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International Journal of Architectural Computing
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.213
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1478-0771 - ISSN (Online) 2048-3988
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1176 journals]
  • Automation of circular design: A timber building case study

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      Authors: Sverre M Haakonsen, Artur Tomczak, Bunji Izumi, Marcin Luczkowski
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      As we strive to improve efficiency and minimise environmental impact in the construction industry, it is important to consider how these objectives impact the work and productivity of designers. This article presents a tool to assist designers in matching reclaimed building products with design intent. The demonstration is based on an actual design project of a two-storey public building made of reclaimed timber from disassembled barns. The algorithm’s objective is to propose optimal matching in terms of a structure’s environmental impact without overloading the user with additional work or excess information. The impact includes emissions embodied in material and related to the transportation from the donor site. The algorithm is integrated into the Grasshopper interface for easier use. All the inputs and objectives are quantitative and fully customisable. The user can still assess qualitative characteristics thanks to a graphical representation of the result. The demonstration shows how automation can simplify the design process with reclaimed elements, support traditional design workflows and enable improvements towards a more sustainable construction industry.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2024-02-27T10:57:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771241234447
       
  • The architecture of visual narrative: Can text-to-image algorithms enhance
           the power of stylistic narrative for architecture

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      Authors: Busra Dilaveroglu
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      Architecture has always been a means of communicating stories through its design, with its structures and spaces serving as visual narratives. However, recent advancements in technology have created opportunities for architects to enhance their storytelling capabilities through the use of text-to-image algorithms. These algorithms have the potential to improve visual narratives by enabling architects to translate written descriptions into tangible visual representations. This article explores the architecture of visual narrative and how text-to-image algorithms can enhance it in diverse styles. This inquiry aims to help architectural epistemology understand and foresee the potential impact of this technology on the field of architecture. To understand the limits of AI in generating styles to enhance architectural narrative, six distinct styles were chosen for experimentation. The styles were selected based on their unique features, including an architect’s style, movement, or era. These styles include Zaha Hadid, Brutalist, modern-minimalistic, Peter Zumthor, Gothic, and Gaudi. The narrative was kept the same for each style while observing the changes in AI-generated visuals. The results were evaluated by comparing AI’s interpretations in terms of stylistic, environmental, material, form-based, and atmospheric features. While the results showed promise in terms of variations in each category, AI was not successful in implementing all stylistic features while keeping the narrative stable. In particular, after the second environment layer, the modern-minimalistic, Zumthor, and Brutalist styles lost their distinct features, while Gothic and Gaudi-inspired visuals were hardly generated even in the second environment layer. As a result, AI performed well in generating detailed environmental features without any given narrative and creating an atmospheric environment with enlightening the environment for the last layer.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2024-02-17T04:05:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771241234449
       
  • A process-based framework for adaptable modules in robotic clay 3D
           printing

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      Authors: Gamze Gündüz, Mine Özkar
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      Robotic Clay Printing (RCP) offers opportunities in sustainable architectural applications. This paper presents a framework to integrate locally sourced earth-based materials with robotic fabrication techniques while enhancing designer's control over the process. The methodology involves two key steps: first, refining critical 3DP (3DP) control parameters to develop an informed toolpath algorithm. This algorithm grants designers’ direct control over factors like layer height and extrusion speed, enabling customization and ensuring structural integrity. Second, the framework is applied to design and RCP of an interlocking modular wall component system. Evaluation encompasses the impact of 3DP control parameters, informed toolpath planning, RCP performance, and assembly possibilities.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2024-02-13T07:45:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231225698
       
  • ‘The International Style’ multilingual three-dimensional
           grammar and hybrid designs

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      Authors: Deborah Benros
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      The present paper describes a multilingual shape grammar to recreate the work of three designers that preconized the ‘International Style’. This is a top-down three-dimensional formulation. Whilst most grammars are monolingual and univocal, this work creates a multilingual formulation within the same artistic movement. Typically, a grammar describes a family of design solutions. These are helpful mechanisms to describe patterns that can be used for analysis or design exploration. This multilingual three-dimensional parametric grammar allows the independent recreation of original designs from three designers and hybrid solutions. Shape grammar's difficult application can be linked to its evaluation process. The original contribution of the study lies in the use of quantitative and qualitative methods for grammar evaluation, using Principal Components Analysis and user questionnaires. The PCA provides a pragmatic analysis, and the questionnaires an intuitive reading. Together they corroborate the results which are discussed using hybrids that assist in delineating parametric spaces.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2024-02-02T05:12:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771241229860
       
  • OTDF platform: A new paradigm of homeownership for life with mobility and
           liquidity

