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  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 107 journals)
Showing 1 - 22 of 22 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acrocephalus     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Animal Diseases     Open Access  
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Animal Sentience : An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Animal Welfare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Botanical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
British Poultry Abstracts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Corpoica Ciencia y Tecnología Agropecuaria     Open Access  
Derecho Animal. Forum of Animal Law Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
European Journal of Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Human-Wildlife Interactions     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Science and Products     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Learning and Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens     Open Access  
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Peternakan Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Ilmiah Peternakan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural History Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pastoralism : Research, Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
People and Animals : The International Journal of Research and Practice     Open Access  
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference     Open Access  
Rangifer     Open Access  
Research Journal of Parasitology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue de primatologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries     Open Access  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies     Open Access  
Social Choice and Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Society and Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
South African Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
TRACE ∴ Finnish Journal for Human-Animal Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Translational Animal Science     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
Uluslararası Tarım ve Yaban Hayatı Bilimleri Dergisi / International Journal of Agricultural and Wildlife Sciences     Open Access  
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access  
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 11)

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Botanical Review
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.708
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1874-9372 - ISSN (Online) 0006-8101
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Global Plant Ecology of Tropical Ultramafic Ecosystems

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      Abstract: Abstract Ultramafic ecosystems are renowned for high endemism and habitat specialization. However, most of our understanding of ultramafic plant ecology comes from Mediterranean and temperate climes, raising questions about the generalizability of plant responses to ultramafic soils. This is especially apparent in tropical ultramafic ecosystems which exhibit a wide range of endemism and differentiation between ultramafic and adjacent non-ultramafic soils. Our objectives were two-fold: 1) synthesize our understanding of tropical ultramafic plant ecology, paying particular attention to generalities that may explain variation in endemism and habitat specialization among tropical ultramafic ecosystems; and 2) define an interdisciplinary research agenda using tropical ultramafic ecosystems as a macroecological model. We demonstrate that tropical ultramafic floras are diverse and variable in plant form and function due to the interactive effects of biogeography, climate, and edaphic properties. The variable rates of endemism, specialization, and stress tolerance traits across tropical ultramafic ecosystems have implications for the management and conservation of these diverse systems. Resumen. Los ecosistemas ultramáficos son reconocidos por su endemismo y especialización del hábitat. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de nuestra comprensión de la ecología vegetal ultramáfica proviene de climas mediterráneos y templados, lo que plantea dudas sobre la generalización de las respuestas de las plantas a los suelos ultramáficos. Esto es especialmente evidente en los ecosistemas tropicales ultramáficos que exhiben una amplia gama de endemismo y diferenciación entre suelos tropicales ultramáficos y no ultramáficos adyacentes. Nosotros teníamos dos objetivos: 1) sintetizar nuestra comprensión actual de la ecología de las plantas tropicales ultramáficas, prestando especial atención a las generalidades que pueden explicar la variación en el endemismo y la especialización del hábitat entre los ecosistemas tropicales ultramáficos; y 2) definir una agenda de investigación interdisciplinaria utilizando ecosistemas ultramáficos tropicales como modelo macroecológico. Las floras tropicales ultramáficas son diversas y variables en la forma y función de las plantas debido a los efectos interactivos de la biogeografía, el clima y las propiedades edáficas. Las tasas variables de endemismo, especialización y rasgos de tolerancia al estrés en los ecosistemas tropicales ultramáficos tienen implicaciones para el manejo y conservación de estos diversos sistemas.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
       
  • Rhizanthes, the Forgotten Relative of Rafflesia in the Rafflesiaceae

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      Abstract: Abstract Rhizanthes is a holoparasitic plant of the Rafflesiaceae, and, just like Rafflesia, its host is Tetrastigma (Vitaceae). Unlike Rafflesia, very little research has been conducted on Rhizanthes other than a few studies focusing on its taxonomy and anatomy, and limited studies on its propagation, despite some ethnomedicinal uses in several regions of Indonesia. Wild populations of Rhizanthes are declining due to deforestation and overharvesting by locals. Artificial pollination and possible seed spread, which are similar to Rafflesia, may be useful for future propagation-based studies, which are generally very difficult and challenging for members of the Rafflesiaceae. This paper emphasizes the cultural and ethnomedicinal importance of Rhizanthes and seeks to define a conservation road-map that incorporates a scientifically-based approach to research while also seeking a four-pronged approach to the conservation of Rhizanthes: 1) conventional and biotechnology-based conservation; 2) germplasm multiplication and preservation; 3) reintroduction into the wild and conservation of wild populations; 4) policy-based protective measures.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
       
