A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  Subjects -> ARCHITECTURE (Total: 219 journals)
We no longer collect new content from this publisher because the publisher has forbidden systematic access to its RSS feeds.
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Smart Cities
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2624-6511
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 756-770: Influence of Embedded Charging Units
           Characteristics on Long-Term Structural Behavior of E-Roads

    • Authors: Claudia Nodari, Misagh Ketabdari, Maurizio Crispino, Emanuele Toraldo
      First page: 756
      Abstract: The use of Electric Vehicles (EV) seems to be a promising solution to achieve a sustainable road transport system. Among the contactless dynamic vehicle charging technologies, the use of Charging Units (CUs)—cement concrete box—embedded into the road pavement seems to be a favorable option. The available scientific papers related to the structural effects of embedding CUs in road pavements consider the CU as a solid box, even if a cavity is needed for the electrical technologies’ accommodation. This is why the current research is aimed at studying electrified roads (e-road) with different CU cavity shapes and dimensions. In detail, pavement structural responses are investigated, as a first step, adopting a Finite Element Model (FEM), and, as a second step, the long-term performances (fatigue cracking/rutting proneness) are evaluated. The study is divided into two phases: the theoretical fatigue/rutting assessment, which allows to calculate the critical load repetitions leading to pavement failure, and an urban case study with the goals of both assessing the theoretical results and computing fatigue/rutting performance with real scale traffic conditions. The outcomes demonstrate that CUs can be used with no significant impacts on the long-term road pavement structural performance, laying the foundation for a future upgrading of the existing urban road networks.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5030039
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 405-432: A Multiobjective Optimization
           Approach for Retrofitting Decision-Making towards Achieving Net-Zero
           Energy Districts: A Numerical Case Study in a Tropical Climate

    • Authors: Lorena Chacón, Miguel Chen Chen Austin, Carmen Castaño
      First page: 405
      Abstract: Buildings are among the main reasons for the deterioration of the world environment as they are responsible for a large percentage of CO2 emissions related to energy. For this reason, it is necessary to find solutions to this problem. This research project consists of constructing the metamodel of an urbanization located in Panama, Herrera province. The classification and systematization of its main elements, using the software DesignBuilder and SysML diagrams, were carried out for its subsequent implementation in an optimization analysis that seeks to approach the NZED standard. The main objectives of the optimization are reducing the energy consumption at the lowest possible price while maintaining or improving thermal comfort. In this study, it was possible to reduce electricity consumption to at least 60% of the original value and about 10% of the renewable energy generation capacity by implementing optimization techniques within the retrofit category related to the envelope of the buildings and the occupant’s behavior.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020023
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 433-454: Design, Analysis and Implementation
           of Bidirectional DC–DC Converters for HESS in DC Microgrid
           Applications

    • Authors: Srinivas Punna, Rupesh Mailugundla, Surender Reddy Salkuti
      First page: 433
      Abstract: This research proposes an enhanced converter for a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for a multi-input bidirectional DC–DC power converter (MIPC). When batteries are used for energy storage, their charge and discharge rates are low, putting the battery under current stress and shortening its life. Because of their increased power density, supercapacitors (SCs) can react quickly to abrupt fluctuations and solve this problem. SCs, on the other hand, cannot be utilized for storage since they cannot provide power for prolonged periods of time. Batteries and supercapacitors are employed together in HESSs because their opposing characteristics make them an ideal pair for energy storage. An MIPC is used to connect the HESS to the DC microgrid. The MIPC allows for decoupled battery and SC power regulation, as well as energy transfer across storage devices inside the system. A controller has been developed to regulate both HESS charging and discharging operations, making it a unified controller for DC microgrid applications. The proposed model predictive control (MPC) provided better DC grid voltage restoration to step change in PV generation and load demand over the traditional proportional integral (PI) control scheme. The MPC method minimizes current strains, extends battery life and enhances overall system performance in response to a step change in PV power and load demand as well as providing quicker DC grid voltage control. Simulation and experimental data for the proposed controller were created by varying PV generation and load demand, resulting in faster DC link voltage regulation.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020024
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 455-474: Implementing Data-Driven Smart City
           Applications for Future Cities

    • Authors: Yamuna Kaluarachchi
      First page: 455
      Abstract: Cities are investing in data-driven smart technologies to improve performance and efficiency and to generate a vast amount of data. Finding the opportunities to innovatively use this data help governments and authorities to forecast, respond, and plan for future scenarios. Access to real-time data and information can provide effective services that improve productivity, resulting in environmental, social, and economic benefits. It also assists in the decision-making process and provides opportunities for community engagement and participation by improving digital literacy and culture. This paper aims to review and analyze current practices of data-driven smart applications that contribute to the smooth functioning of urban city systems and the problems they face. The research methodology is qualitative: a systematic and extensive literature review carried out by PRISMA method. Data and information from different case studies carried out globally assisted in the inductive approach. Content analysis identified smart city indicators and related criteria in the case study examples. The study concluded that smart people, smart living, and smart governance methods that have come into practice at a later stage are as important as smart mobility, smart environments, and smart economy measures that were implemented early on, and cities are opening up to new, transparent participatory governance approaches where citizens play a key role. It also illustrates that the current new wave of smart cities with real time data are promoting citizen participation focusing on human, social capital as an essential component in future cities.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020025
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 475-495: Children’s Participation in the
           Design of Smart Solutions: A Literature Review

