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  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 103 journals)
Showing 1 - 22 of 22 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acrocephalus     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Animal Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Animal Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Animal Sentience : An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Animal Welfare     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Botanical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
British Poultry Abstracts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Corpoica Ciencia y Tecnología Agropecuaria     Open Access  
Derecho Animal. Forum of Animal Law Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
European Journal of Wildlife Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Human-Wildlife Interactions     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Equine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Animal Science and Products     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Animal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Learning and Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Threatened Taxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Zoological and Botanical Gardens     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Peternakan Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Ilmiah Peternakan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural History Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pastoralism : Research, Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
People and Animals : The International Journal of Research and Practice     Open Access  
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rangifer     Open Access  
Research Journal of Parasitology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue de primatologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries     Open Access  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Social Choice and Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Society and Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
South African Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
TRACE ∴ Finnish Journal for Human-Animal Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Translational Animal Science     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
Uluslararası Tarım ve Yaban Hayatı Bilimleri Dergisi / International Journal of Agricultural and Wildlife Sciences     Open Access  
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wildfowl     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

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Journal Cover
Animal Welfare
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.716
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 32  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0962-7286 - ISSN (Online) 2054-1538
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [353 journals]
  • A new era for Animal Welfare

    • Authors: Golledge; Huw, Nielsen, Birte
      First page: 1
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.3
  • Assessing animal welfare impact of fourteen control and dispatch methods
           for house mouse (Mus musculus), Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) and black
           rat (Rattus rattus)

    • Authors: De Ruyver; Ciska, Baert, Kristof, Cartuyvels, Emma, Beernaert, Lies AL, Tuyttens, Frank AM, Leirs, Herwig, Moons, Christel PH
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Population control of the house mouse (Mus musculus), Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) and black rat (Rattus rattus) is common practice worldwide. Our objective was to assess the impact on animal welfare of lethal and non-lethal control methods, including three dispatch methods. We used the Sharp and Saunders welfare assessment model with eight experts scoring eleven control methods and three dispatch methods used on the three species. We presumed the methods were performed as prescribed, only taking into account the effect on the target animal (and not, for example, on non-target catches). We did not assess population control efficacy of the methods. Methods considered to induce the least suffering to the target animal were captive-bolt traps, electrocution traps and cervical dislocation, while those with the greatest impact were anticoagulants, cholecalciferol and deprivation. Experts indicated considerable uncertainty regarding their evaluation of certain methods, which emphasises the need for further scientific research. In particular, the impact of hydrogen cyanide, chloralose and aluminium phosphide on animal welfare ought to be investigated. The experts also stressed the need to improve Standard Operating Procedures and to incorporate animal welfare assessments in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). The results of our study can help laypeople, professionals, regulatory agencies and legislators making well-informed decisions as to which methods to use when controlling commensal rodents.
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2022.2
  • Animal sheltering: A scoping literature review grounded in institutional

    • Authors: Koralesky; Katherine E, Rankin, Janet M, Fraser, David
      First page: 3
      Abstract: A diverse research literature now exists on the animals, staff and organisations involved in animal sheltering. We reviewed this research through the lens of institutional ethnography, a method of inquiry that focuses on the actual work that people do within institutions. The main topics, identified through a larger ethnographic study of animal sheltering, were: (i) research about shelter staff and officers; (ii) the relinquishment of animals to shelters; and (iii) animals’ length of stay in shelters. After reviewing the literature, we held focus groups with shelter personnel to explore how their work experiences are or are not represented in the research. The review showed that stress caused by performing euthanasia has attracted much research, but the decision-making that leads to euthanasia, which may involve multiple staff and potential conflict, has received little attention. Research on ‘compassion fatigue’ has also tended to focus on euthanasia but a granular description about the practical and emotional work that personnel undertake that generates such fatigue is missing. Published research on both relinquishment and length of stay is dominated by metrics (questionnaires) and often relies upon shelter records, despite their limitations. Less research has examined the actual work processes involved in managing relinquishment as well as monitoring and reducing animals’ length of stay. Institutional ethnography’s focus on people’s work activities can provide a different and more nuanced understanding of what is happening in animal sheltering and how it might better serve the needs of the animals and staff.
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2022.4
  • Challenges in farmed insect welfare: Beyond the question of sentience

    • Authors: Barrett; Meghan, Fischer, Bob
      First page: 4
      Abstract: The global Insects as Food and Feed (IAFF) industry currently farms over a trillion individual insects a year and is growing rapidly. Intensive animal production systems are known to cause a range of negative affective states in livestock; given the potential scale of the IAFF industry, it is urgent to consider the welfare of the industry’s insect livestock. The majority of the literature on farmed insect welfare has focused on: (i) establishing that insect welfare ought to be of concern; or (ii) extending vertebrate welfare frameworks to insects. However, there are many overlooked challenges to studying insect welfare and applying that knowledge in IAFF industry contexts. Here, we briefly review five of these challenges. We end with practical recommendations for the future study of insect welfare.
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2022.5
  • That brachycephalic look: Infant-like facial appearance in short-muzzled
           dog breeds

    • Authors: Paul; Elizabeth S, Packer, Rowena MA, McGreevy, Paul D, Coombe, Emily, Mendl, Elsa, Neville, Vikki
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Brachycephalic dog breeds are highly popular, yet their conformation-related disorders represent a major welfare concern. It has been suggested that the current popularity of such breeds can be explained by their cute, infant-like facial appearances. The concept of ‘kindchenschema’ refers to the observation that certain physical features of infant humans and other animals can automatically stimulate positive and nurturant feelings in adult observers. But the proposal that brachycephalic dogs possess heightened ‘kindchenschema’ facial features, even into adulthood, has never been formally investigated. Here, we hypothesised that relative muzzle shortening across a range of breeds would be associated with known ‘kindchenschema’ facial features, including a relatively larger forehead, larger eyes and smaller nose. Relative fronto-facial feature sizes in exemplar photographs of adult dogs from 42 popular breeds were measured and associated with existing data on the relative muzzle length and height-at-withers of the same breeds. Our results show that, in adulthood, shorter-muzzled breeds have relatively larger (taller) foreheads and relatively larger eyes (i.e. area of exposed eyeball relative to overall face area) than longer-muzzled breeds, and that this effect is independent of breed size. In sum, brachycephalic dog breeds do show exaggeration of some, but not all, known fronto-facial ‘kindchenschema’ features, and this may well contribute to their apparently cute appearance and to their current popularity as companion animals. We conclude that the challenge of addressing conformation-related disorders in companion dogs needs to take account of the cute, ‘kindchenschema’ looks that many owners are likely to be attracted to.
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2022.6
  • Using focus groups with dairy cattle veterinarians to explore learning
           about calf welfare

    • Authors: Sumner; Christine L, Bolduc, Naseeb, von Keyserlingk, Marina AG
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Dairy calf welfare is a growing interest within the veterinary field. However, a limited understanding of the conception of calf welfare by dairy cattle veterinarians can hinder efforts to promote welfare improvements on farms. The aim of this study was to explore how focus groups can promote learning about dairy calf welfare issues among cattle veterinarians. Focus groups (n = 5), that collectively had 33 participants representing five Canadian provinces and different geographical regions, were conducted as part of a continuing education workshop for Canadian cattle veterinarians. Two trained individuals undertook exploratory data analyses using applied thematic analysis and adult learning theory to develop a codebook of the data and identify the main themes. There were three main themes about learning that emerged from guided peer-discussion: (i) defining a shared concept of animal welfare from the veterinary perspective to diagnose the problem; (ii) understanding the problems of calf welfare by self-examination and group reflection; and (iii) negotiating the best approach to address the problems through sharing of ideas on improving calf welfare, including strategies for addressing welfare problems. In conclusion, focus groups can facilitate animal welfare learning within the veterinary profession.
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2022.7
  • Condition of bob veal calves on arrival at an abattoir in Ohio

    • Authors: England; Zachary A, Maggard, Hannah L, Fisher, Andrew D, Roadknight, Natalie W, Pempek, Jessica A
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Previous research has shown surplus dairy calves arrive at ‘formula-fed’ veal operations in North America in sub-optimal condition; however, little is known about the condition of ‘bob’ veal calves on arrival at abattoirs. The objectives of this study were to assess the condition of bob veal calves on arrival at an abattoir in Ohio and determine risk factors for poor health outcomes. On arrival, 35 calves in each of 12 cohorts (n = 420 calves) were assessed using a standardised health examination. A blood sample was also collected to assess failed transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) and hypoglycaemia. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the prevalence of poor health outcomes. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to identify if calf breed, sex, or source were risk factors for poor health outcomes. The most common physical health concern observed on arrival at the abattoir was dehydration (mean: 68.6%), followed by thin body condition (39.8%), and navel inflammation (25.7%). Approximately one-quarter (23.4%) of calves had FTPI and 73.4% were hypoglycaemic. Male calves were more likely than females to arrive hypoglycaemic. Hydration status was associated with breed; Jersey and crossbreed calves were less likely to be dehydrated than Holstein-Friesian calves. Buying station tended to be associated with FTPI. These results underline the need for more studies investigating morbidity, mortality, and their underlying risk factors to promote calf welfare prior to slaughter in each stage of the production chain: on the dairy farm of birth, during marketing, and in transit.
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2022.8
  • Bonded labour and donkey ownership in the brick kilns of India: A need for
           reform of policy and practice

    • Authors: Kubasiewicz; Laura M, Watson, Tamlin, Nye, Caroline, Chamberlain, Natasha, Perumal, Ramesh K, Saroja, Ramesh, Norris, Stuart L, Raw, Zoe, Burden, Faith A
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Slavery, in the form of ‘debt-bondage’, is rife in Indian brick kilns, where the enforcement of labour laws is poor. Working equids support brick-kiln workers by transporting raw bricks into the kilns, but the situation of equids and their owners within the brick kilns is relatively unknown. We describe the welfare of donkeys (Equus asinus) owned under conditions of debt-bondage, examine the links between owner and donkey behaviour, and outline the living conditions of both donkeys and humans working in the brick kilns of Gujarat, India. We then explore the unique experience of debt-bondage by donkey owners, compare migration trends to those of non-donkey-owning workers and assess impacts on their children’s education. The physical and behavioural conditions of donkeys reflected that of their owners, creating negative feedback loops and potentially reducing productivity. All donkey owners experienced debt-bondage and were particularly vulnerable to unexpected financial loss. Donkey owners, unlike non-owners, migrated within their home state, enabling their children to attend school. Our work highlights the need for policy reform within the brick-kiln industry to acknowledge the pivotal role of working donkeys in supporting human livelihoods.
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.1
  • Cats just want to have fun: Associations between play and welfare in
           domestic cats

