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  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 103 journals)
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South African Journal of Animal Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.387
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0375-1589 - ISSN (Online) 2221-4062
Published by SciELO Homepage  [688 journals]
  • Risk factors for puerperal endometritis in the sow

    • Abstract: Puerperal endometritis in sows may detrimentally affect the health of sows and reduce reproductive performance in their subsequent litters. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine risk factors for puerperal endometritis in sows. In total, 139 second-parity, Yorkshire χ Landrace sows from a swine farm were recruited. Information including parity number, gestation length, litter size, number of dead-born piglets per litter, use of manual extraction of foetuses, intrapartum oxytocin use, and postpartum vaginal discharge were recorded. Puerperal endometritis was defined based on the characteristics of the vaginal discharge. Logistic regression was used to determine the significant risk factors for puerperal endometritis. The incidence of puerperal endometritis was 20.1% (28/139). Manual extraction of foetuses, farrowing duration, and number of dead-born piglets per litter were determined as the most significant risk factors for puerperal endometritis. All of these factors were positively associated with the disorder. The present study showed that puerperal endometritis was common in the sow. Determination of risk factors for puerperal endometritis contributes to the understanding of the disorder and helps farm practitioners spot and treat sows at risk early.
       
  • Village chicken production and egg quality in dry and wet,
           resource-limited environments in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    • Abstract: The study investigated the quality and production of village chickens in wet and dry environments. Three hundred households were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Both external and internal characteristics were measured in 4 000 eggs using visual observation and laboratory analyses. The main source of income for the households in both environments was government grants. Village chickens were largely kept for eggs, meat, income, leisure, and rituals. The proportion of households selling eggs was low (less than 3%). Village chicken productivity was constrained by feed shortages, high disease prevalence, theft, slow growth, predation, and lack of access to the market. Feed availability varied seasonally. The dry environment produced 30% more eggs, which was an anomaly. Egg weights were larger (49.8 g) in wet than dry environments (39.6 g). It was concluded that egg quality and production were affected by feed availability. To improve egg production and quality, the environment should be improved using inputs such as feeding programs and housing.
       
  • Fermented feed may improve the growth performance, immunological function,
           and antioxidant capacity of Sichuan White Geese

    • Abstract: The current study aimed to assess the effects of the addition of dietary fermented feed (FF) on the growth performance, blood parameters, intestinal morphology, and number of cecal microorganisms of Sichuan white geese from 1 to 28 d of age. A total of 240, 1-day-old female geese were randomly divided into five groups with six replicates (eight birds per replicate). Geese in the control group were fed the basal diet (0.0% FF) and the experimental groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, and 10.0% FF, respectively. The 5.0% FF and 7.5% FF groups had greater body weights (BW), average daily feed intakes (ADFI), and average daily gains (ADG) than the control group. The feed/gain ratio (F/G) in the 7.5% FF group was higher than the control group. The concentrations of immunoglobulin A (IGA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the 5.0% FF group were higher than those in the control group, whereas malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the 5.0% FF group was lower. Moreover, the FF did not affect the plasma biochemical indicators, number of cecal microorganisms, and intestinal morphology of geese in the groups. These findings indicate that 5.0% FF may improve the growth performance (BW, ADG, and ADFI), immunological function, and antioxidant capacity of Sichuan white geese from 1 to 28 days of age.
       
  • Effects of adding natural additives to whole milk on performance, faecal,
           and blood parameters in suckling Holstein calves

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of additives containing organic acids, herbal extracts, and prebiotics to whole milk on the developmental performance and several faecal and blood parameters of Holstein calves during the suckling period. A total of 40 one-day-old Holstein calves were divided randomly categorized into two groups of 20 (10 males and 10 females). For the first three days, both groups were provided with five litres of colostrum daily. Starting from the fourth day, the first group (control) received whole milk, while the second group (NCA) was given milk with a commercial additive of 5 g/L of whole milk. The calves had access to starter feed and water ad libitum. Results indicated the body weight and red blood cell counts of calves in the NCA group showed a substantial increase during the first four weeks, while the occurrence of diarrhoea decreased, compared to the control group. However, no marked differences between the control and NCA groups in terms of intake of concentrate feed, feed conversion ratio, body weight gain, levels of white blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, aspartate aminotransferase, phosphorus, gamma-glutamyl transferase, glucose, calcium, creatinine, cholesterol, triglycerides, faecal levels, or days with diarrhoea were noted. Consequently, it was concluded that adding commercial additives to whole milk had a positive effect on the early development of the digestive system of calves, substantially increasing their body weight in the first four weeks of life and therefore making them more resistant to diseases in this critical period.
       