    • Authors: Maria Angela Pellegrino, Eftychia Roumelioti, Mauro D’Angelo, Rosella Gennari
      First page: 475
      Abstract: Smart solutions are widespread and diversified. Smart cities and smart objects are example of smart solutions. Their design usually follows certain patterns so that they can detect events and react accordingly. As future citizens, children are expected to interact with them in their daily lives. It is thus crucial to provide children with the tools for understanding, creating, and possibly programming them—in short, designing them. This paper presents a literature review of workshops involving children in designing smart solutions. The review coded a total of 25 papers that met the inclusion criteria. The discussion draws a research agenda using the workshops organized by the authors, the Roobopoli workshops for smart cities and the SNaP workshops for smart objects, as reference. Whereas smart cities and smart objects are usually addressed separately, this paper binds and compares them in order to investigate what, in different settings, enables children to be part of the design of smart solutions.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020026
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 496-521: Harmonic and Supraharmonic Emissions
           of Plug-In Electric Vehicle Chargers

    • Authors: Andrea Mariscotti
      First page: 496
      Abstract: Electric vehicle (EV) charging represents a relevant electric load with a rapid evolution in terms of number, power rating and distortion, in particular, considering the connection to the low-voltage public grid: available short-circuit power may be limited and particularly susceptible loads may co-exist in the same grid portion. Standards can partially address the problem covering only the harmonic interval, but they necessitate significant extension and improvement in the supraharmonic range. In addition, EV chargers have been observed to violate in some scenarios the applicable harmonic limits, so that the mechanisms of emission and distortion should be better understood and evaluated, including phenomena of mutual influence between EV chargers and with pre-existing grid distortion. Although models can help simulate large-scale scenarios in terms of fundamental frequency phenomena, such as power flow, voltage fluctuation and imbalance, substantial and reliable information can come from experimental results, providing measured harmonic and supraharmonic emissions, accompanied by details on loads mix, grid characteristics and EV charger operating conditions. This work thus defines the applicable constraints in terms of limits and compatibility levels for public and light industrial low-voltage grids, discusses the available experimental results and datasets, analyzing the typical distortion behavior and providing indication of sources of information for further studies.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-04-09
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020027
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 522-538: Outline and Impact of Firms Related
           to the Third Industrial Revolution: Investigation through Big Data

    • Authors: Matthieu Belarouci
      First page: 522
      Abstract: This article is focusing on the dynamism of the Third Industrial Revolution (TIR) in the region Hauts-de-France between 2013 and 2018. Region Hauts-de-France has been a forerunner in setting up a proactive policy in favour of the TIR. It provides a relevant and suitable context for the identification of TIR activities. We assess the job dynamism of the TIR through the implementation of big data methods for the identification of the firms involved in the TIR activities and the collection of firm microlevel data. We provide evidence of the strong dynamism of the TIR activities in a context of weak regional dynamics. We show that the growth in employment arises mainly from renewable energies, positive energy buildings, circular economy and energy efficiency. Future researches are encouraged to investigate the quality of employment and to question the distinctive characteristics of the firms involved in TIR.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-04-09
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020028
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 539-561: Research Structure and Trends of
           Smart Urban Mobility

    • Authors: Zaheer Allam, Ayyoob Sharifi
      First page: 539
      Abstract: Mobility is a subject of increasing importance in a time when cities have gained prominence, as they are home to over 56% of the world’s population and generate over 80% of global GDP. Urban planning principles have traditionally been developed to promote urban efficiency and enhance productivity. The emergence of ‘Smart Mobility’ has provided researchers and policy practitioners new ways to understand and plan cities. With rapid urbanization growth and the sustained mobility challenges faced in most global cities, this paper sets forth to understand and map the evolution of the concept of ‘Smart Urban Mobility’ through a bibliometric analysis and science mapping techniques using VOSviewer. In total, 6079 articles were retrieved from the Web of Science database over 5 decades, from 1968 to 2021, and divided into four sub-periods, namely 1968 to 2010, 2011 to 2015, 2016 to 2019, and 2020 to 2021. The paper provides a better understanding of the thematic focus and associated trends of smart mobility beyond technical issues related to Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), where due to diverse dynamics, such as unprecedented growth and advancement in technologies, attention has extended to incorporating the impacts of the application of different technologies in urban mobility as well as associated fields. This paper further identifies major sources, authors, publications, and countries that have made more contributions to the development of this field. The findings of this study can help researchers better understand the evolution of the subject, and help policymakers make better-informed decisions on investable infrastructures for better mobility outcomes in urban regeneration pursuits and future cities.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020029
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 562-582: Data-Driven Analytics Task Management
           Reasoning Mechanism in Edge Computing

    • Authors: Christos Anagnostopoulos, Tahani Aladwani, Ibrahim Alghamdi, Konstantinos Kolomvatsos
      First page: 562
      Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) applications have led to exploding contextual data for predictive analytics and exploration tasks. Consequently, computationally data-driven tasks at the network edge, such as machine learning models’ training and inference, have become more prevalent. Such tasks require data and resources to be executed at the network edge, while transferring data to Cloud servers negatively affects expected response times and quality of service (QoS). In this paper, we study certain computational offloading techniques in autonomous computing nodes (ANs) at the edge. ANs are distinguished by limited resources that are subject to a variety of constraints that can be violated when executing analytical tasks. In this context, we contribute a task-management mechanism based on approximate fuzzy inference over the popularity of tasks and the percentage of overlapping between the data required by a data-driven task and data available at each AN. Data-driven tasks’ popularity and data availability are fed into a novel two-stages Fuzzy Logic (FL) inference system that determines the probability of either executing tasks locally, offloading them to peer ANs or offloading to Cloud. We showcase that our mechanism efficiently derives such probability per each task, which consequently leads to efficient uncertainty management and optimal actions compared to benchmark models.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020030
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 583-607: A Federated Blockchain Approach for
           Fertility Preservation and Assisted Reproduction in Smart Cities