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      Authors: Jiaqi Wang, Wanzhu Jiang
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      The rise of digital nomadism and shifting societal patterns necessitate a re-examination of traditional housing ownership. This study introduces the OTDF Platform, a pioneering homeownership trading platform that views residences as a user-driven distributed system. It establishes a continuous process consisting of tokenization, digitalization, and fluidization of ownership, enabling the free trade and rapid circulation of ownership to dynamically respond to changes in user housing demands and economic status. In methodological development, the platform extensively integrates various technologies and algorithms, including blockchain and space planning, to create a nested functional relationship among parameters, including requirements and expenditures, residential space conditions, and ownership values, thereby elucidating a transparent ownership calculation method. The OTDF Platform demonstrates a comprehensive and adaptable ownership model, reinstating the value of housing as a home within its liquidity, offering innovative insights for addressing housing challenges in the post-digital era.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2024-02-01T06:00:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771241229851
       
  • Biodigital stool series: Nature-based growing morphologies through
           additive manufacturing and generative design

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      Authors: David A Torreblanca-Díaz, Juan Pablo Velásquez Peña, Pablo Banda
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      Biodigital Architecture and Design emerges in the intersection between nature-based design and digital technologies. This article presents the results of a project that aimed to integrate three-dimensional growth patterns from nature into a stool design series through Computational Design and Additive Manufacturing methods. The project methodology includes (1) Pattern from nature selection, (2) Generative design, (3) 3D printing, including scale models and prototypes, (4) Compression tests, and (5) Generative optimization. Findings indicate that the branching pattern was the lightest-weight pattern while showing the highest specific resistance compared to the other models evaluated. Branching pattern also took the least amount of time and material to print, these findings contribute to the decision-making process for future work. Regarding computational design method, it resulted in several design alternatives, with complex, unpredictable and efficient mechanical behavior geometries. Future work would include to a variety of patterns from nature, generative design, optimizations, and prototypes.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2024-02-01T05:54:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771241229856
       
  • A creative form-finding tool: Deformation of plastic sheets due to the
           influence of temperature and gravity

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      Authors: Ever Patiño, Jorge Maya, Andrés Obregón
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      A form-finding technique based on the deformation of plastic sheets by the action of gravity and temperature increase is proposed, allowing the exploration of complex geometries to support form-giving processes within architecture projects, both by students and practitioners. Using an analog and computational approach, the ideal material for the technique was selected from a multifactorial experiment. Semi-structured analog experimentation was carried out based on inputs, rules, and outputs previously identified, and the resulting models were morphologically analyzed, to later translate the components of the analog experimentation into a computational algorithm to carry out computational experimentation. The technique can be used as a generator of novel forms possessing adequate transformational qualities. Finally, potential applications of the technique and avenues for future research are presented.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2024-01-29T05:30:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771241229852
       
  • Crafting innovation: Discrete timber pavilions and fabrication-driven
           approaches

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      Authors: Katherine Cáceres Corvalán, Francisco Javier Calvo Castillo
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      In regions with limited access to CAD/CAM machines like Latin America, academic experiences have adapted digital tools to local capabilities, aiming to enhance project creativity through digital technology. This article examines the use of timber as a material, addressing the technical, spatial, and cultural aspects related to its use, while intertwining the educational narrative of learning through doing and adapting. The structures designed in this research are based on three key parameters: timber as the main material, framing as a discrete design system and side-by-side joints as a vital component of the traditional fabrication process. Through the integration of digital and traditional techniques, the aim is to adapt methods frequently used in digital design and manufacturing processes. This study emphasizes that merging digital tools with traditional construction knowledge can lead to innovative solutions, especially in areas with limited digital resources, showing that digital fabrication can broaden and enrich traditional building methods beyond just being a numerical alternative.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2024-01-29T02:45:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771241229857
       
  • Shape grammars and self-built refugee communities: The transformation from
           tent shelter to customized structure in Irbid Camp

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      Authors: Dima Abu-Aridah, Heather Ligler
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents research on design challenges in protracted refugee camps, where “temporary” shelters undergo informal transformations, becoming long-term homes and establishing communities. We develop a shape grammar to investigate this phenomenon, focusing on the evolution of refugee housing units in the Irbid Camp in Jordan from the emergency to the transitional and permanent phases. Our parametric shape grammar analyzes and describes the physical characteristics of these units, revealing their dynamic nature. The corpus of the grammar includes 10 diverse housing units that provide a range of insights and opportunities for refugee housing design and planning. The grammar builds a foundation for developing design solutions that mediate transformations and address long-term implications for sustainable and adaptive environments to anticipate self-build processes and better support evolving resident needs in housing layouts.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2024-01-23T08:20:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771241229854
       
  • Parametrizing the unmeasurable: Urban qualities as quantitative parameters
           for computer games

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      Authors: Carmela Cucuzzella, Morteza Hazbei, Mohammad Hossein Asgari
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      Parametric design and gamification rely on quantitative factors that can be easily translated into computer language. However, measuring and quantifying the complex urban qualities poses a challenge. This leads to the question of how to incorporate complex spatial quality into parametric design. This research, therefore, proposes a method to parametrize and quantify urban qualities by extracting main spatial qualities from three main sources, developing a comprehensive list of qualities that can be effectively parametrized, breaking them down into more tangible parameters, and assessing their interrelations within a system model. The results reveal that although urban qualities are complex, they are better defined and parametrized when their relations and originating factors are fully investigated. Furthermore, qualities are classified according to their degree of connection to other qualities within the system model and the nature of these connections. This classification results in six categories: Main Instigator, Mediating and Consequential qualities, as well as Minimally, Moderately, and Highly connected qualities. This research contributes to urban parametric design by providing a method to parametrize urban qualities and gamification fields, allowing developers to implement city complex qualities into the games.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2024-01-22T10:32:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771241228095
       
