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  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 103 journals)
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South African Journal of Animal Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.387
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0375-1589 - ISSN (Online) 2221-4062
Published by SciELO Homepage  [688 journals]
  • Intestinal morphology and mucin composition in Japanese quails fed on
           olive cake diet

    • Abstract: Olive cake, sometimes also called spent olive, is a low-energy nutrition source. It possesses various biological properties that are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiviral in property due to its rich polyphenolic compound content. Mucins can be found in the composition of the mucus that cover the surface of the gastrointestinal tract. Feed additives can influence the mucin composition, as well as the height and width of the villi, which are biological appendages tasked to increase the absorption surface in the small intestinal mucosa. The aim of the present study was to determine the histology of the small intestine in Japanese quails fed with olive cake. In the study, mixed-sex quails fed with rations containing different amounts of olive cake were used as the live material. Morphological measurements, Alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff, and aldehyde fuchsin/Alcian blue histochemical stains were performed on stomach and small intestine tissues taken from quails. Significant increases in villus height, villus width, and crypt depth in duodenum, jejunum, and ileal tissues were determined in control and experimental groups. The increase in crypt depth was greatest in the ileum. In the jejunal tissue, it was determined that the width of the villus decreased in groups 1 and 2 but increased in group 3. In the histochemical evaluation, it was determined that sulphate mucins were intense in the proventriculus, while carboxylic mucins were intense in all three parts of the small intestine. Considering the physiological functions of mucins, olive cake is thought to play an important role in the protection of the mucosa in quails.
  • Addition of homeopathic products to pig diets in the finishing phase
           promotes improvement in growth performance

    • Abstract: Homeopathic products (HP) are a preventive and therapeutic alternative in pig farming. This study evaluated the effect of the concentration of dietary HP on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and plasma metabolites of growing-finishing pigs. A total of 60 crossbred male pigs (Agroceres PIC * DanBred), immunocastrated at 90 and 120 days old, with an initial BW of 30.71 ± 2.60 kg were allocated in a completely randomized design to three treatments: i) control diet (CT), without HP), ii) CT + HPi (Figotonus® and Sanoplus®) (1 g/kg of diet), and iii) CT + HP2 (Figotonus and Sanoplus) (2 g/kg of diet). The results indicate that pigs fed diets containing HP2 had a greater average daily gain compared with those fed the control diet, although a higher feed efficiency was observed when pigs were fed the HP1 diet. Animals fed the HP2 diet showed a slight increase in initial postmortem pH in the Longissimus dorsi muscle compared to the control group. Pigs fed HP2 showed a higher initial temperature in the L. dorsi than those fed the control diet. However, there was no effect on plasma metabolite concentration. Based on the results of the present study, the HP1 diet enhanced the performance of finishing pigs without negative effects on meat traits and plasma metabolites.
  • Focused nutrition during oestrus synchronization in Pelibuey ewes with
           different body conditions

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate ovarian follicular activity, ovulation percentage, and body weight change in response to focused nutrition during synchronization of oestrus with an intravaginal device (CIDR®) (9 days) in Pelibuey ewes with high and low body condition. Seventy-two non-pregnant ewes without offspring were randomly distributed to one of four treatments, namely T1: (n = 18) ewes without focused nutrition and low body condition; T2: (n = 18) ewes without focused nutrition and high body condition; T3: (n = 18) ewes with focused nutrition and low body condition; and T4: (n = 18) ewes with focused nutrition and high body condition. While the CIDR device was in place, the ewes with focused nutrition received a supplement of 1.5 kg ewe/day, which contained 2.9 MCal metabolizable energy, 16% crude protein, 88.5% dry matter, 11.8% crude fibre, and 6.7% of ash. The concentration of progesterone (P4) was measured to determine ovulation percentage. The follicular population was quantified (2-3 mm, 4-5 mm, and >6 mm in diameter). The number of follicles between 2-3 mm and 4-5 mm in diameter was similar among treatments. The number of follicles >6 mm in diameter was higher in T4 ewes (2.2 ± 0.2) compared with T1, T2, and T3. The response to oestrus, the onset of oestrus, and the ovulation percentage were similar among treatments. Focused nutrition increased the number of ovarian follicles >6 mm in diameter in ewes with high body condition.
  • Fattening performance and carcass characteristics of lambs supplemented
           with condensed tannins from Acacia mearnsii extract

