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Smart Cities
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2624-6511
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1208-1228: Renewable Energy in Smart Cities:
           Challenges and Opportunities by the Case Study of Russia

    • Authors: Natalia Anatolievna Vukovic, Daria Evgenievna Nekhorosheva
      First page: 1208
      Abstract: This study analyzes the development of renewable energy sources and factors affecting the choice of energy source. Also, we focus on the renewable energy programs implemented in the smart cities of the world and apply the prospects of its development to a Russian case study, using the method of cluster analysis. The results of the study showed that the share of renewable energy in Russian cities might reach 50% by 2050. However, the analysis demonstrates that currently, the average value is less than 26%. The results of the study show that the overall level of development of renewable sources in a particular country significantly affects the level of development of renewable energy in smart cities. Finally, the results reveal that Russian smart cities should aim at a much more intensive green energy policy to implement the fundamental principles of the global strategy of Net Zero (IEA).
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040061
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1229-1240: The Acceptance and Use Behavior of
           Shared Mobility Services in a Rural Municipality

    • Authors: Cindy Schaefer, Aida Stelter, Sonja Holl-Supra, Stephan Weber, Björn Niehaves
      First page: 1229
      Abstract: In rural regions, needs-based mobility services play an important role in the provision of public services. Shared Mobility Services can optimally complement local public transportation such as buses and trains, even in rural regions, and support the transformation of transportation. There is already research on Shared Mobility Services in the literature, but there is no comparison between all of Germany-wide and a specific municipality. We were interested in learning to what extent there is acceptance among citizens and what their usage behavior is towards such new alternatives. We also aimed to find out whether there are differences between large cities and rural regions and to what extent they differ from each other. In this case study, interplay was demonstrated using the example of a funded Smart City mobility project in a German rural municipality. The objective was to show whether the potential exists to initiate traffic turnaround with the help of Shared Mobility Services. In a quantitative survey of 418 German citizens, 114 of them from the rural municipality, the acceptance and usage behavior of Shared Mobility Services (in the form of car, bike and e-scooter sharing) was investigated. The results show that participants are very interested in Shared Mobility Services and have already gained initial experience with such services. However, there is still a lack of comprehensive services; for instance, the demand for car sharing is still too low, as many citizens still own a private vehicle. Our results show that citizens are too little informed about Shared Mobility Services and that these services need to be advertised much more strongly and clearly, both in analog and digitally. Our study shows that traffic turnaround can be achieved and that many citizens can imagine greater use of Shared Mobility Services in their everyday lives in the future. However, for this to happen, the necessary infrastructure must be in place in rural regions, and local authorities must motivate citizens with sufficient educational work about what is on offer and how to use it.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040062
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1241-1242: Correction: Bibri, S.E.; Allam, Z.
           The Metaverse as a Virtual Form of Data-Driven Smart Urbanism: On
           Post-Pandemic Governance through the Prism of the Logic of Surveillance
           Capitalism. Smart Cities 2022, 5, 715–727

    • Authors: Simon Elias Bibri, Zaheer Allam
      First page: 1241
      Abstract: The authors wish to make the following corrections to their paper [...]
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040063
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1243-1266: Exploiting User Behavior to Predict
           Parking Availability through Machine Learning

    • Authors: Enrico Bassetti, Andrea Berti, Alba Bisante, Andrea Magnante, Emanuele Panizzi
      First page: 1243
      Abstract: Cruising-for-parking in an urban area is a time-consuming and frustrating activity. We present four machine learning-based models to predict the parking availability of street segments in an urban area on a three-level scale, which navigator and smart-parking apps can exploit to ease and reduce the cruising phase. The models were trained with data generated by a cruising-for-parking simulator that we developed, replicating four parking behavior types (workers, residents, buyers, and visitors). The generated data is comparable to that collectible with smartphones’ sensors. We simulated 40 users moving for 200 weeks in the city area of San Giovanni in Rome. We collected information about users’ parking, unparking, and cruising actions over considered road segments at different time slots. Once a significant amount of trips were collected, we extracted ten features for each road segment at a given time slot. With the obtained dataset, which contained 761 samples, we trained and compared four supervised machine learning models that receive the history of a segment and, in return, classify the Parking Availability Level of the segment as Green, Yellow or Red. The four models were further evaluated in a different city area, San Lorenzo, and obtained very accurate results. We can predict parking availability with an accuracy above 97% for all the street segments where we collected 30 or more user actions, confirming the robustness of the simulator in generating synthetic cruising-for-parking data and the suitability of designing a Parking Availability Classifier (PAC) based on data collectible by smartphones.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040064
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1267-1292: Health Care in Cities Perceived as
           Smart in the Context of Population Aging—A Record from Poland

    • Authors: Jonek-Kowalska
      First page: 1267
      Abstract: Population aging is a global problem affecting many modern economies. Thus, the article attempts to answer the following research questions: What demographic trends characterize cities considered smart, and is the health care offered by these cities adapted to the changes identified in this regard' In other words, can seniors feel safe now and in the near future' In search of an answer to such a question, data as well as demographic and health indicators were used from 16 Polish voivodeship cities mostly considered smart or aspiring to that title. The analysis covered the years 2010–2020. The results indicate a systematic aging of all surveyed urban communities. However, it is progressing at a rather different pace. Unfortunately, not all cities are adjusting the level of health care (medical and nursing staff and hospital infrastructure) to the needs of the growing number of seniors, which—in the future—may exacerbate regional and local medical and social problems. The analysis also shows that the best-performing cities in terms of health care development are Warsaw, Białystok, Kraków and Rzeszów—the units most often identified in international rankings as smart. Their “smartness” in this case lies in forward-looking management that takes into account the aging of the urban community in the process of developing medical care.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040065
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1293-1311: An Intelligent IoT Based Traffic
           Light Management System: Deep Reinforcement Learning

    • Authors: Shima Damadam, Mojtaba Zourbakhsh, Reza Javidan, Azadeh Faroughi
      First page: 1293
      Abstract: Traffic is one of the indispensable problems of modern societies, which leads to undesirable consequences such as time wasting and greater possibility of accidents. Adaptive Traffic Signal Control (ATSC), as a key part of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), plays a key role in reducing traffic congestion by real-time adaptation to dynamic traffic conditions. Moreover, these systems are integrated with Internet of Things (IoT) devices. IoT can lead to easy implementation of traffic management systems. Recently, the combination of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the IoT has attracted the attention of many researchers and can process large amounts of data that are suitable for solving complex real-world problems about traffic control. In this paper, we worked on the real-world scenario of Shiraz City, which currently does not use any intelligent method and works based on fixed-time traffic signal scheduling. We applied IoT approaches and AI techniques to control traffic lights more efficiently, which is an essential part of the ITS. Specifically, sensors such as surveillance cameras were used to capture real-time traffic information for the intelligent traffic signal control system. In fact, an intelligent traffic signal control system is provided by utilizing distributed Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning (MARL) and applying the traffic data of adjacent intersections along with local information. By using MARL, our goal was to improve the overall traffic of six signalized junctions of Shiraz City in Iran. We conducted numerical simulations for two synthetic intersections by simulated data and for a real-world map of Shiraz City with real-world traffic data received from the transportation and municipality traffic organization and compared it with the traditional system running in Shiraz. The simulation results show that our proposed approach performs more efficiently than the fixed-time traffic signal control scheduling implemented in Shiraz in terms of average vehicle queue lengths and waiting times at intersections.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040066
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 756-770: Influence of Embedded Charging Units
           Characteristics on Long-Term Structural Behavior of E-Roads