  • The design methods meshwork: Activating the Design Methods Group
           Newsletter through digital history

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      Authors: Theodora Vardouli, Maxime Leblanc, Eliza Pertigkiozoglou
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      This article elaborates a computationally enabled approach to the study of design methods in 1960s North America. This entails the construction, visualization, and analysis of a digital database built from entries of the Design Methods Group Newsletter, a periodical published monthly between 1966-71. The article proposes a workflow that combines methods such as topic modeling and network visualization to activate the Newsletter as a source of anecdotal and informal knowledge, and to enable histories of connectivity and transaction that may elude archival investigations on singular actors or institutions. In doing so, the article contributes arguments and techniques for the study of design methods as a complex social, technical, and intellectual meshwork. The meshwork brings discursive themes, techniques, actors, and institutions at the same level of investigation and allows for layered cartographies of the field that advanced the systematic study of design and ushered in the development of early computer applications.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2024-01-13T03:01:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231220903
       
  • Encapsulating creative collaborations: A case study in the design of
           cement tiles

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      Authors: Vinicius Mizobuti, Gabriela Lamanna Soares, Antonio Carlos Laraia Figueira de Mello, Diogo Matsui, Thais de Matos Ilkiw
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      Advances in computer-aided architectural design led to an increased interest in the field for cross-disciplinary creative collaborations. However, this process rarely accounts for the agents outside of the discipline’s intellectual framework, such as craftsmen, failing to include existing production capabilities in the digital transformation of the industry. To tackle this issue, we investigate an approach that implements encapsulated instruments as enablers of creative collaborations between computational designers and craftsmen. We evaluate this approach by designing three cement tile models, a traditional handmade construction element used in Brazil. The results demonstrate that encapsulated instruments expand the craft’s design space through creative decisions operated by the craftsman, and interviews with the tile makers elaborate on their perceived change in creative agency, identifying limitations when disrupting social roles and hierarchical relationships in craftsmanship. Results also raise opportunities for expanding this approach at other scales and systems, helping to democratize and distribute design knowledge.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2024-01-10T03:06:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231225701
       
  • RO-BIK—A robotic approach to developing dynamic architecture

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      Authors: Hamidreza Malekian
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      This article presents a design proposal for a socially engaging, architecturally dynamic, and adaptable pavilion that fosters interaction among individuals. The pavilion aims to bridge the gap between open and enclosed spaces in university campuses or other cultural settings, maximizing their vibrancy. To achieve this objective, the design incorporates principles of robotics and data-driven analysis to examine the mechanics, form, and modes of interaction of mobile elements, expressed through computer-coded language. The article delves into the design process and highlights key features of the pavilion, emphasizing its adaptability to variable conditions and its capacity to guide and facilitate people’s movements and interactions. Furthermore, it explores the potential of motion within architecture by utilizing mechanics and programmability inspired by the Rubik’s Cube system. The article also provides the technical design of all components and focuses on the Multipurpose Path Planning (MTP) approach as a guiding principle for the RO-BIK project.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2024-01-05T07:25:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231225700
       
  • A convolutional neural network approach to classifying urban spaces using
           generative tools for data augmentation

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      Authors: Carlos Medel-Vera, Pelayo Vidal-Estévez, Thomas Mädler
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      This article discusses an application for classifying urban spaces using convolutional neural networks (CNNs). A seed dataset was initially generated composed of 630 photographs of urban spaces from the Adobe Stock repository. This dataset was topped up with images produced by two generative artificial intelligence (AI) engines, namely, Deep Dream Generator and Midjourney, making two additional augmented datasets, each composed of 2200 images. The training process was carried out using four well-known CNNs, namely, GoogLeNet, ResNet-18, ShuffleNet, and MobileNet-v2. The results show an increase of roughly 30% in the predicting capabilities in both augmented datasets when compared to the seed dataset. Furthermore, performance metrics are generally higher when using ResNet-18 which may suggest that this CNN architecture is more applicable to urban classification projects. Finally, although both generative AI engines have similar performance, Midjourney seems to slightly outperform Deep Dream Generator as a data augmentation engine for urban spaces.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2024-01-03T11:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231225697
       
  • Reclaiming site analysis from co-sensing to co-ideation: A collective
           cartography strategy and tactical trajectories

