbaikalia as the Model Territory of Eastern Siberia

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      Abstract: Abstract The present work examines the ecological and biological characteristics of primrose plants and the regional characteristics of their distribution on the basis of field observations using the “releve” method and an examination of herbarium specimens. Point data were derived from field surveys from 2010 through 2020 and herbarium collections. Based on the results, 12 primrose taxa of the genus Primula (eight species and four subspecies) were found in the flora of Transbaikalia, in particular P. nivalis subsp. turkestanica (J. H. Haage & E. Schmidt) Kovt., P. bukukunica Kovt., P. macrocalyx Bunge, P. pallasii Lehm, P. maximowiczii Regel, P. serrata Georgi, P. denticulata Sm, P. nutans Georgi, P. matthioli subsp. altaica (Losinsk.) Kovt., P. matthioli subsp. brotheri (R. Knuth) Kovt., P. longiscapa Ledeb. and P. nivalis Subsp. nivalis Pall. All these species and subspecies are taxonomic elements of the Transbaikalia ecosystem as a model territory of Eastern Siberia. Consequently, the overall results can be extrapolated to the territory of Eastern Siberia, which can be used as additional material for further floristic research in that region. With regard to the number of taxa, the taiga and forest-steppe areas are the most dense natural areas of Transbaikalia with 4–6 species units of primrose in each area. However, further experimental studies are required to investigate the environmental effect on the distribution of primrose in eastern Siberia in order to prevent the extinction of the primrose.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09264-0
       
  • Germination and Seed/Embryo Size in Holoparasitic Flowering Plants with
           “Dust Seeds” and an Undifferentiated Embryo

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      Abstract: Abstract “Dust seeds” with an undifferentiated embryo and unipolar germination are produced by holoparasitic species in 10 families of angiosperms. However, aside from a few Orobanchaceae species important in agriculture (crop weeds) and in Chinese traditional medicine we know little about seed germination in these achlorophyllous plants. Our primary purpose was to review the literature on seed germination in nine families of the mostly economically-nonimportant taxa of holoparasites and (briefly) of Cynomoriaceae, an economically important medicinal family for which several publications on its germination are in Chinese. A second purpose was to pull together information on sizes of dust seeds and their undifferentiated embryos and endosperm in both economically- and noneconomically-important holoparasitic plants. We found that not much progress has been made in understanding dormancy-break/germination in these holoparasites since 1969, when the author of a book on parasitic flowering plants pointed out how little we know about their germination. Lack of progress on germination of dust seeds of these holoparasites is not necessarily due to lack of research but at least in part to their nonresponsiveness to well-known treatments used to break dormancy in seeds of autotrophic and hemiparasitic flowering plants. For most species, seed length is <1.0 mm (in many <0.50 mm) and embryo length < 0.40 mm (in many <0.10 mm); endosperm is scant to copious. We suggest that seed conditioning, an essential step in germinating seeds of weedy Orobanchaceae holoparasites, be added to the protocol for germinating the dust seeds of noneconomically-important holoparasites with an undifferentiated embryo.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-020-09242-y
       
  • An Overview on Orchids and their Interaction with Endophytes

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      Abstract: Abstract Orchids, being one of nature’s most magnificent as well as abundant plant species, are often a bit of an enigma because their seeds lack endosperm and rely on endophytes for seedlings, development, as well as evolution. Orchids are valued by ecologists as well as the community at large for their decorative, therapeutic, as well as nutritional content. Many orchid species have become affected and extinct as a result of growers’ eagerness to obtain them. The current orchid study has concentrated on isolating and identifying mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal endophytes that lead to orchid growth and development and also the synthesis of useful bioactive compounds. In the large-scale biosynthetic pathway of industrially as well as pharmaceutically essential biomolecule derivatives, the biodynamics of orchid-fungal endophytes is assisted for renewable production of bio-applications and technologies. The associations between orchids as well as endophytes are the focus of the study.
      PubDate: 2022-02-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-022-09275-5
       
  • Leaf Secretory Structures in Asteraceae: A Synthesis of Their Diversity
           and Evolution