    • Authors: Claudia Nodari, Misagh Ketabdari, Maurizio Crispino, Emanuele Toraldo
      First page: 756
      Abstract: The use of Electric Vehicles (EV) seems to be a promising solution to achieve a sustainable road transport system. Among the contactless dynamic vehicle charging technologies, the use of Charging Units (CUs)—cement concrete box—embedded into the road pavement seems to be a favorable option. The available scientific papers related to the structural effects of embedding CUs in road pavements consider the CU as a solid box, even if a cavity is needed for the electrical technologies’ accommodation. This is why the current research is aimed at studying electrified roads (e-road) with different CU cavity shapes and dimensions. In detail, pavement structural responses are investigated, as a first step, adopting a Finite Element Model (FEM), and, as a second step, the long-term performances (fatigue cracking/rutting proneness) are evaluated. The study is divided into two phases: the theoretical fatigue/rutting assessment, which allows to calculate the critical load repetitions leading to pavement failure, and an urban case study with the goals of both assessing the theoretical results and computing fatigue/rutting performance with real scale traffic conditions. The outcomes demonstrate that CUs can be used with no significant impacts on the long-term road pavement structural performance, laying the foundation for a future upgrading of the existing urban road networks.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5030039
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 771-801: The Metaverse as a Virtual Form of
           Smart Cities: Opportunities and Challenges for Environmental, Economic,
           and Social Sustainability in Urban Futures

    • Authors: Zaheer Allam, Ayyoob Sharifi, Simon Elias Bibri, David Sydney Jones, John Krogstie
      First page: 771
      Abstract: Data infrastructures, economic processes, and governance models of digital platforms are increasingly pervading urban sectors and spheres of urban life. This phenomenon is known as platformization, which has in turn given rise to the phenomena of platform society, where platforms have permeated the core of urban societies. A recent manifestation of platformization is the Metaverse, a global platform project launched by Meta (formerly Facebook) as a globally operating platform company. The Metaverse represents an idea of a hypothetical “parallel virtual world” that incarnate ways of living and working in virtual cities as an alternative to smart cities of the future. Indeed, with emerging innovative technologies—such as Artificial Intelligence, Big Data, the IoT, and Digital Twins—providing rich datasets and advanced computational understandings of human behavior, the Metaverse has the potential to redefine city designing activities and service provisioning towards increasing urban efficiencies, accountabilities, and quality performance. However, there still remain ethical, human, social, and cultural concerns as to the Metaverse’s influence upon the quality of human social interactions and its prospective scope in reconstructing the quality of urban life. This paper undertakes an upper-level literature review of the area of the Metaverse from a broader perspective. Further, it maps the emerging products and services of the Metaverse, and explores their potential contributions to smart cities with respect to their virtual incarnation, with a particular focus on the environmental, economic, and social goals of sustainability. This study may help urban policy makers to better understand the opportunities and implications of the Metaverse upon tech-mediated practices and applied urban agendas, as well as assess the positives and negatives of this techno-urban vision. This paper also offers thoughts regarding the argument that the Metaverse has disruptive and substantive effects on forms of reconstructing reality in an increasingly platformized urban society. This will hopefully stimulate prospective research and further critical perspectives on the topic.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5030040
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 802-818: Visual Communication in Shared
           Mobility Systems as an Opportunity for Recognition and Competitiveness in
           Smart Cities

    • Authors: Katarzyna Turoń, Andrzej Kubik, Martin Ševčovič, János Tóth, András Lakatos
      First page: 802
      Abstract: Due to the intensive development of urbanization and digitization, the number of smart cities in the world is growing. Along with their exposure, more and more challenges are facing the service providers of the various types of systems offered in their area. These types of services include shared mobility systems that, as an alternative to transport by own vehicle, are becoming one of the leading promoted forms of mobility. Because of the prioritization of shared mobility solutions, more and more operators appear on the smart city markets, which is associated with many challenges related to the increased competition among service providers. One of the challenges is the appropriate visibility of the brand and vehicles in urban transport systems. This aspect, despite its high applicability, constitutes a research gap among world studies. Aiming to fill this gap, this article was dedicated to the issues of perception of visual communication by operators of shared mobility services. As part of the research, an expert study was conducted among representatives of shared mobility services operating in Poland. The expert survey was conducted with the Computer-Assisted Web Interview (CAWI) technique. The results of the research show that visual communication is not used quite correctly by operators. Although operators use single visual communication practices, overall consistency is lacking, which would add value to the brand. This article supports operators looking to expand their shared mobility services. What is more, it is also a response to the research gap regarding visual communication and its perception from the point of view of smart cities.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5030041
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 819-831: Invigorating Health Strategy in an
           Integrated Design Process

    • Authors: Stahel Serano Bibang Bi Obam Assoumou, Li Zhu, Christopher Khayeka-Wandabwa
      First page: 819
      Abstract: Healthy buildings are gaining crucial significance in construction and one health setting for promoting occupants’ health. However, the traditional design process for healthy buildings presents limitations with no specific guidelines. In contrast, the integrated design process (IDP) has proven to be effective in realizing high-performance buildings. However, the IDP shortfall of not having robust health strategy (HS) capability is a concern of interest. Thus, we posit further advancement of IDP in the context of incorporating HS in the prevailing IDP guidelines with a sequential iterative procedure. Moreover, a conceptual framework aimed at invigorating the implementation of HS in all IDP stages is proposed. The strategies within IDP that would reinforce achieving healthy building by addressing building process implementation are highlighted. The (IDP + HS) iterative framework herein advanced is intended to aid neophyte and experienced building professionals to reflect about the process of achieving healthy building while optimizing IDP for one’s health invigoration in construction industry.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5030042
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 832-874: The Social Shaping of the Metaverse
           as an Alternative to the Imaginaries of Data-Driven Smart Cities: A Study
           in Science, Technology, and Society

    • Authors: Simon Elias Bibri
      First page: 832
      Abstract: Science and technology transform the frontiers of knowledge and have deep and powerful impacts on society, demonstrating how social reality varies with each era of the world. As a set of fictional representations of technologically driven future worlds, the Metaverse is increasingly shaping the socio-technical imaginaries of data-driven smart cities, i.e., the outcome of radical transformations of dominant structures, processes, practices, and cultures. At the core of the systematic exploration of science and technology is the relationships between scientific knowledge, technological systems, and values and ethics from a wide range of perspectives. Positioned within science of science, this study investigates the complex interplay between the Metaverse as a form of science and technology and the wider social context in which it is embedded. Therefore, it adopts an analytical and philosophical framework of STS, and in doing so, it employs an integrated approach to discourse analysis, supported by a comparative analysis of the Metaverse and Ambient Intelligence. This study shows that the Metaverse as a scientific and technological activity is socially constructed, politically driven, economically conditioned, and historically situated. That is, it is inherently human and hence value-laden, as well as can only be understood as contextualized within the socio-political-economic-historical framework that gives rise to it, sustains it, and makes it durable by material effects and networks. This view in turn corroborates that the Metaverse raises serious concerns as to determinism, social exclusion, marginalization, privacy erosion, surveillance, control, democratic backsliding, hive mentality, cyber-utopianism, and dystopianism. This study argues that, due to the problematic nature of the Metaverse in terms of its inherent ethical and social implications, there need to be more explicit processes and practices for enhancing public participation and allowing a more democratic public role in its shaping and control, especially early in the decision-making process of its development—when the opportunity for effective inputs and informed choices is greatest. The novelty of this study lies in that it is the first of its kind with respect to probing the link between the Metaverse and data-driven smart cities from an STS perspective. The main contribution of this study lies in deepening and extending social scientific critiques and understandings of the imaginaries of data-driven smart cities based on the analysis and evaluation of the Metaverse and the warning signals and troubling visions it conveys and animates in order to help construct desirable alternative futures for the greater good of all citizens. The ultimate goal is to structure the Metaverse in ways that are morally acceptable and collectively the most democratically beneficial for society.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5030043
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 875-888: Complaints Analysis as an Opportunity
           to Counteract Social Transport Exclusion in Shared Mobility Systems