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      Authors: Muhammet ali Heyik, Derya Gulec OZER, Francisco Javier Abarca-Alvarez, José María Romero-Martínez
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      This study introduces a collective cartography strategy for analyzing complex urban spaces. It was applied during a 7-day Erasmus + workshop with 46 participants from universities in Spain, Turkey, Portugal, and Poland, representing various backgrounds such as urban planning, architecture, heritage, information technologies, and tourism. The workshop's objective was to identify critical urban issues and generate sustainable and multisensory urban space concepts. The impact of this strategy, from co-sensing to co-ideation, was evaluated by its influence on collaboration and the development of self-generated tactics during the process. Within this context, we explored various group tactics, including multisensor data collection, multi-criteria-based analysis, crowdsourcing for site diagnosis, and distributed collaboration to enhance diverse perspectives and narratives. The findings, outputs, and reflections from participants indicate highly interactive, productive, and inclusive co-creation settings. These were facilitated through a web-based virtual collective space (Doyoucity) and a crowdsourcing mobile app for on-site data collection and analysis (Fulcrum).
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2024-01-03T06:19:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231225699
       
  • Enhancing human-building interaction and spatial experience in cultural
           spaces

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      Authors: Tuba Kocaturk, Stefan Greuter, Thuong Hoang, Rui Wang
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      In the realm of architectural evolution, the paradigm of static built environments has progressively shifted towards adaptive, responsive, and intelligent spaces. This paper presents a pioneering government-funded applied research project, the ‘Spatially Intelligent Arts Centre’, which exemplifies the convergence of multiple disciplines in the pursuit of redefining the traditional notion of a static arts centre. This endeavour sought to transform an existing arts centre building into a dynamic and intelligent space, thereby redefining its agency to foster novel user experiences and optimize operational efficiency. The project transcended conventional boundaries by merging the expertise of architects, computer scientists, user experience designers, spatial computing specialists, technology developers, and interface designers. Through transdisciplinary collaboration and adopting a design-thinking methodology, the project not only challenges the conventional limitations of architectural design but also offers a tangible illustration of the burgeoning field of human-building interaction research and practice. This paper details the conceptual underpinnings, technical implementations, and experiential outcomes of the Spatially Intelligent Arts Centre project, underscoring its significance as a model for implementation of human-building interaction in the context of a cultural building.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2024-01-03T05:54:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231225702
       
  • Cryptographic City: Book Review

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      Authors: Andre Brown
      Pages: 821 - 822
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Volume 21, Issue 4, Page 821-822, December 2023.

      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2023-12-04T03:46:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231215545
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Using text-to-image generation for architectural design ideation

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      Authors: Ville Paananen, Jonas Oppenlaender, Aku Visuri
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      Text-to-image generation has become very popular in various domains requiring creativity. This article investigates the potential of text-to-image generators in supporting creativity during the early stages of the architectural design process. We conducted a laboratory study with 17 architecture students, who developed a concept for a culture center using three popular text-to-image generators: Midjourney, Stable Diffusion, and DALL-E. Through standardized questionnaires and group interviews, we found that image generation could be a meaningful part of the design process when design constraints are carefully considered. Generative tools support serendipitous discovery of ideas and an imaginative mindset, enriching the design process. We identified several challenges of image generators and provided considerations for software development and educators to support creativity and emphasize designers’ imaginative mindset. By understanding the limitations and potential of text-to-image generators, architects and designers can leverage this technology in their design process and education, facilitating innovation and effective communication of concepts.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2023-12-21T02:35:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231222783
       
  • Interpreting a virtual reconstruction from different levels of detail: 3D
           modeling approaches combined with a phenomenological exploratory study

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      Authors: João Paulo Vilela, Ricardo Lopes, Fernando Lima
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      Despite offering new possibilities for the education, interpretation, preservation, and management of cultural assets, virtual heritage still demands more consistent theoretical-practical debates. Under the scope of developing historical buildings' virtual models, the level of detail (LOD) is defined as a parameter that directly affects workflows, requiring time, investments, and specialized professionals. This work investigates how different LOD configurations influence the construction and interpretation of three-dimensional models of historic buildings. To this end, five 3D models with different LODs of a historic building in Brazil were set in an exploratory study that addressed users' perceptions when experimenting with them from a phenomenological perspective. The goal was to identify which elements and LOD configurations of the model were preponderant. The experiment was performed through an online workshop, where first-year architecture students could virtually experience the 3D models created, comparing them to a movie of the existing building. Participants were divided into five groups, one for each proposed LOD, and described their experiences through reports that were then analyzed, considering a list of themes emerging from their speeches. The findings underwent statistical analysis to understand how different themes and videos were linked. The experiment findings showed that (1) the 3D models with higher LODs led to more comprehensive comments on the architecture of the building and (2) elements such as the building's surroundings, the humanization of the scenery, and the temporal depth of the 3D models should be considered in the virtual reconstruction process.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2023-12-14T10:53:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231220900
       
  • A Generative Design Exploration Methodology for Integration of Structural,
           Environmental, and User Agencies in an Early Design Stage