  • Plant Biogeography and Vegetation Patterns of the Mediterranean Islands

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      Abstract: Abstract With about 11,100 islands and islets of which ca. 250 are regularly inhabited by human, the Mediterranean Sea represents one of the regions of the world with the most islands and archipelagos. These numerous islands represent a significant component of the Mediterranean biodiversity, notably with the presence of range-restricted species and peculiar vegetation types. The aim of this review is to provide a balanced view of this highly diverse phytoecological heritage, but also taking into account the medium sized islands and the smaller ones that have not been highlighted so far. Mediterranean islands constitute both a museum for ancient lineages (paleoendemic taxa) and cradle for recent plant diversification. The complex historical biogeography (paleogeographical events of the Neogene, Messinian salinity crisis, climatic and eustatic changes of the Pleistocene, influence of glacial events) has profoundly influenced the current patterns of plant diversity. These insular landscapes were also precociously impacted by prehistoric man, possibly by Neanderthals. Among the 157 large Mediterranean islands (i.e. with a surface area exceeding 10 km2), 49 have a surface greater than 100 km2. The main patterns and dynamics of vegetation on the largests islands (Balearic Islands, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Croatian islands, Greek islands, Crete, Cyprus) are summarized. Then, the specific ecosystem functioning (disturbance, plant-animal interactions) and vegetation structures of the small Mediterranean islands (i.e. a surface area less than 10 km2 or 1000 ha), are highlighted by evoking successively the small rocky islands, the volcanic ones, and the sandy and flat islands. Owing to their uniqueness and fragility, Mediterranean islands urgently need some integrated and ambitious conservation planning, aiming at the long-term preservation of their outstanding biotic and cultural heritage.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
       
  • Ecological and Biological Features of the Primrose Distribution in
           Transbaikalia as the Model Territory of Eastern Siberia

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      Abstract: Abstract The present work examines the ecological and biological characteristics of primrose plants and the regional characteristics of their distribution on the basis of field observations using the “releve” method and an examination of herbarium specimens. Point data were derived from field surveys from 2010 through 2020 and herbarium collections. Based on the results, 12 primrose taxa of the genus Primula (eight species and four subspecies) were found in the flora of Transbaikalia, in particular P. nivalis subsp. turkestanica (J. H. Haage & E. Schmidt) Kovt., P. bukukunica Kovt., P. macrocalyx Bunge, P. pallasii Lehm, P. maximowiczii Regel, P. serrata Georgi, P. denticulata Sm, P. nutans Georgi, P. matthioli subsp. altaica (Losinsk.) Kovt., P. matthioli subsp. brotheri (R. Knuth) Kovt., P. longiscapa Ledeb. and P. nivalis Subsp. nivalis Pall. All these species and subspecies are taxonomic elements of the Transbaikalia ecosystem as a model territory of Eastern Siberia. Consequently, the overall results can be extrapolated to the territory of Eastern Siberia, which can be used as additional material for further floristic research in that region. With regard to the number of taxa, the taiga and forest-steppe areas are the most dense natural areas of Transbaikalia with 4–6 species units of primrose in each area. However, further experimental studies are required to investigate the environmental effect on the distribution of primrose in eastern Siberia in order to prevent the extinction of the primrose.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
       
  • Germination and Seed/Embryo Size in Holoparasitic Flowering Plants with
           “Dust Seeds” and an Undifferentiated Embryo