    • Authors: Da-Yin Liao
      First page: 583
      Abstract: Modern life is making people infertile. Giving birth later in life is wreaking havoc on our fertility and threatening human survival. Smart cities intend to optimize the quality of life of their citizens by utilizing technology for smarter living. This research first identifies the requirements and business opportunities of using advanced technology for smarter fertility preservation and assisted reproduction in smart cities. A federated blockchain approach is proposed for the alliance of integrated commercial egg banks (ICEBs). In particular, we designed a membership fee rebate (MFR) mechanism that offers incentives for blockchain creations in the egg banking alliance. We formulated the MFR problem into a leader–followers Stackelberg game whose objectives are (1) to maximize the benefits of forming the alliance (the leader) and (2) to maximize the benefits in each ICEB (the follower). We developed an iterative scheme that utilizes mathematical programming techniques to solve the two-level, Stackelberg game problem. With a given set of parameters of the alliance and membership fee function, and the average number of blocks generated for an oocyte, the iterative scheme achieves the optimal solution for the MFR rate per block created . A numerical example demonstrates the feasibility and applicability of the proposed iterative scheme. Numerical results show that it achieves good solutions in adding a small to medium-sized new ICEB to the existing alliance. The proposed federated approach lays the foundation for developing a blockchain-based egg banking platform.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020031
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 608-632: Enhancing the Replication Potential
           of Smart Lighting Projects

    • Authors: Madis Talmar, A. Georges L. Romme, Rianne Valkenburg
      First page: 608
      Abstract: To address major threats to the sustainability and quality of life in urban settings, many municipalities have started exploring routes toward smarter cities to, for example, lower their energy consumption and carbon footprint. These explorations, in the form of living labs or other pilot projects, often suffer from major problems in scaling up the initial try-outs. In this study, we identify the mechanisms that facilitate the diffusion of smart city solutions, which are developed with public funds but typically lack dedicated resources to spur the diffusion of these solutions within the same municipality as well as toward other municipalities. We introduce the construct of embedded replication potential, defined as the capacity of an original project to be either scaled up locally or replicated elsewhere. Subsequently, empirical findings from a study of smart lighting projects in several municipalities in northwestern Europe serve to develop a checklist-based tool for assessing the embedded replication potential of an initial project. This tool can also be used to assess the replication potential of other smart city projects.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020032
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 633-649: A Novel Security Architecture for
           WSN-Based Applications in Smart Grid

    • Authors: Nouf Aljadani, Tahani Gazdar
      First page: 633
      Abstract: The Smart Grid (SG) aims to cope with the problems of the traditional grid, using renewable power generators. Similarly, SG benefits from the deployment of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) to enhance its aspects by monitoring the physical behavior of the power generators. However, new threats and attacks may arise due to the open nature and large scale of SG where WSNs are deployed. In this paper, we propose a new security architecture for WSNs in SG based on public key infrastructure (PKI). The key idea of the proposed architecture is to distribute the role of the certification authority (CA) among a set of sensor nodes to ensure the availability and scalability of the CA services. To elect this set of sensor nodes, we propose a novel lightweight clustering algorithm for WSNs that relies on the trust metrics of the nodes and their energy levels. The proposed architecture provides many security services such as authentication and confidentiality and mitigates many types of attacks such as Sybil and eavesdropping. Extensive simulations have been conducted using network simulator OMNET++ and Castalia framework to investigate the performance of the clustering algorithm. The results show that almost 100% of the sensors are members of clusters, and even in the presence of malicious nodes, the number of cluster heads remains static which reflects the robustness of the proposed architecture.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020033
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 650-667: Enhancing OLSR Protocol by an
           Advanced Greedy Forwarding Mechanism for VANET in Smart Cities

    • Authors: MyDriss Laanaoui, Said Raghay
      First page: 650
      Abstract: The future Intelligent Transport System "ITS" is one of the major challenges of the smart city. It requires fast and efficient communication between vehicles (vehicle-to-vehicle “V2V”), to ensure information exchange in order to improve safety, which reduces accidents and consequently save lives, hence the need of the Vehicular Ad Hoc Network “VANET”, which makes possible the inter-vehicle communication. This network is characterized by a variable topology. Therefore, MANET (Mobile Adhoc NETwork) routing protocols need a few tweaks to be available for the vehicle environment. In this paper, we start by exposing some works related to the evaluation of the most well-known protocols. After a comparative study, we deduce that the OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing) protocol outperforms other routing protocols in terms of End-to-End Delay (EED) and Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR). In addition, we note that the Greedy forwarding “GF” mechanism is suited for the VANET environment, which has been improved and called Greedy forwarding Advanced “GFA”, to overcome the stationary node problem. Our approach improves the OLSR protocol to be more suitable and efficient for VANET by introducing the GFA mechanism. Moreover, we compare our approach to the OLSR classic version. In this work, we use a realistic scenario from Open Street Map (OSM), and simulations are performed using SUMO (Simulation of Urban MObility). The trace files generated from SUMO are used for further simulation in NS-3 (Network Simulator) to validate our proposition. The simulation results are analyzed and discussed. Our approach performs best compared to OLSR in terms of EED and PDR, especially for dense traffic.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020034
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 668-699: Development and Future Scope of
           Renewable Energy and Energy Storage Systems

    • Authors: Sushyanth Sridhar, Surender Reddy Salkuti
      First page: 668
      Abstract:  This review study attempts to summarize available energy storage systems in order to accelerate the adoption of renewable energy. Inefficient energy storage systems have been shown to function as a deterrent to the implementation of sustainable development. It is therefore critical to conduct a thorough examination of existing and soon-to-be-developed energy storage technologies. Various scholarly publications in the fields of energy storage systems and renewable energy have been reviewed and summarized. Data and themes have been further highlighted with the use of appropriate figures and tables. Case studies and examples of major projects have also been researched to gain a better understanding of the energy storage technologies evaluated. An insightful analysis of present energy storage technologies and other possible innovations have been discovered with the use of suitable literature review and illustrations. This report also emphasizes the critical necessity for an efficient storage system if renewable energy is to be widely adopted. 
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020035
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 700-714: AI-Based Predictive Modelling of the
           Onset and Progression of Dementia

