Subjects -> ARCHITECTURE (Total: 219 journals)
 Showing 201 - 264 of 264 Journals sorted alphabetically tecYt Terrain.org : A Journal of the Built & Natural Environments       (Followers: 3) The Journal of Architecture       (Followers: 15) The Journal of Integrated Security and Safety Science (JISSS)       (Followers: 14) Thresholds Town and Regional Planning       (Followers: 10) Undagi : Jurnal Ilmiah Arsitektur UOU Scientific Journal       (Followers: 6) URBAN DESIGN International       (Followers: 12) Urban Research & Practice       (Followers: 20) Vernacular Architecture       (Followers: 8) Vitruvian VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability Vivienda y Ciudad VLC arquitectura. Research Journal Winterthur Portfolio       (Followers: 5) ZARCH : Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Architecture and Urbanism
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 Construction RoboticsNumber of Followers: 4      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 2509-811X - ISSN (Online) 2509-8780 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2469 journals]
• Design considerations for robotically assembled through-tenon timber
joints

Abstract: Abstract This research investigates the robotic assembly of timber structures connected by wood–wood connections. As the digitization of the timber construction sector progresses, digital tools, such as industrial robotic arms and Computer Numerical Control machines, are becoming increasingly accessible. The new-found ease with which wood can be processed stimulates a renewed interest in traditional joinery, where pieces are simply interlocked instead of being connected by additional metallic parts. Previous research established a computational workflow for the robotic assembly of timber plate structures connected by wood–wood connections. This paper focuses on determining the physical conditions that allow inserting through-tenon joints with a robot. The main challenge lies in minimizing the clearance between the tenon and the mortise in order to keep the connections as tight as possible. An experimental protocol has, therefore, been developed to quantitatively assess the performance of the insertion according to different geometric parameters. Robotic insertion tests have been carried out on over 50 samples of 39 mm Laminated Veneer Lumber. Results showed the interest of tapering the joint with a 5 degrees angle, in addition to introducing an offset of 0.05 mm, to minimize friction forces during the insertion. This configuration was confirmed by successfully assembling a 2,50 m long box girder with the same parameters.
PubDate: 2022-09-26

• Special issue ISARC 2021

PubDate: 2022-09-05

• A framework for modelling, simulating and parametrically programming
heterogeneous industrial machines

Abstract: Abstract The latest technological developments, especially in software, have made it possible to lower the barrier to entry for robotics, notably in fields that have typically been under-automated, like construction. Robotics in the construction industry is not new, but its acceleration has been marked in the last 10 years. This article presents the latest evolution of HAL Robotics’ software, now called the HAL Robotics Framework alongside its associated concepts, its technical features, and its use in manufacturing and construction.
PubDate: 2022-08-30

• Construction site safety monitoring and excavator activity analysis system

Abstract: Abstract With the recent advancements in deep learning and computer vision, the AI-powered construction machine such as autonomous excavator has made significant progress. Safety is the most important section in modern construction, where construction machines are more and more automated. In this paper, we propose a vision-based excavator perception, activity analysis, and safety monitoring system. Our perception system could detect multi-class construction machines and humans in real-time while estimating the poses and actions of the excavator. Then, we present a novel safety monitoring and excavator activity analysis system based on the perception result. To evaluate the performance of our method, we collect a dataset using the Autonomous Excavator System (AES) (Zhang et al., Sci Robot 6(55):eabc3164) including multi-class of objects in different lighting conditions with human annotations. We also evaluate our method on a benchmark construction dataset. The results showed our YOLO v5 multi-class objects detection model improved inference speed by 8 times (YOLO v5 x-large) to 34 times (YOLO v5 small) compared with Faster R-CNN/YOLO v3 model (Zhang et al., In Proceedings of the 38th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction 461 (ISARC), pp. 49–56. InternationalAssociation for Automation and Robotics in Construction (IAARC), Dubai, UAE (2021). https://doi.org/10.22260/ISARC2021/0009). Furthermore, the accuracy of YOLO v5 models is improved by 2.7% (YOLO v5 x-large) while model size is reduced by 63.9% (YOLO v5 x-large) to 93.9% (YOLO v5 small). The experimental results show that the proposed action recognition approach outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches on top-1 accuracy by about 5.18%. The proposed real-time safety monitoring system is not only designed for our Autonomous Excavator System (AES) in solid waste scenes, it can also be applied to general construction scenarios.
PubDate: 2022-07-26