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      Abstract: Abstract “Dust seeds” with an undifferentiated embryo and unipolar germination are produced by holoparasitic species in 10 families of angiosperms. However, aside from a few Orobanchaceae species important in agriculture (crop weeds) and in Chinese traditional medicine we know little about seed germination in these achlorophyllous plants. Our primary purpose was to review the literature on seed germination in nine families of the mostly economically-nonimportant taxa of holoparasites and (briefly) of Cynomoriaceae, an economically important medicinal family for which several publications on its germination are in Chinese. A second purpose was to pull together information on sizes of dust seeds and their undifferentiated embryos and endosperm in both economically- and noneconomically-important holoparasitic plants. We found that not much progress has been made in understanding dormancy-break/germination in these holoparasites since 1969, when the author of a book on parasitic flowering plants pointed out how little we know about their germination. Lack of progress on germination of dust seeds of these holoparasites is not necessarily due to lack of research but at least in part to their nonresponsiveness to well-known treatments used to break dormancy in seeds of autotrophic and hemiparasitic flowering plants. For most species, seed length is <1.0 mm (in many <0.50 mm) and embryo length < 0.40 mm (in many <0.10 mm); endosperm is scant to copious. We suggest that seed conditioning, an essential step in germinating seeds of weedy Orobanchaceae holoparasites, be added to the protocol for germinating the dust seeds of noneconomically-important holoparasites with an undifferentiated embryo.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
       
  • An Overview on Orchids and their Interaction with Endophytes

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      Abstract: Abstract Orchids, being one of nature’s most magnificent as well as abundant plant species, are often a bit of an enigma because their seeds lack endosperm and rely on endophytes for seedlings, development, as well as evolution. Orchids are valued by ecologists as well as the community at large for their decorative, therapeutic, as well as nutritional content. Many orchid species have become affected and extinct as a result of growers’ eagerness to obtain them. The current orchid study has concentrated on isolating and identifying mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal endophytes that lead to orchid growth and development and also the synthesis of useful bioactive compounds. In the large-scale biosynthetic pathway of industrially as well as pharmaceutically essential biomolecule derivatives, the biodynamics of orchid-fungal endophytes is assisted for renewable production of bio-applications and technologies. The associations between orchids as well as endophytes are the focus of the study.
      PubDate: 2022-02-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-022-09275-5
       
  • Leaf Secretory Structures in Asteraceae: A Synthesis of Their Diversity
           and Evolution

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      Abstract: Abstract This study presents the first comparative analysis of the leaf secretory structures across Asteraceae. In this work, the leaf secretory structures of more than 500 species of 35 of the 40 tribes and 11 of the 13 subfamilies of Asteraceae are described and compared to evaluate their diversity at the tribe level and to identify evolutionary patterns. Leaf secretory structures are present in 28 of the 35 analyzed tribes and correspond to canals (recorded in 17 tribes), secretory cavities (1 tribe), hydathodes (19 tribes), laticifers (4 tribes) and glandular trichomes (24 tribes). Canals are mostly associated with vascular bundles and predominate in Asteroideae, while cavities were only present within Tageteae. Hydathodes occur in leaves without divisions and with well-developed teeth. Laticifers were observed only in the tribes of Cichorioideae. Seven glandular trichome morphotypes were differentiated by their cellular composition and shape. These observations together with the available information showed that secretory structures are found in 80% of the Asteraceae tribes. Four of the 40 tribes did not present any type of secretory structure. Our study reveals that almost all of the tribes possess one to three types of secretory structures, and are absent in some early-diverging clades. Character evolution analyses show that glandular trichomes are plesiomorphic in Asteraceae. This study found that secretory structures prevail in late-diverging lineages and were taxonomically informative at different levels. Our comparative study of the secretory structures in Asteraceae is essential for the standardization of its terminology and will provide a frame of reference for future studies.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-022-09276-4
       
  • Phytogeographic Meta-Analysis of the Vascular Epiphytes in the Neotropical
           Region

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      Abstract: Abstract The Neotropical Region (NR) is one of the areas with the most plant diversity globally, and its richness of vascular epiphyte (VE) species is higher than Africa and Asia combined. This richness is a consequence of the heterogeneous climate and geological history of the region, both factors also being responsible for the plant distribution patterns. Here, we aimed to explore the phytogeographic relationships of the VE in the NR using 14,636 identified records from 173 surveys exclusively of VE, carried out in 14 countries and 23 biogeographic provinces, comprising 3849 identified species. We assessed the floristic patterns and relationships with climatic variables by multivariate analysis (cluster and ordination analyses). The clustering formed 13 main groups, partly corresponding to the biogeographic units of the NR. Our results demonstrate consistent floristic patterns confirmed through the analysis of floristic similarity, corroborating previous biogeographic classifications in well-studied areas, while broader patterns were found in poorly studied areas. We found a floristic gradient pattern, which allowed us to understand the relationships between environmental conditions and floristic patterns. Furthermore, we discuss our results under the light of the history that likely shaped the current distribution patterns and richness of the VE in the NR. The VE proved to be an important model for testing biogeographic classifications. We encourage the studies of this synusia in the several geographical gaps that remain in the NR, which undoubtedly will improve further studies and support conservationist policies.
      PubDate: 2022-01-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09270-2
       
