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  Subjects -> ARCHITECTURE (Total: 219 journals)
Showing 201 - 264 of 264 Journals sorted alphabetically
tecYt     Open Access  
Terrain.org : A Journal of the Built & Natural Environments     Free   (Followers: 3)
The Journal of Architecture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
The Journal of Integrated Security and Safety Science (JISSS)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Thresholds     Hybrid Journal  
Town and Regional Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Undagi : Jurnal Ilmiah Arsitektur     Open Access  
UOU Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
URBAN DESIGN International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Urban Research & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Vernacular Architecture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Vitruvian     Open Access  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Vivienda y Ciudad     Open Access  
VLC arquitectura. Research Journal     Open Access  
Winterthur Portfolio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
ZARCH : Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Architecture and Urbanism     Open Access  

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Frontiers in Sustainable Cities
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2624-9634
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Analysis of disease burden in socially disadvantaged areas: Mapping of
           geographical inequalities in COVID-19 morbidity and mortality using a
           social disadvantage index in Tennessee

    • Authors: Anzhelika Antipova
      Abstract: Social vulnerability is directly addressed by contemporaneous health research to improve social equity. Existing disadvantage indices capture vulnerability to COVID-19 pandemic less accurately. Health-related studies apply the indices to relate overall vulnerability to health outcomes including severe COVID-related health outcomes leading to hospitalization and death. The multi-variable indices are based on various attributes, some unrelated to COVID-19 severity. Some studies that use multi-attribute indices don't find meaningful association with COVID-19 health outcomes. Additionally, current research is lacking on health impacts of social disadvantage during various COVID-19 stages. Thus, due to variations in inequality in exposure and pandemic susceptibility, community health should be assessed at different time points. To fill this gap, we develop an index using six indicators capturing pandemic vulnerability. We apply it in a retrospective case study of a relationship between social disadvantage and morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19 focusing on disadvantaged communities set in Tennessee with a concentration of vulnerability and rurality. COVID-19-related health outcomes were tested for associations with a social disadvantage index (SDI) for earlier (2021) and later (2022) pandemic stages. First, we describe a methodology to create a social disadvantage index to identify communities at risk for severe COVID-19-related health outcomes based on the CDC guidance. Second, we highlight the differences in COVID-19 health outcomes over time as we examine health disparities associated with social disadvantage during various pandemic stages. To understand how the findings would differ if the same analyses were to be carried out using other vulnerability indices, we apply analyses to areas based on the CDC's-based Social Vulnerability Index and find strong statistical association between the two indices and substantial overlap regarding disadvantaged areas identified and similar health outcome findings. A better understanding of whether residents of socially disadvantaged areas experience worse COVID-related health outcomes can help determine whether policies need to target not only individuals but entire communities to improve outcomes. The developed index based on six indicators is thus especially suitable during the COVID-19 disaster to efficiently identify vulnerable communities and address social equity.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29T00:00:00Z
  • Materials and modes of translation: Re-imagining inclusive
           “zero”-waste futures

    • Authors: Tamalone van den Eijnden, Corelia Baibarac-Duignan, Michiel de Lange, Maartje de Goede
      Abstract: In this paper, we present and reflect upon a creative and participatory approach for engaging citizens in imagining desirable “zero”-waste futures that include different values and perspectives. The approach emerged through a 4-month collaboration involving academic researchers and creative professionals and was prototyped in a formerly industrial neighborhood of Utrecht (het Werkspoorkwartier), currently being developed as a creative circular manufacturing area. With our approach, we inquire into and provide an alternative to predominant technology-centered policy visions, which portray the issues of waste as objective challenges that can be addressed through data-driven technological solutions. Such visions neglect many other perspectives and values, particularly those of citizens that face the issue of waste in everyday life, thus providing only a narrow vision of how the future might look like. To gather and articulate different perspectives on alternative “zero”-waste futures, we focus on citizen-science-inspired and speculative design methods to engage people and stimulate imagining futures that bring to light diverse values and perspectives. In the development of the methods, we work in close collaboration with creative practitioners, both in terms of anchoring the research in a real-world context and in terms of combining our different types of expertise. Reflecting on the project, we discuss the potential of our transdisciplinary approach and the co-produced methods to intervene in how we see and imagine alternative futures. We do so by taking “translation” as an analytical lens to understand how different meanings and visions are created through experiential, material, and affective modes of expression. Specifically, we will analyze the translations that occur in the processes of moving from abstract data to matters of concern, and from desirable futures to actionable presents. Looking at these multiple processes through the lens of translation will serve to investigate how different future imaginaries are generated through different materials and modalities of translation, offering different forms of engagement in shaping inclusive urban futures. Translation here will be conceptualized less as a perfect transference of information and more as an open-ended process of paying attention to different values, and identifying those matters for which to care for in our urban futures.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T00:00:00Z
  • Striving for normality: Agency, citizen participation and intergroup
           belonging on the urban periphery of Helsinki