    • Authors: Sten Hanke, Francesca Mangialasche, Markus Bödenler, Bernhard Neumayer, Tiia Ngandu, Patrizia Mecocci, Helena Untersteiner, Elisabeth Stögmann
      First page: 700
      Abstract: Dementia, the most severe expression of cognitive impairment, is among the main causes of disability in older adults and currently affects over 55 million individuals. Dementia prevention is a global public health priority, and recent studies have shown that dementia risk can be reduced through non-pharmacological interventions targeting different lifestyle areas. The FINnish GERiatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) has shown a positive effect on cognition in older adults at risk of dementia through a 2-year multidomain intervention targeting lifestyle and vascular risk factors. The LETHE project builds on these findings and will provide a digital-enabled FINGER intervention model for delaying or preventing the onset of cognitive decline. An individualised ICT-based multidomain, preventive lifestyle intervention program will be implemented utilising behaviour and intervention data through passive and active data collection. Artificial intelligence and machine learning methods will be used for data-driven risk factor prediction models. An initial model based on large multinational datasets will be validated and integrated into an 18-month trial integrating digital biomarkers to further improve the model. Furthermore, the LETHE project will investigate the concept of federated learning to, on the one hand, protect the privacy of the health and behaviour data and, on the other hand, to provide the opportunity to enhance the data model easily by integrating additional clinical centres.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020036
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 715-727: The Metaverse as a Virtual Form of
           Data-Driven Smart Urbanism: On Post-Pandemic Governance through the Prism
           of the Logic of Surveillance Capitalism

    • Authors: Bibri, Allam
      First page: 715
      Abstract: The Metaverse, as a gigantic ecosystem application enabled mainly by Artificial Intelligence (AI), the IoT, Big Data, and Extended Reality (XR) technologies, represents an idea of a hypothetical "parallel virtual environment" that incarnates ways of living in virtually inhabitable cities. It is increasingly seen as a transition from smart cities to virtual cities and a new target for city governments to attain “new” goals. However, the Metaverse project was launched amid the COVID-19 pandemic, a crisis purported to be a rare opportunity that should be seized to reset and reimagine the world—though mainly in regard to its digital incarnation, and what this entails in terms of both cementing and normalizing the corporate-led, top-down, technocratic, tech-mediated, algorithmic mode of governance, as well as new forms of controlling ways of living in urban society. The “new normal” has already set the stage for undemocratically resetting and unilaterally reimagining the world, resulting in an abrupt large-scale digital transformation of urban society, a process of digitization and digitalization that is in turn paving the way for a new era of merging virtuality and urbanity. This has raised serious concerns over the risks and impacts of the surveillance technologies that have been rapidly and massively deployed in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. These concerns also relate to the global architecture of the computer mediation of the Metaverse upon which the logic of surveillance capitalism depends, and which is constituted by control and commodification mechanisms that seek to monitor, predict, control, and trade the behavior of human users, as well as to exile them from their own. This viewpoint paper explores and questions the Metaverse from the prism of the social and economic logic of surveillance capitalism, focusing on how and why the practices of the post-pandemic governance of urban society are bound to be undemocratic and unethical. The novelty of the viewpoint lies in providing new insights into understanding the dark side of the ostensible fancier successor of the Internet of today, thereby its value and contribution to the ongoing scholarly debates in the field of Science, Technology, and Society (STS). In addition, by shedding light on the emergence of the Metaverse as a computing platform, the viewpoint seeks to help policymakers understand and assess the ramifications of its wide adoption, as well as to help users make informed decisions about its usage in everyday activity—if it actualizes.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020037
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 728-755: The Dual Role of Artificial
           Intelligence in Developing Smart Cities

    • Authors: Maria Enrica Zamponi, Enrico Barbierato
      First page: 728
      Abstract: Defining smart city pillars, and their nature and essence, continues to be debated in the scientific literature. The vast amount of information collected by electronic devices, often regarded merely as a means of rationalizing the use of resources and improving efficiency, could also be considered as a pillar. Information by itself cannot be deciphered or understood without analysis performed by algorithms based on Artificial Intelligence. Such analysis extracts new forms of knowledge in the shape of correlations and patterns used to support the decision-making processes associated with governance and, ultimately, to define new policies. Alongside information, energy plays a crucial role in smart cities as many activities that lead to growth in the economy and employment depend on this pillar. As a result, it is crucial to highlight the link between energy and the algorithms able to plan and forecast the energy consumption of smart cities. The result of this paper consists in the highlighting of how AI and information together can be legitimately considered foundational pillars of smart cities only when their real impact, or value, has been assessed. Furthermore, Artificial Intelligence can be deployed to support smart grids, electric vehicles, and smart buildings by providing techniques and methods to enhance their innovative value and measured efficiency.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020038
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 22-33: Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Site
           Selection for Smart Community Demonstration Projects