    • Authors: Katarzyna Turoń
      First page: 875
      Abstract: Modern cities are associated with efficient transportation, including modern transportation solutions that reflect the trend towards sustainable development. These solutions, for example, are shared mobility services, which have gained popularity in recent years. The systems present in the markets, as well as each transport service, aimed at meeting the transport needs of the society, are also associated with the occurrence of many problems. Many of the problems can turn into transport barriers and have a real impact on the quality of transport services and the life of society in the city. To check whether transport problems occurring in shared mobility may translate into transport exclusion, the author’s own research was proposed. The aim of the study was to analyze the public negative opinions of the shared mobility services and to determine the existence of their connection with the main areas of the phenomenon of transport exclusion. The Desk Research method was used for the study, due to which 1500 opinions and complaints regarding 60 bike-, car-, and scooter-sharing applications operating in six European countries were analyzed. As a result of the research, it was shown that in all types of shared mobility, there are barriers that users complain about. These barriers are connected to the main transport social exclusion aspects indicated in the Church’s method framework. The leading areas of grievance are the system infrastructure and operational aspects. The mobile applications used to run the systems turned out to be the least problematic. Based on the results obtained, recommendations for the elimination of transportation social barriers were developed. The work supports municipalities and operators who wish to reduce the problems associated with shared mobility systems in cities.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5030044
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 889-923: Prediction and Evaluation of
           Electricity Price in Restructured Power Systems Using Gaussian Process
           Time Series Modeling

    • Authors: Abdolmajid Dejamkhooy, Ali Ahmadpour
      First page: 889
      Abstract: The electricity market is particularly complex due to the different arrangements and structures of its participants. If the energy price in this market presents in a conceptual and well-known way, the complexity of the market will be greatly reduced. Drastic changes in the supply and demand markets are a challenge for electricity prices (EPs), which necessitates the short-term forecasting of EPs. In this study, two restructured power systems are considered, and the EPs of these systems are entirely and accurately predicted using a Gaussian process (GP) model that is adapted for time series predictions. In this modeling, various models of the GP, including dynamic, static, direct, and indirect, as well as their mixture models, are used and investigated. The effectiveness and accuracy of these models are compared using appropriate evaluation indicators. The results show that the combinations of the GP models have lower errors than individual models, and the dynamic indirect GP was chosen as the best model.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5030045
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 924-946: Housing Infrastructure as a
           Determinant of Quality of Life in Selected Polish Smart Cities

    • Authors: Izabela Jonek-Kowalska
      First page: 924
      Abstract: In the concept of the Smart City, the issue of quality of life of residents is strongly emphasized. In theory and practice, the quality of urban life is determined by a wide variety of factors. This article focuses on housing infrastructure as a determinant of the quality of life in selected Polish Smart Cities and seeks answers to the question: What is the level of variation in the availability and quality of housing infrastructure in the studied cities and against the provinces in which they are located' In solving the research problem formulated in this way, the following were used: (1) Indicators determining the quality and accessibility of housing infrastructure at the level of the studied cities and provinces; (2) a multiple case study (for eight cities from different regions of Poland); and (3) a comparative analysis conducted at the level of the cities and provinces in which they operate. The resulting analyses indicate that there are differences in the availability and quality of housing infrastructure at the level of smart cities and provinces representing the regional average. The analyzed cities—in all the criteria studied (except the area of the apartment)—dominate over the provinces, which means that they have larger and better housing resources than the rest of the region.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5030046
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 947-963: Conveyor-Less Urban-Car Assembly
           Factory with VaaC and Matrix System

    • Authors: Seog-Chan Oh, James W. Wells, Jorge Arinez
      First page: 947
      Abstract: The advent of autonomous electric vehicles (AEVs) will give drivers time and space instead of focusing on driving. Because of this, some drivers may want to personalize their car for their work, while others may want to customize their vehicle space to be more suitable for relaxation, which will accelerate the megatrend of mass individualization. However, the production of individualized cars faces several challenges. For example, since high-level automation during individualized car production is difficult, a stable skilled labor supply is essential, low-volume/high-variety production is required, and customer proximity or involvement is also important. These conditions can be satisfied by building a car assembly plant in an urban area. The problem is that urban areas are often spatially and environmentally constrained. However, it is be possible to overcome these urban limitations by implementing a conveyor-less micro factory. The objective of this study is to propose a new iterative matrix-system layout design method that can realize a conveyor-less urban car assembly factory with two technologies—VaaC (vehicle as a conveyor) and matrix assembly system. VaaC consists of three novel ideas: sensor skid, safety-sensor guidance system, and vehicle-powered devices, and this paper views each of them in detail. The proposed iterative matrix-system layout design method consists of four steps: (1) layout refinement, (2) simulation, (3) cost analysis, and (4) optimization check, and will examine how each step is performed through simple examples. The authors hope that this paper will arouse interest and provide elements to spur future research on the conveyor-less urban car assembly system.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5030047
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 964-978: Novel Method for Speeding Up Time
           Series Processing in Smart City Applications

    • Authors: Mohammad Bawaneh, Vilmos Simon
      First page: 964
      Abstract: The huge amount of daily generated data in smart cities has called for more effective data storage, processing, and analysis technologies. A significant part of this data are streaming data (i.e., time series data). Time series similarity or dissimilarity measuring represents an essential and critical task for several data mining and machine learning algorithms. Consequently, a similarity or distance measure that can extract the similarities and differences among the time series in a precise way can highly increase the efficiency of mining and learning processes. This paper proposes a novel elastic distance measure to measure how much a time series is dissimilar from another. The proposed measure is based on the Adaptive Simulated Annealing Representation (ASAR) approach and is called the Adaptive Simulated Annealing Representation Based Distance Measure (ASAR-Distance). ASAR-Distance adapts the ASAR approach to include more information about the time series shape by including additional information about the slopes of the local trends. This slope information, together with the magnitude information, is used to calculate the distance by a new definition that combines the Manhattan, Cosine, and Dynamic Time Warping distance measures. The experimental results have shown that the ASAR-Distance is able to overcome the limitations of handling the local time-shifting, reading the local trends information precisely, and the inherited high computational complexity of the traditional elastic distance measures.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5030048
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 979-993: The Application of Blockchain
           Technology to Smart City Infrastructure

    • Authors: Mohammed S. Alnahari, Samuel T. Ariaratnam
      First page: 979
      Abstract: A smart city can be defined as an integration of systems comprising a plethora of task-oriented technologies that aim to evolve and advance with city and infrastructure needs while providing services to citizens and resolving urban challenges through intersystem and data-driven analytical means, with minimal human intervention. Applications of technology include management, operations, and finance. One such technology is Blockchain. A main advantage of Blockchain is the simplification of processes that are costly and time-consuming. This is accomplished by simplifying operations to minimize costs resulting from the decentralization of assets. Blockchain has been proven to facilitate transparency, security, and the elimination of data fragmentation. However, as a relatively new technology, it poses regulatory obstacles. This issue can be attributed to the fact that many infrastructural governing organizations have incomplete knowledge of their infrastructure, which can lead to confusion when attempting to comprehend the different elements of the infrastructure, resulting in a lack of direction when trying to solve a problem. This paper explores the different applications of Blockchain technology in the sectors of energy, transportation, water, construction, and government, and provides a mechanism for implementing this technology in smart cities. As a present component of infrastructure management systems, Blockchain may potentially serve as the initial step toward upgrading infrastructure technology.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-08-15
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5030049
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 994-1024: Smart Sustainable Cities: The
           Essentials for Managers’ and Leaders’ Initiatives within the
           Complex Context of Differing Definitions and Assessments