    • Authors: Pekka Tuominen
      Abstract: This article examines how the inhabitants of a culturally diverse suburban estate in Finland strive for meaningful encounters in their lives. The focus is on Kontula, a residential working-class district on the eastern periphery of Helsinki, which has become a powerful symbol of the ills of contemporary urbanity—poverty and social problems, as well as rootlessness and the failed integration of the immigrant populations—in the vernacular geography and media representations of the city. I studied how everyday mobility in an increasingly segregated city is related to a range of qualities of sociocultural encounters, both within the immediate neighbourhood and across other urban areas. I argue that for many marginalised inhabitants, agency predominantly emphasises striving for normality, not a challenge to the system. This is why it is so rarely recognised. Themes such as common decency, meaningful activity and equal encounter are much more typical aims of everyday practises than those focussing on changing the conditions. The contexts explored range from the familiar and neighbourly surroundings characterised by high degree of cultural intimacy and effortlessness to spaces with unfamiliar expectations and very different cultural codes. How do people living on the stigmatised periphery establish sense of belonging in a segregated city' How is it possible retain a sense of decency and dignity in unpredictable circumstances' During my long-term ethnographic fieldwork in the area, I concentrated on the qualities of encounters and senses of agency. These are interweaved with the inhabitants' everyday life, realised in their movement across the city and vary considerably in different contexts, reproducing the quotidian urbanity of Helsinki.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T00:00:00Z
  • Implementing participatory nature-based solutions in the Global South

    • Authors: Erich Wolff, Hanna A. Rauf, Loan Diep, Boonanan Natakun, Kris Kelly, Perrine Hamel
      Abstract: This article delves into the participatory aspects of the implementation of nature-based solutions (NbS) in the Global South. It examines the practices of community engagement in several projects conducted in informal settlements and how they relate to project visions. Building on previous work on community engagement for urban upgrading projects, we examine the relationship between the methods used to engage communities and the goals that guide the design and implementation of NbS. In doing so, we explore engagement practices that can support the emergence of transformative approaches in historically disadvantaged areas. We discuss how the degree of participation offered by different methods, such as citizen science and serious games, can substantially influence the outcomes of NbS projects by making them more integrated and site-specific. We conclude by discussing how the transformative implementation of NbS entails a multi-stakeholder proactive approach that is capable of supporting changes in the socio-ecological systems.
      PubDate: 2022-09-26T00:00:00Z
  • Pollinator cultivar choice: An assessment of season-long pollinator
           visitation among coreopsis, aster, and salvia cultivars

    • Authors: S. K. Braman, S. V. Pennisi, C. G. Fair, J. C. Quick
      Abstract: Documented pollinator declines have encouraged the installation of pollinator plantings in residential, commercial and agricultural settings. Pollinator visitation among cultivars of coreopsis, salvia and asters was compared on 40 dates in a 2-year study resulting in 6,911 pollinator observations across all plant taxa with bees, butterflies and syrphids well-represented. Diversity of insect visitors was represented differently within the broad plant taxa salvia, coreopsis and asters. The most frequent visitors to coreopsis were the small bees with over 77% of visitors falling into this category. Salvia was most frequently visited by honey bees (36.4%) and carpenter bees (24%), although all the groups were represented. Syrphids were the group most commonly observed on asters (58.5%) with nearly 40% of the visitors being bee species. Nectar analysis was performed on salvia cultivars. However, differential attraction of pollinators to salvia cultivars could not be explained by volume of nectar produced per plant. Results from our cultivar comparisons provide data-based information to assist consumers in plant choice and present opportunities for future plant-specific pollinator census initiatives across a broader geographic range.
      PubDate: 2022-09-26T00:00:00Z
  • Toward blockchain-based fog and edge computing for privacy-preserving
           smart cities