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      Abstract: Abstract This study presents the first comparative analysis of the leaf secretory structures across Asteraceae. In this work, the leaf secretory structures of more than 500 species of 35 of the 40 tribes and 11 of the 13 subfamilies of Asteraceae are described and compared to evaluate their diversity at the tribe level and to identify evolutionary patterns. Leaf secretory structures are present in 28 of the 35 analyzed tribes and correspond to canals (recorded in 17 tribes), secretory cavities (1 tribe), hydathodes (19 tribes), laticifers (4 tribes) and glandular trichomes (24 tribes). Canals are mostly associated with vascular bundles and predominate in Asteroideae, while cavities were only present within Tageteae. Hydathodes occur in leaves without divisions and with well-developed teeth. Laticifers were observed only in the tribes of Cichorioideae. Seven glandular trichome morphotypes were differentiated by their cellular composition and shape. These observations together with the available information showed that secretory structures are found in 80% of the Asteraceae tribes. Four of the 40 tribes did not present any type of secretory structure. Our study reveals that almost all of the tribes possess one to three types of secretory structures, and are absent in some early-diverging clades. Character evolution analyses show that glandular trichomes are plesiomorphic in Asteraceae. This study found that secretory structures prevail in late-diverging lineages and were taxonomically informative at different levels. Our comparative study of the secretory structures in Asteraceae is essential for the standardization of its terminology and will provide a frame of reference for future studies.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-022-09276-4
       
  • Phytogeographic Meta-Analysis of the Vascular Epiphytes in the Neotropical
           Region

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      Abstract: Abstract The Neotropical Region (NR) is one of the areas with the most plant diversity globally, and its richness of vascular epiphyte (VE) species is higher than Africa and Asia combined. This richness is a consequence of the heterogeneous climate and geological history of the region, both factors also being responsible for the plant distribution patterns. Here, we aimed to explore the phytogeographic relationships of the VE in the NR using 14,636 identified records from 173 surveys exclusively of VE, carried out in 14 countries and 23 biogeographic provinces, comprising 3849 identified species. We assessed the floristic patterns and relationships with climatic variables by multivariate analysis (cluster and ordination analyses). The clustering formed 13 main groups, partly corresponding to the biogeographic units of the NR. Our results demonstrate consistent floristic patterns confirmed through the analysis of floristic similarity, corroborating previous biogeographic classifications in well-studied areas, while broader patterns were found in poorly studied areas. We found a floristic gradient pattern, which allowed us to understand the relationships between environmental conditions and floristic patterns. Furthermore, we discuss our results under the light of the history that likely shaped the current distribution patterns and richness of the VE in the NR. The VE proved to be an important model for testing biogeographic classifications. We encourage the studies of this synusia in the several geographical gaps that remain in the NR, which undoubtedly will improve further studies and support conservationist policies.
      PubDate: 2022-01-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09270-2
       
  • A Comprehensive Review on the Taxonomy, Ecology, Reproductive Biology,
           Economic Importance and Conservation Status of Indian Himalayan
           Rhododendrons

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      Abstract: Abstract The Indian Himalaya is characterized by high plant diversity and endemism levels. Here, the genus Rhododendron is one of the largest flowering plant genera. The flowering of rhododendrons across elevations in the Himalaya supports insects, birds, and animal movements seasonally. Their diverse life forms and habits also form an important structural component of diverse vegetation types from tropical to temperate forests and alpine thickets. Rhododendrons are also a source of livelihood for many rural communities in the Himalaya. The high ecological and economic significance of rhododendrons in this mountain region qualifies it as an important genus for further investigation and exploration. However, over time, climate change and the ever‐increasing demand for natural resources have collectively exerted considerable pressure on Indian Himalayan rhododendrons in their natural habitats. Available data on various aspects of taxonomy, ecology and conservation status are scanty. There is an urgent need to assess the potential ecological and economic benefits that rhododendrons provide to local mountain communities and associated wildlife. This critical review provides comprehensive detail on taxonomy, evolutionary history, ecology, reproductive biology, hybridization, economic importance, impact of climate change on its ecology and evolution, and the conservation status of rhododendrons in the Indian Himalaya. Further, we conclude with a discussion of the strategies to be adopted for the conservation of Rhododendron-dominated forests in the Indian Himalaya. This comprehensive compilation will open new perspectives for future studies and improve ongoing conservation efforts to manage valuable plant resources.
      PubDate: 2022-01-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09273-z
       