    • Authors: Fabienne T. Schiavo, Cláudio F. de Magalhães
      First page: 994
      Abstract: This study starts by questioning what smart cities are and how they are being planned for the future of the population. Faced with a wide range of information, the coexistence of multiple definitions, and differences between the theoretical concept and what is being carried out in the real world, it is recognized that entrepreneurs and public managers require more clarity regarding the essential attributes that need to be considered in the initiatives of a city that aims to be classified as smart. This study strives to identify and synthesize essential information, helping managers to define and develop projects and initiatives within the context of smart cities. Through a literature review, six widely cited and commonly used groups of indicators are selected, and the most frequent themes, indicators, and keywords are identified. The results are the essential elements founded and synthesized in a single visual scheme. Although this study has a practical purpose, it is also necessary to promote new policies focused on incentives for local initiatives to support and complement them due to the new decentralized and anthropocentric approach to smart sustainable cities.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-08-17
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5030050
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1025-1038: SDGs as One of the Drivers of Smart
           City Development: The Indicator Selection Process

    • Authors: Javier Parra-Domínguez, Andrea Gil-Egido, Sara Rodríguez-González
      First page: 1025
      Abstract: The 2030 Agenda is a clear development milestone for humanity in its ambition to care for our future generations. Smart Cities play an essential role in this development, the development direction of which is based, among others factors, on the fulfilment of the criteria set by the various Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The purpose of the current research is to verify the current state of science concerning the development of the SDGs in Smart Cities to establish a theoretical framework for the development and integration of data specific to a Smart City to participate in homogeneous monitoring of these indicators and to compare with other Smart Cities. Once a robust bibliographic study has been carried out, we proceed to establish a theoretical study, the application methodology of which follows a process developed in various phases to obtain an integrated system for monitoring and linking of the development of Smart Cities according to the criteria set out in the applicable SDGs. The clear implication is establishing an objective and efficient process that covers collection to integrate and compare the obtained data. One of the limitations of this process is overcoming the technological barrier in specific less developed environments that may not have sufficient funding. With respect to future lines of research, the current study opens the door to studying the implications of this type of process on the management and elaboration of specific public policies, for example, concerning the time taken to establish and resolve them.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-08-19
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5030051
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1039-1053: Agent-Based Model of Citizen Energy
           Communities Used to Negotiate Bilateral Contracts in Electricity Markets

    • Authors: Hugo Algarvio
      First page: 1039
      Abstract: The worldwide targets for carbon-neutral societies increased the penetration of distributed generation and storage. Smart cities now play a key role in achieving these targets by considering the alliances of their demand and supply assets as local citizen energy communities. These communities need to have enough weight to trade electricity in wholesale markets. Trading of electricity can be done in spot markets or by bilateral contracts involving customers and suppliers. This paper is devoted to bilateral contracting, which is modeled as a negotiation process involving an iterative exchange of offers and counter-offers. This article focuses on local citizen energy communities. Specifically, it presents team and single-agent negotiation models, where each member has its sets of strategies and tactics and also its decision model. Community agents are equipped with intra-team strategies and decision protocols. To evaluate the benefits of CECs, models of both coalition formation and management have been adapted. This paper also describes a case study on forward bilateral contracts, involving a retailer agent and three different types of citizen energy communities. The results demonstrate the benefits of CECs during the negotiation of private bilateral contracts of electricity. Furthermore, they also demonstrate that in the case of using a representative strategy, the selection of the mediator may be critical for achieving a good deal.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-08-19
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5030052
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1054-1078: A Prosumer-Oriented, Interoperable,
           Modular and Secure Smart Home Energy Management System Architecture

    • Authors: Pedro Gonzalez-Gil, Juan Antonio Martinez, Antonio Skarmeta
      First page: 1054
      Abstract: As prices on renewable energy electricity generation and storage technologies decrease, previous standard home energy end-users are also becoming producers (prosumers). Together with the increase of Smart Home automation and the need to manage the energy-related interaction between home energy consumers and Smart Grid through different Demand Response approaches, home energy management becomes a complex and multi-faceted problem, calling for an extensible, interoperable and secure solution. This work proposes a modular architecture for building a Smart Home Energy Management System, integrable with existing Home Automation Systems, that considers the use of standard interfaces for data communication, the implementation of security measures for the integration of the different components, as well as the use of semantic web technologies to integrate knowledge and build on it. Our proposal is finally validated through implementation in one real smart home test-bed, evaluating the system from a functional standpoint to demonstrate its ability to support our goals.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5030053
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1079-1091: Impact of the Use of Electric
           Scooters from Shared Mobility Systems on the Users

    • Authors: Andrzej Kubik
      First page: 1079
      Abstract: In recent years, mobility as a service (MaaS) (i.e., a system combining public transport, shared rides, short-term vehicle rentals, and taxis sourced via mobile applications) has become a solution that is increasingly available in smart cities. Along with the development of transport options, the range of vehicles offered as part of this type of service has expanded widely, from buses, taxis, bicycles, and cars to the innovation of electric scooters. The universality of MaaS services has led to a change in communication behavior and, at the same time, to a rapid increase in the number of people using the proposed solutions. Due to this increase, several researchers devoted their dissertations to issues of the management or optimization of websites; however, they ignored the many technical and health aspects. Recognizing a scientific niche area, the research conducted has been devoted to assessing the impact of the vibrations generated by electric scooters upon the user. Research on the vehicles used in MaaS systems has been conducted to learn and analyze the selected design solutions and their impact on the user who utilizes them. The scope of the research included vibroacoustic research and the mathematical modeling of the studied phenomena.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-08-26
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5030054
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1092-1116: Stability Analysis and Prediction
           of Traffic Flow of Trucks at Road Intersections Based on Heterogenous
           Optimal Velocity and Artificial Neural Network Model

    • Authors: Olayode, Tartibu, Campisi
      First page: 1092
      Abstract: The evolution of traffic-related accidents caused by long, short, and medium trucks at signalized road intersections have been underemphasized in the last few years. Far, little attention has been paid to the modelling of trucks traffic flow using an artificial neural network model and evaluating the stability analysis of trucks depending on the heterogenous optimal velocity. This research evaluates the effect of trucks on some specific traffic flow features. Over the years, it has been deduced that trucks, irrespective of their sizes, significantly impact their surrounding traffic flow due to their body sizes and operational features. In this study, we focused on modelling the traffic flow of trucks at signalized road intersections using traffic flow variables such as speed, traffic volume, traffic density, and time as our inputs and outputs. The truck traffic data was collected using up-to-date equipment such as video cameras and inductive loop detectors from the South Africa transportation network. During the ANN modelling of the truck traffic flow, we used 956 traffic datasets divided into 70% for training and 15% each for testing and validation. The ANN model results show testing regression values of R2 (0.99901). This shows that the inputs and output are well correlated and the ANN model’s superiority in predicting truck traffic flow at signalized road intersections. Based on the HEOV model results, the result of the research indicates that in the mixed traffic flow of trucks in real-life scenarios, the proportion of different trucks on the signalized road intersections rather than the proportions of types of trucks can be used in the determination of traffic flow stability of each truck. This research extends our knowledge of truck traffic flow modelling and provides a blueprint for examining the stability analysis of long, short, and medium trucks in their immediate driving environment.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-09-02
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5030055
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1115-1128: SDS: Scrumptious Dataflow Strategy
           for IoT Devices in Heterogeneous Network Environment