    • Authors: Anthony Simonet-Boulogne, Arnor Solberg, Amir Sinaeepourfard, Dumitru Roman, Fernando Perales, Giannis Ledakis, Ioannis Plakas, Souvik Sengupta
      Abstract: The rapid development of Smart Cities is aided by the convergence of information and communication technologies (ICT). Data is a key component of Smart City applications as well as a serious worry. Data is the critical factor that drives the whole development life-cycle in most Smart City use-cases, according to an exhaustive examination of several Smart City use-cases. Mishandling data, on the other hand, can have severe repercussions for programs that get incorrect data and users whose privacy may be compromised. As a result, we believe that an integrated ICT solution in Smart Cities is key to achieve the highest levels of scalability, data integrity, and secrecy within and across Smart Cities. As a result, this paper discusses a variety of modern technologies for Smart Cities and proposes our integrated architecture, which connects Blockchain technologies with modern data analytic techniques (e.g., Federated Learning) and Edge/Fog computing to address the current data privacy issues in Smart Cities. Finally, we discuss and present our proposed architectural framework in detail, taking into account an online marketing campaign and an e-Health application use-cases.
      PubDate: 2022-09-21T00:00:00Z
  • “After the floods, he says he is an environmentalist”: Understanding
           blended roles and organizational boundaries in decision-making under
           uncertainty during unprecedented floods in Wayanad, India

    • Authors: Mrudhula Koshy
      Abstract: An increase in unprecedented environmental crises as a result of climate change and human influence has amplified calls for recognizing the complexity of decision-making under uncertainty (DMUU). How decision-makers act in institutional settings under uncertainty has, however, received limited attention in decision-making in planning practice. This article investigates DMUU in the context of Wayanad, a peri urban hill district in Kerala, India through two decision settings; the response to unprecedented heavy monsoon floods in 2018 and 2019 as a case of short-term uncertainty, and policy and plan making regarding quarrying in ecologically sensitive areas as a case of long-term uncertainty. Through empirical findings from semi-structured interviews of 58 decision-makers from state and non-state actors, the article discusses individual and collective actions made before, during and after the floods by combining insights on DMUU from spatial planning and governance literature underpinned by spatial-temporal and political ecology narratives. The article argues that factors such as community resourcefulness and decentralized governance appeared to facilitate effective decision-making under short-term uncertainty. However, the same factors did not have an intrinsic influence on decision-making under long-term uncertainty with current ways of decision-making regarding quarrying in ecologically sensitive areas likely obstructing sustainable long-term planning and land use transformation in Wayanad. The article concludes with recommendations for potential improvements in decision-making under long-term uncertainty in contexts with weak institutional mechanisms, chronic vulnerabilities and resource scarcity, through structural organizational change, cross-sectoral decision-making arenas, and decision-making frameworks that foregrounds heuristic, flexible, incremental, and cumulative actions across scales over time.
      PubDate: 2022-09-21T00:00:00Z
  • Pitiful rooftop solar uptake in sunny South Africa: A policy, funding and
           service delivery perspective

    • Authors: Tracey McKay, Donavan Hendricks
      Abstract: Despite rolling blackouts, high electricity prices, a favorable climate and the size of the South African economy, rooftop photovoltaic (PV) solar products have low levels of middle-income residential market penetration. This study sought to establish the reasons for this. It was found, firstly, that households opt rather for demand side management (DSM) tools such as energy-efficient lamps or inverters. Secondly, they switch to gas (at least for cooking) or a generator rather than solar. This is because rooftop PV is expensive, in part due to costly batteries and inverters, but also as support measures such as feed-in tariff funding, tax rebates and subsidies are non-existent. In addition, South African banks are reluctant to finance rooftop PV, as return on investment (ROI) is extremely long term, and there are few, if any, bank-accredited PV suppliers. There is also no political pressure on banks to provide attractive PV financing. Furthermore, middle-income consumers struggle to understand PV technology and do not trust the suppliers thereof. For instance, rooftop PV companies seldom market themselves or their products adequately, and most do not sell PV with a maintenance service plan or offer credit. It is recommended that rooftop PV companies work with banks offer innovative, cost-effective modular PV packages, and build their brand to create a relationship of trust with the community to increase sales.
      PubDate: 2022-09-20T00:00:00Z
  • Building a vision for more effective equity indices and planning tools