    • Authors: Ming-Shiu Sung, Shen-Guan Shih, Yeng-Horng Perng
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Definition and imagination of an ideal city can be traced back to the origin of garden city in UK about 100 years ago. Since then, many different names and topics have been proposed and smart city is the one most recently proposed. Starting from 2000, more and more countries have developed various demonstration projects for the promotion of smart city in order to provide total solution for the promotion of sustainable development and social welfare. In fact, some of them have been successfully carried out. Some researchers in Taiwan argue that the current mechanism by which government subsidies are allocated for smart city demonstration projects warrants improvement. A comprehensive literature review determined that the development potential of smart cities should be prioritized in site selection for such demonstration projects. This study developed an evaluation framework on the basis of multi-criteria evaluation methods to enable the identification of suitable smart city demonstration sites. Evaluation criteria were first identified through the Delphi method. Next, the weights of each criterion were derived through the analytic hierarchy process. Furthermore, the capability of the proposed evaluation model was determined through simulation testing. Four demonstration sites are simulated, they are: Taipower Smart Community, Yinlin Technology University campus, Taichung Creative Cultural Park, and Asian New Bay Area in Kaohsiung, It is expected that the research findings in this thesis can be helpful to the future decision for the demo site selection of smart city.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010002
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 34-53: Operation of the Egyptian Power Grid
           with Maximum Penetration Level of Renewable Energies Using Corona Virus
           Optimization Algorithm

    • Authors: Hady H. Fayek, Omar H. Abdalla
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Countries around the world are looking forward to fully sustainable energy by the middle of the century to meet Paris climate agreement goals. This paper presents a novel algorithm to optimally operate the Egyptian grid with maximum renewable power generation, minimum voltage deviation and minimum power losses. The optimal operation is performed using Corona Virus Algorithm (CVO). The proposed CVO is compared to the Teaching and Learning-Based Optimization (TLBO) algorithm in terms of voltage deviation, power losses and share of renewable energies. The real demand, solar irradiance and wind speed in typical winter and summer days are considered. The 2020 Egyptian grid model is developed, simulated, and optimized using DIgSILENT software application. The results have proved the effectiveness of the proposed CVO, compared to the TLBO, to operate the grid with the highest share possible of renewables. The paper is a step forward to achieve Egyptian government targets to reach 20% and 42% penetration level of renewable energies by 2022 and 2035, respectively.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010003
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 54-70: Fixed and Mobile Low-Cost Sensing
           Approaches for Microclimate Monitoring in Urban Areas: A Preliminary Study
           in the City of Bolzano (Italy)

    • Authors: Silvia Croce, Stefano Tondini
      First page: 54
      Abstract: In the current scenario of massive urbanization and global climate change, an intelligent monitoring of the environmental variables is becoming fundamental to ensure good living conditions in cities. Indeed, the acquisition of data with high spatiotemporal resolution can enable the assessment of environmental vulnerabilities in urban areas towards the definition of responsive adaptation and mitigation strategies. In this context, the current work presents a two-fold approach based on low-cost cloud-connected sensors for (i) fixed and (ii) mobile monitoring of several environmental parameters. This paper, which focuses on the measurement aspects of the urban micro-climate, describes in detail the hardware and software components of both approaches, and how to exploit them for setting up a field campaign. The methods were tested in the city of Bolzano (Italy), demonstrating their suitability for identifying the spatial variability of the microclimate in relation to the urban morphology, and for highlighting the presence of the urban heat island and estimating its intensity.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010004
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 71-89: Participatory Governance of Smart
           Cities: Insights from e-Participation of Putrajaya and Petaling Jaya,
           Malaysia

    • Authors: Seng Boon Lim, Tan Yigitcanlar
      First page: 71
      Abstract: Participatory governance is widely viewed as an essential element of realizing planned smart cities. Nonetheless, the implementation of e-participation platforms, such as the websites and mobile applications of civic authorities, often offer ambiguous information on how public voices may influence e-decision-making. This study aims to examine the status of participatory governance from the angle of e-participation platforms and from the broader scope of linking e-platforms to a smart city blueprint. In order to achieve this aim, the study focuses on shedding light on the e-governance space given to smart city realization in a developing country context—i.e., Malaysia. The Putrajaya and Petaling Jaya smart cities of Malaysia were selected as the testbeds of the study, which used the multiple case study methodology and multiple data collection designs. The analyses were done through the qualitative observations and quantitative descriptive statistics. The results revealed that both of the investigated smart city cases remained limited in their provision of e-decision-making space. The inefficiency of implementing planned initiatives to link the city blueprints to e-platforms was also evidenced. The study evidenced that the political culture of e-decision-making is undersized in Malaysia, which hinders the achievement of e-democracy in the smart cities’ development. This study has contributed a case report on a developing country’s smart cities, covering the participatory issues from the angle of e-participation and e-platforms.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010005
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 90-107: A Comprehensive Methodology for
           Assessing the Impact of Smart City Interventions: Evidence from Espoo
           Transformation Process

    • Authors: Aristotelis Ntafalias, Giorgos Papadopoulos, Panagiotis Papadopoulos, Aapo Huovila
      First page: 90
      Abstract: In recent years, the world’s population living in cities has been rapidly increasing. Cities are transforming their infrastructure in a smarter and more efficient way so that sustainable development forms part of their long-term strategy. However, this transformation does not always result in expected benefits due to a variety of factors such as an absence of social acceptance, a lack of holistic design and the development of unilateral interventions. An analysis of the scientific literature related to the evaluation of the impact of smart city actions revealed a gap in the holistic methods for their assessment. To this end, an accurate evaluation of implemented smart solutions focusing on the energy domain is necessary in order to assess the expected and realized impact of each solution. This paper proposes a seven-step methodology for assessing the impact of smart city interventions and presents a use case for the city of Espoo. A number of major findings were the outcome of our research and development work, such as the need for a thorough analysis of the long-term vision of the city, a combined top-down and bottom-up approach and the ongoing cooperation between all stakeholders involved in urban planning and transformation, in which necessary Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are defined.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010006
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 108-130: Soft Assets Consideration in Smart
           and Resilient City Development