  • A Comprehensive Review on the Taxonomy, Ecology, Reproductive Biology,
           Economic Importance and Conservation Status of Indian Himalayan
           Rhododendrons

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      Abstract: Abstract The Indian Himalaya is characterized by high plant diversity and endemism levels. Here, the genus Rhododendron is one of the largest flowering plant genera. The flowering of rhododendrons across elevations in the Himalaya supports insects, birds, and animal movements seasonally. Their diverse life forms and habits also form an important structural component of diverse vegetation types from tropical to temperate forests and alpine thickets. Rhododendrons are also a source of livelihood for many rural communities in the Himalaya. The high ecological and economic significance of rhododendrons in this mountain region qualifies it as an important genus for further investigation and exploration. However, over time, climate change and the ever‐increasing demand for natural resources have collectively exerted considerable pressure on Indian Himalayan rhododendrons in their natural habitats. Available data on various aspects of taxonomy, ecology and conservation status are scanty. There is an urgent need to assess the potential ecological and economic benefits that rhododendrons provide to local mountain communities and associated wildlife. This critical review provides comprehensive detail on taxonomy, evolutionary history, ecology, reproductive biology, hybridization, economic importance, impact of climate change on its ecology and evolution, and the conservation status of rhododendrons in the Indian Himalaya. Further, we conclude with a discussion of the strategies to be adopted for the conservation of Rhododendron-dominated forests in the Indian Himalaya. This comprehensive compilation will open new perspectives for future studies and improve ongoing conservation efforts to manage valuable plant resources.
      PubDate: 2022-01-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09273-z
       
  • Leaflet Anatomical Diversity in Zamia (Cycadales: Zamiaceae) Shows Little
           Correlation with Phylogeny and Climate

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      Abstract: Abstract Cycads (Cycadales) are among the most ancient lineages of extant seed-bearing plants and are the most threatened plant order on Earth, with circa 75% of the 356 accepted species endangered or threatened with extinction. Zamia is the most species-rich (81 spp.) and widely distributed cycad genus in the Americas, notable for its morphological and ecological diversity. Across the genus, there appears to be a high degree of convergence among macromorphological traits, with many characters that are useful for species identification proving uninformative for elucidating relationships among species. However, it remains unknown whether anatomical variation in leaflet structure corresponds with phylogenetic or geographic patterns, as has been investigated in Dioon and Cycas. Here, we present a broad comparative survey of leaflet anatomy across Zamia species with the goals of describing anatomical diversity and uncovering diagnostic characters for resolved clades. Anatomical characters were scored based on the literature and newly prepared sections of leaflets from 20 Zamia species plus the outgroup species Microcycas calocoma. The resulting matrix covers 39 Zamia species representing all five major clades and spanning the geographic distribution of the genus. Anatomical characters scored from leaflet sections were mapped onto a previously published phylogeny and evaluated for their phylogenetic signal. Most anatomical characters examined are not diagnostic for clades, but newly reported mesophyll sclereids may be unique to one large lineage. Given the widespread incongruence between phylogenetic relationships and the distribution of anatomical traits, we tested the relationship between anatomical characters and environmental signals but did not uncover significant correlations between anatomy and ecology. While further work is required to elucidate the evolutionary history of anatomical characters in this genus, this research improves our understanding of micromorphological character evolution, anatomical diversity, and phylogenetic relationships within this highly threatened lineage of plants.
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09272-0
       
  • Composition of Sexual Fluids in Cycas revoluta Ovules During Pollination
           and Fertilization

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      Abstract: Abstract The composition of fluids that mediate fertilization in cycads is described for the first time. Using tandem mass spectrometry, proteomes of two stages of fluid production, megagametophyte fluid and archegonial chamber fluid production, are compared in Cycas revoluta. These were compared with the proteome of another sexual fluid produced by ovules, the pollination drop proteins. Cycad ovules produce complex liquids immediately prior fertilization. Compared with the pollination drops that mainly had few proteins in classes involved in defense and carbohydrate modification, megagametophyte fluid and archegonial chamber fluid had larger proteomes with many more protein classes, e.g. proteins involved in programmed cell death. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, megagametophyte fluid and archegonial chamber fluid were shown to have elevated concentrations of smaller molecular weight molecules including glucose, pectin and glutamic acid. Compared to megagametophyte fluid, archegonial chamber fluid had elevated pH as well as higher osmolality.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09271-1
       