    • Abstract: Tannins are polyphenolic compounds with some beneficial properties for ruminants as they act as antioxidants, antimicrobials, and anthelmintics, which may improve animal performance. However, the results are variable, depending on the type, source, and dose. The objective of this research was to determine the effect on fattening performance and carcass characteristics of lambs supplemented with condensed tannins (CTs) from Acacia mearnsii extract. Thirty-six, three-month-old Dorset x Hampshire cross lambs of 20.8 ± 3.3 kg live weight were used in a completely randomized design with four treatments (n = 9), namely T1: basal diet, 0.0 g CT/kg DM-1; T2: T1 + 1.75 g CT/kg DM-1; T3: T1 + 3.5 g CT/kg DM-1; and T4: T1 + 5.25 g CT/kg DM-1. The daily weight gain was higher in T2 and T3 than in T1. The weight at slaughter and empty weight at slaughter were higher in T2 than in T1. The hot carcass weight was higher in T3 than in T1, but no different from T2 or T4. The hot carcass yield was higher in T3 than in the other treatments. The meat pH at slaughter and 24 hours postmortem was higher in T4 than in T1 and the meat protein percentage was higher in T3 than in T1. The inclusion of CTs from Acacia mearnsii extract in the diet of fattening lambs increased their daily weight gain, yield, and carcass weight.
  • Augmenting broiler diets with essential oils affects growth, intestinal
           microbiota and morphology, and meat quality

    • Abstract: The health and productivity of broiler chickens are related to their intestinal microbiota, which may be influenced by supplemented feed components. This trial intended to evaluate the effects of a dietary mixture of essential oils from oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum), sage (Salvia triloba L.), and lavender (Lavandula angustifolia L.) on broiler chicken growth performance, intestinal microbiota, intestinal morphology, and meat chemical composition and oxidative stability. A total of 288 one-day-old male Ross-308 chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments with six replicate pens (12 chicks per pen). The chicks of the control treatment were fed typical commercial maize and soybean meal rations in mash form. The rations of the other three treatments were supplemented with a mixture of essential oils at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, respectively. At the end of the trial (day 42), tissue samples were collected for analysis. Major bioactive components of the three essential oils were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Essential oil supplementation increased the radical scavenging capacity and the total phenolic content of the feeds. Performance parameters (weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, European production efficiency factor) were not affected significantly by the supplementation. Intestinal microflora populations (determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry) were modified significantly in both the cecum and the jejunum. Breast and thigh meat oxidative stability under refrigerated storage was improved significantly. Additional research is required to elucidate the potential synergistic effects of dietary mixtures of essential oils.
  • Environmental factors affecting pre-weaning mortality of Turkish Saanen

    • Abstract: One of the most important problems encountered in breeding Turkish Saanen goats, the dominant dairy goat in Turkey, is the death of kids. Deaths cause serious economic losses and jeopardize the need for qualified breeders. This study aimed to determine the factors that affected the survival of kids in the period between birth and weaning, when most deaths are observed. A total of 3343 records of Turkish Saanen kids were collected in 2019. The importance and order of the effects of environmental factors, such as gender, birth type, sex, birth weight, farm, season of birth, weight at death, and maternal age at the kid's mortality were determined by using the decision tree statistical method. As a result of this study, the farm effect was the first effective factor in the survivability of kids, and death was less common in small farms (F3), with a rate of 7.8%. The death times of kids were divided into four groups: birth-first 24 hours (M1), 1-7 days (M2), 7-30 days (M3), and 30 days-weaning (90 days) (M4). Deaths were highest in M2 with 40.1% and least in M3 with 5.7%. The death weight variable had a primary effect on deaths. This was followed by birth weight, then farm variables. Two other factors came to the forefront to increase the survivability of the kids: deaths could be greatly reduced by providing good nutrition to the mothers in the prenatal period and offering good management, especially in the first week after birth, to obtain offspring with higher birth weights.
  • Effect of transportation distance on the physiological condition and
           carcass traits of kampong chickens