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      Authors: Anahita Khodadadi
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      This article presents a generative design exploration methodology utilized to assist designers in problem structuring and decision-making in a multi-disciplinary setting. This novel design exploration methodology is based on the hybridization of a genetic algorithm (GA) and the Theory of Innovative Problem Solving (TRIZ). This methodology allows investigation of unexpected solutions, application of innovative ideas for resolving contradictory design objectives, and continuous interaction between designers and the search engine. In this study, the design case of a mid-rise apartment complex is used to examine the capacity of the proposed multi-agent design exploration method. Accordingly, both quality and numeric performance-based values of the design alternatives, including the visual appearance of the complex and apartments’ shadows over one another, structural and energy efficiency, and life-cycle impact of the building’s structural system, are investigated to demonstrate the usability and benefits of the developed method.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2023-11-23T03:29:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231183176
       
  • Book Review: The architecture machine. The role of computers in
           architecture

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      Authors: Luigiemanuele Amabile
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2023-11-02T12:38:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231193105
       
  • Morphological composition assessment of kinetic façade designs via AHP
           and TOPSIS methods based on façade components and design inputs

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      Authors: Abdul Samet Engin, Ahmet Emre Dincer
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      The study examines kinetic façade design components and inputs through literature. Factors affecting the kinetic façade composition are generalized with a compositional perspective. Compositional framework elements are distinguished as morphological and system aspects. These aspects are assessed with widely known examples in the relational dimension to reveal interactions between components and inputs. The relational assessments provide a base to build a morphological evaluation via AHP-TOPSIS. The method is applied to a parametric model. The values from the calculation can represent the complexity/uniformity of design alternatives. The most remarkable points of the method are that it can be reconstructed contextually with various sets of components for distinct subjects and its integration ability to any evaluation method as an external approach.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2023-11-02T11:34:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231209457
       
  • Latent morphologies: Encoding architectural features and decoding their
           structure through artificial intelligence

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      Authors: Dongyun Kim
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores the impact of Artificial Intelligence (AI) on the architectural discipline, focusing on generative models and their controllability. While generative models have revolutionized the design process by freeing designers from specific tasks and allowing them to focus on desired results, the reliance on randomness frequently hinders controllability and meaningful experimentation. To address this challenge, the article proposes the construction of an encyclopedic architectural dataset, encompassing various architectural projects and combining images with text for multimodal applications and two methodologies, multi-class StyleGAN and multimodal StyleGAN+CLIP to enhance controllability. Utilizing specific conditions, multi-class StyleGAN enables designers to navigate latent space and identify hidden patterns, while StyleGAN+CLIP integrates text to achieve specific controllability and generate diverse architectural features. Through experimentation, the research showcases the potential of generative models to create structured designs that incorporate existing architectural styles.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2023-10-30T11:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231209458
       
  • AI (of course)

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      Authors: Andre Brown
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2023-10-26T10:38:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231210622
       
  • Early design BIM-based Target Value Design for public facilities: An
           application to a healthcare facility case

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      Authors: Cristiane Bueno, Lucas Melchiori Pereira, Marcio Minto Fabricio
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      The objective of this article is to develop an agile application based on BIM for the integration of Target Value Design into the design process, in order to offer a resource to support decision-making process from the early design stages. The research applies the operational research method by the methodological steps: (a) Identify input data sources and develop the input setup; (b) Develop BIM-based cost estimation of visual programming and apply program in one case; (c) Discussion of the potentialities and challenges of the proposed approach to outline the research findings. A direct link between cost estimation and BIM objects was created to promote Target Value Design in the design process through visual programming. The necessary agility was obtained through semi-automation of the process of incorporating the cost data within the parametric modelling family and extracting cost estimate totals from the model to a pre-defined spreadsheet, allowing the continuous updating of models.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2023-10-05T07:01:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231205001
       
  • A morphological study of fivefold Islamic geometric patterns using formal
           grammar for computer-aided design applications

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      Authors: Ghazal Refalian, Eloi Coloma, Joaquim Narcis Moya
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents a morphological study of Islamic geometric patterns (IGP) and their role in application of formal grammar in computational modeling of IGPs. Through a comprehensive literature review and data collection, we analyze the morphological properties of these patterns using techniques such as geometric transformations, pattern classification, and symmetry analysis. Based on our findings, we explore how these properties can be used in constructing a formal grammar through string rewriting system for a CAD application. Building on a study on the potential of a string rewriting system for modeling IGPs, the current research suggests an update to the previous system and introduces a new morphological structure for IGPs. The new method has an expanded sample set and is tested on a class of 5-fold star patterns with 12 members and demonstrates successful development. The results are implemented in a Grasshopper add-on, providing a flexible platform to generate the patterns through strings and to control their parameters. This tool opens up new possibilities to bridge traditional patterns with contemporary technologies and make them more accessible. Furthermore, it contributes to the preservation of IGPs as a significant cultural and architectural heritage, while also advancing the evolution of these patterns to a new and contemporary generation.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T11:33:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231203358
       
  • Reconversion of a building to a new functional program using graph
           matching