    • Authors: Henning; Julia, Nielsen, Torben, Fernandez, Eduardo, Hazel, Susan
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Play is often considered an indicator and promotor of animal welfare and may facilitate closer cat-human relationships. However, few studies have empirically investigated these associations. The current study aimed to investigate play-related factors associated with four welfare outcome measures in cats (Felis catus) including: cat quality of life; cat-guardian relationship quality; problem behaviour prevalence; and behavioural changes. An online survey was developed using demographic information, questions related to play and resources, free text sections and the following validated measures: cat quality of life (QOL), the cat owner relationship scale, and the adult playfulness trait scale. Responses were completed by 1,591 cat guardians from 55 countries. Higher cat playfulness scores and a greater number of games played were significantly associated with higher cat QOL scores while longer amounts of daily play, greater number of games, both cat and guardian initiating play and higher guardian playfulness scores were all significantly associated with higher cat-guardian relationship scores. Exclusively indoor housing was significantly associated with both higher cat QOL and higher cat-guardian relationships scores compared to cats with outdoor access. Behavioural changes associated with distress in cats were reported when play was absent. Play may be an important factor in assessing and maintaining cat welfare. Further research into the mechanisms of how play impacts welfare and cat-guardian relationships is needed.
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.2
  • Evaluation of stress markers in horses during hippotherapy sessions in
           comparison to being ridden by beginners

    • Authors: Potier; Julie FN, Louzier, Vanessa
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Hippotherapy has been used for decades and its benefits to human patients have largely been proven, whether being applied to those with physical or mental disabilities. There have been a plethora of animal welfare studies recently, pertaining especially to ridden horses. This study aimed to investigate stress markers in horses during hippotherapy sessions to address the ethical considerations raised by using horses for therapy. A ridden stress ethogram was established and validated specifically for this study via subjective observation and video recording of a ridden session involving intermediate-level riders. The experiment entailed eight healthy horses undergoing two ridden sessions on separate days, one with disabled riders and one with beginners. Several parameters associated with physiological responses to stress were evaluated at rest, such as heart rate, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH], serum and salivary cortisol. These parameters as well as the behavioural stress score from the ethogram scale were measured during both sessions. No significant differences were found between heart rate, plasma ACTH, and stress scores. Serum and salivary cortisol were significantly lower during the hippotherapy session than during the session with beginners. The current study found no evidence of compromised welfare when horses were used as a therapeutic aid during hippotherapy sessions compared to their usual ridden activity. Although these results indicate that hippotherapy may be ethically justified as it benefits humans without causing harm to the horses, the present study was small, and the results should be interpreted with caution.
      PubDate: 2023-01-30
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.6
  • Can dogs help chickens' Pet owners’ willingness to pay for animal
           welfare-friendly pet food in the United States

    • Authors: Pearce; Hillary, Neill, Clinton L, Royal, Kenneth, Pairis-Garcia, Monique
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Consumer concern about farmed animal welfare is growing but does not always translate into real-world purchasing behaviour of welfare-friendly animal products for human consumption. Possible reasons for this include unfamiliarity with farming practices and economic sensitivity. In contrast, the number and role of pets in the United States have grown measurably, and spending on pets is strong. The pet food market has many opportunity niches as pet owners navigate strong marketing trends and nutrition philosophies. We hypothesised that pet owners in the US would be willing to pay a premium for pet food containing welfare-friendly animal ingredients. Eight hundred and thirty-eight pet owners completed an online survey asking questions that measured their knowledge of and interest in farm animal welfare, and their willingness-to-pay for pet food labelled as farm animal welfare-friendly. Respondents overall displayed relatively low knowledge about farm animal welfare, but poor self-assessment of their own knowledge. They displayed interest in farm animal welfare and an overall positive mean willingness-to-pay (WTP) for welfare-friendly pet food. Younger respondents, women and cat owners displayed a higher WTP than older respondents, men and dog owners. Income level was not correlated to WTP. Creating pet food products that contain animal ingredients produced using welfare-friendly practices may enhance farm animal welfare via two primary avenues: by providing a sustainable and value-added outlet for the by-products of welfare-friendly human food products, and by providing an educational opportunity about farm animal production via pet food packaging and other advertising.
      PubDate: 2023-01-30
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2022.3
  • Estimating global numbers of farmed fishes killed for food annually from
           1990 to 2019

    • Authors: Mood; Alison, Lara, Elena, Boyland, Natasha K, Brooke, Phil
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Global farmed finfish production increased from 9 to 56 million tonnes between 1990 and 2019. Although finfishes are now widely recognised as sentient beings, production is still being quantified as biomass rather than number of individuals (in contrast to farmed mammals and birds). Here, we estimate the global number of farmed finfishes slaughtered using FAO aquaculture production tonnages (1990–2019 data) and estimates of individual weight at killing (determined from internet searches at species and country level where possible). We relate these numbers to knowledge on humane slaughter, animal welfare law, and certification schemes. Since 1990, farmed finfish numbers killed annually for food have increased nine-fold, to 124 billion (1.24 × 1011, range 78–171 billion) in 2019. This figure does not represent the total number farmed (due to mortalities during rearing and non-food production) and is expected to increase as aquaculture expands. Our estimates indicate that farmed finfishes now outnumber the 80 billion farmed birds and mammals killed globally each year for food. The majority are produced in Asia. Inhumane slaughter practices cause suffering for most farmed finfishes. Most, 70–72%, have no legal welfare protection, and less than 1% have any fish-specific legal protection, at slaughter. The main global certification schemes in 2013–2015 accounted for 2% of slaughtered farmed finfishes. Fishes for which species-specific parameters for automated humane stunning are published comprise 20–24%. As the dominant taxa of farmed vertebrates, finfishes would benefit from better welfare if species-specific humane slaughter was defined and incorporated into laws and certification schemes.
      PubDate: 2023-02-06
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.4
  • Predictors of successful diversion of cats and dogs away from animal
           shelter intake: Analysis of data from a self-rehoming website

    • Authors: Ly; Lexis H, Protopopova, Alexandra
      First page: 13
      Abstract: As animals experience distress in animal shelters, leaders call for increased efforts to divert intake of companion animals away from shelters. One novel intake diversion strategy is supported self-rehoming, where owners find new homes for their animals without surrendering to a physical shelter. This study aimed to identify predictors of successful diversion of animals through the AdoptaPet.com ‘Rehome’ online platform. Data for dogs (n = 100,342) and cats (n = 48,484) were analysed through logistic regression to assess the association of animal- and owner-related factors and outcome. Overall, 87.1% of dogs and 85.7% of cats were successfully diverted from animal shelters, out of which, 37.8% of dogs and 35.3% of cats were kept by their original owner. Multiple animal-related factors predicted increased odds of diversion (e.g. younger, smaller). Dog and cat owners who set a longer rehoming deadline (i.e.> 8 weeks) were over twice as likely to keep or adopt out their animal. Dog owners who surrendered for owner-related reasons had increased odds of diversion in comparison to animal behaviour issues. We conclude that online-supported, self-rehoming platforms provide pet owners with an alternative to relinquishment that may reduce the intake of animals to shelters; however, owners with animals that are not preferred by adopters may have to decide whether to keep their animal or relinquish their animal to a shelter or rescue. These results provide guidance for animal shelter professionals on the likelihood of successful diversion programmes given certain animal and owner characteristics.
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.8
  • An effective environmental enrichment framework for the continual
           improvement of production animal welfare

    • Authors: Taylor; Peta S, Schrobback, Peggy, Verdon, Megan, Lee, Caroline
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Substrates and objects are provided to farm animals on the assumption that they improve animal welfare by enriching the environment, but these often fail to consider the extent to which an environmental enrichment (EE) improves animal welfare, if at all. Furthermore, there are numerous definitions of EE, each with a unique expectation. If expectations of animal welfare improvement are set too high, industry uptake may be thwarted, but if thresholds are set too low it will not result in meaningful improvements to animal welfare. We propose an EE framework based on revised definitions of EE that reflect improvements to various components of animal welfare: (i) pseudo-enrichment; (ii) EE for meeting basic needs; (iii) EE for pleasure; and (iv) EE for positive welfare balance. This framework requires short- and long-term assessments to determine the impact of the EE, although many are lacking in the production animal literature. Redefining EE with a focus on specific animal welfare outcomes will assist producers in identifying the optimal EE for their enterprise. Subsequently, we encourage dialogue between farmers, researchers and industry stakeholders when designing environmental enrichment programmes. This framework is a science-based tool that can be used to inform the development of clear EE assessment protocols and requirements for animal welfare legislation, assurance programmes and industry. This evidence-based framework ensures that the focus is on the outcome of EE programmes rather than the intent. Importantly, this framework has the flexibility to adapt even as baseline environments evolve, ensuring the continual improvement to production animal welfare.
      PubDate: 2023-02-14
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.5
  • One welfare: Linking poverty, equid ownership and equid welfare in the
           brick kilns of India – ERRATUM

    • Authors: Kubasiewicz; LM, Watson, T, Norris, SL, Chamberlain, N, Nye, C, Perumal, RK, Saroja, R, Raw, Z, Burden, FA
      First page: 15
      PubDate: 2023-02-15
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.14
  • Welfare of dairy cows in Kosovo and intervention thresholds for selected
           welfare indicators as suggested by farmers and veterinarians – ERRATUM

    • Authors: Zhitia; E, Leeb, C, Muji, S, Winckler, C
      First page: 16
      PubDate: 2023-02-15
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.15
  • Digital Livestock Technologies as boundary objects: Investigating impacts
           on farm management and animal welfare

    • Authors: Schillings; Juliette, Bennett, Richard, Wemelsfelder, Françoise, Rose, David C
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Digital Livestock Technologies (DLTs) can assist farmer decision-making and promise benefits to animal health and welfare. However, the extent to which they can help improve animal welfare is unclear. This study explores how DLTs may impact farm management and animal welfare by promoting learning, using the concept of boundary objects. Boundary objects may be interpreted differently by different social worlds but are robust enough to share a common identity across them. They facilitate communication around a common issue, allowing stakeholders to collaborate and co-learn. The type of learning generated may impact management and welfare differently. For example, it may help improve existing strategies (single-loop learning), or initiate reflection on how these strategies were framed initially (double-loop learning). This study focuses on two case studies, during which two DLTs were developed and tested on farms. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with stakeholders involved in the case studies (n = 31), and the results of a separate survey were used to complement our findings. Findings support the important potential of DLTs to help enhance animal welfare, although the impacts vary between technologies. In both case studies, DLTs facilitated discussions between stakeholders, and whilst both promoted improved management strategies, one also promoted deeper reflection on the importance of animal emotional well-being and on providing opportunities for positive animal welfare. If DLTs are to make significant improvements to animal welfare, greater priority should be given to DLTs that promote a greater understanding of the dimensions of animal welfare and a reframing of values and beliefs with respect to the importance of animals’ well-being.
      PubDate: 2023-02-17
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.16
  • Expert assessment of the impact of ship-strikes on cetacean welfare using
           the Welfare Assessment Tool for Wild Cetaceans