    • Authors: Christina D. Rosan, Megan Heckert, Russell Zerbo, Erykah Benitez Mercado
      Abstract: Recent years have seen a proliferation of equity indices and environmental justice screening tools to support more just environmental planning processes that attempt to quantify the concept of equity. While the equity index framework has proven important to advance the conversation around environmental equity and connect need to investments, we are concerned that these tools do not adequately address the intersectional nature of environmental justice concerns, effectively incorporate local knowledge on the lived experience of residents, or provide an actionable set of next steps to be taken. We see opportunities to rethink and expand on the equity index model to address issues of climate justice and preparedness through the development of Planning for Resilience and Equity through Accessible Community Technology (PREACT), a multipurpose and multi-scalar climate preparedness and neighborhood planning software application informed by both community need and community assets. This perspective article will discuss the theoretical and practical importance of adding these perspectives into screening tools and will describe our research in Philadelphia, PA aimed at understanding these challenges and developing a more inclusive and community-responsive methodology for effective tool development.
      PubDate: 2022-09-16T00:00:00Z
  • Integrative resilience in action: Stories from the frontlines of climate
           change and the Covid-19 pandemic

    • Authors: Chiara Camponeschi
      Abstract: Interest in resilience and vulnerability has grown remarkably over the last decade, yet discussions about the two continue to be fragmented and increasingly ill-equipped to respond to the complex challenges that systemic crises such as climate change and the Covid-19 pandemic pose to people, places, and the planet. Institutional interventions continue to lag behind, remaining predominantly focused on technocratic framings of vulnerability and resilience that do not lead to a more robust engagement with the reality of the changes that are underway. This paper provides a blueprint for facilitating intersectional resilience outcomes that ensure that as a society we are not merely surviving a crisis, but are committing to interventions that place equity, solidarity, and care at the center of healthy adaptation and wellbeing. First, it traces the evolution of resilience from a strictly ecological concept to its uptake as a socio-ecological framework for urban resilience planning. Next, it argues that current framings of vulnerability should be expanded to inform interventions that are locally relevant, responsive, and “bioecological.” The integrative resilience model is then introduced in the second half of the paper to challenge the scope of formal resilience plans while providing an entry point for renewed forms of resistance and recovery in the age of neoliberalism-fueled systemic crisis. The three pillars of the model are discussed alongside a selection of scalable and adaptable community-driven projects that bring this approach to life on the ground. By being rooted in lived experience, these innovative initiatives amplify and advance the work of frontline communities who are challenging and resisting the neoliberalization not only of urban governance and resilience, but of wellbeing and (self-) care more broadly.
      PubDate: 2022-09-12T00:00:00Z
  • Supporting biodiversity: Structures of participatory actions in urban
           green spaces

    • Authors: Dörte Martens, Öyküm Öztürk, Lara Rindt, Jana Twarok, Uta Steinhardt, Heike Molitor
      Abstract: Biodiversity loss is an important topic considering climate change, global warming, and even the reasoning of current and future animal-related diseases, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Urban biodiversity is also important because of the ecosystem services they provide, restorative benefits for well-being, and physical health of the people who live in urban areas. Each city has its own strategies to cope with this issue, and these strategies do not function without the contribution of habitants of the cities. We developed an index (BBS) of the existing possibilities to support urban biodiversity in Berlin to measure the awareness and willingness of the Berliners to participate and support urban biodiversity. A survey was conducted in a face-to-face situation in four districts of Berlin with 431 urban residents, measuring preference for three different levels of biodiversity, connectedness to residential greenspace, neighborhood and city, nature relatedness, and willingness in participatory actions around greenspace. The results show that the high biodiversity condition in a photo scenario was preferred by most residents, indicating the appreciation for urban biodiversity. The connectedness to the residential greenspace was high (and higher than the connectedness to neighborhood and city), showing large potential for quality of life. While the overall willingness to participate in actions to support urban greenspace was rather high, our index shows substantial differences in activities, which are perceived more or less. This is a key result for urban park management to increase urban biodiversity participation processes.
      PubDate: 2022-09-12T00:00:00Z
  • The climate and ocean risk vulnerability index: Measuring coastal city
           resilience to inform action