• Workspace analysis of an underconstrained cable-driven parallel robot with
four cables

Abstract: Abstract A cable-driven parallel robot is controlled by varying the cable lengths. When the moving platform of an underconstrained cable robot, suspended using four cables and acted upon by only the cable forces and weight of the platform, is moved to a particular position in a workspace, it can have only a limited variation in orientation. The feasible range of orientations at different positions in a cuboidal workspace is obtained in this work. It is not attempted to find the poses where the mobile platform is in complete static equilibrium. The range of poses, when the net force in all directions and the moment of forces about vertical axis are all equal to zero, and the moments about two horizontal axes are limited to specified limits, are mapped. Static simulation of the cable-driven robot at different positions along a prescribed path, as it transfers a payload, is conducted. The set of cable lengths corresponding to a position and orientation is given as input to the simulation and the equilibrium position is found. It is observed that when the cable lengths correspond to a feasible orientation, the moving platform stays on the intended path and when cable lengths corresponding to infeasible orientation are given as input, the center of the platform drifts away from the desired position. Knowledge of the feasible range of orientations will be useful in avoiding this drift and guiding the platform along a desired path.
PubDate: 2022-07-23
DOI: 10.1007/s41693-022-00076-1

• Fabrication information modeling: interfacing building information
modeling with digital fabrication

Abstract: Abstract Digital manufacturing methods have been successfully used in different industries for years and have since had a positive effect on the development of their productivity. These methods offer significantly greater design freedom and make it possible to develop shape-optimized and function-activated components. In the construction industry, however, these technologies are only being used reluctantly, even though additive methods could make resource-efficient construction possible. The possibly decisive disadvantage of these methods is that a significantly higher granularity of product and process information is required, thus significantly increasing the planning effort. A circumstance that the framework described in this study, fabrication information modeling (FIM), could significantly mitigate by linking digital fabrication and BIM-based digital building design via a digital chain. For this purpose, FIM provides a methodology with which the information of a digital building model can be detailed, component by component, in a fabrication-aware manner. Based on the open exchange data format IFC, the FIM framework integrates seamlessly into the BIM context and enables automated detailing of the design information.
PubDate: 2022-07-22
DOI: 10.1007/s41693-022-00075-2

• A robot evaluation framework comparing on-site robots with traditional
construction methods

Abstract: Abstract Innovators in construction companies do not have extensive experience evaluating on-site robots compared to traditional construction methods for a given project. Prior work observed that managers could take up to 10 months to compare the robot with the traditional performance without a consistent method among different evaluators. As new construction robots are being deployed on site, innovation managers in construction need to systemize and reduce the effort of such comparisons. This paper contributes a robot evaluation framework (REF) for innovators in construction based on three decades of literature and three in-depth case studies. It focuses on the Product, Organization, and Process feasibility and compares the Safety, Quality, Schedule, and Cost to recommend robot adoption using the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) multi-criteria decision analysis method. By applying the REF to ten real industry cases, each conducted independently by two graduate students in collaboration with a General Contractor and a robot manufacturer or start-up, this study provides initial quantitative and qualitative evidence that the REF is useful beyond the initial three cases to guide innovation managers in construction. This paper validates how the framework impacts the consistency of results and effort among several evaluators, who utilized more than 80% of the suggested REF variables. It also offers comparative Safety, Quality, Schedule, and Cost insights of the ten robots. The ten cases were selected to address different on-site robot cases and various construction project types in eight countries. Future work will expand the types of robots and projects to determine whether the framework needs further specialization to evaluate different robot types.
PubDate: 2022-07-07
DOI: 10.1007/s41693-022-00073-4

• An innovative crane-lift path planning system for high-rise modular
integrated construction