    • Authors: Rae; Francesca, Nicol, Christine, Simmonds, Mark P
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Human activities are increasingly impacting our oceans and the focus tends to be on their environmental impacts, rather than consequences for animal welfare. Global shipping density has quadrupled since 1992. Unsurprisingly, increased levels of vessel collisions with cetaceans have followed this global expansion of shipping. This paper is the first to attempt to consider the severity of ship-strike on individual whale welfare. The methodology of the ‘Welfare Assessment Tool for Wild Cetaceans’ (WATWC) was used, which is itself based upon the Five Domains model. Expert opinion was sought on six hypothetical but realistic case studies involving humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) struck by ships. Twenty-nine experts in the cetacean and welfare sector took part. They were split into two groups; Group 1 first assessed a case we judged to be the least severe and Group 2 first assessed the most severe. Both groups then additionally assessed the same four further cases. This was to investigate whether the severity of the first case influenced judgements regarding subsequent cases (i.e. expert judgements were relative) or not (i.e. judgements were absolute). No significant difference between the two groups of assessors was found; therefore, the hypothesis of relative scoring was rejected. Experts judged whales may suffer some level (>1) of overall (Domain 5) harm for the rest of their lives following a ship-strike incident. Health, closely followed by Behaviour were found to be the welfare aspects most affected by ship-strikes. Overall, the WATWC shows a robust potential to aid decision-making on wild cetacean welfare.
      PubDate: 2023-02-23
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.7
  • The impact of strategic ventilation adjustments on stress responses in
           horses housed full-time in a vector-protected barn during the African
           horse sickness outbreak in Thailand

    • Authors: Poochipakorn; Chanoknun, Joongpan, Weena, Tongsangiam, Pongphon, Phooseerit, Areeya, Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda, Chanda, Metha
      First page: 19
      Abstract: The severe outbreak of African horse sickness (AHS) in Thailand has forced horses to reside full-time inside barns that are covered by a small mesh net to prevent minuscule AHS insect vectors from gaining access. However, housing in the net-covered barn induces stress in horses, which compromises their welfare. Implementing strategic airflow adjustment while retaining the vector-protection characteristics has been proposed to help alleviate this problem. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of strategic ventilation adjustment on blood cortisol levels, heart rate and behaviour in horses in a vector-protected barn. Nine horses underwent two sequential stabling conditions: vector-protected barn housing and housing in a barn in which the air ventilation was explicitly adjusted. Heart rate was higher in the afternoon in horses housed in the barn without ventilation adjustment, whereas no change was observed in the barn with ventilation adjustment. The vector-protected housing increased the horses’ behavioural scores. Blood cortisol level declined over time, and an earlier decrease was detected at 1400h in the barn with ventilation adjustment. Although airflow adjustment did not appear to statistically alter the stress response in horses during housing in the vector-protected barn, an earlier decline in cortisol level alongside an unchanged heart rate in horses during the day may indicate the positive impact of ventilation adjustment within the vector-protected barn. With limited options to reduce stress or discomfort in horses, this strategic protocol could, at least in part, be applied to managing horses’ welfare during the AHS outbreak.
      PubDate: 2023-02-23
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.10
  • Wild Animal Ethics: The Moral and Political Problem of Wild Animal
           Suffering - By K Johannsen (2021). Published by Routledge, Taylor &
           Francis Group, 3 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN, UK.
           112 pages Hardback/Paperback/ebook (ISBN: 9780367275709). Price (hardback)
           £130, (paperback) £36.99, (ebook) £33.29.

    • Authors: Mullineaux; Elizabeth
      First page: 20
      PubDate: 2023-02-23
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.12
  • Welfare of extensively managed Swedish Gotland ponies

    • Authors: Viksten; Sofie M, Hartmann, Elke, Schneller, Karin, Steen, Margareta
      First page: 21
      Abstract: It has been suggested that grazing horses could be used as a credible tool for landscape conservation which would, at the same time, improve horse welfare as opposed to conventional housing. A study was conducted between May 2014 and April 2015 on 12 one year old Gotland ponies managed extensively without supplementary feed. Monthly animal welfare assessments (n = 13) revealed welfare issues in most of the horses, i.e. low body condition score (BCS  0) in the human approach test and BCS < 3 and ocular discharge. Avoidance Distance test values were correlated with faecal parasite counts (> 350 eggs per gram [EPG]). These results indicate that the horses had acceptable welfare during late spring/summer (May–September) and that some horses required additional feed during winter. The animal welfare protocol proved to be an efficient tool for monitoring welfare. The results showed that factors important for extensive management are: daily monitoring; enclosures that provide sufficient feed; access to recovery enclosure; and habituation of horses to human approach.
      PubDate: 2023-02-23
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.20
  • Does housing system affect horse welfare' The AWIN welfare assessment
           protocol applied to horses kept in an outdoor group-housing system: The

    • Authors: Dai; Francesca, Dalla Costa, Emanuela, Minero, Michela, Briant, Christine
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Outdoor group housing is generally reported as being beneficial to the welfare of horses compared to single boxes, being considered to show greater similarities with the living conditions of feral horses, allowing full expression of behaviours such as grazing, social interactions and free movement. However, concerns persist regarding the ability to maintain a good nutritional state and the possibility of acquiring injury. No data reporting a comprehensive assessment of welfare for horses in outdoor group-housing systems are currently available. The present study aimed at applying a scientifically valid welfare assessment protocol to group-housed outdoor horses in ‘parcours’, a particular management system used in the south of France. ‘Parcours’ are semi-natural areas, grazed by domestic herbivores located in lowland, mountain, or marsh. One hundred and seventy-one horses older than a year pertaining to six farms and kept on ‘parcours’ were evaluated by a trained veterinarian using a modified version of the second level Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN) welfare assessment protocol for horses. No major welfare issues were detected. Horses in ‘parcours’ displayed few abnormal behaviours, they could move freely for most of the day and interact with conspecifics, maintaining a healthy state of nutrition and a good relationship with humans. The main welfare concerns were related to the presence of superficial integument alterations such as alopecia, difficulty in reaching quality controlled water sources and a lack of shelter. As the number of facilities involved in this study is relatively limited, further harmonised data collection should aim to enlarge the sample size and allow comparison with different outdoor group-housing conditions.
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.9
  • One Welfare in Practice: The Role of the Veterinarian - Edited by T
           Stephens (2021). Published by CRC Press, Park Square, Milton Park,
           Abington, Oxon OX14 4RN, UK. 371 pages Paperback (ISBN: 9780367904067).
           Price: £42.99.

    • Authors: Richardson; Claire
      First page: 23
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.13
  • Metabolic and behavioural effects of hermit crab shell removal techniques:
           Is heating less invasive than cracking'

    • Authors: Burciaga; Luis M, Alcaraz, Guillermina
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Hermit crabs (Paguroidea; Latreille 1802) offer great opportunities to study animal behaviour and physiology. However, the animals’ size and sex cannot be determined when they are inside their shell; information crucial to many experimental designs. Here, we tested the effects of the two most common procedures used to make crabs leave their shells: heating the shell apex and cracking the shell with a bench press. We compared the effects of each of the two procedures on the metabolic rate, hiding time, and duration of the recovery time relative to unmanipulated hermit crabs. The hermit crabs forced to abandon their shell through heating increased their respiratory rate shortly after the manipulation (1 h) and recovered their metabolic rate in less than 24 h, as occurs in individuals suddenly exposed to high temperatures in the upper-intertidal zone. Hermit crabs removed from their shells via cracking spent more time hiding in their new shells; this effect was evident immediately after the manipulation and lasted more than 24 h, similar to responses exhibited after a life-threatening predator attack. Both methods are expected to be stressful, harmful, or fear-inducing; however, the temperature required to force the crabs to abandon the shell is below the critical thermal maxima of most inhabitants of tropical tide pools. The wide thermal windows of intertidal crustaceans and the shorter duration of consequences of shell heating compared to cracking suggest heating to be a less harmful procedure for removing tropical hermit crabs from their shells.
      PubDate: 2023-02-28
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.17
  • An effective environmental enrichment framework for the continual
           improvement of production animal welfare – ERRATUM

    • Authors: Taylor; Peta S, Schrobback, Peggy, Verdon, Megan, Lee, Caroline
      First page: 25
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.23
  • The Mind of a Bee - By L Chittka (2022). Published by Princeton University
           Press, 41 William Street, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA. 304 pages Hardback
           (ISBN: 978-0691180472). Price £20.47.

    • Authors: Gray; Helen
      First page: 26
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.11
  • A One Welfare approach to identify socioeconomic vulnerability in families
           during investigations into companion animal abuse in Pinhais, Brazil

    • Authors: Monsalve; Stefany, Hammerschmidt, Janaina, Ribeiro, Micheli, Caleme, Maria Vitoria Duarte, Marconcin, Solange, Filius, Gizeli, Garcia, Rita de Cassia Maria
      First page: 27
      Abstract: A One Welfare approach allows intervention to resolve problems related to the human-animal-environment interface. However, in Brazil and many other countries, there is poor communication between human and animal welfare services. In this research we considered a One Welfare approach in cases of abuse involving dogs and cats. When investigating pet abuse, professionals from the Animal Welfare Division of Pinhais, Brazil, can enter the home environment. During routine animal abuse investigations, the demographic profile of pet owners and their socioeconomic vulnerability was also recorded. Results from forty-five cases with (n = 30) and without (n = 15) suspicion of socioeconomic vulnerability were sent to the Department of Social Assistance of Pinhais, Brazil for confirmation. Socioeconomic vulnerability was suspected if socioeconomic problems were reported by the pet owners under investigation or their neighbours, as well by assessment of the socioeconomic environment of the families during home visits. Economic disadvantage was the most prevalent socioeconomic vulnerability. Cohen’s Kappa coefficients support the ability of animal welfare service professionals to detect socioeconomic vulnerability. Almost half of all families considered to have socioeconomic vulnerability had not previously participated in social programmes. In all cases involving families already being assisted by the Department of Social Assistance, pets were found to be suffering abuse. Families with socioeconomic vulnerability confirmed were included in the social programmes. These results support the need for a multi-disciplinary approach to improve the well-being of families with dogs and cats. This study can help guide the development of an interdisciplinary approach to address animal abuse cases.
      PubDate: 2023-03-02
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.18
  • Pekin ducks are motivated to lay in their preferred nest substrate

    • Authors: Barrett; Lorelle, Maloney, Shane K, Blache, Dominique
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Nest design is one factor contributing to floor-laying in farmed poultry. We investigated: (i) if ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) prefer a particular nest substrate; and (ii) how important that preference is to them, indicated by stress-induced hyperthermia, egg albumen corticosterone, and behaviour. Twelve female ducks that were trained in a push-door task had temperature data loggers implanted. Preference testing identified the most and least preferred nest substrates between sawdust, astroturf, and hemp fibres. A behavioural demand test then required the ducks to use push-doors to access nests containing either the most or least preferred substrate. The preferred substrate door was loaded with increasing weight (0–120% of bodyweight, four nights per workload) and eventually blocked to prevent nest access. The least preferred substrate door remained unweighted. The overall rank order of substrate preferences was sawdust> hemp> astroturf. Six of the 12 birds pushed all workloads and attempted to push the blocked door. The area under the curve (AUC) of hyperthermia was larger when the preferred substrate door was blocked compared with 0%. The AUC did not differ between nights 2–4 of the blocked door compared with night 1. Egg albumen corticosterone was unaffected. We conclude that laying Pekin ducks prefer manipulatable nest substrates and accessing one is important enough to pay a cost. The results indicate that a manipulatable substrate should be provided to commercially farmed nesting ducks.
      PubDate: 2023-03-06
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.19
  • Evaluation of score parameters for severity assessment of surgery and
           liver cirrhosis in rats