    • Authors: Zeeshan Rasheed, Shahzad Ashraf, Naeem Ahmed Ibupoto, Pinial Khan Butt, Emad Hussen Sadiq
      First page: 1115
      Abstract: Communication technologies have drastically increased the number of wireless networks. Heterogeneous networks have now become an indispensable fact while designing the new networks and the way the data packet moves from device to device opens new challenges for transmitting the packet speedily, with maximum throughput and by consuming only confined energy. Therefore, the present study intends to provide a shrewd communication link among all IoT devices that becomes part of numerous heterogeneous networks. The scrumptious dataflow strategy (SDS) for IoT devices in the heterogeneous network environment is proposed and it would deal with all link selection and dataflow challenges. The SDS would accomplish the targeted output in five steps: Step 1 determines the utility rate of each heterogeneous link. Step 2 develops a link selection attribute (LSA) that gauges the loads of network features used for the link selection process. Step 3 calculates the scores of all heterogeneous networks. Step 4 takes the LSA table and computes the network preference for different scenarios, such as round trip time (RTTP), network throughput, and energy consumption. Step 5 sets the priority of heterogeneous networks based on the scores of network attributes. Performance of the proposed SDS mechanism with state of the art network protocols, such as high-speed packet access (HSPA), content-centric networking (CCN), and dynamic source routing (DSR), was determined by conducting a simulation with NS2 and, consequently, the SDS exhibited its shrewd performance. During comparative analysis, in terms of round trip time, the SDS proved that it utilized only 16.4 milliseconds to reach IoT device 50 and was first among all other protocols. Similarly, for network throughput, at IoT device 50, the throughputs of the SDS are recorded at 40% while the rest of other protocols were dead. Finally, while computing the energy consumption used to reach IoT device 50, the SDS was functional and possessed more than half of its energy compared to the other protocols. The SDS only utilized 302 joules while the rest of the protocols were about to die as they had consumed all of their energy.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5030056
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1129-1150: Citizens’ Data Privacy in
           China: The State of the Art of the Personal Information Protection Law
           (PIPL)

    • Authors: Igor Calzada
      First page: 1129
      Abstract: The Personal Information Protection Law (PIPL) was launched on 1 November 2021 in China. This article provides a state-of-the-art review of PIPL through a policy analysis. This paper aims to compare the three main worldwide data privacy paradigms that exist at present: (i) the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in the E.U., (ii) the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) in the U.S., and (iii) PIPL in China. The research question is twofold: (i) how will PIPL affect the data privacy of Chinese citizens and consequently, (ii) how will PIPL influence the global digital order, particularly paralleling the existing GDPR and CCPA' In the first section, this article introduces the topic of data privacy as a global concern, followed in the second section by an in-depth policy context analysis of PIPL and a literature review on privacy that elucidates in particular the impact of the Social Credit System (SCS). In the third section, a comparative benchmarking is carried out between the GDPR, CCPA, and PIPL. Methodologically, policy documents around PIPL will be analyzed. In the fourth section, the case study of Shenzhen will be examined by undertaking a multi-stakeholder analysis following the Penta Helix framework. The article concludes by responding to the research questions, acknowledging limitations, and presenting future research avenues.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5030057
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1151-1178: UAV Fleet as a Dependable Service
           for Smart Cities: Model-Based Assessment and Application

    • Authors: Vyacheslav Kharchenko, Ihor Kliushnikov, Andrzej Rucinski, Herman Fesenko, Oleg Illiashenko
      First page: 1151
      Abstract: The paper suggests a model-based approach to assessment and choice of parameters of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) fleets applied as one of the main services for Smart Cities and recommendations to assure their dependability. The principles of building and modeling a UAV Fleet as a Dependable Service (UAVFaaDS) for Smart Cities are formulated. Dependability issues for UAVFaaDS including a taxonomy of UAVF failures caused by equipment faults and attacks on assets were specified. The main results cover methodology, classification of UAVFaaDS models as models of queuing systems, and a set of queueing theory-based models for assessment of UAVFaaDS performance, and availability allowing for analysis and choice of fleet parameters. The efficiency of UAVFaaDS is assessed by the probability of successful delivery of services. The proposed modeling base and algorithms provide a choice of appropriate models for analysis and synthesis of UAVFaaDS, grounding of parameters of UAV fleets considering operation modes, and maintenance policy. The application of the developed models and algorithms during the synthesis of UAVFaaDS allows choosing the appropriate parameters of the fleet and ensuring the dependability of services, as well as service of orders with a probability of 0.9–0.99 depending on the requirements. Two cases of UAVFaaDS application for delivery of medicines in normal and emergence modes, models’ development, and recommendations for their utilization are discussed.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-09-11
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5030058
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1179-1192: Digital Twins and Industry 4.0
           Technologies for Agricultural Greenhouses

    • Authors: Naftali Slob, William Hurst
      First page: 1179
      Abstract: Digital twin (DT) is one of the key concepts of the fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0). A DT is a data-driven, digital replica of a real-world object or environment, including all the states and behaviour of the real-life counterpart. Based on research across multiple domains, DTs show great potential to improve both efficiency and sustainability. In addition, a DT is able to remove key constraints of human observations and interactions. Yet, the technology is still in its infancy. Thus, this article presents a literature search across five different databases focusing on suitable approaches for data coupling and the stages of DT implementation integration with Industry 4.0 technologies. The review process follows the systematic literature review (SLR) methodology. The selected articles cover a wide range of DT implementations across the agricultural industry, ranging from arable farming to aquaponics. Findings include identification of the stages needed to create the DTs, the data coupling processes, and how Industry 4.0 technologies (e.g., cloud-based technologies, IoT, and AI subfields) are integrated. Findings presented in this article will support others in the design of DTs and integration of Industry 4.0 technologies for agricultural greenhouses.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5030059
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1193-1207: Impact of the Internet of Things on
           Psychology: A Survey

    • Authors: Hamed Vahdat-Nejad, Wathiq Mansoor, Sajedeh Abbasi, Mahdi Hajiabadi, Fatemeh Salmani, Faezeh Azizi, Reyhane Mosafer, Mohadese Jamalian, Hadi Khosravi-Farsani
      First page: 1193
      Abstract: The Internet of things (IoT) continues to “smartify” human life while influencing areas such as industry, education, economy, business, medicine, and psychology. The introduction of the IoT in psychology has resulted in various intelligent systems that aim to help people—particularly those with special needs, such as the elderly, disabled, and children. This paper proposes a framework to investigate the role and impact of the IoT in psychology from two perspectives: (1) the goals of using the IoT in this area, and (2) the computational technologies used towards this purpose. To this end, existing studies are reviewed from these viewpoints. The results show that the goals of using the IoT can be identified as morale improvement, diagnosis, and monitoring. Moreover, the main technical contributions of the related papers are system design, data mining, or hardware invention and signal processing. Subsequently, unique features of state-of-the-art research in this area are discussed, including the type and diversity of sensors, crowdsourcing, context awareness, fog and cloud platforms, and inference. Our concluding remarks indicate that this area is in its infancy and, consequently, the next steps of this research are discussed.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5030060
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 405-432: A Multiobjective Optimization
           Approach for Retrofitting Decision-Making towards Achieving Net-Zero
           Energy Districts: A Numerical Case Study in a Tropical Climate

    • Authors: Lorena Chacón, Miguel Chen Chen Austin, Carmen Castaño
      First page: 405
      Abstract: Buildings are among the main reasons for the deterioration of the world environment as they are responsible for a large percentage of CO2 emissions related to energy. For this reason, it is necessary to find solutions to this problem. This research project consists of constructing the metamodel of an urbanization located in Panama, Herrera province. The classification and systematization of its main elements, using the software DesignBuilder and SysML diagrams, were carried out for its subsequent implementation in an optimization analysis that seeks to approach the NZED standard. The main objectives of the optimization are reducing the energy consumption at the lowest possible price while maintaining or improving thermal comfort. In this study, it was possible to reduce electricity consumption to at least 60% of the original value and about 10% of the renewable energy generation capacity by implementing optimization techniques within the retrofit category related to the envelope of the buildings and the occupant’s behavior.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020023
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 433-454: Design, Analysis and Implementation
           of Bidirectional DC–DC Converters for HESS in DC Microgrid
           Applications