    • Abstract: This research aimed to investigate the effect of transportation distance on the physiological conditions and carcass traits of kampong chickens. Two hundred and twenty-five male kampong chickens were transported for distances of 30 km, 60 km, and 90 km, departing from three villages. Their physiological conditions were observed for up to 12 hours after having reached the final destination, and they were slaughtered after 45 minutes of lairage. The results showed that the transportation distance had a minor influence on the male kampong chickens' physiological conditions on arrival and on resulting carcass traits. Decreased oxygen consumption and metabolism rates were observable only eight hours after the rest period, without further effects on body temperature, tonic immobility, and blood triglyceride levels. There were no significant changes in live shrink, liveability, and carcass production from various transportation distances. However, a significant percentage increase in live shrink, accompanied by a significant decrease in visceral weight, was noted after transportation distances above 60 km. There was a significant decrease in the percentage of drumstick weight and a minor decrease in overall carcass quality, derived from bruising on the thighs. No significant changes were noted in graded carcass quality, meat water-holding capacity, pH, lactic acid, or water content. It was concluded that transportation distances up to 90 km were physiologically tolerable to kampong chickens, imposing minor negative impact on carcass traits.
  • Effects of biomacromolecules on growth, digestibility, digestive enzyme
           activity, antioxidation, and immunity in broilers

    • Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of two biomacromolecules, fermented wheat bran polysaccharides (FWBPs) and sodium humate (SH), on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, digestive enzyme activity, antioxidant status, and immunity of broilers. A total of 144 male, one-day-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly divided into three dietary groups: control (CON), 0.4% FWBPs, and 0.1% SH, with six replicates of eight birds. The FWBPs and SH groups had a greater body weight (BW) at 21 and 42 d, average daily weight gain (ADG) in the starter period, average daily feed intake (ADFl) in the overall period, and feed-to-gain ratio (F:G) in the grower period. However, the ADFI was decreased by FWBPs supplementation and increased by SH supplementation in the grower period. The dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) digestibility were higher in the SH group at 21 d. At 21 d, the FWBPs group had an increased duodenal trypsin and serum glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and immunoglobulin M (IgM) concentration, and a decreased liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. The SH group had increased duodenal lipase activity, serum IgM, and interleukin-2 concentrations but decreased liver MDA concentrations. At 42 d, FWBPs and SH supplementation decreased duodenal trypsin and chymotrypsin and serum superoxide dismutase activity. Jejunum chymotrypsin activity and liver MDA content were decreased in the SH group. In conclusion, dietary FWBPs or SH supplementation during the starter period can improve growth performance and nutrient digestibility and enhance antioxidant capacity and immunity of broilers.
  • Effects of production stage and fertility traits on milk production of
           pasture-grazed Holstein and Jersey cows in a Mediterranean-type climate

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the milk production of Holstein and Jersey cows on pasture as affected by parity, lactation stage, calving season, age at first calving, and calving interval. Test-day lactation records of 122 Holstein and 99 Jersey cows, varying from parities 1 to 6, were collected using standard milk recording procedures. Cows were managed and kept as one herd on kikuyu over-sown with ryegrass pasture and received 7 kg of concentrate (as fed) containing 170 g/kg crude protein per day. Across parities, the means for milk yield, milk fat, milk protein, dry matter intake, and body weight were 23.8 ± 6.2 and 17.9 ± 4.4 kg/day; 3.89 ± 0.03 and 4.66 ± 0.03%; 3.17 ± 0.02 and 3.59 ± 0.02%; 17.8 ± 2.6 and 14.4 ± 2.1 kg/day; and 567 ± 3.49 and 411 ± 3.84 kg for Holstein and Jersey cows, respectively. Milk yield increased by 26.5% in Holsteins and 23.7% in Jerseys from first to fourth lactation. Mean lactation number was 2.5 ± 0.15 and 3.0 ± 0.17; test-day milk yield for summer was 21.2 ± 0.28 and 16.5 ± 0.31 kg/day; and winter was 21.3 ± 0.28 and 16.4 ± 0.32 kg/day; age at first calving was 26.4 ± 0.3 and 26.2 ± 0.3; and inter-calving period was 13.9 ± 0.18 and 13.2 ± 0.17 months, for Holstein and Jersey cows, respectively. With inter-calving periods of 13 months, 13.1 to 15.0 and above 15 months, the 305-day Holstein cow milk yield was 7324 ± 181, 7768 ± 193, and 7927 ± 211 kg, whereas that of Jerseys was 5400 ± 135, 5621 ± 244, and 5724 ± 234 kg, respectively. In this study, Jerseys performed better than Holsteins in lactation number and calving interval. Holsteins, however, had a higher increase in milk yield from first to fourth lactation, whereas age at first calving did not differ.
  • Meat quality characteristics of Tankwa goats from Carnarvon, Northern