    • Authors: Krueger; Johanne C, Habigt, Moriz A, Helmedag, Marius J, Uhlig, Moritz, Moss, Michaela, Bleich, André, Tolba, René H, Rossaint, Rolf, Hein, Marc, Mechelinck, Mare
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Severity assessment in animals is an ongoing field of research. In particular, the question of objectifiable and meaningful parameters of score-sheets, as well as their best combination, arise. This retrospective analysis investigates the suitability of a score-sheet for assessing severity and seeks to optimise it for predicting survival in 89 male Sprague Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus), during an experiment evaluating the influence of liver cirrhosis by bile duct ligation (BDL) on vascular healing. The following five parameters were compared for their predictive power: (i) overall score; (ii) relative weight loss; (iii) general condition score; (iv) spontaneous behaviour score; and (v) the observer’s assessment whether pain might be present. Suitable cut-off values of these individual parameters and the combination of multiple parameters were investigated. A total of ten rats (11.2%; 10/89) died or had to be sacrificed at an early stage due to pre-defined humane endpoints. Neither the overall score nor any individual parameter yielded satisfactory results for predicting survival. Using retrospectively calculated cut-off values and combining the overall score with the observer’s assessment of whether the animal required analgesia (dipyrone) for pain relief resulted in an improved prediction of survival on the second post-operative day. This study demonstrates that combining score parameters was more suitable than using single ones and that experienced human judgement of animals can be useful in addition to objective parameters in the assessment of severity. By optimising the score-sheet and better understanding the burden of the model on rats, this study contributes to animal welfare.
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.21
  • A survey of handling and transportation of UK farmed deer

    • Authors: Pearce; Samuel J, Foster, Aiden P., Knowles, Toby G, Statham, Poppy
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Studies on the transport of deer (Cervidae), in the UK, were published> 15 years ago. A more recent study of deer transport is required to allow for assessments and improvements to the transport of farmed deer. Sixteen deer farmers participated in a survey describing their management practices related to transport. Their responses showed that most vehicles used to transport deer were designed for other livestock. Participating farmers estimated journey times to slaughter as 1–8 h, with an arithmetic mean of 4.8 (± 2.38) h. Specific concerns raised by the respondents, relating to the transport of deer, included a need for deer-specific vehicles, stop-off areas for long journeys, market locations and haulier experience. Furthermore, data were collected from two abattoirs between July 2019 and June 2020 comprising journey times, slaughter times, bruising, location of origin, vehicle type and the number of animals. In total, 4,922 deer were transported across 133 journeys (from farm to abattoir) from 61 farms. Median and range for journey length were 3.2 (0.4–9.8) h and 154.2 (7.1–462.2) km, whereas group size and time spent in the lairage were 24 (1–121) and 17.8 (10.2–68.9) h, respectively. Group size was found to be significantly associated with both the presence of bruising in a group and the amount of bruising per deer. This study provides a much-needed update on the transport of farmed deer in the UK and highlights key areas for future research including the welfare impact of transport in larger groups and for longer durations.
      PubDate: 2023-03-14
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.25
  • BSAVA Manual of Practical Veterinary Welfare - Edited by M Rendle and J
           Hinde-Megarity (2022). Published by BSAVA, Waterwells Business Park,
           Quedgely, Gloucs GL2 2AB, UK. 264 pages Hardback (ISBN:
           978-1-910443-78-1). Price £90.00 (£58.50 for BSAVA members).

    • Authors: Laurence; Chris
      First page: 31
      PubDate: 2023-03-16
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.22
  • Perceptions of laboratory animal veterinarians regarding institutional

    • Authors: Brunt; Michael W, Weary, Daniel M
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Institutions using animals for research typically have a veterinarian who is responsible for the veterinary care programme and compliance with regulatory obligations. These veterinarians operate at the interface between the institution’s animal research programme and senior management. Veterinarians have strong public trust and are well positioned to share information about animals used for scientific purposes, but their perspectives on sharing information with the public are not well documented and their perceptions of transparency may influence how institutional policies are developed and applied. The objective of our study was to analyse the perceptions of institutional transparency among laboratory animal veterinarians working at different universities. Semi-structured, open-ended interviews were used to describe perceptions of 16 attending veterinarians relating to animal research transparency. Three themes were drawn from the interviews: (i) reflections on transparency; (ii) reflections on culture; and (iii) reflections on self. Veterinarians reflected on their personal priorities regarding transparency and when combined with barriers to change within the institutions, sometimes resulted in reported inaction. For example, sometimes veterinarians chose not to pursue available opportunities for change at seemingly willing universities, while others had their initiatives for change blocked by more senior administrators. The sharing of information regarding the animals used for scientific purposes varied in how it was conceptualised by attending veterinarians: (i) true transparency; communication of information for the sake of openness; (ii) strategic transparency; attempt to educate people about animal research because then they will support it; (iii) agenda-driven transparency; selective release of positive stories to direct public opinion; and (iv) fearful non-transparency; not communicating any information for fear of negative opposition to animal research. Transparency was not perceived as an institutional priority by many of the veterinarians and a cohesive action plan to increase transparency that involves multiple universities was identified as a promising avenue to overcome existing barriers.
      PubDate: 2023-03-17
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.27
  • Interacting with Animals: Understanding their Behaviour and Welfare - By P
           Le Neindre and B Deputte (translated from French by David Lindsay,
           Éditions Quae) (2022). Published by CABI, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE, UK.
           120 pages Paperback, Hardback, Kindle versions (ISBN: 978-18000622395).
           Price: £32.13 (paperback), £95.00 (hardback), £30.55 (kindle).

    • Authors: Broom; Donald M
      First page: 33
      PubDate: 2023-03-27
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.26
  • Behaviour and welfare of African lion (Panthera leo) cubs used in contact
           wildlife tourism

    • Authors: Wilson; Ann, Phillips, Clive JC
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Lion (Panthera leo) cubs are used in wildlife interaction tourism but the effects on cub welfare are unknown. We assessed the behaviour of three cohorts of lion cubs, twelve animals in total, at three different interaction facilities, using continuous and scan-sampling methodologies for the entire duration of cub utilisation for human interactions. Cubs spent most time inactive (62%), particularly sleeping (38%), but also spent a substantial amount of time playing (13%) and being alert (12%). A generalised linear mixed model revealed that cub behaviour was similar in two facilities but different from cubs in the third. In these two similar facilities, as human interactions increased, the time spent resting, sleeping and playing with other cubs decreased, and alert behaviour, grooming of humans and flight responses increased. In the third facility, cubs had an abnormal activity budget, with high levels of inactivity (80%) accompanied by a lack of response to human interactions. We conclude that in some facilities normal cub behaviour cannot be achieved and may be compromised by a high frequency of human interactions, which therefore needs to be controlled to limit adverse effects on cub behaviour.
      PubDate: 2023-03-27
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.24
  • Treated Like Animals: Improving the Lives of the Creatures we Own, Eat and
           Use - By A Simmons (2023). Published by Pelagic Publishing, 20-22 Wenlock
           Road, London N1 7GU, UK. 272 pages Hardback (ISBN: 978-1784273415). Price

    • Authors: Harris; Moira
      First page: 35
      PubDate: 2023-03-30
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.29
  • A systematic review on whether regenerative agriculture improves animal
           welfare: A qualitative analysis with a One Welfare perspective

    • Authors: Hargreaves-Méndez; Matías Javier, Hötzel, María José
      First page: 36
      Abstract: The welfare of animals in food-production systems is a cause of concern to the public. Regenerative agriculture was first used by the Rodale Institute and proposes to regenerate degraded components of ecosystems, aiming to be more than just sustainable. However, despite animal welfare being pushed to be part of the SDG agenda for 2030, there is no clarity on how regenerative agriculture impacts animal welfare. It is challenging to determine regenerative agriculture impacts on animal welfare, since it is not entirely defined. One Welfare could help define entry points for future research by studying animal welfare in connection with human welfare and environmental conservation. We aimed to analyse the extent to which positive animal welfare outcomes characterise regenerative agriculture systems in peer-reviewed articles and whether the narratives of such articles support that regenerative agriculture promotes animal welfare directly or indirectly by improving human welfare and environmental conservation. We searched papers including ‘regenerative agriculture’ using PRISMA-P, selecting animal welfare, human welfare, environment conservation terms, developed themes, and carried out analysis using Atlas.Ti8 and Causal Loop Diagram. We found that papers mainly linked animal welfare to animal health, human welfare to financial farm status and farmer’s self-awareness, and environmental conservation to soil improvement. Causal Loop Diagram indicated that regenerative agriculture had the potential to improve the health and nutrition components of animal welfare by enhancing financial farmers’ status/self-awareness (human welfare), and the soil (environmental conservation), reflecting that the processes that affect human welfare and environmental conservation could also affect animal welfare. However, information in papers remains insufficient to determine how regenerative agriculture impacts on animal welfare and research into regenerative agriculture needs to extend its focus on animal welfare and elucidate the regenerative agriculture principles leading to animal welfare.
      PubDate: 2023-04-25
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.28
  • Being Your Cat: What’s Really Going on in Your Feline’s Mind - By C
           Haddon and D Mills (2023). Published by Octopus Publishing Group,
           Carmelite House, London EC4Y 0DZ, UK. 256 pages Paperback (ISBN:
           9781788404051). Price £14.99.

    • Authors: Ellis; Sarah
      First page: 37
      PubDate: 2023-05-05
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.31
  • Canadian dairy farmer views about animal welfare

    • Authors: Schuppli; Catherine A, Spooner, Jeffrey M, von Keyserlingk, Marina AG
      First page: 38
      Abstract: Concerns regarding the welfare of farm animals continue to grow. Traditionally, research efforts have largely focused on refining existing management practices to improve welfare. However, the incorporation of views from those directly involved in animal care is equally, if not more, important. This study investigated the perspectives of Canadian dairy farmers on animal welfare. We conducted 16 interviews with a total of 22 participants from four provinces across Canada. Recorded audio files and field notes were transcribed, anonymised, and coded using deductive and inductive thematic analysis. The interview data revealed two major themes: (1) animal dimension of animal welfare, including views related to biological functioning, naturalness and affective states; and (2) dairy farmer identity, including, the voice of the ‘city’, what it means to be a good ‘cow-man’, and the nature of human-animal relationships. Dairy farmers emphasised biological functioning, but they made numerous references to the emotional and natural living aspects of their animals’ lives. Our work also provides evidence that farmers believed it was their duty to care for their animals beyond simply milking cows and making a profit. In terms of the larger debate, this study identified potential shared values with members of the public: opportunities for natural living and agency, attentiveness to individual animals, and the value of life over death. Finally, the emotional relationship that farmers developed with their animals highlights the values dairy farmers have for their animals beyond simply utilitarian function. Overall, these shared values could contribute to constructive dialogue.
      PubDate: 2023-05-15
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.32
  • Moral Awareness and Animal Welfare - D Lamb (2022). Published by Ethics
           International Press Ltd, Carlton House, Bradford BD1 4NS, UK. 376 pages.
           Hardback (ISBN: 978-1-80441-024-0). Price £79.99.