  • Evolution and Biology of CRISPR System: A New Era Tool for Genome Editing
           in Plants

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      Abstract: Abstract It’s an evolution of its own kind that a technology changed the interface of biology in such a short expanse of time. Merely a decade ago, scientists reported that the CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short Palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated) system is the part of bacteria and archea’s adaptive immune system which helps in withstanding the attack against invading viruses by acquiring genetic records of invaders to facilitate robust interference upon reinfection. In this Review, we discuss the evolution of CRISPR along the time and recent advances in understanding the vivid mechanism by which Cas proteins respond to foreign nucleic acids and how these systems have been harnessed for precise genome manipulation in plants. With the advancement in this technology, it will become easier to genetically modify the plants for crop improvement.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09250-6
       
  • Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Metabolism under Adverse Environmental
           Conditions: a Review

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      Abstract: Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS) originate as a natural byproduct in standard metabolism of oxygen activities. The principal sites of ROS generation in the cell are apoplast, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and peroxisomes. These ROS can induce cellular injuries by proteins oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage, which finally may result in plant cellular death. Under regular circumstances, there is a steadiness between generation and elimination of ROS, but this balance is hampered by different biotic and abiotic stress factors such as exposure to heavy metals, high and low-light conditions, pathogens, insects and temperature extremes, resulting in a high generation of ROS which should be counteracted by the antioxidant machinery in cells. The antioxidant system of defense is composed by two groups: (i) Enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), general peroxidases (PRX) (e.g. guaiacol peroxidase GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR); (ii) Non-enzymatic antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (AA), reduced glutathione (GSH), α-tocopherol, carotenoids, plastoquinone/ubiquinone and flavonoids. These two groups of metabolites and enzymes work together with the main aim of ROS scavenging, but also in determining plant signaling, immune response, and plant growth and development. Finally, the molecular genetics of ROS genes and related metabolic pathways are briefly outlined, including gene isoforms, cellular localization, detection methods used and interactions amongst them. This information is crucial in better understanding and designing procedures for plants´stress tolerance; leading to a better management of agricultural plants under challenging and changing climatic conditions and food security.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-020-09231-1
       
  • Aquaporins Responses under Challenging Environmental Conditions and
           Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

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      Abstract: Abstract Aquaporins are important transmembrane channel proteins required for the transport of water and nutrients to maintain plant water relations and its survival. The aquaporins have a characteristic structure and are divided into 5 distinct isoforms such as plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIP), tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP), small basic intrinsic protein (SIP), nodulin-26 like intrinsic protein (NIP) and X intrinsic proteins (XIP). Aquaporins conducts transcellular movement of water molecules across the cell and organelles membranes. Apart from playing key role in maintaining water level inside the plant system it is also involved in transporting small neutral molecules including glycerol, urea, metalloids, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen peroxide and ammonia. In this way it regulates ionic homeostasis and water levels during environmental stresses including drought, chilling, salinity, and heavy metal toxicity and helps in providing tolerance toward the stress. It also plays a key role in maintaining the carbon and nitrogen level in the cell, transporting the key regulatory molecules and phytohormones mediated tolerance to plants. Scientist has also targeted aquaporins in order to develop stress tolerant transgenic species having improved functioning of aquaporins. Increase of water retention capability and usage efficiency by the plants represents the major research areas to confer abiotic stress tolerance. This review presents a comprehensive studies and intensive ongoing research to understand the diverse role of aquaporins in ensuring normal growth and development of plants. Current aspects of aquaporins and its isoforms in relation to its structure, function and regulation in different plant species have been highlighted. Further the potential of aquaporins in promoting plant survival during wide ranges of environmental situations is also emphasized.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09249-z
       