  • Effects of feed form (pellet or mash), corn particle size, and
           Bacillus-based probiotic supplementation on performance traits and
           digestive tract health of broiler chickens

    • Abstract: A total of 720 Ross 308, male broiler chicks were used to study the effect of feed form, corn particle size, and probiotic supplementation as a completely randomized block design with 2*2*2 factorial arrangement (eight treatments and five replications). The factors included the type of feed (pellet or mash), the average size of corn particles (590 and 1220 urn), and the addition or absence of a probiotic (DIPro) to the diet. At the end of the experiment, relative weights (% of BW) of abdominal fat and gizzard were calculated as a percentage of live weight. Using pellets increased the body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and improved feed conversion ratio (FCR). Feeding coarse corn particles substantially reduced the body weight gain and increased the feed conversion from 1 -10, 25-42, and 1 -42 days of age. Feed intake reduced from 1 -42 d and 42-25 d by consuming coarse corn particles. The use of probiotics increased feed intake and body weight gain from 25-42 and 1 -42 d. The pelleted diet increased gizzard and proventriculus pH, whereas coarse corn particles reduced pH. The pelleted feed decreased the relative weight of the gizzard and increased the abdominal fat percentage. Coarsely ground corn increased the abdominal fat and gizzard percentage. Probiotic supplementation improved feed intake, body weight gain, and feed conversion from 1-42 d. Pelleted feed plus probiotics and a 590-um particle size produced the best performance in broilers.
       
  • Marek's disease in backyard chickens of Pakistan: A study of pathological
           lesions in correlation to viral load

    • Abstract: Marek's disease (MD) is an infectious, lymphoproliferative disorder caused by the alpha herpesvirus genus, Mardivirus, serotype 1 (Gallid Herpesvirus 2, or GaHV-2). There is no current information on Marek's disease virus (MDV) pathotypes and serotypes circulating in backyard poultry in Pakistan. This study aimed to characterize GaHV-2 in the backyard poultry of Rawalpindi division based on glycoprotein C and to investigate the correlation of a viral oncogene (meq) with the histological, lymphoproliferative infiltration in the visceral organs of naturally-infected birds. The study was performed from May 2019 to April 2020 in the Rawalpindi, Jhelum, Chakwal, and Attock districts of the Rawalpindi division. An overall 13.96% prevalence of MDV infection based on gross morphology and 18.43% using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was recorded. The Pakistani GaHV-2 isolates could be divided into two clades, based on sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the gC gene, closely related to the US virulent isolates and mildly virulent vaccine strain, CVI988, respectively. Of total PCR-positive cases, 25 (75.76%) samples revealed gross tumours. Median histopathological scores of lymphoproliferative infiltrations in the spleen and liver tissues were recorded as moderate (++), whereas in the heart and gonads, mild (+) changes were observed. The mean viral load quantified using real-time PCR of 14.72 copies of meq gene/ß-actin revealed a strong (R² = 0.88) correlation with histopathology scores of spleen tissues. Differences in the meq gene/ß-actin ratio were observed between non-tumorous and tumorous birds, which is indicative of pathological changes in individuals of the present study.
       
  • Growth, slaughter performance, abdominal visceral organ sizes, and plasma
           metabolic markers in indigenous, improved, and crossbred growing pigs fed
           roasted or sprouted cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) diets

    • Abstract: Growth, slaughter performance, and blood metabolic markers were evaluated in Windsnyer (W), Large White (LW) × Landrace (LR), and three-way crossbred (W × LW × LR) pigs fed control (soybean cake), sprouted, or roasted iso-nutrient, cowpea, maize-based diets. Twelve male pigs of each genotype with initial live weights of 15 ± 2.3 kg, 37 ± 1.4 kg, and 39 ± 1.2 kg (10-11% degree of maturity) were used. The pigs were on the trial diets for eight weeks in a balanced factorial experiment replicated four times. The growth rates were W × LW × LR > LW × LR > W, and control > sprouted cowpeas > roasted cowpea diets. Scaled to pig metabolic (weight 0.75), feed intake was greatest in the control, followed by sprouted cowpeas and roasted cowpeas, and pig BW was W × LW × LR > LW × LR > W. The feed conversion was control < sprouted cowpeas < roasted cowpea diet. Pigs on the control diet recorded the highest back fat thickness, with the least backfat in LW × LR pigs. The LW × LR pigs had more backfat on roasted than on sprouted cowpeas, whereas W pigs had more backfat on roasted cowpeas. Scaled (% live weight) liver and kidney sizes were largest in W pigs, and the kidney size was larger on roasted cowpeas. Blood marker profiles were aligned to pig growth and slaughter performance, with low total protei n, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase activity in LW × LR pigs; sprouted cowpeas caused elevated plasma urea, albumin, and the alkaline phosphatase activity. The W pigs had low plasma creatinine and high cholesterol levels, with elevated cholesterol on sprouted cowpeas. The LW × LR and W × LW × LR genotypes had better growth and slaughter performance than the W pigs; cowpea was inferior to the control diet, with better efficiency on sprouted, rather than roasted, cowpeas. Pig responses to roasting or sprouting cowpeas were considered largely independent of the genotype.
       
 
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  Subjects -> ANIMAL WELFARE (Total: 103 journals)
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