    • Authors: Srinivas Punna, Rupesh Mailugundla, Surender Reddy Salkuti
      First page: 433
      Abstract: This research proposes an enhanced converter for a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for a multi-input bidirectional DC–DC power converter (MIPC). When batteries are used for energy storage, their charge and discharge rates are low, putting the battery under current stress and shortening its life. Because of their increased power density, supercapacitors (SCs) can react quickly to abrupt fluctuations and solve this problem. SCs, on the other hand, cannot be utilized for storage since they cannot provide power for prolonged periods of time. Batteries and supercapacitors are employed together in HESSs because their opposing characteristics make them an ideal pair for energy storage. An MIPC is used to connect the HESS to the DC microgrid. The MIPC allows for decoupled battery and SC power regulation, as well as energy transfer across storage devices inside the system. A controller has been developed to regulate both HESS charging and discharging operations, making it a unified controller for DC microgrid applications. The proposed model predictive control (MPC) provided better DC grid voltage restoration to step change in PV generation and load demand over the traditional proportional integral (PI) control scheme. The MPC method minimizes current strains, extends battery life and enhances overall system performance in response to a step change in PV power and load demand as well as providing quicker DC grid voltage control. Simulation and experimental data for the proposed controller were created by varying PV generation and load demand, resulting in faster DC link voltage regulation.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020024
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 455-474: Implementing Data-Driven Smart City
           Applications for Future Cities

    • Authors: Yamuna Kaluarachchi
      First page: 455
      Abstract: Cities are investing in data-driven smart technologies to improve performance and efficiency and to generate a vast amount of data. Finding the opportunities to innovatively use this data help governments and authorities to forecast, respond, and plan for future scenarios. Access to real-time data and information can provide effective services that improve productivity, resulting in environmental, social, and economic benefits. It also assists in the decision-making process and provides opportunities for community engagement and participation by improving digital literacy and culture. This paper aims to review and analyze current practices of data-driven smart applications that contribute to the smooth functioning of urban city systems and the problems they face. The research methodology is qualitative: a systematic and extensive literature review carried out by PRISMA method. Data and information from different case studies carried out globally assisted in the inductive approach. Content analysis identified smart city indicators and related criteria in the case study examples. The study concluded that smart people, smart living, and smart governance methods that have come into practice at a later stage are as important as smart mobility, smart environments, and smart economy measures that were implemented early on, and cities are opening up to new, transparent participatory governance approaches where citizens play a key role. It also illustrates that the current new wave of smart cities with real time data are promoting citizen participation focusing on human, social capital as an essential component in future cities.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020025
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 475-495: Children’s Participation in the
           Design of Smart Solutions: A Literature Review

    • Authors: Maria Angela Pellegrino, Eftychia Roumelioti, Mauro D’Angelo, Rosella Gennari
      First page: 475
      Abstract: Smart solutions are widespread and diversified. Smart cities and smart objects are example of smart solutions. Their design usually follows certain patterns so that they can detect events and react accordingly. As future citizens, children are expected to interact with them in their daily lives. It is thus crucial to provide children with the tools for understanding, creating, and possibly programming them—in short, designing them. This paper presents a literature review of workshops involving children in designing smart solutions. The review coded a total of 25 papers that met the inclusion criteria. The discussion draws a research agenda using the workshops organized by the authors, the Roobopoli workshops for smart cities and the SNaP workshops for smart objects, as reference. Whereas smart cities and smart objects are usually addressed separately, this paper binds and compares them in order to investigate what, in different settings, enables children to be part of the design of smart solutions.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020026
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 496-521: Harmonic and Supraharmonic Emissions
           of Plug-In Electric Vehicle Chargers

    • Authors: Andrea Mariscotti
      First page: 496
      Abstract: Electric vehicle (EV) charging represents a relevant electric load with a rapid evolution in terms of number, power rating and distortion, in particular, considering the connection to the low-voltage public grid: available short-circuit power may be limited and particularly susceptible loads may co-exist in the same grid portion. Standards can partially address the problem covering only the harmonic interval, but they necessitate significant extension and improvement in the supraharmonic range. In addition, EV chargers have been observed to violate in some scenarios the applicable harmonic limits, so that the mechanisms of emission and distortion should be better understood and evaluated, including phenomena of mutual influence between EV chargers and with pre-existing grid distortion. Although models can help simulate large-scale scenarios in terms of fundamental frequency phenomena, such as power flow, voltage fluctuation and imbalance, substantial and reliable information can come from experimental results, providing measured harmonic and supraharmonic emissions, accompanied by details on loads mix, grid characteristics and EV charger operating conditions. This work thus defines the applicable constraints in terms of limits and compatibility levels for public and light industrial low-voltage grids, discusses the available experimental results and datasets, analyzing the typical distortion behavior and providing indication of sources of information for further studies.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-04-09
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020027
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 522-538: Outline and Impact of Firms Related
           to the Third Industrial Revolution: Investigation through Big Data

    • Authors: Matthieu Belarouci
      First page: 522
      Abstract: This article is focusing on the dynamism of the Third Industrial Revolution (TIR) in the region Hauts-de-France between 2013 and 2018. Region Hauts-de-France has been a forerunner in setting up a proactive policy in favour of the TIR. It provides a relevant and suitable context for the identification of TIR activities. We assess the job dynamism of the TIR through the implementation of big data methods for the identification of the firms involved in the TIR activities and the collection of firm microlevel data. We provide evidence of the strong dynamism of the TIR activities in a context of weak regional dynamics. We show that the growth in employment arises mainly from renewable energies, positive energy buildings, circular economy and energy efficiency. Future researches are encouraged to investigate the quality of employment and to question the distinctive characteristics of the firms involved in TIR.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-04-09
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020028
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 539-561: Research Structure and Trends of
           Smart Urban Mobility

    • Authors: Zaheer Allam, Ayyoob Sharifi
      First page: 539
      Abstract: Mobility is a subject of increasing importance in a time when cities have gained prominence, as they are home to over 56% of the world’s population and generate over 80% of global GDP. Urban planning principles have traditionally been developed to promote urban efficiency and enhance productivity. The emergence of ‘Smart Mobility’ has provided researchers and policy practitioners new ways to understand and plan cities. With rapid urbanization growth and the sustained mobility challenges faced in most global cities, this paper sets forth to understand and map the evolution of the concept of ‘Smart Urban Mobility’ through a bibliometric analysis and science mapping techniques using VOSviewer. In total, 6079 articles were retrieved from the Web of Science database over 5 decades, from 1968 to 2021, and divided into four sub-periods, namely 1968 to 2010, 2011 to 2015, 2016 to 2019, and 2020 to 2021. The paper provides a better understanding of the thematic focus and associated trends of smart mobility beyond technical issues related to Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), where due to diverse dynamics, such as unprecedented growth and advancement in technologies, attention has extended to incorporating the impacts of the application of different technologies in urban mobility as well as associated fields. This paper further identifies major sources, authors, publications, and countries that have made more contributions to the development of this field. The findings of this study can help researchers better understand the evolution of the subject, and help policymakers make better-informed decisions on investable infrastructures for better mobility outcomes in urban regeneration pursuits and future cities.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020029
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 562-582: Data-Driven Analytics Task Management
           Reasoning Mechanism in Edge Computing

    • Authors: Christos Anagnostopoulos, Tahani Aladwani, Ibrahim Alghamdi, Konstantinos Kolomvatsos
      First page: 562
      Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) applications have led to exploding contextual data for predictive analytics and exploration tasks. Consequently, computationally data-driven tasks at the network edge, such as machine learning models’ training and inference, have become more prevalent. Such tasks require data and resources to be executed at the network edge, while transferring data to Cloud servers negatively affects expected response times and quality of service (QoS). In this paper, we study certain computational offloading techniques in autonomous computing nodes (ANs) at the edge. ANs are distinguished by limited resources that are subject to a variety of constraints that can be violated when executing analytical tasks. In this context, we contribute a task-management mechanism based on approximate fuzzy inference over the popularity of tasks and the percentage of overlapping between the data required by a data-driven task and data available at each AN. Data-driven tasks’ popularity and data availability are fed into a novel two-stages Fuzzy Logic (FL) inference system that determines the probability of either executing tasks locally, offloading them to peer ANs or offloading to Cloud. We showcase that our mechanism efficiently derives such probability per each task, which consequently leads to efficient uncertainty management and optimal actions compared to benchmark models.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020030
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 583-607: A Federated Blockchain Approach for
           Fertility Preservation and Assisted Reproduction in Smart Cities