    • Authors: Browning; Heather, Veit, Walter
      First page: 39
      PubDate: 2023-05-15
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.33
  • Behavioural effects of noise on Linnaeus’s two-toed sloth (Choloepus
           didactylus) in a walk-through enclosure

    • Authors: de Abreu Rezende; Yuri Garcia, Queiroz, Marina Bonde, Young, Robert John, da Silva Vasconcellos, Angélica
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Anthropogenic noise has been related to stress in captive animals; despite this there have been few studies on animal welfare assessment in walk-through zoo enclosures. We aimed to investigate the behavioural effects of noise on a male-female pair of two-toed sloths (Choloepus didactylus), housed in a walk-through enclosure in a zoo in the UK. The animals were filmed for 24 h per day, during three days per week, including days with potential low and high flow of visitors, for three weeks. Sound pressure measurement was performed four times each collection day (twice in the morning, once at noon and once in the afternoon), for 15 min per session, using a sound level meter. The number of visitors passing the enclosure during each session was also recorded. The videos were analysed using focal sampling, with continuous recording of behaviour. Correlations between noise and the behaviours expressed during, and in the 24 h after the acoustic recording, were investigated. The number of visitors correlated with the acoustic parameters. At the moment of exposure, higher levels of noise correlated with decreased inactivity, and longer expression of locomotion and maintenance behaviours for the male; the female spent more time inside a box in these moments. During the 24 h hours after exposure to loud noise, the female showed no behavioural changes while the male tended to reduce foraging. The behavioural changes observed in both individuals have already been reported in other species, in response to stressful events. Our study indicates the need for a good acoustic management in walk-through zoo enclosures where sloths are housed.
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.34
  • Attitudes of clients of Dutch pest controllers towards animal welfare in
           the management of liminal rodents

    • Authors: van Gerwen; Maite AAM, Rodenburg, T Bas, Arndt, Saskia S, Meerburg, Bastiaan G, Meijboom, Franck LB
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Rodent control tends to involve methods that cause animal suffering, but little attention has been paid to the animal welfare implications of rodent control. The aim of the current study was to gain insight into the opinions and attitudes of clients of Dutch pest controllers, regarding liminal rodents, rodent control, and rodent welfare. A better understanding of their attitudes may contribute to more ethical rodent management programmes. An online survey among 248 clients of Dutch pest controllers was carried out. Respondents, especially those within the agricultural sector, have a relatively negative attitude towards rats and mice. Respondents in the agricultural subgroup do not consider the welfare of liminal rodents important. They also think that the welfare impact of commonly used control methods is limited, and they have low tolerance levels for the presence of rodents. Respondents from other sectors have a far more positive attitude towards rats and mice, consider their welfare to be of greater importance, have a greater estimation of the welfare impact of control methods and show greater tolerance levels towards rodents. The respondents from the latter subgroup have a similar attitude compared to Dutch pest controllers participating in a previous survey. The findings of the current study firstly provide useful information for the further development and practical implementation of preventive control methods. Secondly, they provide input for a more animal-friendly rodent control and for the development of an assessment framework to support ethical decision-making. Finally, they can be helpful for further research and the communication and co-operation between professional pest controllers and their clients.
      PubDate: 2023-05-26
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.35
  • Livestock hauler and dairy farmer perspectives about cull dairy cattle
           transport and cattle transport regulations in British Columbia, Canada

    • Authors: Kuo; Christine, von Keyserlingk, Marina AG
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Dairy cows are usually culled and transported from the farm when they no longer meet the farm’s standards for production or are not needed for milk production. Some cows are transported while in poor condition and may deteriorate further during transport. In February 2020, Canadian federal animal transport regulations were revised with the aim to minimise risks to livestock during transport; changes that may impact cull dairy cows included defining compromised cattle and limiting their maximum transport time. This study conducted semi-structured interviews with dairy farmers (n = 6) and cattle haulers (n = 4) in British Columbia, Canada, to gain an in-depth understanding of the effect of the regulations on their practices when shipping and transporting dairy cows to slaughter. Interviews were transcribed in Otter.ai and thematically coded in NVivo 12. While farmer and hauler participants recognised the importance of animal welfare during transport and described practices such as shipping mobile animals to reduce the risk that cows would become non-ambulatory during transport, they also described little change in shipping and transport practices due to the new regulations. Among interviewed participants, barriers to compliance with the regulations appear to be low knowledge of, and mixed or negative attitudes towards the regulations. Participants also described how they felt a lack of communication along the transport chain and limited transport and slaughter infrastructure made compliance difficult. Possible suggestions to remedy these barriers include providing educational resources about the regulations and encouraging communication about cow fitness for transport between responsible parties in the transport chain.
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.36
  • Public attitudes toward the use of technology to create new types of
           animals and animal products

    • Authors: Ryan; Erin B, Weary, Daniel M
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Philosophers have used thought experiments to examine contentious examples of genetic modification. We hypothesised that these examples would prove useful in provoking responses from lay participants concerning technological interventions used to address welfare concerns. We asked 747 US and Canadian citizens to respond to two scenarios based on these thought experiments: genetically modifying chickens to produce blind progeny that are less likely to engage in feather-pecking (BC); and genetically modifying animals to create progeny that do not experience any subjective state (i.e. incapable of experiencing pain or fear; IA). For contrast, we assessed a third scenario that also resulted in the production of animal protein with no risk of suffering but did not involve genetically modifying animals: the development of cultured meat (CM). Participants indicated on a seven-point scale how acceptable they considered the technology (1 = very wrong to do; 7 = very right to do), and provided a text-based, open-ended explanation of their response. The creation of cultured meat was judged more acceptable than the creation of blind chickens and insentient animals. Qualitative responses indicated that some participants accepted the constraints imposed by the thought experiment, for example, by accepting perceived harms of the technology to achieve perceived benefits in reducing animal suffering. Others expressed discomfort with such trade-offs, advocating for other approaches to reducing harm. We conclude that people vary in their acceptance of interventions within existing systems, with some calling for transformational change.
      PubDate: 2023-06-06
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.38
  • Using institutional ethnography to analyse animal sheltering and
           protection I: Animal protection work

    • Authors: Koralesky; Katherine E, Rankin, Janet M, Fraser, David
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Animal protection laws exist at federal, provincial and municipal levels in Canada, with enforcement agencies relying largely upon citizens to report concerns. Existing research about animal protection law focuses on general approaches to enforcement and how legal terms function in the courts, but the actual work processes of animal law enforcement have received little study. We used institutional ethnography to explore the everyday work of Call Centre operators and Animal Protection Officers, and we map how this work is organised by laws and institutional polices. When receiving and responding to calls staff try to identify evidence of animal ‘distress’ as legally defined, because various interventions (writing orders, seizing animals) then become possible. However, many cases, such as animals living in deprived or isolated situations, fall short of constituting ‘distress’ and the legally mandated interventions cannot be used. Officers are also constrained by privacy and property law and by the need to record attempts to secure compliance in order to justify further action including obtaining search warrants. As a result, beneficial intervention can be delayed or prevented. Officers sometimes work strategically to advocate for animals when the available legal tools cannot resolve problems. Recommendations arising from this research include expanding the legal definition of ‘distress’ to better fit animals’ needs, developing ways for officers to intervene in a broader range of situations, and more ethnographic research on enforcement work in jurisdictions with different legal systems to better understand how animal protection work is organised and constrained by laws and policies.
      PubDate: 2023-06-09
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.39
  • Perceptions of the rabbit as a low investment ‘starter pet’ lead to
           negative impacts on its welfare: Results of two Danish surveys

    • Authors: Skovlund; Cecilie Ravn, Forkman, Björn, Lund, Thomas Bøker, Mistry, Belinda Glumsøe, Nielsen, Søren Saxmose, Sandøe, Peter
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Concerns over compromised companion rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus) welfare are widespread. The welfare problems have been linked to the perception of rabbits as low investment ‘children’s pets.’ To test this hypothesis and investigate the current conditions for rabbits, data were gathered from two surveys in 2021: a nationally representative survey of Danish companion animal owners (Survey I) and a detailed social media-based survey of Danish rabbit owners (Survey II). Using logistic regression, three owner-related variables (whether a child/adult was responsible for care of the rabbit, owner-opinion on rabbits’ suitability as ‘starter pets’ and willingness-to-pay [WTP] for veterinary treatment) were employed to investigate the effect of rabbit status on owner-provision of selected husbandry conditions. The 76 (Survey I) and 4,335 (Survey II) responses suggested that most rabbits are acquired for children and are solitarily housed, and that many are kept in cages of an unsuitable size and not checked daily. Owners who perceived rabbits as ‘starter pets’ and with lower WTP were more likely to house rabbits in restricted space and to not provide continuous gnawing opportunities, ad libitum hay or routine healthcare. A child fulfilling the role of the rabbit’s main caretaker was also associated with inadequate housing type and fewer gnawing opportunities. Thus, many rabbits live in unsuitable conditions, and owners who perceive rabbits as low investment ‘children’s pets’ are more likely to not provide recommended resources. Changing owners’ perceptions of rabbits and promoting suitable husbandry through official education programmes and minimum requirements is important if there are to be improvements made to rabbit welfare.
      PubDate: 2023-07-03
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.41
  • Nonhuman Primate Welfare: From History, Science, and Ethics to Practice -
           Edited by LM Robinson and A Weiss (2023). Published by Springer Nature,
           Gewerbestrasse 11, Cham 6330, Switzerland. 684 pages Hardback (ISBN:
           978-3030827076). Price £139.99

    • Authors: Ciminelli; Giulia, Massey, David, Stupples, Kate, Witham, Claire
      First page: 46
      PubDate: 2023-06-19
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.42
  • Identifying areas of animal welfare concern in different production stages
           in Danish pig herds using the Danish Animal Welfare Index (DAWIN)

    • Authors: Michelsen; Anne Marie, Hakansson, Franziska, Pedersen Lund, Vibe, Kirchner, Marlene Katharina, Otten, Nina Dam, Denwood, Matthew, Rousing, Tine, Houe, Hans, Forkman, Björn
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Animal welfare is of increasing public interest, and the pig industry in particular is subject to much attention. The aim of this study was to identify and compare areas of animal welfare concern for commercial pigs in four different production stages: (1) gestating sows and gilts; (2) lactating sows; (3) piglets; and (4) weaner-to-finisher pigs. One welfare assessment protocol was developed for each stage, comprising of between 20 and 29 animal welfare measures including resource-, management- and animal-based ones. Twenty-one Danish farms were visited once between January 2015 and February 2016 in a cross-sectional design. Experts (n = 26; advisors, scientists and animal welfare controllers) assessed the severity of the outcome measures. This was combined with the on-farm prevalence of each measure and the outcome was used to calculate areas of concern, defined as measures where the median of all farms fell below the value defined as ‘acceptable welfare.’ Between five and seven areas of concern were identified for each production stage. With the exception of carpal lesions in piglets, all areas of concern were resource- and management-based and mainly related to housing, with inadequate available space and the floor type in the resting area being overall concerns across all production stages. This means that animal-based measures were largely unaffected by perceived deficits in resource-based measures. Great variation existed for the majority of measures identified as areas of concern, demonstrating that achieving a high welfare score is possible in the Danish system.
      PubDate: 2023-06-26
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.37
  • Environmental enrichment for reptiles in European zoos: Current status and