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      Authors: Louise Deprez, Ruben Verstraeten, Pieter Pauwels
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      Building, demolishing, and rebuilding new structures, instead of renovating vacant buildings for adaptive reuse, generates a significant amount of waste. Quickly assessing if and how a building can house a new function can be time-consuming. We developed a method that automates this process using a graph-based strategy in which both the building and the functional program are represented by attributed graphs. Specifically, the new method performs a node matching strategy based on the properties of the nodes and the topological structure of the graphs by which each empty room is filled with an activity of the new function.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2023-09-12T08:49:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231197790
       
  • Vertical greening: The state of the art in digital modeling and simulation

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      Authors: Débora Mela, Andressa Carmo Pena Martinez, Affonso Henrique Lima Zuin
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      The scientific literature on vertical gardens presents gaps in the systematization of botanical parameters related to modeling and simulation. To address these gaps, the article aimed to investigate and identify parameters and modeling processes necessary for configuring vertical greening systems in computer simulation software. The systematic literature review method was employed to gather all scientific publications from the past ten years. As a result, the article presents the processes for 3D modeling, the most common software, and information tables containing botanical parameters used for configuring vegetation. Additionally, the work provides an overview of studies conducted on this topic in Architecture in recent years, highlighting other gaps and shortcomings in knowledge for possible future research.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2023-08-22T05:54:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231197788
       
  • Cognitive Comparison of design methods in the conceptual phase

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      Authors: Adel Gürel, Burcu Şenyapılı Ozcan
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      The initial phases of design, known as the conceptual design phases, are often associated with hand sketching, while parametric tools are reserved for the later, more developed stages of design. This paper examines the potentials of using parametric tools in the early design phases in comparison to widely utilized hand sketching. It is intended to find out the impacts of using parametric tools on the cognitive behaviors and the satisfaction of self-assessment levels of the designers. An experimental study was conducted with a group of graduate architecture students using Grasshopper, the findings of which are analyzed through a content-oriented coding scheme, together with protocol analyses. Significant differences are found between cognitive behaviors of the participants in using hand sketching and Grasshopper. The findings show that all of the participants consider Grasshopper as a useful conceptual design tool that may be utilized in early design phases, in contrast to its wide popularity in the late stages of design.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2023-07-20T03:18:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231188474
       
  • Estimating the received solar irradiances by traditional vaulted roofs
           using optimized neural networks and transfer learning

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      Authors: Mohammed Ayoub
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      Traditional vaulted roof-forms have long been utilized in hot-desert climate for better indoor environmental quality. Unprecedently, this research investigates the possible contribution of machine learning to estimate the received solar irradiances by those roofs, based on simulation-derived training and testing datasets, where two algorithms were used to reduce their higher-dimensionality. Then, four models of ordinary least-squares and artificial neural networks were developed. Their ability to accurately estimate solar irradiances was confirmed, with R2 of 95.599–98.794% and RMSE of 12.437–23.909 Wh/m2. Transfer Learning was also applied to pass the stored knowledge of the best-performing model into another one for estimating the performance of new roof-forms. The results demonstrated that transferred models could provide better estimations with R2 of 87.416–97.889% and RMSE of 79.300–13.971 Wh/m2, compared to un-transferred models. Machine learning shall redefine the practice of building performance, providing architects with flexibility to rapidly make informed decisions during the early design stages.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2023-06-27T07:57:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231186259
       
  • Multi-approach integration of ALS and TLS point clouds for a 3-D building
           modeling at LoD3

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      Authors: Paulo Roberto da Silva Ruiz, Claudia Maria de Almeida, Marcos Benedito Schimalski, Veraldo Liesenberg, Edson Aparecido Mitishita
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      Registering, documenting, updating, revitalizing, expanding, and renovating old urban buildings require proper documentation. The adoption of 3D survey techniques is essential to grant efficiency and agility to such purposes. This article discusses a multi-approach integration of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data collected by aerial and terrestrial platforms, meant for the 3D modeling of a building at Level of Detail 3. The selected building presents challenging elements for modeling, such as blocks with different heights and indented facades. It is located on the campus of the Federal University of Paraná (UFPR) in Curitiba, Brazil, on a site with irregular terrain and surrounded by trees, what made the terrestrial laser scanning process difficult. For its three-dimensional reconstruction, data from an Aerial Laser Scanning system were integrated with data from a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS). Based on the 3D modeling, an as-is Building Information Modeling model of the building’s exterior was created. To validate the results, measurements of the building were obtained by means of an Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) device and they were then compared with measurements extracted from the point cloud-based BIM model. The results demonstrate that there was a correspondence between the EDM and the LiDAR-derived measures, attaining a satisfactory statistical agreement. The article focuses on the accuracy of LiDAR models for the cadastral update of buildings, providing information for decision making in documentation projects and construction interventions. The main contribution of this work consists in a multi-approach workflow for delivering an effective and precise solution for accomplishing an as-is BIM documentation, highlighting advantages, drawbacks, and the potential of this set of methods for integrating multi-source LiDAR point clouds.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2023-06-23T07:33:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231176029
       