Abstract: Abstract Modular integrated construction (MiC) represents the most advanced off-site technology. It is challenging to install hefty modules’ safely and effectively in high-rise building projects. Nevertheless, existing crane-lift activities are largely built on the personal experience and subjective judgements of crane operators and signalmen, which often causes time delay and safety hazards. Automatic crane-lift path planning has been demonstrated effective in addressing those issues. However, previous studies seldom considered MiC-specific characteristics such as self-rotation of lifted modules. This paper, therefore, aims to develop an innovative tower crane path planning system for assisting crane operators in high-rise MiC. This system consists of two critical components, i.e., modeling and computing. The modeling component is designed to build three types of models, i.e., original building information models, bounding box models and mathematic models, for setting up the path planning environment. The computing component is designed to work out the optimized crane-lift path using an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm based on three mechanisms, i.e., tower crane operation strategy, fitness function and collision detection. Two real-life MiC projects are used to validate the system. The results indicate that the developed system is effective and efficient in obtaining a collision-free and smooth crane-lift path using limited evolutionary generation and population size. Practically, this study with the advanced crane-lift assistance system should reduce hoisting cycle time and improve safety performance in off-site construction. Scientifically, the paper establishes a theoretical foundation for automated crane-lift path planning and contributes to the application of metaheuristics in the construction industry.
PubDate: 2022-07-05
DOI: 10.1007/s41693-022-00074-3

• Safety, quality, schedule, and cost impacts of ten construction robots

Abstract: Introduction Robots have increased productivity, quality, and safety in structured manufacturing environments while lowering production costs. In the last decade, advances in computing and sensing have started to enable robots in unstructured environments such as construction. Objectives Given this new reality, this research aims to quantify the impacts of existing construction robots. Methods This study evaluates the Safety, Quality, Schedule, and Cost impacts of ten on-site construction robots for 12 construction projects spanning 11 contractors from Europe, Asia, South America, and the United States. Results The robots showed the potential to reduce repetitive site work between 25 and 90% and reduce time spent on hazardous tasks by 72% on average. On average, accuracy was improved by 55%, and rework was reduced by over 50%. Robots reduced the schedule on average 2.3 times with a median of 1.4x. The cost was reduced by 13%, with six cases that reduced it but four that increased the total costs. The comparative results also highlight under what project conditions (Product, Organization, and Process) could the robot perform better than the traditional method. Conclusion Even at this relatively early stage of robot deployment worldwide, the consistent evaluation of ten examples showed how promising the technology already is for a range of robot types, mobility, autonomy, scale, business models, and locations. Future work will expand the number of robot case studies utilizing the same comparison method.
PubDate: 2022-06-27
DOI: 10.1007/s41693-022-00072-5

• Autonomous robotic additive manufacturing through distributed model‐free
deep reinforcement learning in computational design environments

Abstract: Abstract The objective of autonomous robotic additive manufacturing for construction in the architectural scale is currently being investigated in parts both within the research communities of computational design and robotic fabrication (CDRF) and deep reinforcement learning (DRL) in robotics. The presented study summarizes the relevant state of the art in both research areas and lays out how their respective accomplishments can be combined to achieve higher degrees of autonomy in robotic construction within the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry. A distributed control and communication infrastructure for agent training and task execution is presented, that leverages the potentials of combining tools, standards and algorithms of both fields. It is geared towards industrial CDRF applications. Using this framework, a robotic agent is trained to autonomously plan and build structures using two model-free DRL algorithms (TD3, SAC) in two case studies: robotic block stacking and sensor-adaptive 3D printing. The first case study serves to demonstrate the general applicability of computational design environments for DRL training and the comparative learning success of the utilized algorithms. Case study two highlights the benefit of our setup in terms of tool path planning, geometric state reconstruction, the incorporation of fabrication constraints and action evaluation as part of the training and execution process through parametric modeling routines. The study benefits from highly efficient geometry compression based on convolutional autoencoders (CAE) and signed distance fields (SDF), real-time physics simulation in CAD, industry-grade hardware control and distinct action complementation through geometric scripting. Most of the developed code is provided open source.
PubDate: 2022-05-23
DOI: 10.1007/s41693-022-00069-0

• Beyond transparency: architectural application of robotically fabricated
polychromatic float glass