    • Authors: Eiko Wataya, Rajib Shaw
      First page: 108
      Abstract: For a smart city, soft or non-physical assets share an important capital component with many impacts in different contexts. They enable a city to deliver and mainstream a people-centered policy in addition to the benefits provided by traditional, hard infrastructure. Soft assets can involve social and human capital, knowledge, participation, and innovative approaches that drive value in the city. However, it is always a challenge for city policy makers to identify and strengthen these soft assets using a systemic approach due to their inherent characteristics. This paper argues that soft assets should be strategically integrated into the development process of smart and resilient cities. Therefore, exploring various approaches to prioritize soft asset consideration would provide helpful guidelines to city policy makers for municipal value creation, and identify where the greatest needs for soft or intangible assets lie. This paper examines how to identify and decide which soft assets should take priority in smart and resilient cities. The findings can assist policy makers in their consideration of an optimal mix and balance of soft assets required in the city to improve living structures for a people-centered approach.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010007
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 131-132: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Smart
           Cities in 2021

    • Authors: Smart Cities Editorial Office Smart Cities Editorial Office
      First page: 131
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010008
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 133-145: Bauhaus.MobilityLab: A Living Lab for
           the Development and Evaluation of AI-Assisted Services

    • Authors: Carsten Frey, Philipp Hertweck, Lucas Richter, Oliver Warweg
      First page: 133
      Abstract: With the vision “Innovation by experiment” the Bauhaus.MobilityLab started in July 2020 as a living lab in the district Brühl of the city Erfurt, Thuringia, Germany. As a unique project, it is coupling the sectors mobility, logistics and energy into a unified living lab. It allows to design, develop and evaluate innovative services to increase the quality of life in the city. Bauhaus.MobilityLab offers access to live smart city data of different domains and provides a set of powerful artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms for data processing, analytics and forecasting. In contrast to existing platforms, its uniqueness is the available and integrated living lab. It allows directly rolling out new smart city services and to evaluate the impact in the real world. This paper describes the implementation of the technical platform supporting the Bauhaus.MobilityLab, realized according to the DIN SPEC 91357 as an open urban platform. It focuses on data sharing based on the concepts of the International Data Spaces and the integration of AI algorithms. The concepts are presented based on examples in the energy domain.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010009
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 146-161: Barcelona under the 15-Minute City
           Lens: Mapping the Accessibility and Proximity Potential Based on
           Pedestrian Travel Times

    • Authors: Carles Ferrer-Ortiz, Oriol Marquet, Laia Mojica, Guillem Vich Vich
      First page: 146
      Abstract: Many academics, urban planners and policymakers subscribe to the benefits of implementing the concept of the 15-Minute City (FMC) in metropolises across the globe. Despite the interest raised by the concept, and other variants of chrono-urbanism, to date, only a few studies have evaluated cities from the FMC perspective. Most studies on the subject also lack a proper well-defined methodology that can properly assess FMC conditions. In this context, this study contributes to the development of an appropriate FMC-measuring method by using network analysis for services and activities in the City of Barcelona (Catalonia, northeastern Spain). By using network analyst and basing our analysis on cadastral parcels, this study is able to detail the overall accessibility conditions of the city and its urban social functions based on the FMC perspective. The resulting spatial synthetic index is enhanced with the creation of partial indexes measuring the impact of education, provisioning, entertainment, public and non-motorized transport, and care facilities. The results show that most residents of this dense and compact city live in areas with proximity to services, that can clearly be labeled as FMC, although there are some shortfalls in peripheral areas. Results validate the FMC methodology as a viable method to highlight spatial inequalities at the microscale level, a valuable tool for the development of effective planning policies.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010010
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 162-176: SmartNoshWaste: Using Blockchain,
           Machine Learning, Cloud Computing and QR Code to Reduce Food Waste in
           Decentralized Web 3.0 Enabled Smart Cities

    • Authors: Somdip Dey, Suman Saha, Amit Kumar Singh, Klaus McDonald-Maier
      First page: 162
      Abstract: Food waste is an important social and environmental issue that the current society faces, where one third of the total food produced is wasted or lost every year while more than 820 million people around the world do not have access to adequate food. However, as we move towards a decentralized Web 3.0 enabled smart city, we can utilize cutting edge technologies such as blockchain, artificial intelligence, cloud computing and many more to reduce food waste in different phases of the supply chain. In this paper, we propose SmartNoshWaste—a blockchain based multi-layered framework utilizing cloud computing, QR code and reinforcement learning to reduce food waste. We also evaluate SmartNoshWaste on real world food data collected from the nosh app to show the efficacy of the proposed framework and we are able to reduce food waste by 9.46% in comparison to the originally collected food data based on the experimental evaluation.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010011
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 177-205: Electric Vehicle Charging Load
           Allocation at Residential Locations Utilizing the Energy Savings Gained by
           Optimal Network Reconductoring

    • Authors: Preetham Goli, Kiran Jasthi, Srinivasa Rao Gampa, Debapriya Das, Wajiha Shireen, Pierluigi Siano, Josep M. Guerrero
      First page: 177
      Abstract: In this study, a two-stage methodology based on the energy savings gained by optimal network reconductoring was developed for the sizing and allocation of electric vehicle (EV) charging load at the residential locations in urban distribution systems. During the first stage, the Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA) was applied to minimize the annual energy losses of the radial distribution system through optimum network reconductoring. A multi-objective function was formulated to minimize investment, peak loss, and annual energy loss costs at different load factors. The results obtained with the flower pollination algorithm were compared with the particle swarm optimization algorithm. In the second stage, a simple heuristic procedure was developed for the sizing and allocation of EV charging load at every node of the distribution system utilizing part of the annual energy savings obtained by optimal network reconductoring. The number of electric cars, electric bikes, and electric scooters that can be charged at every node was computed while maintaining the voltage and branch current constraints. The simulation results were demonstrated on 123 bus and 51 bus radial distribution networks to validate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010012
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 206-222: Models for Supporting Mobility as a
           Service (MaaS) Design