    • Authors: Da-Yin Liao
      First page: 583
      Abstract: Modern life is making people infertile. Giving birth later in life is wreaking havoc on our fertility and threatening human survival. Smart cities intend to optimize the quality of life of their citizens by utilizing technology for smarter living. This research first identifies the requirements and business opportunities of using advanced technology for smarter fertility preservation and assisted reproduction in smart cities. A federated blockchain approach is proposed for the alliance of integrated commercial egg banks (ICEBs). In particular, we designed a membership fee rebate (MFR) mechanism that offers incentives for blockchain creations in the egg banking alliance. We formulated the MFR problem into a leader–followers Stackelberg game whose objectives are (1) to maximize the benefits of forming the alliance (the leader) and (2) to maximize the benefits in each ICEB (the follower). We developed an iterative scheme that utilizes mathematical programming techniques to solve the two-level, Stackelberg game problem. With a given set of parameters of the alliance and membership fee function, and the average number of blocks generated for an oocyte, the iterative scheme achieves the optimal solution for the MFR rate per block created . A numerical example demonstrates the feasibility and applicability of the proposed iterative scheme. Numerical results show that it achieves good solutions in adding a small to medium-sized new ICEB to the existing alliance. The proposed federated approach lays the foundation for developing a blockchain-based egg banking platform.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020031
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 608-632: Enhancing the Replication Potential
           of Smart Lighting Projects

    • Authors: Madis Talmar, A. Georges L. Romme, Rianne Valkenburg
      First page: 608
      Abstract: To address major threats to the sustainability and quality of life in urban settings, many municipalities have started exploring routes toward smarter cities to, for example, lower their energy consumption and carbon footprint. These explorations, in the form of living labs or other pilot projects, often suffer from major problems in scaling up the initial try-outs. In this study, we identify the mechanisms that facilitate the diffusion of smart city solutions, which are developed with public funds but typically lack dedicated resources to spur the diffusion of these solutions within the same municipality as well as toward other municipalities. We introduce the construct of embedded replication potential, defined as the capacity of an original project to be either scaled up locally or replicated elsewhere. Subsequently, empirical findings from a study of smart lighting projects in several municipalities in northwestern Europe serve to develop a checklist-based tool for assessing the embedded replication potential of an initial project. This tool can also be used to assess the replication potential of other smart city projects.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020032
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 633-649: A Novel Security Architecture for
           WSN-Based Applications in Smart Grid

    • Authors: Nouf Aljadani, Tahani Gazdar
      First page: 633
      Abstract: The Smart Grid (SG) aims to cope with the problems of the traditional grid, using renewable power generators. Similarly, SG benefits from the deployment of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) to enhance its aspects by monitoring the physical behavior of the power generators. However, new threats and attacks may arise due to the open nature and large scale of SG where WSNs are deployed. In this paper, we propose a new security architecture for WSNs in SG based on public key infrastructure (PKI). The key idea of the proposed architecture is to distribute the role of the certification authority (CA) among a set of sensor nodes to ensure the availability and scalability of the CA services. To elect this set of sensor nodes, we propose a novel lightweight clustering algorithm for WSNs that relies on the trust metrics of the nodes and their energy levels. The proposed architecture provides many security services such as authentication and confidentiality and mitigates many types of attacks such as Sybil and eavesdropping. Extensive simulations have been conducted using network simulator OMNET++ and Castalia framework to investigate the performance of the clustering algorithm. The results show that almost 100% of the sensors are members of clusters, and even in the presence of malicious nodes, the number of cluster heads remains static which reflects the robustness of the proposed architecture.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020033
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 650-667: Enhancing OLSR Protocol by an
           Advanced Greedy Forwarding Mechanism for VANET in Smart Cities

    • Authors: MyDriss Laanaoui, Said Raghay
      First page: 650
      Abstract: The future Intelligent Transport System "ITS" is one of the major challenges of the smart city. It requires fast and efficient communication between vehicles (vehicle-to-vehicle “V2V”), to ensure information exchange in order to improve safety, which reduces accidents and consequently save lives, hence the need of the Vehicular Ad Hoc Network “VANET”, which makes possible the inter-vehicle communication. This network is characterized by a variable topology. Therefore, MANET (Mobile Adhoc NETwork) routing protocols need a few tweaks to be available for the vehicle environment. In this paper, we start by exposing some works related to the evaluation of the most well-known protocols. After a comparative study, we deduce that the OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing) protocol outperforms other routing protocols in terms of End-to-End Delay (EED) and Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR). In addition, we note that the Greedy forwarding “GF” mechanism is suited for the VANET environment, which has been improved and called Greedy forwarding Advanced “GFA”, to overcome the stationary node problem. Our approach improves the OLSR protocol to be more suitable and efficient for VANET by introducing the GFA mechanism. Moreover, we compare our approach to the OLSR classic version. In this work, we use a realistic scenario from Open Street Map (OSM), and simulations are performed using SUMO (Simulation of Urban MObility). The trace files generated from SUMO are used for further simulation in NS-3 (Network Simulator) to validate our proposition. The simulation results are analyzed and discussed. Our approach performs best compared to OLSR in terms of EED and PDR, especially for dense traffic.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020034
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 668-699: Development and Future Scope of
           Renewable Energy and Energy Storage Systems

    • Authors: Sushyanth Sridhar, Surender Reddy Salkuti
      First page: 668
      Abstract:  This review study attempts to summarize available energy storage systems in order to accelerate the adoption of renewable energy. Inefficient energy storage systems have been shown to function as a deterrent to the implementation of sustainable development. It is therefore critical to conduct a thorough examination of existing and soon-to-be-developed energy storage technologies. Various scholarly publications in the fields of energy storage systems and renewable energy have been reviewed and summarized. Data and themes have been further highlighted with the use of appropriate figures and tables. Case studies and examples of major projects have also been researched to gain a better understanding of the energy storage technologies evaluated. An insightful analysis of present energy storage technologies and other possible innovations have been discovered with the use of suitable literature review and illustrations. This report also emphasizes the critical necessity for an efficient storage system if renewable energy is to be widely adopted. 
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020035
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 700-714: AI-Based Predictive Modelling of the
           Onset and Progression of Dementia

    • Authors: Sten Hanke, Francesca Mangialasche, Markus Bödenler, Bernhard Neumayer, Tiia Ngandu, Patrizia Mecocci, Helena Untersteiner, Elisabeth Stögmann
      First page: 700
      Abstract: Dementia, the most severe expression of cognitive impairment, is among the main causes of disability in older adults and currently affects over 55 million individuals. Dementia prevention is a global public health priority, and recent studies have shown that dementia risk can be reduced through non-pharmacological interventions targeting different lifestyle areas. The FINnish GERiatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) has shown a positive effect on cognition in older adults at risk of dementia through a 2-year multidomain intervention targeting lifestyle and vascular risk factors. The LETHE project builds on these findings and will provide a digital-enabled FINGER intervention model for delaying or preventing the onset of cognitive decline. An individualised ICT-based multidomain, preventive lifestyle intervention program will be implemented utilising behaviour and intervention data through passive and active data collection. Artificial intelligence and machine learning methods will be used for data-driven risk factor prediction models. An initial model based on large multinational datasets will be validated and integrated into an 18-month trial integrating digital biomarkers to further improve the model. Furthermore, the LETHE project will investigate the concept of federated learning to, on the one hand, protect the privacy of the health and behaviour data and, on the other hand, to provide the opportunity to enhance the data model easily by integrating additional clinical centres.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020036
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 715-727: The Metaverse as a Virtual Form of
           Data-Driven Smart Urbanism: On Post-Pandemic Governance through the Prism
           of the Logic of Surveillance Capitalism