Abstract: Abstract This research investigates robotically fabricated polychromatic float glass for architectural applications. Polychromatic glass elements usually require labor-intensive processes or are limited to film applications of secondary materials onto the glass. Previous research employs computer numerical control (CNC) based multi-channel granule deposition to manufacture polychromatic relief glass; however, it is limited in motion, channel control, and design space. To expand the design and fabrication space for the manufacture of mono-material polychromatic glass elements, this paper presents further advancements using a UR robotic arm with an advanced multi-channel dispenser, linear and curved-paths granule deposition, customized color pattern design approaches, and a computational tool for the prediction and rendering of outcomes. A large-scale demonstrator serves as a case study for upscaling. Robotic multi-channel deposition and tailored computational design tools are employed to facilitate a full-scale installation consisting of eighteen large glass panels. Novel optical properties include locally varying color, opacity, and texture filter light and view. The resulting product constructs sublime architectural experiences through light refraction, reflection, color, opacity - beyond mere transparency.
PubDate: 2022-04-28
DOI: 10.1007/s41693-022-00071-6

• Digital twins as education support in construction: a first development
framework based on the Reference Construction Site Aachen West

Abstract: Abstract The Reference Construction Site Aachen West, located in Aachen, Germany, is a campus-based living lab for research and university education in construction. To ensure and improve the education quality, this paper researches a new study tool in the form of a digital twin framework powered by the Unreal Engine. By implementing MQTT, an IoT communication protocol, the digital twin realizes synchronicity of cyber-physical bi-directional data flows. Representing the virtual Reference Construction Site, an online multiplayer application was developed as a use case to answer the research questions: (1) how to design the digital twin and structure in an extendable and accessible development framework for different users and (2) how to support education in construction with this digital twin. To validate the concept, a group of students were invited online to explore the application and provide user feedback. Results show positive effects of the digital twin on enhancing the quality of the online education in construction with its real-time interaction and data from on-site machinery and processes. The digital twin is planned to be transferred to research and construction projects.
PubDate: 2022-04-06
DOI: 10.1007/s41693-022-00070-7

• 3DWoodWind: robotic winding processes for material-efficient lightweight
veneer components

Abstract: Abstract Winding processes are known from fiber composite technology for highly resistance lightweight components for aviation. These fiber-based processes work predominantly with synthetic composites made of carbon or glass fibers. For the construction industry, these additive processes are very promising and resource-efficient building processes, but they are still hardly used in timber construction despite the very high level of digitalization and technical development. The 3DWoodWind research project uses a continuous strip of thin veneer as a sustainable alternative as its application material. Its natural fibers are intact, continuous, and tensile. In the project, three-dimensional winding processes were developed for material-efficient hollow profile lightweight components made of wood. We describe the material system, composed of suitable combinations of veneers and adhesives, and develop computational design methods for filament layout and robotic fabrication methods. We also show an open-source prototype development method, necessary for efficient prototyping. Through several fabrication case studies, we demonstrate the capabilities of the production process, and investigate suitable architectural applications. These hollow lightweight components could save large amounts of material in timber construction and serve as a substitute for concrete or steel components in the future. We conclude by discussing possible applications in the construction industry and future research possibilities.
PubDate: 2022-03-25
DOI: 10.1007/s41693-022-00067-2

• Dynamic 3D print head for spatial strand extrusion of fiber-reinforced
concrete: requirements, development and application

Abstract: Abstract Additive manufacturing is gaining more significance in architecture and construction due to a shortage of skilled workers, resource scarcity and increasing design requirements. Over the past years, approaches for layer-wise and spatial extrusion of concrete were developed for automated, formwork free and complex concrete processing. The spatial concrete extrusion is possible due to an inert support suspension that stabilizes the strands during hydration. The process is capable for unlimited overhangs, increasing printing speed and ultra-lightweight concrete structures. Even though, for filigree and spatial framework structure, its application is highly impaired by the anisotropic strength and brittle concrete behavior requiring reinforcements. In following research, the use of fiber-reinforced concrete is investigated for spatial concrete extrusion. Compared to unreinforced concrete, fibers improve the tensile strength and ductility and can be obtained from recyclable sources. Since its structural effect is dependent on their orientation in the matrix, its processing requires a controlled extrusion and high flexibility of nozzle rotation. Therefore, a print head was developed that increases the rotation freedom of a nozzle without harming its robot reachability to improve additive manufacturing of fiber-reinforced concrete strands. This paper concludes investigations of fiber orientation in extruded strands depending on nozzle alignment, a concept and prototype of a dynamic 3D print head, which is capable of 3D rotations, and applications for filigree 3D structures, which demonstrate new possibilities for fiber-reinforced materials.
PubDate: 2022-03-23
DOI: 10.1007/s41693-022-00066-3