    • Authors: Giuseppe Musolino, Corrado Rindone, Antonino Vitetta
      First page: 206
      Abstract: Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is the new approach in transportation systems that allows users to use different transport services as a single option, by using digital platforms and with integrated design. In MaaS many actors can be identified: MaaS operators, MaaS companies, MaaS users, citizens, system manager/planner. In order to be able to design the system in an integrated way, it is necessary to identify comprehensive methodologies that make it possible to reach sustainability targets in a context where the decisions to be taken are shared between several operators and affect users and citizens. In this paper, the methods to be adopted for the design of an integrated transport service system have been studied. The main aim of this paper concerns the specification of transport system models for estimating the effects of decision-makers’ actions on MaaS. The consolidated design methodologies of transport networks have been extended in the context of the MaaS. The paper reports a methodology that can be used and describes the main models to be used, which derive from consolidated specifications in the field of transport systems engineering. The methodologies have to be integrated into Intelligent and Communication Technology systems to build the Intelligent Transport System in the MaaS environment.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010013
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 223-240: Dynamic Pricing for Charging of EVs
           with Monte Carlo Tree Search

    • Authors: Jan Mrkos, Robert Basmadjian
      First page: 223
      Abstract: As electric vehicles (EVs) are slowly becoming a common occurrence on roads, commercial EV charging is becoming a standard commercial service. With this development, charging station operators are looking for ways to make their charging services more profitable or allocate the available resources optimally. Dynamic pricing is a proven technique to increase revenue in markets with heterogeneous demand. This paper proposes a Markov Decision Process (MDP)-based approach to revenue- or utilization- maximizing dynamic pricing for charging station operators. We implement the method using a Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) algorithm and evaluate it in simulation using a range of problem instances based on a real-world dataset of EV charging sessions. We show that our approach provides near-optimal pricing decisions in milliseconds for large-scale problems, significantly increasing revenue or utilization over the flat-rate baseline under a range of parameters.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 241-250: Economic Framework of Smart and
           Integrated Urban Water Systems

    • Authors: Neil Grigg
      First page: 241
      Abstract: Smart and integrated urban water systems have important roles in advancing smart cities, but their contributions go much further by supplying needed public services and connecting other sectors to meet sustainability goals. Achieving integration and gaining access to financing are obstacles to implementing smart water systems and both are implicit in the economic framework of smart cities. Problems in financing the start-up of smart water systems are reported often. The local and diverse nature of water systems is another barrier because an approach that works in one place may not work in another with different conditions. The paper identifies the challenges posed by the economic framework and provides examples from four cities with diverse characteristics. It outlines pathways to advance implementation of smart water systems by improving control strategies, advancing instrumentation and control technologies, and most of all, to help transform cities by raising customer awareness and trust through reliable and useful water information.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010015
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 251-275: A Cluster-Based Approach Using
           Smartphone Data for Bike-Sharing Docking Stations Identification: Lisbon
           Case Study

    • Authors: Tiago Fontes, Miguel Arantes, Paulo V. Figueiredo, Paulo Novais
      First page: 251
      Abstract: Urban mobility is a massive issue in the current century, being widely promoted the need of adopting sustainable solutions regarding transportation within large urban centres. The evolution of technologies has democratised smart cities to better plan and manage their mobility solutions, without compromising the social, economic, and environmental impacts. Pursuing the carbon neutrality and the climate agreement goals, soft mobility is one of the most popular emerging methods to provide greener alternatives regarding mobility. Among these transportation modes are the bicycle, which has been widely used in several public systems across the world, one of them being in Lisbon. This article provides a decision support system for bike-sharing docking stations for three council parishes of the city, namely, Parque das Nações, Marvila, and Beato. Taking advantage of clustering methods and GSM data from a telecommunication operator, this study pretends to highlight a novel approach to identify soft mobility hotspots, in specific bike-sharing docking stations, for suited mobility management systems in Lisbon’s city centre.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010016
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 276-293: Spatial Analysis of Economic
           Activities as a Tool for Effective Urban Policies

    • Authors: Stella Manika, Konstantinos Karalidis, Aspa Gospodini
      First page: 276
      Abstract: The economic activities of each city greatly shape and predict their development as well as make them more competitive both locally and globally. In the last two decades, as part of the international economic crisis, Greece has been at the center of changes that have resulted in the closure of thousands of businesses. This significantly affected Greek cities by changing their economic profile and robustness via the spatial distribution of their economic activities. Economic geography, as a sector that examines the geographical distribution of economic activities, is an important methodological base for analysing business locations and urban spatial processes. This paper aims to analyse, through a combination of economic geography theories and spatial analysis methods, the spatial patterns of economic activities and to identify urban areas that are resilient in difficult times of crisis. Thus cities that have the ability, via the proposed analysis/methodological framework, to control and evaluate their economic profile and prospects, can be transformed into smart cities by adopting ad hoc urban renaissance and resilient policies.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010017
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 294-317: Energy Community in
           Action—Energy Citizenship Contract as Tool for Climate Neutrality

    • Authors: Rossella Roversi, Andrea Boeri, Serena Pagliula, Giulia Turci
      First page: 294
      Abstract: Cities are responsible for 65% of energy consumption and for the 70% of CO2 emissions. Incisive actions are fundamental to bring cities towards climate neutrality by 2050 working by and for the citizens. For this reason, the “100 climate-neutral cities Mission” anticipates the target of climate neutrality by 2030. The objective of this paper, developed within the H2020 GRETA project—GReen Energy Transition Actions (GA101022317), is to investigate energy communities and climate city contracts as key interventions to face the ambitious goal of implementing citizens-centered and climate-neutral cities. To achieve this objective, this paper is structured as follows: (1) an updated framework of European and Italian legislation concerning energy communities; (2) an overview of climate city contracts’ definition and key aspects; (3) a selection and analysis of energy communities’ case studies; (4) a description of already developed pilot climate city contracts. The results provide more advanced knowledge about EU energy communities strategies and about the possible contractual agreements that can guarantee commitment between parties and can allow the active participation of citizens in the energy system. The lessons learned contribute to the application in the GRETA Italian case study, whose first participation activities are also described in the paper.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010018
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 318-346: A Survey of Adaptive Multi-Agent
           Networks and Their Applications in Smart Cities