    • Authors: Bartolomé; Alicia, Carazo, Pau, Font, Enrique
      First page: 48
      Abstract: Zoos and aquaria are paying increasing attention to environmental enrichment, which has proven an effective tool for the improvement of animal welfare. However, several ongoing issues have hampered progress in environmental enrichment research. Foremost among these is the taxonomic bias, which hinders our understanding of the value of enrichment for neglected groups, such as reptiles. In this study, we evaluated the status of environmental enrichment for reptiles in European zoos using a survey approach. A total of 121 zoos (32% response rate) completed our main survey, focusing on the use of different enrichment types for reptiles. We found significant differences in the use and/or type of enrichment between reptile groups. Tortoises (family Testudinidae) and monitor lizards (genus Varanus) were the most enriched taxa while venomous snakes were the least. The enrichment types most used across taxa were structural/habitat design and dietary. A second, more detailed, questionnaire followed, where participants were questioned about specific enrichment techniques. A total of 42 enrichment methods were reported, with two being represented across all taxa: increasing structural/thermal complexity and enrichment objects. Finally, we present information from participating zoos on enrichment goals, assessment methods, sources of information for enrichment ideas, and whether enrichment for reptiles is considered essential and/or implemented routinely. Results suggest that, although usage is widespread across European zoos, our understanding of enrichment for reptiles needs to be re-evaluated, since many of the techniques reported tread a fine line between basic husbandry and actual enrichment.
      PubDate: 2023-07-03
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.43
  • Evaluation of a commercial electrical stunning method for farmed grower
           saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) using non-invasive EEG

    • Authors: Small; Alison, Niemeyer, Dominic, Hewitt, Leisha
      First page: 49
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess welfare outcomes of electrical stunning as a means of restraint in farmed grower saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus). Physical handling of a stunned, unconscious crocodile is far safer for the operator than handling a fully conscious animal. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded before and after the application of electrical stunning at 50 Hz or 400 Hz using an electrical stunner applied to the cranial plate (Position 1: P1–50 Hz; n = 31, P1–400 Hz; n = 29) or immediately behind the skull (Position 2: P2–50 Hz; n = 29; P2–400 Hz; n = 30). For all electrical stuns, percentage total EEG power in a 10-s epoch decreased in the alpha and beta frequency bands; and increased in the delta and lower frequencies bands. All electrical stuns resulted in increased strength of signal, based on the quadratic mean EEG power in all frequency bands of the EEG. Greatest change in power occurred in the delta frequency band, with P1–50 Hz. This was greater than with P2–50 Hz; while decibel change using 400 Hz at either position was intermediate and not significantly different from either. Application of either electrical stunner at position 1 resulted in seizure-like activity and activation in low frequencies, but at position 2 this was not consistent across all animals. The ability of the electrical stunning equipment to consistently induce recoverable unconsciousness could be ranked in decreasing order as: P1–50 Hz> P1–400 Hz = P2–50 Hz> P2–400 Hz. Based on behavioural observations, all animals in the study appeared to stunned however evaluation of duration of EEG changes indicates that use of the electrical stunning equipment at 50 Hz would allow some margin for inaccuracies in tong placement, while achieving a consistently reliable stun.
      PubDate: 2023-07-19
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.45
  • Current attitudes and self-rated abilities of Bosnia and Herzegovina
           veterinarians toward pain recognition and quantification in domestic

    • Authors: Spahija; Nermina, Lutvikadić, Ismar, Ćoso, Adna, Maksimović, Alan
      First page: 50
      Abstract: In previous years interest has grown in investigating the attitudes and capabilities of veterinarians regarding the recognition, quantification and treatment of animal pain throughout different parts of the world and encompassing various species. This is the first report exploring the attitudes and self-rated abilities of veterinarians in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) concerning recognition and quantification of pain in domestic animals. A study questionnaire was made available to 535 general practice veterinarians throughout B&H and 73 (14%) responded in full. The questionnaire contained polar, multiple choice, ordinal and interval scale questions and consisted of sections asking about demographic data, attitudes to pain recognition and quantification, use and availability of analgesics, estimates of pain intensity during specific surgical procedures, and the perceived need for pain assessment and continuing education programmes for analgesia. Half of the respondents considered the recognition and quantification of pain to be difficult while 89% did not make use of pain assessment scales. Of the respondents, (33/73; 45%) felt a certain level of pain to be advantageous since it reduces the activity of the healing animal, whereas 52% (38/73) did not agreed with this concept. Cost was a consideration when deciding whether or not to use analgesics for 58% (42/73) of the respondents with the most commonly used types being NSAIDs (72/73;99%) and opioids (60/73; 82%). Practitioners in B&H displayed awareness of the importance of pain assessment and management however a significant proportion were unaware of pain scales and relied upon physiological indicators of pain.
      PubDate: 2023-07-24
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.46
  • Indicators of improved gestation housing of sows. Part I: Effects on
           behaviour, skin lesions, locomotion, and tear staining

    • Authors: Lagoda; Martyna E, O’Driscoll, Keelin, Galli, Maria C, Marchewka, Joanna, Boyle, Laura A
      First page: 51
      Abstract: Commercial gestation housing systems for sows generally fail to cater fully for their needs in terms of comfort or the ability to perform highly motivated behaviours, which can lead to chronic stress and an impairment to welfare. We compared a typical gestation system (CONTROL) with an IMPROVED one as regards oral stereotypies, aggressive behaviour, skin lesions, locomotion, and tear staining. Sows were mixed into 12 stable groups (six groups per treatment, 20 sows per group), 29 days post-service in pens with free-access, full-length individual feeding/lying stalls. CONTROL pens had fully slatted concrete floors, with two blocks of wood and two chains suspended in the group area. IMPROVED pens were the same but with rubber mats and a length of manila rope in each feeding stall, and straw provided in three racks in the group area. Direct observations of oral stereotypical (30 instantaneous scans per sow per day) and aggressive (all-occurrence sampling, 3 h per sow per day) behaviours were conducted 72 h post-mixing, in mid and late gestation. Skin lesions were counted 24 h and three weeks post-mixing, and in late gestation. Sows’ locomotion (locomotory ability) was scored using a visual analogue scale in mid and late gestation. Right and left eye tear staining was scored in late gestation. Indications of better welfare in IMPROVED sows included performance of fewer oral stereotypies in mid and late gestation, and lower tear stain scores. These sows performed more aggression in late gestation, which was associated with access to enrichment, but skin lesion counts were not affected. Thus, the changes made in the IMPROVED treatment benefitted aspects of sow welfare.
      PubDate: 2023-07-26
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.47
  • Indicators of improved gestation housing of sows. Part II: Effects on
           physiological measures, reproductive performance and health of the

    • Authors: Lagoda; Martyna E, O’Driscoll, Keelin, Galli, Maria C, Cerón, José J, Ortín-Bustillo, Alba, Marchewka, Joanna, Boyle, Laura A
      First page: 52
      Abstract: Prenatal stress is the mechanism through which poor welfare of pregnant sows has detrimental effects on the health and resilience of their piglets. We compared two gestation housing systems (IMPROVED versus [conventional] CONTROL) in terms of sow stress and welfare indicators and sought to determine whether potential benefits to the sows would translate into improved offspring health. Sows were mixed into 12 stable groups (six groups per treatment, 20 sows per group) 29 days post-service in pens with free-access, full-length individual feeding/lying-stalls. CONTROL pens had fully slatted concrete floors, with two blocks of wood and two chains suspended in the group area. IMPROVED pens were the same but with rubber mats and manila rope in each stall, and straw provided in three racks in the group area. Saliva was collected from each sow on day 80 of pregnancy and analysed for haptoglobin. Hair cortisol was measured in late gestation. Sows’ right and left eyes were scored for tear staining in mid lactation and at weaning. Numbers of piglets born alive, dead, mummified, and total born were recorded. Piglets were weighed and scored for vitality and intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) at birth. Presence of diarrhoea in farrowing pens was scored every second day throughout the suckling period. IMPROVED sows had lower haptoglobin levels and tear-stain scores during lactation. IMPROVED sows produced fewer mummified piglets, and these had significantly lower IUGR scores, and scored lower for diarrhoea than piglets of CONTROL sows. Hence, improving sow welfare during gestation improved the health and performance of their offspring.
      PubDate: 2023-07-26
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.48
  • The Cat: Behaviour and Welfare - BO Braastad, A McBride and RC Newberry
           (2022). Published by CABI, Nosworthy Way, Wallingford OX10 8DE, UK. 209
           pages Paperback (ISBN: 978-1-78-924231-7). Price £35.00.

    • Authors: Moons; Christel Palmyre Henri
      First page: 53
      PubDate: 2023-07-31
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.44
  • Validation of complementary non-invasive tools for stress assessment in
           spotted paca (Cuniculus paca)

    • Authors: Altino; Vanessa S, Rezende, Darília CB, Nogueira, Selene SC, Aldrigui, Letícia G, Roldan, Mar, Duarte, José MB, Fureix, Carole, Mendl, Michael, Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio LG
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Monitoring the concentration of glucocorticoid metabolites (GCMs) in faecal samples is a non-invasive tool for physiological stress evaluation, particularly useful when studying wild species. However, both negative and positive stimuli (distress and eustress, respectively) can lead to a rise in glucocorticoids. Thus, besides validating whether GCM concentration in faeces reflects endogenous adrenal activity, we also need to identify behavioural indicators of distress to avoid misinterpretation. Therefore, we submitted four adult male spotted pacas (Cuniculus paca) to an exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge-test in a Latin square design (4 × 4) to monitor changes in the GCM concentration in faeces. We also aimed to describe behaviours potentially indicative of distress. We collected excreted faeces and video-recorded the animals’ behaviours for five consecutive days, one day before and four days after application of the following four treatments: 1st control (no-handling); 2nd control (intra-muscular [IM] injection of saline solution); low-dose ACTH (IM injection of 0.18 ml ACTH); and high-dose ACTH (IM injection of 0.37 ml ACTH). There was a peak in the concentration of GCM in faeces collected 24 h after the injection of the high-dose ACTH treatment. Additionally, independent of the treatments, spotted pacas spent less time on exploration and feeding states, while spending more time in the inactive but awake (IBA) state following the treatment application (challenge day). The use of GCM concentration in faecal samples together with the behavioural changes (less exploration and feeding, and more IBA) showed to be efficient as a non-invasive tool for welfare assessment of farmed spotted paca.
      PubDate: 2023-08-08
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.49
  • Making a Stand for Animals - O Horta (2022). Published by Routledge, 3
           Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN, UK. 192 pages
           Paperback, hardback, ebook (ISBN: 9781032259758). Price £17.99
           (paperback), £104.00 (hardback), £14.39 (ebook).