  • Deterioration of pre-war and rehabilitation of post-war urbanscapes using
           generative adversarial networks

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      Authors: Selen Çiçek, Gozde Damla Turhan, Aybüke Taşer
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      The urban built environment of contemporary cities confronts a constant risk of deterioration due to natural or artificial reasons. Especially political aggression and war conflicts have significant destructive effects on architectural and cultural heritage buildings. The post-war urbanscapes demonstrate the striking effects of the armed conflicts during the hot war encounters. However, the residues of the urbanscapes become the actual indicators of damage and loss. Since today we can make future predictions using a variety of machine learning algorithms, it is possible to represent hybrid projections of urban heterotopias. In this context, this research proposes to explore dystopian post-war projections for modern cities based on their architectural styles and demonstrate the utopian scenarios of rehabilitation possibilities for the damaged urban built environment of post-war cities by using generative adversarial network (GAN) algorithms. Two primary datasets containing the post-war and pre-war building facades have been given as the input data for the CycleGAN and pix2pix GAN models. Thus, two different image-to-image GAN models have been compared regarding their ability to produce legible building facade projections in architectural features. Besides, the machine learning process results have been discussed in terms of cities’ utopian and dystopian future predictions, demonstrating the war conflicts’ immense effects on the built environment. Moreover, the immediate consequence of the destructive aggression on tangible and intangible architectural heritage would become visible to inhabitants and policymakers when the AI-generated rehabilitation potentials have been exposed.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2023-06-09T02:06:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231181237
       
  • The idea of evolution in digital architecture: Toward united
           ontologies'

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      Authors: Melih Kamaoğlu
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      Humans have always sought to grasp nature’s working principles and apply acquired intelligence to artefacts since nature has always been the source of inspiration, solution and creativity. For this reason, there is a comprehensive interrelationship between the philosophy of nature and architecture. After Charles Darwin’s revolutionary work, living beings have started to be comprehended as changing, evolving and developing dynamic entities. Evolution theory has been accepted as the interpretive power of biology after several discussions and objections among scientists. In time, the working principles of evolutionary mechanisms have begun to be explained from genetic code to organism and environmental level. Afterwards, simulating nature’s evolutionary logic in the digital interface has become achievable with computational systems’ advancements. Ultimately, architects have begun to utilise evolutionary understanding in design theories and methodologies through computational procedures since the 1990s. Although several studies about technical and pragmatic elements of evolutionary tools in design, there is still little research on the historical, theoretical and philosophical foundations of evolutionary understanding in digital architecture. This paper fills this literature gap by critically reviewing the evolutionary understanding embedded in digital architecture theories and designs since the beginning of the 1990s. The original contribution is the proposed intellectual framework seeking to understand and conceptualise how evolutionary processes were defined in biology and philosophy, then represented through computational procedures, to be finally utilised by architectural designers. The network of references and concepts is deeply connected with the communication between natural processes and their computational simulations. For this reason, another original contribution is the utilisation of theoretical limits and operative principles of computation procedures to shed light on the limitations, shortcomings and potentials of design theories regarding their speculations on the relationship between natural and computational ontologies.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2023-05-03T05:48:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231174890
       
  • Interactive immersive experience: Digital technologies for reconstruction
           and experiencing temple of Bel using crowdsourced images and 3D
           photogrammetric processes

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      Authors: Nemeh Rihani
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      This paper investigates the potential of dense multi-image 3D photogrammetric reconstruction of destroyed cultural heritage monuments by employing public domain imagery for heritage site visitors. This work focuses on the digital reconstruction of the Temple of Bel, one of the heritage monuments in Palmyra, Syria, which was demolished in the summer of 2015 due to armed conflict. This temple is believed to be one of the most significant religious structures of the first century AD in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region with its unique design and condition before destruction actions. The process is carried out using solely one source of images; the freely available visitors’ images collected from the social media platforms and web search engines. This paper presents a digital 3D reconstruction workflow for the collected images using an advanced photogrammetry pipeline and dense image matching software. The virtually reconstructed outputs will be managed and implemented efficiently in Unity3D to create an entire 3D virtual interactive environment for the deconstructed temple to be visualised and experienced using the new Oculus Quest VR headset. The virtual Palmyra’s visitor will be offered an enhanced walk-through off-site interactive, immersive experience compared to the real-world one, which is non-existing and unobtainable at the site in the current time.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2023-04-10T04:29:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231168224
       
  • Towards digital twins for heritage buildings: A workflow proposal

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      Authors: Marcela Noronha Pinto de Oliveira e Sousa, Fabiano Rogerio Correa
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      There has been a recent interest in the field of digital heritage to advance historic building information modeling (HBIM) towards digital twins (DT). This paper investigates the potential and limitations of HBIM use as DTs through a systematic mapping of literature (SML). The conclusions were applied in an incremental and low-code workflow to model historic buildings aiming at achieving a trade-off between a high degree of parametrization and a high degree of geometric accuracy. The proposed workflow is illustrated through a parametric script developed with visual programming in Grasshopper for Rhino 3D to model historic columns from profiles. VisualARQ for Rhino 3D is used to convert the script into a BIM object that uses profiles, automatically extracted from a point cloud acquired with 3D laser scanning, as an initial shape. This results in a simpler workflow to achieve more accurate HBIM models that could be leveraged in DT simulations.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2023-03-29T01:38:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231168226
       