• Real-time state synchronization between physical construction robots and
process-level digital twins

Abstract: Abstract This research focuses on developing a robot digital twin (DT) and the communication methods to connect it with the corresponding physical robot in collaborative human–robot construction work. Robots are being increasingly deployed on construction sites to assist human workers with physically demanding work tasks. Robot simulations in a process-level DT can be used to extend design models, such as building information modeling, to the construction phase for real-time monitoring of robot motion planning and control. Robots can be enabled to plan work tasks and execute them in the DT simulations. Once simulated tasks and trajectories are approved by human workers, commands can be sent to the physical robots to perform the tasks. However, a system to bridge a virtual DT and a physical robot and allow for such communication to occur is a capability that has not been readily available thus far, primarily due to the complexity involved in physical robot operations. This paper discusses the development of a system to bridge robot simulations and physical robots in construction and digital fabrication. The Gazebo robot simulator is used for DT, and the robot operating system is leveraged as the primary framework for bi-directional communication with the physical robots. The virtual robots in Gazebo receive planned trajectories from motion planners and then send the commands to the physical robots for execution. Two different robot control modes, i.e., joint angle control mode and Cartesian path control mode, are developed to accommodate various construction strategies. The system is implemented in a digital fabrication case study with a full-scale KUKA KR120 six-degrees-of-freedom robotic arm mounted on a track system. We evaluated the system by comparing the data transmission time, joint angles, and end-effector pose between the virtual and physical robot using several planned trajectories and calculated the average and maximum mean square errors. The results showed that the proposed real-time process-level robot DT system can plan the robot trajectory inside the virtual environment and execute it in the physical environment with high accuracy and real-time performance, offering the opportunity for further development and deployment of the collaborative human–robot work paradigm on real construction sites.
PubDate: 2022-03-22
DOI: 10.1007/s41693-022-00068-1

• Building rethought – 3D concrete printing in building practice

Abstract: Abstract After only a few of years of intensive research all over the world, 3D printing of buildings has been induced in practical application in construction industry. In the course of this, in 2021, the first 3D printed residential building was realised in Beckum, Germany. The aim of this paper is to give an insight to the impetus, the ideas and the individual steps to realize this project. We describe the technology used and give an overview about background of the material development and the requirements for the material. Furthermore the architectural design und planning process is displayed. However, existing design codes do not cover all special technical features of the new construction method. Consequently, we describe the concept how the building permission (approval) for the construction by following existing standards (DIN EN) for concrete and masonry construction was achieved and granted. Finally we give an insight in the construction process and conclude with lessons learned for future projects.
PubDate: 2022-02-08
DOI: 10.1007/s41693-022-00064-5

• Online capability-based resource allocation for on-site construction
operations utilizing digital twin models

Abstract: Abstract Planning and controlling on-site construction operations are complex and dynamic procedures, mainly manually executed without algorithmic decision support. An initial challenge is to allocate available resources to construction processes based on required and available capabilities. Due to the dynamic nature of construction projects (e.g., redesigns, resource failure, unpredictable restrictions), there is a demand for frequent reallocation of resources. In recent years, researchers studied capability-based resource allocation approaches by defining ontologies to describe the capabilities of resources. However, since most of the existing approaches focus on ontologies for resources in production environments (e.g., industrial robots), the modeling and application of the models for online allocation in dynamic construction environments remain unsolved. In this study, an ontology-based Digital Twin model, adopted from a production engineering background, is used to enable online capability-based resource allocations for construction-specific approaches. The Digital Twin model can be updated by a lightweight, publish-subscribe network, triggering an update of capability-based feasibility checks for resource allocations. The resulting framework is tested on a demo construction project from the research project “Internet of Construction (IoC)”. The results contribute to the automation of planning and controlling resource allocations for dynamic on-site construction operations. Using machine-readable ontologies, the transition from manually performed activities to robotically supported tasks is enabled.
PubDate: 2022-01-25
DOI: 10.1007/s41693-022-00065-4