    • Authors: Sandøe; Peter
      First page: 55
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.75
  • Companion animal adoption and relinquishment during the COVID-19 pandemic:
           Households with children at greatest risk of relinquishing a cat or dog

    • Authors: Carroll; Grace A, Torjussen, Alice, Reeve, Catherine
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Understanding the factors associated with companion animal relinquishment is key in safeguarding animal welfare and human well-being. The aims of this study were to assess the effect of demographic variables on risk of relinquishment of cats and dogs during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to report characteristics of those that relinquished a cat or dog, and the experience of said relinquishment process. A series of surveys were administered to pet owners (n = 3,945) across several countries including the UK, USA, Canada, Italy, Spain and France. In total, n = 1,324 reported having acquired their cat or dog via online means. There was no association between online source (search engines, breeder websites, rescue websites, online ad sites and social media) and relinquishment status (NCR1 [Never Considered Relinquishment] compared to CR_R [Considering Relinquishment or already Relinquished]. More participants from the USA considered or already had relinquished their cat or dog compared to the UK and Italy. Of those that have already given up their pet, 76.2% agreed that it was an emotionally difficult decision, while 100% agreed that it was, logically, the correct decision. Demographic characteristics in those that reported considering relinquishment or that had already relinquished (CR_R; n = 146) were compared to a comparison group that had never considered relinquishing their pet (NCR2; n = 193). Being a male-gendered pet-owner and a younger pet age increased the risk of relinquishment. Cats and dogs from households with children were 4.6 times more likely to consider or have already relinquished a cat or dog compared to those from households without children. Further research is needed to explore risk of relinquishment of cats and dogs when children are present in the home.
      PubDate: 2023-08-18
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.77
  • The efficacy of electrical stunning of New Zealand rock lobster (Jasus
           edwardsii) and freshwater crayfish (Paranephrops zealandicus) using the

    • Authors: Kells; Nikki J, Perrott, Matthew, Johnson, Craig B
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Large numbers of decapod crustacea are farmed and harvested globally for human consumption. Growing evidence for the capacity of these animals to feel pain, and therefore to suffer, has led to increased concern for their welfare, including at slaughter. In New Zealand, decapod crustacea are protected by animal welfare legislation. There is a requirement that all farmed or commercially caught animals of these species killed for commercial purposes are first rendered insensible. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Crustastun™, a commercially available bench-top electrical stunner, in two commercially important New Zealand crustacean species; the rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) and kōura (freshwater crayfish [Paranephrops zealandicus]). Animals were anaesthetised via intramuscular injection of lidocaine and instrumented to record the electrical activity of the nervous system, prior to being stunned according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Stunning efficacy was determined by analysing neural activity and observing behaviour post stunning. All ten P. zealandicus and three J. edwardsii appeared to be killed outright by the stun. Of the remaining J. edwardsii, six exhibited some degree of muscle tone and/or slow unco-ordinated movements of the limbs or mouthparts after stunning, although there was no recovery of spontaneous or evoked movements. One J. edwardsii was unable to be stunned successfully, likely due to its very large size (1.76 kg). None of the successfully stunned animals showed any evidence of return of awareness in the five minutes following stunning. It was concluded that the Crustastun™ is an acceptable method for killing P. zealandicus and for stunning all but the largest J. edwardsii.
      PubDate: 2023-08-22
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.76
  • Identifying areas of animal welfare concern in different production stages
           in Danish pig herds using the Danish Animal Welfare Index (DAWIN) –

    • Authors: Michelsen; Anne Marie, Hakansson, Franziska, Pedersen Lund, Vibe, Kirchner, Marlene Katharina, Otten, Nina Dam, Denwood, Matthew, Rousing, Tine, Houe, Hans, Forkman, Björn
      First page: 58
      PubDate: 2023-09-04
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.78
  • How equestrians conceptualise horse welfare: Does it facilitate or hinder

    • Authors: Luke; Karen L, Rawluk, Andrea, McAdie, Tina, Smith, Bradley P, Warren-Smith, Amanda K
      First page: 59
      Abstract: More than ever the welfare of horses in equestrian sport is in the spotlight. In response to this scrutiny, one peak body, the Federation Equestre Internationale (FEI) has created an Equine Ethics and Wellbeing Commission to protect their sport’s longevity. However, for welfare-based strategies to be successful, the conceptualisation of horse welfare must align across various stakeholders, including the general public. The value-laden nature of welfare makes agreement on its definition, even among scientists, difficult. Given little is known about how equestrians conceptualise horse welfare, we interviewed 19 Australian amateur equestrians using a semi-structured format. Systems thinking and the Five Domains Model provided the theoretical framework and informed our methods. Using reflexive thematic analysis, three themes were identified: (1) good horse welfare is tangible; (2) owners misinterpret unwanted horse behaviour; and (3) equestrians publicly minimise horse welfare issues but are privately concerned. Our results highlight participants’ conceptualisations of horse welfare do not align with the Five Domains Model; participants’ ideal of prioritising horse welfare does not align with their practice; and there is inconsistency between what participants share publicly and what they think privately about horse welfare. These findings can inform the development of programmes to improve ridden horse welfare throughout the horse industry. As a starting point, programmes that provide a safe space for equestrians to explore their private horse welfare concerns, and programmes that build a partnership mindset to facilitate knowledge exchange between all stakeholders are needed.
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.79
  • Comparison of habitual physical activity in French Bulldogs, Pugs and
           normocephalic dogs by accelerometry

    • Authors: Aromaa; Mimma, Putro, Heikki, Lilja-Maula, Liisa, Rajamäki, Minna M
      First page: 60
      Abstract: Brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) is a major welfare concern in flat-faced dog breeds. As BOAS causes respiratory difficulties and exercise intolerance, it can reduce dogs’ daily quality of life (QOL). However, evaluation of QOL in dogs is difficult, and many owners perceive BOAS signs as ‘normal’ for the breed. Accelerometers that measure frequency, duration and intensity of activities can offer an objective way of evaluating dogs’ daily activity and thereby deliver potential insights into QOL. The aim of this study was to assess habitual physical activity of 48 brachycephalic and 23 non-brachycephalic dogs using accelerometers. The accelerometers were used for one week and owners filled in a questionnaire regarding their dog’s well-being and activities. Veterinary-assessed BOAS grading for brachycephalic dogs was determined. Compared with controls, more severely affected French Bulldogs and Pugs had significantly lower total activity counts and spent less time in high activity. In Pugs, mildly affected dogs were also less active, but age can be a contributing factor here, as older age decreased activity in Pugs and controls showed a wider age range. In French Bulldogs, those dogs with no or mild signs of BOAS did not differ from controls regarding their daily activity. In conclusion, accelerometers were easy to use for objective measurement of daily activity in bracycephalic dogs, although a degree of discomfort due to the collar was reported. Results showed that BOAS signs were associated with decreased habitual physical activity. These findings emphasise the importance of actions taken to reduce incidence of BOAS in brachycephalic breeds.
      PubDate: 2023-09-11
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.80
  • Zoo Studies: Living Collections, Their Animals and Visitors - PA Rees
           (2023). Published by Cambridge University Press, Shaftesbury Road,
           Cambridge CB2 8EA, UK. 476 pages Paperback (ISBN: 978-1108566049). Price

    • Authors: Williams; Ellen
      First page: 61
      PubDate: 2023-09-11
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.81
  • Rethinking the utility of the Five Domains model

    • Authors: Hampton; Jordan O, Hemsworth, Lauren M, Hemsworth, Paul H, Hyndman, Timothy H, Sandøe, Peter
      First page: 62
      Abstract: The Five Domains model is influential in contemporary studies of animal welfare. It was originally presented as a conceptual model to understand the types of impact that procedures may impose on experimental animals. Its application has since broadened to cover a wide range of animal species and forms of animal use. However, it has also increasingly been applied as an animal welfare assessment tool, which is the focus of this paper. Several critical limitations associated with this approach have not been widely acknowledged, including that: (1) it relies upon expert or stakeholder opinion, with little transparency around the selection of these individuals; (2) quantitative scoring is typically attempted despite the absence of clear principles for aggregation of welfare measures and few attempts to account for uncertainty; (3) there have been few efforts to measure the repeatability of findings; and (4) it does not consider indirect and unintentional impacts such as those imposed on non-target animals. These deficiencies lead to concerns surrounding testability, repeatability and the potential for manipulation. We provide suggestions for refinement of how the Five Domains model is applied to partially address these limitations. We argue that the Five Domains model is useful for systematic consideration of all sources of possible welfare compromise and enhancement, but is not, in its current state, fit-for-purpose as an assessment tool. We argue for wider acknowledgment of the operational limits of using the model as an assessment tool, prioritisation of the studies needed for its validation, and encourage improvements to this approach.
      PubDate: 2023-09-27
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.84
  • Routledge Handbook of Animal Welfare, First Edition - Edited by A Knight,
           C Phillip and P Sparks (2022). Published by Routledge, Milton Park,
           Abingdon OX14 4SB, UK. 534 pages Hardback (ISBN: 9781032022062). Price:
           £210.00. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003182351.

    • Authors: Olsson; I Anna S
      First page: 63
      PubDate: 2023-09-21
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.82
  • Improving hen welfare on cage-free egg farms in Asia: Egg producers’

    • Authors: Hartcher; Kate, Nuggehalli, Jayasimha, Yang, Qing, de Luna, Maria Catalina T., Agus, Ali, Ito, Shuichi, Idrus, Zulkifli, Rahayu, Iman H.S., Jattuchai, Jutamart, Descovich, Kris, Lane, Elissa, Sinclair, Michelle
      First page: 64
      Abstract: There is a trend towards the adoption of cage-free housing systems in the egg industry across Asia. While cage-free housing systems can hold significant animal welfare advantages over cages, there can also be challenges in managing these systems. This exploratory study aimed to investigate the perspectives of egg producers on the main challenges and proposed solutions associated with cage-free systems in China, Indonesia, Thailand, Japan, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Cage-free producers found disease prevention and maintaining a healthy profit margin more difficult than producers from cage farms, while it was less difficult to provide environmental enrichment in cage-free systems compared to cage farms. The top challenges for cage-free producers were the cost of production, system management, disease, sales, and egg production, and the top proposed solution was to improve on-farm practices and efficiencies. Eighty-one percent of egg producers believed that more support is needed to maintain their farms than is currently available, and support was most needed in helping to improve sales, improve farm operations, lower farm costs, and provide information for producers in the form of education and training. Most responses identified the government as the stakeholder that should offer support. These results may help direct further studies in this field as well as supplying information to develop relevant initiatives with an emphasis on education and training, thereby improving animal welfare on cage-free farms and increasing the uptake of high welfare cage-free farms across the region.
      PubDate: 2023-09-22
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.85
  • A review of the DTS: Diathermic Syncope® system with a discussion
           regarding its use for kosher slaughter (shechita)

    • Authors: Zivotofsky; Ari Z
      First page: 65
      Abstract: Over the last several decades an alternative to current methods of stunning cattle has been developed. This system, DTS: Diathermic Syncope®, has been suggested to the Jewish and Muslim communities as a means to achieve pre-cut stunning in conformity with both religious and EU regulations without a need to resort to a derogation that permits an exemption from the EU requirement to pre-stun all animals undergoing slaughter. The developer’s contention is that the system induces fainting, and thus should be acceptable to all groups, including the kosher (Jewish) and Halal (Muslim) consumer. A review of the system based on publications and reports from the developer itself suggests that in reality the system selectively heats the brain, leading to an epileptic-type seizure with tonic-clonic phases and unconsciousness lasting several minutes. It does not induce a (benign) faint, and use of the system might cause structural brain damage. Thus, this system is unlikely to be acceptable under Jewish religious law and its animal welfare value can be questioned.
      PubDate: 2023-10-02
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.86
  • Non-invasive assessment of positive affective state using infra-red
           thermography in rats