    • Authors: Tracy Rouleau, Jack Stuart, Maia Call, Sally Yozell, Nagisa Yoshioka, Miko Maekawa, Natalie Fiertz
      Abstract: Today, coastal cities worldwide are struggling with the complex interaction of environmental threats, economic development, and societal inequity. The acceleration of global climate change, which will impact ocean health, sea level, rainfall patterns, and temperatures, will only further exacerbate the ongoing challenges faced by coastal cities. Coastal cities face interconnected risks that necessitate the use of a data collection and an assessment approach that can assess these impacts through a holistic lens. Risk is the interaction of hazards, exposure, and vulnerability, and while data on hazards and exposure is becoming more widely available, data on the vulnerability of urban coastal populations remains limited. These data gaps are particularly acute for the Global South, where climate change is expected to have the greatest near-term impacts. Policymakers need city-specific data to best understand their levels of risk and engage in effective adaptation planning. This paper introduces the Climate and Ocean Risk Vulnerability Index (CORVI), its conceptual framework, methodology, and protocol. The article also demonstrates the application of CORVI through two pilot projects in Castries, Saint Lucia and Kingston, Jamaica. It concludes with a reflection of lessons learned from the pilot projects, and an assessment of the utility of the structured expert judgement (SEJ) for collecting data and measuring risk in data sparse environments. This paper makes two primary contributions. First it introduces CORVI, a decision support tool that assesses climate risk and resilience in a coastal city. The tool uses the SEJ methodology to display risk scores across 10 risk categories and 94 indicators addressing ecological, financial, and political risk. Second, it demonstrates the use of the SEJ methodology in data sparse environments.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09T00:00:00Z
  • Community adaptation strategies in Nairobi informal settlements: Lessons
           from Korogocho, Nairobi-Kenya

    • Authors: Christine Njuhi Muchiri, Romanus Otieno Opiyo
      Abstract: Informal settlements are often the hotspots of vulnerability as evidenced by the recurrent environmental and climate-related shocks and stressors. Despite this exposure and susceptibility, their role in spearheading disaster risk preparedness and response is often overlooked. This exploratory research profiles four local community initiatives for climate mitigation and adaptation within Korogocho informal settlement in Kenya. Findings from 10 purposefully sampled key informants and 30 stratified sampled residents across nine villages within the informal settlement demonstrated the impact of locally led initiatives in creating awareness and developing the absorptive, adaptive and transformative capacity of communities for climate resilience. The research findings elaborate on the outstanding performance of community derived initiatives, whilst putting emphasis on the need for active dialogue and collaboration between communities, policy makers and practitioners. Additionally, the climate agenda ought to be able to simultaneously promote environmental benefits and the socio-economic wellbeing of the people. This study accentuates the role of smart approaches to climate literacy based on existing community structures that leverage on local experiential knowledge. These include digital storytelling, comics, art, music, local radio stations, community opinion leaders and chief barazas. A key takeaway is the significant role of children in transformative climate resilience. This is facilitated by the fact that they may comprehend climate change implications better than adults augmenting the possibility of human behavioral change toward pro-environmental deeds1.
      PubDate: 2022-09-07T00:00:00Z
  • Carbonaceous aerosol variability and SOA formation during foggy days in
           Delhi, India