  • Leaflet Anatomical Diversity in Zamia (Cycadales: Zamiaceae) Shows Little
           Correlation with Phylogeny and Climate

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      Abstract: Abstract Cycads (Cycadales) are among the most ancient lineages of extant seed-bearing plants and are the most threatened plant order on Earth, with circa 75% of the 356 accepted species endangered or threatened with extinction. Zamia is the most species-rich (81 spp.) and widely distributed cycad genus in the Americas, notable for its morphological and ecological diversity. Across the genus, there appears to be a high degree of convergence among macromorphological traits, with many characters that are useful for species identification proving uninformative for elucidating relationships among species. However, it remains unknown whether anatomical variation in leaflet structure corresponds with phylogenetic or geographic patterns, as has been investigated in Dioon and Cycas. Here, we present a broad comparative survey of leaflet anatomy across Zamia species with the goals of describing anatomical diversity and uncovering diagnostic characters for resolved clades. Anatomical characters were scored based on the literature and newly prepared sections of leaflets from 20 Zamia species plus the outgroup species Microcycas calocoma. The resulting matrix covers 39 Zamia species representing all five major clades and spanning the geographic distribution of the genus. Anatomical characters scored from leaflet sections were mapped onto a previously published phylogeny and evaluated for their phylogenetic signal. Most anatomical characters examined are not diagnostic for clades, but newly reported mesophyll sclereids may be unique to one large lineage. Given the widespread incongruence between phylogenetic relationships and the distribution of anatomical traits, we tested the relationship between anatomical characters and environmental signals but did not uncover significant correlations between anatomy and ecology. While further work is required to elucidate the evolutionary history of anatomical characters in this genus, this research improves our understanding of micromorphological character evolution, anatomical diversity, and phylogenetic relationships within this highly threatened lineage of plants.
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09272-0
       
  • Composition of Sexual Fluids in Cycas revoluta Ovules During Pollination
           and Fertilization

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      Abstract: Abstract The composition of fluids that mediate fertilization in cycads is described for the first time. Using tandem mass spectrometry, proteomes of two stages of fluid production, megagametophyte fluid and archegonial chamber fluid production, are compared in Cycas revoluta. These were compared with the proteome of another sexual fluid produced by ovules, the pollination drop proteins. Cycad ovules produce complex liquids immediately prior fertilization. Compared with the pollination drops that mainly had few proteins in classes involved in defense and carbohydrate modification, megagametophyte fluid and archegonial chamber fluid had larger proteomes with many more protein classes, e.g. proteins involved in programmed cell death. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, megagametophyte fluid and archegonial chamber fluid were shown to have elevated concentrations of smaller molecular weight molecules including glucose, pectin and glutamic acid. Compared to megagametophyte fluid, archegonial chamber fluid had elevated pH as well as higher osmolality.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09271-1
       
  • Evolution and Biology of CRISPR System: A New Era Tool for Genome Editing
           in Plants

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      Abstract: Abstract It’s an evolution of its own kind that a technology changed the interface of biology in such a short expanse of time. Merely a decade ago, scientists reported that the CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short Palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated) system is the part of bacteria and archea’s adaptive immune system which helps in withstanding the attack against invading viruses by acquiring genetic records of invaders to facilitate robust interference upon reinfection. In this Review, we discuss the evolution of CRISPR along the time and recent advances in understanding the vivid mechanism by which Cas proteins respond to foreign nucleic acids and how these systems have been harnessed for precise genome manipulation in plants. With the advancement in this technology, it will become easier to genetically modify the plants for crop improvement.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09250-6
       
 
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