    • Authors: Nasim Nezamoddini, Amirhosein Gholami
      First page: 318
      Abstract: The world is moving toward a new connected world in which millions of intelligent processing devices communicate with each other to provide services in transportation, telecommunication, and power grids in the future’s smart cities. Distributed computing is considered one of the efficient platforms for processing and management of massive amounts of data collected by smart devices. This can be implemented by utilizing multi-agent systems (MASs) with multiple autonomous computational entities by memory and computation capabilities and the possibility of message-passing between them. These systems provide a dynamic and self-adaptive platform for managing distributed large-scale systems, such as the Internet-of-Things (IoTs). Despite, the potential applicability of MASs in smart cities, very few practical systems have been deployed using agent-oriented systems. This research surveys the existing techniques presented in the literature that can be utilized for implementing adaptive multi-agent networks in smart cities. The related literature is categorized based on the steps of designing and controlling these adaptive systems. These steps cover the techniques required to define, monitor, plan, and evaluate the performance of an autonomous MAS. At the end, the challenges and barriers for the utilization of these systems in current smart cities, and insights and directions for future research in this domain, are presented.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010019
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 348-363: A Decentralized Blockchain-Based
           Trust Management Framework for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    • Authors: Tahani Gazdar, Ohoud Alboqomi, Asmaa Munshi
      First page: 348
      Abstract: Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) are one of the pillars of the Internet of Vehicles, they provide plenty of applications ranging from safety to entertainment. Safety applications largely depend on reliable and authentic traffic-related data. However, ensuring the data reliability and authenticity is facing many challenges due mainly to the scalability of VANETs such as the high speed, the long roads, and the open nature of VANETs. This paper addresses these challenges by proposing a decentralized Blockchain-based trust management framework (BC-TMF) aiming to compute trust metrics for vehicles. These trust metrics rely on the authenticity of the messages. Each vehicle assesses the authenticity of the received messages in real-time, calculates a local trust metric for the originator of such messages, then shares it with a miner. Periodically each miner aggregates the received trust metrics into global trust metrics, then packs them in a block. To investigate the efficiency and consistency of the proposed framework, extensive simulations are conducted. The obtained results show that the proposed BC-TMF has an excellent capability in computing accurate trust metrics for vehicles. Besides, it outperforms the existing ones in terms of the accuracy of computed trust metrics, particularly for malicious vehicles.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010020
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 364-381: Designing Geographic Information
           System Based Property Tax Assessment in India

    • Authors: Anu Singh, Suraj Kumar Singh, Gowhar Meraj, Shruti Kanga, Majid Farooq, Nikola Kranjčić, Bojan Đurin, Sudhanshu
      First page: 364
      Abstract: Property tax is the primary source of revenue for municipal bodies. In India, municipal corporations are facing issues in property tax collection, and the primary reason for it is a lack of count of assessed properties under its jurisdiction. Also, the storage of information on the properties is mainly based on manual efforts, which leads to data redundancy and failure to appropriate tax collection. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) consists of technology, personnel, and resources to create, maintain, visualize, search, and share geospatial data and services. The study has been carried out in the Hauz Khas Ward, South Delhi Municipal Corporation, Delhi. This paper aims to develop a spatial database for property tax management. It includes capturing the building footprint, road, land use such as parks, paved area, drains, and demarcation of boundaries such as locality slums, based on a regular grid net with a cell size of 250 m by 250 m. The generated geospatial database has been finally used to evaluate parameters for property tax calculation. Moreover, this spatial database can be organized as different models for any web-based application for municipal services. This study provides a working example of a GIS-based property tax collection solution for whole of India and other South-Asian countries.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010021
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 382-404: Technology Developments and Impacts
           of Connected and Autonomous Vehicles: An Overview

    • Authors: Hafiz Usman Ahmed, Ying Huang, Pan Lu, Raj Bridgelall
      First page: 382
      Abstract: The scientific advancements in the vehicle and infrastructure automation industry are progressively improving nowadays to provide benefits for the end-users in terms of traffic congestion reduction, safety enhancements, stress-free travels, fuel cost savings, and smart parking, etc. The advances in connected, autonomous, and connected autonomous vehicles (CV, AV, and CAV) depend on the continuous technology developments in the advanced driving assistance systems (ADAS). A clear view of the technology developments related to the AVs will give the users insights on the evolution of the technology and predict future research needs. In this paper, firstly, a review is performed on the available ADAS technologies, their functions, and the expected benefits in the context of CVs, AVs, and CAVs such as the sensors deployed on the partial or fully automated vehicles (Radar, LiDAR, etc.), the communication systems for vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure networking, and the adaptive and cooperative adaptive cruise control technology (ACC/CACC). Secondly, for any technologies to be applied in practical AVs related applications, this study also includes a detailed review in the state/federal guidance, legislation, and regulations toward AVs related applications. Last but not least, the impacts of CVs, AVs, and CAVs on traffic are also reviewed to evaluate the potential benefits as the AV related technologies penetrating in the market. Based on the extensive reviews in this paper, the future related research gaps in technology development and impact analysis are also discussed.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010022
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 34.239.147.7
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-