    • Authors: Saurabh Sonwani, Pallavi Saxena, Anju Srivastava
      Abstract: The variability of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and their relationship with meteorological parameters have been studied during foggy and non-foggy days in the peak winter months (December–January) from 2015 to 2016 in Delhi, India. Different sectoral locations were chosen based on predominant industrial, traffic, and residential activities with a background location. The average level of OC, EC, and SOA was found to be 7.47 ± 7.74, 0.69 ± 0.7, and 10.46 ± 10.76 μg/m3, respectively, during the foggy period and 6.1 ± 6.8, 0.9 ± 1.1, and 9.1 ± 10.6 μg/m3, respectively, during the non-foggy period in Delhi. A relatively higher SOA level was observed at industrial and traffic intersection sites, which indicates the proximity of the dominant source of OC that play a significant role in SOA formation. It was also found that SOA production is associated with the OC/EC ratio and may vary from site to site. Correlation analysis has confirmed that OC is having a significant strong positive correlation with EC and SOA, while EC is showing a significant moderate positive correlation with SOA. Ambient temperature (AT) shows a significant negative moderate correlation with OC levels and SOA and formation. Due to hydrophilicity (hydrophobicity) of OC (EC), its average concentration was found high (less) due to its high (less) scavenging during foggy days in comparison to non-foggy days. The study further suggests the significant impact of source variability on SOA formation due to the different nature of sector-wise sites during foggy days in Delhi.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31T00:00:00Z
  • Lessons from the Santa Monica Mountains: Continuing the cycle of

    • Authors: Daniel S. Cooper, Nurit D. Katz, Brianna Demirci, Fiona M. Osborn
      Abstract: Spanning more than 73 km across two counties at the western border of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the Santa Monica Mountains represent both a major landform as well as a unique urban-adjacent open space for millions of residents throughout southern California. Critically, they are essential for the maintenance of high levels of biodiversity within a global biodiversity hotspot that includes a major metropolis. The Los Angeles County portion of the Santa Monica Mountains (LASMM), spanning approximately 62 km from the Los Angeles River at the eastern edge of Griffith Park to the Los Angeles – Ventura County Line, contains substantial public open space, protected from encroaching development in the growing metropolis. In order to understand how these protected areas were established, we gathered information regarding over 3,000 parcels of public open space and their acquisition dates and owners, and examined the history of land conservation in the LASMM to determine the roles and relationships of key stakeholders. These stakeholders have included residents, activists, scientists, legislators, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and land management agencies. We suggest that there is a virtuous cycle, or positive feedback loop over time, as open space protection is informed by, and influences, advocacy, land use policies, and habitat conservation. This interplay of stakeholders has been refined over several decades, and may offer lessons for other regions working to produce similar results in durable open space conservation.
      PubDate: 2022-08-30T00:00:00Z
  • Governance learning from collective actions for just climate adaptation in

    • Authors: Mahir Yazar, Håvard Haarstad, Lene Lundøy Drengenes, Abigail York
      Abstract: Environmental policy research fails to integrate procedural and recognitional justice perspectives and collective actions in governance learning for just climate adaptations. Drawing on the insights of two cities experiencing climate impacts differently, Bergen (Norway) and Istanbul (Turkey), this paper assesses how collective actions influence different levels of governments (local to national) to learn from these actions to implement just climate actions in their localities. Using environmental justice (specifically recognition and procedural) and policy learning literature, we contextualize a three-governance learning typology that emerges through collective actions that may trigger governance structures for policy integration: governance learning by resisting, co-opting, and expanding. We identify what kind of learning is introduced to the existing governance structures in Bergen and Istanbul, and how that learning shapes or is shaped by the governance structures, local government in Bergen and local to national governments in Istanbul, while developing climate adaptation policies and actions. Overall, this paper shows what types of knowledge and information are incorporated or ignored after collective actions and how power mediates interactions between actors across multiple urban settings for just climate adaptation.
      PubDate: 2022-08-30T00:00:00Z
  • Toward Civic Co-production: Using Worldbuilding to Go Beyond Participation
           in Urban Planning and Enact More Equitable Cities