    • Authors: Wongsaengchan; Chanakarn, McCafferty, Dominic J, Lennox, Katie, Nager, Ruedi G, McKeegan, Dorothy EF
      First page: 66
      Abstract: With recent increased focus on positive welfare in animal welfare science, there is demand for objective positive welfare indicators. It is unclear whether changes in body surface temperature can be used to non-invasively identify and quantify positive states in mammals. We recorded continuous measurements of tail surface temperature using infra-red thermography (IRT) and concurrent behavioural observations in male and female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). If tail surface temperature can differentiate between positive and negative experiences, we expect a qualitatively different response compared to negative experiences. Three groups of rats were presented with increasing magnitudes of food rewards (neutral/none, one and three rewards). The rats were placed in an arena to which they were habituated and filmed for 30 s before and 30 min after exposure to different rewards. Tail temperature initially decreased from the pre-reward baseline and subsequently returned towards baseline temperature. The overall pattern of the change was the same as for rats subjected to negative stimuli in previous studies. Nevertheless, dynamic changes in tail temperature, specifically the rate of recovery and the behavioural response (exploration), differed between neutral and rewarded rats but failed to distinguish reward magnitude. Sex differences were found in both thermal and behavioural responses, unrelated to reward magnitudes. Female rats exhibited a greater initial response with a slower recovery than male rats, emphasising the value of using of both sexes in animal welfare research. This study improves our understanding of the effects of positive emotions induced by food reward on peripheral body temperature and behaviour.
      PubDate: 2023-09-29
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.87
  • Using institutional ethnography to analyse animal sheltering and
           protection II: Animal shelter work

    • Authors: Koralesky; Katherine E, Rankin, Janet M, Fraser, David
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Efficient adoption is an important aim of animal shelters, but it is not possible for all animals including those with serious behavioural problems. We used institutional ethnography to explore the everyday work of frontline shelter staff in a large animal sheltering and protection organisation and to examine how their work is organised by standardised institutional procedures. Shelter staff routinely conduct behavioural evaluations of dogs and review intake documents, in part to plan care for animals and inform potential adopters about animal characteristics as well as protect volunteers and community members from human-directed aggression. Staff were challenged and felt pressure, however, to find time to work with animals identified as having behavioural problems because much of their work is directed toward other goals such as facilitating efficient adoption for the majority and anticipating future demands for kennel space. This work is organised by management approaches that broadly aim to maintain a manageable shelter animal population based on available resources, decrease the length of time animals spend in shelters and house animals based on individual needs. However, this organisation limits the ability of staff to work closely with long-stay animals whose behavioural problems require modification and management. This also creates stress for staff who care for these animals and are emotionally invested in them. Further inquiry and improvements might involve supporting the work of behavioural modification and management where it is needed and expanding fostering programmes for animals with special needs.
      PubDate: 2023-10-03
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.83
  • As a mature scientific discipline animal welfare must be subject to debate
           and opinion

    • Authors: Golledge; Huw D. R., Nielsen, Birte L.
      First page: 68
      PubDate: 2023-10-12
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.89
  • How might the public contribute to the discussion on cattle welfare'
           Perspectives of veterinarians and animal scientists

    • Authors: Ventura; Beth, Weary, Daniel M, von Keyserlingk, Marina AG
      First page: 69
      Abstract: Veterinarians and animal scientists can provide leadership on issues relevant to farm animal welfare, but perceptions of these stakeholders regarding societal expectations for welfare are underexplored. This study involved five focus groups of veterinarians and animal scientists (n = 50 in total), recruited at a European meeting focused on cattle welfare. Participants were invited to discuss topics related to cattle welfare and were prompted with questions to elicit their perspectives of public concerns and how the participants felt public input should be included when developing solutions. Discussions were moderated by trained facilitators, audio-recorded and transcribed, and transcripts analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. Ultimately, four primary themes were developed: (1) The public as concerned; (2) The public as ignorant; (3) The public as needing education; and (4) The public as helper or hindrance. Groups identified specific farming practices viewed as concerning to the public, including lack of pasture access, behavioural restriction, and painful procedures. Discussions about these concerns and the role of the public were often framed around the assumption that the public was ignorant about farming, and that this ignorance needed to be rectified through education. Participants were generally ambivalent in their beliefs regarding public contributions to solutions for farm animal welfare but suggested that consumers should pay more for products to help shoulder any costs of welfare improvements.
      PubDate: 2023-10-12
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.88
  • Perceptions of barriers to providing good cat care in Malaysian clinical

    • Authors: Zaini; Syamira Syazuana, Phillips, Claire, MacKay, Jill R D, Langford, Fritha
      First page: 70
      Abstract: Many veterinary practices around the world do not meet basic post-operative cat care, thereby compromising cat welfare. Understanding why the appropriate care is not always given is important. The current study used a mixed methods approach of two phases, to investigate the barriers Malaysian veterinarians face in seeking to provide good cat care in practice. Phase 1 involved a survey consisting of 14 questions which were divided into three sections (demographic details, basic management and barriers experienced by practices) and emailed to 143 Malaysian veterinarians. While for phase 2, 20 interviews were undertaken (recruited from the survey sample) to further elaborate on the results. A Thematic Analysis was conducted to extract the main barriers experienced by participants. A total of 49 veterinarians completed the survey. Over half of the respondents were senior veterinarians (i.e. those with two or more years in practice) (53.1%; n = 26) who were aware of the basic environmental provisions that cats need post-surgery such as bedding and toileting facilities (57.1%; n = 28). Cost (47%; n = 23) was the biggest restriction to good care provision. Interview findings showed that participants were aware of comfortable post-surgery environments helping recovery, but barriers were highlighted: workload factors and a lack of understanding of cat pain behaviours and associated stress. This suggested that participants had the knowledge required to provide good cat care but experienced difficulties putting this into practice. Therefore, to improve cat welfare in veterinary practice, instead of focusing purely on education, interventions to increase good cat care could include targeted elements that support behaviour change to overcome the barriers.
      PubDate: 2023-10-16
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.91
  • Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, Third Edition - Edited by
           M Dyson, P Jirkof, J Lofgren, E Nunamaker and D Pang (2023). Published by
           Elsevier, 230 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10169, USA. 788 pages Hardback
           (ISBN: 9780128222157). Price $US178.50, $US210.00 (with eBook).

    • Authors: Whitfield; Lucy
      First page: 71
      PubDate: 2023-10-23
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.90
  • The development of animal welfare science in China: An explorative

    • Authors: Guo; Xin, Meijboom, Franck LB
      First page: 72
      Abstract: This paper presents results of a search and analysis of research projects on animal welfare registered in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database in the period 1996–2019, with the aim of gaining a better understanding of developments in animal welfare science in China. The title-abstract search of publications in this database resulted in over 260 articles that could be linked to 200 research projects with an animal welfare component. These projects were analysed for: (a) involved academic disciplines; (b) studied animal species; (c) contexts of animal use; (d) concepts of animal welfare; and (e) attention to ethical dimensions of animal welfare. The analysis shows an increased attention to animal welfare science, with a particular focus on farm and laboratory animals. We observed an increase in the number of studies and of animal species studied. The majority of research projects start in or include a view of animal welfare that is close to Fraser’s ‘biological function’ view. We conclude that the increased attention to animal welfare in science reflects recent developments in China in terms of public concern about animal use, academic debate about the importance of animal welfare, and animal-related political and economic developments linked to China’s ambitions to be a global player in science and food production. For the further development of animal welfare science in China stable funding and more interdisciplinary collaboration are necessary to study and publish on fundamental aspects of animal welfare, on issues not directly related to applied problems, and on the ethical dimensions of animal welfare.
      PubDate: 2023-10-27
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.93
  • Health and Welfare of Captive Reptiles, Second Edition - Edited by C
           Warwick, PC Arena and GM Burghart (2023). Published by Springer, Cham,
           Switzerland. 638 pages eBook (ISBN: 978-3-030-86012-7), Hardback (ISBN:
           978-3-030-86011-0). Price £159.50 (eBook), £199.00 (Hardback).

    • Authors: Baines; Frances M.
      First page: 73
      PubDate: 2023-11-06
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.92
  • As a mature scientific discipline animal welfare must be subject to debate
           and opinion – ERRATUM

    • Authors: Golledge; Huw D. R., Nielsen, Birte L.
      First page: 74
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.96
  • The cost of research: Lasting effects of capture, surgery and muscle
           biopsy on brown bear (Ursus arctos) movement and physiology

    • Authors: Thiel; Alexandra, Hertel, Anne G, Giroud, Sylvain, Friebe, Andrea, Fuchs, Boris, Kindberg, Jonas, Græsli, Anne Randi, Arnemo, Jon M, Evans, Alina L
      First page: 75
      Abstract: Animal models are a key component of translational medicine, helping transfer scientific findings into practical applications for human health. A fundamental principle of research ethics involves weighing the benefits of the research to society against the burden imposed on the animals used for scientific purposes. The utilisation of wild animals for research requires evaluation of the effects of capture and invasive sampling. Determining the severity and duration of these interventions on the animal’s physiology and behaviour allows for refining study methodology and for excluding or accounting for biased data. In this study, 39 Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos) captured either while hibernating in winter or via helicopter in summer and that underwent surgery as part of a human health project had their movement, body temperature and timing of onset of hibernation compared with those of 14 control bears that had not been captured during the same period. Bears captured in winter and summer showed decreased movement from den exit until late summer, compared to those in the control group. Bears captured in summer showed reduced movement and body temperature for at least, respectively, 14 and 3 days, with an 11% decrease in hourly distance, compared to pre-capture levels, but did not differ in the timing of hibernation onset. We reveal that brown bear behaviour and physiology can be altered in response to capture and surgery for days to months, post-capture. This has broad implications for the conclusions of wildlife studies that rely upon invasive sampling.
      PubDate: 2023-11-21
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.95
  • Why workshops work: Examining the efficacy of training trainers to train

    • Authors: Meier; Jennifer, Theby, Viviane, Gygax, Lorenz, Hillman, Edna, Fischer-Tenhagen, Carola
      First page: 76
      Abstract: Experimental procedures involving farm animals are often associated with stress due to restraining. Stress can be reduced through use of positive reinforcement training, which then serves as refinement according to the 3Rs principles. Trainer skills, however, may influence the feasibility and success of animal training. The potential influence of trainer skills as well as the education of animal trainers are rarely described in literature but are necessary information for the implementation of positive reinforcement training as a refinement measure. To investigate the effect of educational programmes on animal trainers, we compared the training success of two groups of participants in training goats to elicit a behaviour that would allow simulated venipuncture. One group was educated in a two-day workshop while the other was provided with specific literature for self-instructed learning. Training success was evaluated using an assessment protocol developed for this study. A greater training success in the WORKSHOP GROUP, reflected by objective and subjective measures, was clearly supported statistically. In addition, 73 versus only 13% of the participants of the WORKSHOP GROUP and the self-instructed BOOK GROUP, respectively, stated that they could completely implement the knowledge gained in the course of this study. Our results indicate that more intensively educated trainers can train animals more successfully. In conclusion, if animal training is implemented as refinement, animal caretakers should receive instruction for positive reinforcement training.
      PubDate: 2023-11-21
      DOI: 10.1017/awf.2023.94
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