• Depth-camera-based rebar detection and digital reconstruction for robotic
concrete spraying

Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we tackle the challenge of detection and accurate digital reconstruction of steel rebar meshes using a set of industrial depth cameras. A construction example under investigation in this paper is robotic concrete spraying, where material is sprayed onto double-curved single layered rebar meshes. Before the spraying process can start, the location and geometry of the rebar mesh needs to be accurately know. We present an automatic image-based processing approach of depth images for grid point extraction at an accuracy of a few mm. Furthermore, we propose a sequence of execution steps in a robotic setup, including the hand–eye calibration, which enables the direct georeferencing of multiple data sets acquired from various poses into a common coordinate system. With the proposed approach we are able to digitally reconstruct a mesh of an unknown geometry in under 10 min with an accuracy better than 5 mm. The digitally reconstructed mesh allows for computation of material needed for its construction, enabling sustainable use of concrete in digital fabrication. The accurately reconstructed digital mesh, generated based on the proposed approach in this paper, is the input for the following spraying step, allowing for generation of accurate spray trajectories.
PubDate: 2021-10-16
DOI: 10.1007/s41693-021-00063-y

• Hand-drawn digital fabrication: calibrating a visual communication method
for robotic on-site fabrication

Abstract: Abstract According to the 2016 Mckinsey report, the global construction industry is one of the least productive (The Construction Productivity Imperative, McKinsey Report, 2016), which can be attributed to a minimal implementation of digital and automation technology (Berger Digtization in the Construction industry—Building Europe's road to "Construction 4.0 THINK/ACT—BEYOND MAINSTREAM, 2015). This research argues that this relates to the skill base of construction workers since very few, if any, can operate digital fabrication systems. Here, a digital model is considered foundational knowledge and is used to communicate with a fabrication unit. The difficulty lies in communicating the digital model to the fabrication machine, which arguably requires a level of specialist knowledge. However, history shows that other methods of communicating complex construction information have existed, such as 1:1 on-site drawing, which used to be made by architects or construction workers to communicate complex information related to constructing jigs or building components (The Tracing Floor of York Minster.” In Studies in the History of Civil Engineering, 1:81–86. The Engineering of Medieval Cathedrals. Routledge, 1997). We propose an alternative where we learn from history and amalgamate that knowledge with a robotic framework. We present the calibration process behind a parametric visual feedback method for robotic fabrication that detects on-object hand-drawn markings and allows us to assign digital information to detected markings. The technique is demonstrated through a 1:2 prototype that is fabricated using an ABB IRB 120 robot arm.
PubDate: 2021-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s41693-020-00049-2

• Robotic embankment

Abstract: Abstract Automating earth-moving tasks has the potential to resolve labour-shortage, allow for unseen designs and foster sustainability through using on-site materials. In this interdisciplinary project involving robotics and landscape architecture, we combine our previous work on autonomous excavation of free-form shapes, dynamic landscape design and terrain modelling tools into a robotic landscape system. It tightly connects survey, design and fabrication to exchange information in real-time during fabrication. We purposely built a LiDAR survey drone for tight integration. The design environment contains terrain modelling tools to balance cut and fill volumes for material-neutral, on-site construction. Its parametric nature allows it to adapt the geometry to changing site conditions during fabrication. Our autonomous walking excavator is used to create these free-form shapes in natural granular material. We propose an excavation planner for free-form embankments that computes the next excavation location and subsequently the location where the excavated soil should be dumped. This robotic excavation system achieves the world’s first autonomous completion of free-form embankments with high accuracy. A $$20\hbox { m}$$ long S-shaped and a two-faced embankment with a corner with roughly 0.03–0.05 m average error were created.
PubDate: 2021-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s41693-021-00061-0

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