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the post-mortem meat quality characteristics of extensively reared Tankwa goats to identify the most favourable age and sex for slaughter. Twenty-four goats, representing five groups, namely young intact males (G1), young females (G25), young castrates (G3), old males (G4), and females (G5), were selected directly from their natural grazing environment and slaughtered to evaluate meat quality characteristics. The Musculus longissimus and Musculus semimembranosus from the right side of each carcass were evaluated. Dressing percentage and chilling losses did not differ significantly between the groups. Ultimate pH at 24 hours after slaughter was higher for males than females. Meat colour, water-holding capacity, and sarcomere length did not differ between groups. Myofibril fragmentation length (MFL) was on average less than 40 μmι and was shorter in younger animals. There were no significant differences in cooking loss and thawing loss for M. longissimus and M. semimembranosus between groups. There were no significant differences in Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) between groups for meat from the M. semimembranosus. However, WBSF of the M. longissimus was higher in older animals. Overall, meat from these goats can be regarded as tender because meat with a WBSF below 5.5 is considered as tender.
  • Effects of milking machine settings and teat liners on bovine udder

    • Abstract: The purpose of milking machines is to harvest milk at an optimum speed while maintaining cow comfort and preserving teat defence mechanisms against the invasion of mastitis pathogens, thus making machine settings critical in dairy herds. The various settings and combinations for milking machines were reviewed to enable operators to optimize them to preserve teat canal integrity and minimize mastitis. All databases of Web of Science and relevant websites were used to document machine settings and teat liners. All vacuum levels in milking systems need to be monitored. In addition, liners, milk yield, and automated cluster removal switch-point settings need to be regarded as bearing a risk of teat damage. They affect milking speed and vacuum levels at total, peak, and over-milking. An equilibrium should be reached between optimal milking speed and risk of teat damage. An increased switch-point setting shortens milking time and decreases overmilking and claw vacuum to preserve teat-canal integrity. Analysis of milk flow dynamics with a VaDia instrument highlights opportunities to improve milking protocols and equipment functions that align with the physiology of the cow. This knowledge can be applied on individual farms, in which herd milk yield, parlour layout, milking machine system, parlour management, and economics should be considered to obtain a balance between milking efficiency, udder health, and cow comfort. Standards for switch-point settings were identified in this review.
  • Performance and egg quality of light laying hens fed with canthaxanthin
           and marigold flower extract

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the best level of inclusion of natural (marigold flower extract) and synthetic (canthaxanthin) pigments in the diet of light laying hens from 75 to 85 weeks old in terms of effects on performance, egg quality, and economic viability of production. A total of 288 laying hens were used in a completely randomized design, with a 4 x 4 factorial arrangement, with four levels of marigold flower extract (2.10; 2.40; 2.70; 3.00 ppm) and four of canthaxanthin (0. 40; 0.70; 1.00; 1.30 ppm), with three replications and six hens per experimental unit. The feed conversion by mass of eggs, egg mass, and egg laying rate showed linear improvement with the inclusion of canthaxanthin. The yolk index showed a quadratic effect with the inclusion of marigold and canthaxanthin, presenting a better estimate with diets containing 2.60 ppm/kg of marigold feed and 0.95 ppm/kg of canthaxanthin feed. The percentage of yolk and the Haugh unit increased linearly with the rising levels of marigold, whereas the percentage of albumen decreased linearly. In the evaluation of the YolkFan DSM® and the redness/yellowness, chroma (a*) presented a quadratic effect for the inclusion of marigold (2.73 and 2.80 ppm/kg of feed) and linear increase with canthaxanthin. It was concluded that the best yolk index was with 2.60 ppm/kg marigold flower extract and 0.95 ppm/kg canthaxanthin in the diet of light laying hens from 75 to 85 weeks old.
  • Does dietary inclusion of defatted yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor)
           affect growth and body composition of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus

    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of total and partial replacement of fishmeal with defatted yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) meal on one-summer-old common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with an initial bodyweight of 97.54 g ± 51.0 g. Fish were kept in an experimental recirculating aquaculture system (9 x 250 L tanks) and fed with two experimental diets formulated with mealworm meal replacements and one control, which had 100 g/kg fishmeal without mealworm meal (MWM0). In the first treatment, 50% of fishmeal was replaced with mealworm meal (MWM50). In the second treatment, fishmeal was replaced totally with mealworm meal (MWM100). Fish were fed three times per day at 3.0% of fish biomass. After six weeks of the experimental period, growth performance, nutrient utilization, body composition, and biometric indices were compared. The results revealed that the growth performance of common carp was not affected significantly by the inclusion level of mealworm meal. However, the highest weight gain was observed in MWM100, where specific growth rate was 0.76 ± 0.10 g/day. Crude fat content of the fish body differed significantly between experimental groups and the control. This investigation demonstrated that MWM could be used as an alternative dietary protein source to replace fishmeal without adverse effects on the growth performance of one-summer-old common carp._
  • Addition of equine chorionic gonadotropin in controlled internal
           drug-release-based synchronization improves reproductive performance of
           Nili-Ravi buffalo in the sub-tropics

    • Abstract: This study evaluated the effect of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and factors such as body condition score (BCS), cyclicity, and breeding season in a controlled internal drug release (CIDR)-based oestrus synchronization protocol on ovarian follicle dynamics, oestrus expression, ovulation rate, and pregnancy per artificial insemination (AI) (P/AI) in Nili-Ravi buffalo. Adult buffaloes (n = 88), 6.69 ± 1.17 years, parity 3.36 ± 0.97, and BCS 2.76 ± 0.45, were randomly administered eCG or saline, concurrent with prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a) treatment on Day 6 in a CIDR synchronization protocol during the breeding season and low breeding season. Follicular dynamics and oestrus expression were recorded from eCG administration until ovulation. Fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) was performed at 48- and 60-hour intervals after CIDR withdrawal. On Day 35 post-AI, pregnancy was diagnosed with ultrasonography. There was no significant difference in the size of the ovulatory follicle between eCG-treated buffaloes (ETB) and saline-treated buffaloes (STB). The growth rate of the dominant follicle, oestrus response and intensity, ovulation, and P/AI were higher (P
  • Yeast cell wall supplementation modulates pre-weaning stress in male
           Nili Ravi buffalo calves

    • Abstract: The effects of yeast cell wall (YCW) supplementation on growth performance, cell-mediated immune response, blood metabolites, and health scores in early-weaned male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves were evaluated. Forty Nili Ravi buffalo calves were randomly divided into four groups and supplemented with four dietary treatments, namely control (animals without prebiotics), YCW-2 (yeast cell wall fed at 2 g/calf/day), YCW-4 (yeast cell wall fed at 4 g/calf/day), and cMOS-4 (commercial mannan-oligosaccharide fed at 4 g/calf/day). Milk intake, dry matter intake (DMI), and health scores were recorded daily, whereas body weight (body weight) and structural developments (hip height, wither height, heart girth, and body length) were recorded weekly. Feed efficiency and average daily gain (ADG) were calculated at the end of the experiment. Blood samples were collected fortnightly to determine glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyric acid (ßHBA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), catalase, malondialdehyde, creatinine, hepatic enzymes, cholesterol, triglycerides, and total serum protein profile. The cell-mediated immune response was determined by the application of dinitrochlorobenzene directly to the skin. The results of the study revealed that supplementation of YCW and cMOS increased DMI, body weight, feed efficiency, ADG, and structural growth in buffalo calves, whereas faecal scores were significantly improved in supplemented groups compared to the control. Glucose, BUN, and ßHBA improved in supplemented animals more than in the control group, indicating bioactivity that contributed to the improvement of gut health. Supplementation with YCW improved the growth performance, physiological responses, and gut health of early-weaned male buffalo calves.
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