  • Architectural space as an open, adaptable system: A design experiment

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      Authors: Dimitra Tsoumpri
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      Flexible and adaptable spaces have been a field of interest in western architecture since the 1930s and Modernism’s “Open plan.” Even though it started as a design problem, as cybernetics became a more active part of the design process, adaptable space became dependent on technology and mechanical systems. A lot of methods tend to diminish the role of architectural design and offer deterministic implementations that limit the user’s creative freedom and interaction with the adaptable system. This study explores how adaptable space can be approached through design and how adaptability can be implemented in existing spaces through a computational approach. The paper is structured in two parts, the analysis, and the concept method. The first part includes the literacy review and known architectural examples of adaptability. The second part focuses on proposing a design method for approaching adaptable spaces with a high degree of user creative freedom. The method is tested through a case study regarding the implementation of a spatial adaptable system in a 1970s apartment.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2023-03-24T08:44:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231162382
       
  • Towards optimistic version control in architecture: A high-level design
           for a program that implements diffing, patching, and merging for openNURBS
           3D models

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      Authors: Nicholas Rawlings, Dimitris Papanikolaou
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      The ability of architects to collaborate and work in parallel on digital assets is limited by pessimistic strategies for managing shared files. The software engineering community has worked around this problem by adopting optimistic version control techniques, which rely on the ability to diff, patch, and merge versions of the files they manage. Unfortunately, the diffing, patching, and merging algorithms in existing version control systems are designed to work with text, and not with the types of files, such as 3D models, most commonly used by architects. This paper presents a high-level design for a command line program capable of diffing, patching, and merging openNURBS models, an open source 3D model format that enjoys widespread use among architects and other designers. Key algorithms are illustrated through simple geometric examples, and future plans to integrate the program into an existing version control system are described.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2023-02-28T05:13:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231154485
       
  • Bio-based material integration into computational form-finding tools by
           introducing tensile properties in the case of bacterial cellulose-based
           composites

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      Authors: Gozde Damla Turhan, Guzden Varinlioglu, Murat Bengisu
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      Recent studies in digital design and fabrication processes focus on the potentials of using biological systems in nature as mathematical models or more recently as bio-based materials and composites in various applications. The reciprocal integration between mechanical and digital media for designing and manufacturing bio-based products is still open to development. The current digital form-finding scripts involve an extensive material list, although bio-based materials have not been fully integrated yet. This paper explores a customized form-finding process by suggesting a framework through mechanically informed material-based computation. Bacterial cellulose, an unconventional yet potential material for design, was explored across its biological growth, tensile properties, and the integration of datasets into digital form finding. The initial results of the comparison between digital form finding with conventional materials versus mechanically informed digital form finding revealed a huge difference in terms of both the resulting optimum geometry and the maximum axial forces that the geometry could actually handle. Although this integration is relatively novel in the literature, the proposed methodology has proven effective for enhancing the structural optimization process within digital design and fabrication and for bringing us closer to real-life applications. This approach allows conventional and limited material lists in various digital form finding and structural optimization scripts to cover novel materials once the quantitative mechanical properties are obtained. This method has the potential to develop into a commercial algorithm for a large number of bio-based and customized prototypes within the context of digital form finding of complex geometries.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2023-02-25T07:54:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771231159239
       
  • An AI-augmented multimodal application for sketching out conceptual design

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      Authors: Yifan Zhou, Hyoung-June Park
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      The goal of this paper is to develop an interactive web-based machine learning application to assist architects with multimodal inputs (sketches and textual information) for conceptual design. With different textual inputs, the application generates the architectural stylistic variations of a user’s initial sketch input as a design inspiration. A novel machine learning model for the multimodal input application is introduced and compared to others. The machine learning model is performed through procedural training with the content curation of training data (1) to control the fidelity of generated designs from the input and (2) to manage their diversity. The web-based interface is at its work in progress as a frontend of the proposed application for better user experience and future data collection. In this paper, the framework of the proposed interactive application is explained. Furthermore, the implementation of its prototype is demonstrated with various examples.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2023-01-05T04:34:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771221147605
       
  • Solving planning problems with evolutionary computation

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      Authors: Ruwan Fernando, Ruby Michael
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      Evolutionary design (ED) is a strategy that makes use of computational power to couple generative techniques with evaluation methods, to put forward designs that are better with each iteration. In this research, we present a representation scheme for solving spatial layout problems that is simple to implement as well as extend. The mechanisms for evaluation and mutation are defined and also shown to be extendable. Ultimately, the topic explored here is the ways in which ED and computation can enhance our design thinking and how computers can provide the background to new design processes and workflows.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2023-01-04T06:38:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14780771221148778
       
 
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School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


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