  • Phytogeographic Elements and Vegetation along the River Panjkora -
           

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      Abstract: Abstract Distributions of plant species over the earth’s surface are neither random nor even, but are geographic specific and characterized by specific sets of environmental and climatic factors. The current study aimed to classify the vegetation along the River Panjkora of the district Dir Lower, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan into different phytogeographic units via exercising the Multivariate statistical techniques. Vegetation sampling was carried out through quadrat quantitative ecological techniques. Quadrats of various sizes i.e. 1 × 1 m2, 5 × 5 m2 and 10 × 10 m2 were taken for herbs, shrubs and trees, respectively. Inclusively 215 plant species belong to 22 different phytogeographic elements were analysed and documented. The most dominant category of phytogeographic element was Irano-Turanian with 77 species, followed by Cosmopolitan 25 species, Holarctic 23 species, Pluriregional 19 species, Mediterranean 16 species, Western Himalayan 14 species, Paleotropical 12 species and Eastern Asiatic 6 species. Eurasian, Euro-Siberian and Saharo-Arabian were represented by 3 species, Tropical, Sub-cosmopolitan and Pantropical contribute by 2 species while Paleo-temperate, South American, Australian, American, African and central Asian element by a single species. The relationship of various phytogeographic elements with different environmental variables such as pH, EC, TDS, Mn, Ni, Co, Cr, Cu, Cd, Zn, Fe, Na, Ca, Mg and K were determined via Canonical and Detrended Correspondence Analyses. We have observed that with the increase in nutrients concentration i.e., Mn, Co, Mg & Ni the number of Irano-Turanian, Cosmopolitan, Holarctic, Mediterranean & Western Himalayan elements increases while with the decrease in nutrients Cr, Cu, Cd and Na concentration the number of Australian, Sub-Cosmopolitan, Sahro-Arabian, Euro-Siberian, Tropical, American, and Pantropical phytogeographical elements decreases. Therefore, we conclude that there is a direct relationship between phytogeographic elements and soil nutrients that is obviously coupled with the genetic mechanism and natural selection of the species. The area hosting a diverse flora and having a strong correlation with a specifi sets of edaphic and climatic factors. We also elucidate that the area along the river is a hub for various phytogeographical elements and could further be explored from mycorrhizal, genetic, and species migration point of views.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09247-1
       
  • Estimation of genetic diversity and its exploitation in plant breeding

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      Abstract: Abstract Estimation of genetic diversity is a prerequisite to select genetically diverse parents. Availability and collection of genetically diverse parents contribute significantly towards the selection and utilization of promising parents in plant breeding to develop a commercial variety or hybrid. Germplasm is an important source for various qualitative and quantitative traits that may be used to introgress through combination breeding for the improvement of the existing cultivars or development of new cultivars and hybrids by using marker assisted selection. Genetic diversity refers to the variations among the alleles of a gene and it may be examined at nucleotide level in the DNA sequence. Various classical and DNA tools are available to access genetic diversity at morphological and molecular levels and can be expressed in the form of dendrogram, percentage polymorphic loci and genetic distance. Estimation of genetic diversity using molecular techniques is more reliable as it is based on highly polymorphic molecular markers which remain unaffected by the influence of environment. Genetically diverse genotypes are used as valuable source by the plant breeders for the development of new or improved crop varieties with desirable traits to cope up the biotic and abiotic stresses such as drought tolerant, salt tolerant, insect pest and disease resistance etc. This article reviews various traditional to molecular methods used in estimation of genetic diversity and their exploitations in plant breeding programme.
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09274-y
       
  • Characteristics of the Adaptations of Epilithic Mosses to High-Calcium
           Habitats in the Karst Region of Southwest China

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      Abstract: Abstract A high calcium level is an important ecological factor in karst regions. Studying the adaptation mechanism of karst plants to high-calcium environments can provide a theoretical support for revealing biodiversity maintenance mechanisms and for the comprehensive management of rocky desertification. Based on a field investigation, 59 common epilithic moss species were selected for the determination of the calcium content of the plants and soils. By chemical measurement and biostatistical analysing the calcium contents in the soil and epilithic mosses. It was found that the average calcium content of the epilithic mosses was 19.03 mg/g and the average calcium content of the soil was 14.41 ± 8.41 g/kg. The effect of soil calcium content on plant calcium content is not significant, indicating that soil is not the main source of calcium in mosses. There were significant differences in the calcium contents of different families and genus. The average calcium content of Pottiaceae was highest in different regions and habitats than that of other families, and the average calcium content of Brachytheciaceae was loweret. Based on the relationship between the calcium content in epilithic mosses and soil to classify the adaptation methods of the epilithic mosses to the high-calcium environment in karst. The strategies of epilithic mosses adapting to high-calcium environment can be categorised into 3 types: 1) Random, in which the calcium content in plants varies widely with the change in the soil calcium content, which does not significantly affect the growth of the plant; 2) High-calcium, in which the calcium content in the plant remains high at different soil calcium levels; and 3) Low-calcium, in which the calcium content in the plant remains low at different soil calcium levels.
      PubDate: 2021-11-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09263-1
       