    • Authors: Johanna Hoffman
      Abstract: Even as calls for more participatory urban planning have grown over the past half century, achieving meaningful and effective participation remains elusive. While disciplines beyond urban development are experimenting with narrative-driven engagement toolsets to cultivate greater degrees of public investment and collaborative capacity, less exploration on the power of such tools has been conducted in urban development circles. Toward the objective of reconciling the challenges of community engagement with the growing uncertainties and inequalities of contemporary cities, this paper explores the value of aiming beyond participatory planning toward co-production, and assesses the role of worldbuilding, a design approach with origins in fiction, in doing so. Specifically, the worldbuilding methods implemented in a project to envision dense urban environments in 2070 is positioned within growing calls for urban development to move toward co-production. The paper contributes to the wider discourse on tactics for collaboratively envisioning and enacting more equitable cities.
      PubDate: 2022-08-26T00:00:00Z
  • Human trafficking as a racialized economy and the exploitation of
           indigenous socio-spatial (im)mobility in North America

    • Authors: Margo Hill, Matthew B. Anderson, Idella King
      Abstract: The phrase “missing and murdered indigenous women” (MMIW) refers to the hundreds of deaths and disappearances of Native American women that occur each year. A growing human and sex trafficking industry that exploits indigenous women as forced sex workers is causing these numbers to increase year after year. Traffickers actively target tribal communities due to the increased likelihood of not being caught or prosecuted by an unjust legal-jurisdictional system that effectively invites traffickers onto Native American reservations. The disproportionate risks facing Native American women are a direct consequence of the now well documented historical injustices experienced by indigenous communities since contact with European colonists. Although scholarship on MMIW is growing, little attention has focused on the unique socio-spatial dynamics related to Native American (im)mobility patterns and the ways in which these dynamics enhance vulnerability to victimization by traffickers. This study empirically unpacks these dynamics in the context of North America. In the process, the industry that profits on trafficking indigenous women is conceptualized as a “racialized economy” that is constituted through an exploitative relationship between the city (the market for trafficked indigenous sex slaves) and the reservation. Here, the reservation becomes a virtual extension of the city, a relational understanding that foregrounds the urban dimension to this problem. We conclude by discussing how this analysis informs best practices that can be employed to mitigate against these (im)mobility-related risk factors and save lives.
      PubDate: 2022-08-25T00:00:00Z
  • Data protection as privilege—Factors to increase meaning of GDPR in
           vulnerable groups

    • Authors: Jonas Breuer, Rob Heyman, Rosamunde van Brakel
      Abstract: The General Data Protection Regulation in the EU has the potential to empower citizens towards data-based innovation and datafication. Realising this potential in practise is challenging, mainly because not everyone has the capabilities, seemingly expected by the lawmakers, to make use of relevant legal provisions. This empirical study sets out to investigate what can increase capabilities of citizens in datafied societies to understand and exercise their rights to data protection, as means to increase participation in socio-technical systems. We concentrate on vulnerable groups and criticise the GDPR as regarding data literacies as intrinsic life goals instead of instrumental means. We expand vulnerability to capability deprivation, based on a dynamic understanding of layered vulnerabilities. This overcomes solely negative associations of vulnerability and provides a more constructive framing in support of literacies of everyone, including less literate or more vulnerable. Based on this approach, we consider what is lacking to achieve GDPR literacy. We conducted interviews with representatives of civil society organisations supporting different groups in Flanders, Belgium. Based on these insights, we argue that a layered approach to vulnerability leads to a layered approach to capabilities, and to a layered approach of support based on the most appropriate conversion factors for different groups: (a) at the right place and time, (b) broader support structures from authorities, and (c) a focus on clear communication with the reader in mind.
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T00:00:00Z
  • Consumer food demand in Japan before and after the beginning of COVID-19:
           AIDS analysis using home scan data

    • Authors: Nobuhiro Ito, Yuki Maruyama, Hiroki Wakamatsu
      Abstract: COVID-19 had an impact not only on human health but also on consumers' food consumption. Employing the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS), this study analyzes whether consumers change their demand for food between 2019 and 2020 in Japan, where the legal action was not implemented to restrict consumer behavior. Using the home scan data, 25 food items, including eating out and delivery, were analyzed to see the impact of COVID-19. Results show that the increase in shares of expenditure is mainly related to consumption in the home in 2020, while that for eating out turned into a significant decrease. The estimated own price elasticity and expenditure elasticity of demand shows that ingredients for home cooking are more substitutive with eating out and more complementary within the ingredients in 2020.
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T00:00:00Z
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