  • Overview of Cold Stress Regulation in Plants

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      Abstract: Abstract Among different environmental stresses,cold stress can significantly affect plant’s physiological activity, biochemical metabolism, growth,development and crop productivity. Problems due to cold stress should be addressed seriously keeping in concern extreme temperature events due to climate change, alarming increase in population growth and demanding food needs. Cold signal is recognized by receptors of cell membrane,severity of which is determined by factors like light and temperature. The signal is transduced by cold responsive genes, second messengers like calcium and transcription factors to exert symptoms including decreased germination, stunted growth, chlorosis, wilting of leaves, compromised reproductive development and ultimately necrosis. Cold stress induces cell membrane damage, reduction in scavenging enzymes’ activity, loss of energy in photosynthetic apparatus and stability of proteins. This review presents a broader overview of components regulating cold stress responses, changes in physiological processes, transcriptional; post-transcriptional regulations,coldsignaling pathway and interactions with photoreceptors, phytohormones, pathogenesis-related genes, microbial interactions during cold stress.
      PubDate: 2021-09-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09267-x
       
  • A Review on the Ecology, Evolution and Conservation of Piper (Piperaceae)
           in India: Future Directions and Opportunities

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      Abstract: Abstract The genus Piper (Family Piperaceae), consisting of more than 2000 species worldwide, is one of the most speciose genera of flowering plants that belong to the broad category known as basal angiosperms. Piper is known for the several medicinally and economically important species that have been used throughout their native range. Interestingly, this genus is also one of the most taxonomically challenging genera among the angiosperms. The presence of taxonomically complex as well as ecologically and economically important species makes Piper an excellent study system to address the evolution of tropical biodiversity. Being an early-diverging angiosperm genus, understanding Piper systematics and divergence patterns holds vital clues to plant evolution in the tropics. However, research on this plant group is still in a nascent stage, with the primary focus being on its medicinal importance and natural product chemistry. Its distribution, natural history, ecology, evolution and systematics remain less explored. Lack of such knowledge will impede the ongoing conservation effort and may affect the sustainable utilization of this valuable plant resource. The Indian subcontinent is an important center of Piper diversity harboring ca. 100 species, including several economically and medicinally important species such as Black pepper. Piper species in India have a high potential for future utilization; however, their conservation status and needs have not been widely reviewed. Here, we review the taxonomy, ecology and evolution, of Piper species, the threats they face, and further discuss future research directions and suggest ways forward in conserving and effectively utilizing this important plant group in India.
      PubDate: 2021-09-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09269-9
       
  • Betula utilis D. Don: an Ecologically and Economically Important
           Timberline Species of Himalayan Region in Jeopardy

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      Abstract: Abstract Betula utilis D. Don (Betulaceae), commonly known as Himalayan Birch or Bhojpatra especially in Indian Himalayan Region is socio-culturally and ecologically valued and considered a keystone species which plays a significant role in the functioning of the timberline ecosystem. It forms an integral part of day-to-day life of the Himalayan people, as it is deeply associated with the culture of the locals. The historical uses of Betula utilis and its subsequent over exploitation to meet-out day-to-day requirements, market forces coupled with global warming put pressure on its natural population and have caused loss of habitat in many of its native grooves in the entire Himalayan Region. The decline in the size of population of Betula utilis is due to its area of occupancy, extent of occurrence, potential level of exploitation, effects of introduced taxa and attack of pathogens. Further, it grows in high altitude tree line zone which is almost inaccessible and most vulnerable region due to global warming or climatic shift. In this backdrop, keeping in view the multiple uses of the species, the present study aims to review and document the ecological parameters, traditional uses, commercial aspects and conservation and management concerns of this valuable species.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12229-021-09259-x
       
 
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