    • Authors: Bibri, Allam
      First page: 715
      Abstract: The Metaverse, as a gigantic ecosystem application enabled mainly by Artificial Intelligence (AI), the IoT, Big Data, and Extended Reality (XR) technologies, represents an idea of a hypothetical "parallel virtual environment" that incarnates ways of living in virtually inhabitable cities. It is increasingly seen as a transition from smart cities to virtual cities and a new target for city governments to attain “new” goals. However, the Metaverse project was launched amid the COVID-19 pandemic, a crisis purported to be a rare opportunity that should be seized to reset and reimagine the world—though mainly in regard to its digital incarnation, and what this entails in terms of both cementing and normalizing the corporate-led, top-down, technocratic, tech-mediated, algorithmic mode of governance, as well as new forms of controlling ways of living in urban society. The “new normal” has already set the stage for undemocratically resetting and unilaterally reimagining the world, resulting in an abrupt large-scale digital transformation of urban society, a process of digitization and digitalization that is in turn paving the way for a new era of merging virtuality and urbanity. This has raised serious concerns over the risks and impacts of the surveillance technologies that have been rapidly and massively deployed in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. These concerns also relate to the global architecture of the computer mediation of the Metaverse upon which the logic of surveillance capitalism depends, and which is constituted by control and commodification mechanisms that seek to monitor, predict, control, and trade the behavior of human users, as well as to exile them from their own. This viewpoint paper explores and questions the Metaverse from the prism of the social and economic logic of surveillance capitalism, focusing on how and why the practices of the post-pandemic governance of urban society are bound to be undemocratic and unethical. The novelty of the viewpoint lies in providing new insights into understanding the dark side of the ostensible fancier successor of the Internet of today, thereby its value and contribution to the ongoing scholarly debates in the field of Science, Technology, and Society (STS). In addition, by shedding light on the emergence of the Metaverse as a computing platform, the viewpoint seeks to help policymakers understand and assess the ramifications of its wide adoption, as well as to help users make informed decisions about its usage in everyday activity—if it actualizes.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020037
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 728-755: The Dual Role of Artificial
           Intelligence in Developing Smart Cities

    • Authors: Maria Enrica Zamponi, Enrico Barbierato
      First page: 728
      Abstract: Defining smart city pillars, and their nature and essence, continues to be debated in the scientific literature. The vast amount of information collected by electronic devices, often regarded merely as a means of rationalizing the use of resources and improving efficiency, could also be considered as a pillar. Information by itself cannot be deciphered or understood without analysis performed by algorithms based on Artificial Intelligence. Such analysis extracts new forms of knowledge in the shape of correlations and patterns used to support the decision-making processes associated with governance and, ultimately, to define new policies. Alongside information, energy plays a crucial role in smart cities as many activities that lead to growth in the economy and employment depend on this pillar. As a result, it is crucial to highlight the link between energy and the algorithms able to plan and forecast the energy consumption of smart cities. The result of this paper consists in the highlighting of how AI and information together can be legitimately considered foundational pillars of smart cities only when their real impact, or value, has been assessed. Furthermore, Artificial Intelligence can be deployed to support smart grids, electric vehicles, and smart buildings by providing techniques and methods to enhance their innovative value and measured efficiency.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5020038
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 22-33: Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Site
           Selection for Smart Community Demonstration Projects

    • Authors: Ming-Shiu Sung, Shen-Guan Shih, Yeng-Horng Perng
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Definition and imagination of an ideal city can be traced back to the origin of garden city in UK about 100 years ago. Since then, many different names and topics have been proposed and smart city is the one most recently proposed. Starting from 2000, more and more countries have developed various demonstration projects for the promotion of smart city in order to provide total solution for the promotion of sustainable development and social welfare. In fact, some of them have been successfully carried out. Some researchers in Taiwan argue that the current mechanism by which government subsidies are allocated for smart city demonstration projects warrants improvement. A comprehensive literature review determined that the development potential of smart cities should be prioritized in site selection for such demonstration projects. This study developed an evaluation framework on the basis of multi-criteria evaluation methods to enable the identification of suitable smart city demonstration sites. Evaluation criteria were first identified through the Delphi method. Next, the weights of each criterion were derived through the analytic hierarchy process. Furthermore, the capability of the proposed evaluation model was determined through simulation testing. Four demonstration sites are simulated, they are: Taipower Smart Community, Yinlin Technology University campus, Taichung Creative Cultural Park, and Asian New Bay Area in Kaohsiung, It is expected that the research findings in this thesis can be helpful to the future decision for the demo site selection of smart city.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010002
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 34-53: Operation of the Egyptian Power Grid
           with Maximum Penetration Level of Renewable Energies Using Corona Virus
           Optimization Algorithm

    • Authors: Hady H. Fayek, Omar H. Abdalla
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Countries around the world are looking forward to fully sustainable energy by the middle of the century to meet Paris climate agreement goals. This paper presents a novel algorithm to optimally operate the Egyptian grid with maximum renewable power generation, minimum voltage deviation and minimum power losses. The optimal operation is performed using Corona Virus Algorithm (CVO). The proposed CVO is compared to the Teaching and Learning-Based Optimization (TLBO) algorithm in terms of voltage deviation, power losses and share of renewable energies. The real demand, solar irradiance and wind speed in typical winter and summer days are considered. The 2020 Egyptian grid model is developed, simulated, and optimized using DIgSILENT software application. The results have proved the effectiveness of the proposed CVO, compared to the TLBO, to operate the grid with the highest share possible of renewables. The paper is a step forward to achieve Egyptian government targets to reach 20% and 42% penetration level of renewable energies by 2022 and 2035, respectively.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010003
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 54-70: Fixed and Mobile Low-Cost Sensing
           Approaches for Microclimate Monitoring in Urban Areas: A Preliminary Study
           in the City of Bolzano (Italy)

    • Authors: Silvia Croce, Stefano Tondini
      First page: 54
      Abstract: In the current scenario of massive urbanization and global climate change, an intelligent monitoring of the environmental variables is becoming fundamental to ensure good living conditions in cities. Indeed, the acquisition of data with high spatiotemporal resolution can enable the assessment of environmental vulnerabilities in urban areas towards the definition of responsive adaptation and mitigation strategies. In this context, the current work presents a two-fold approach based on low-cost cloud-connected sensors for (i) fixed and (ii) mobile monitoring of several environmental parameters. This paper, which focuses on the measurement aspects of the urban micro-climate, describes in detail the hardware and software components of both approaches, and how to exploit them for setting up a field campaign. The methods were tested in the city of Bolzano (Italy), demonstrating their suitability for identifying the spatial variability of the microclimate in relation to the urban morphology, and for highlighting the presence of the urban heat island and estimating its intensity.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010004
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 71-89: Participatory Governance of Smart
           Cities: Insights from e-Participation of Putrajaya and Petaling Jaya,
           Malaysia

    • Authors: Seng Boon Lim, Tan Yigitcanlar
      First page: 71
      Abstract: Participatory governance is widely viewed as an essential element of realizing planned smart cities. Nonetheless, the implementation of e-participation platforms, such as the websites and mobile applications of civic authorities, often offer ambiguous information on how public voices may influence e-decision-making. This study aims to examine the status of participatory governance from the angle of e-participation platforms and from the broader scope of linking e-platforms to a smart city blueprint. In order to achieve this aim, the study focuses on shedding light on the e-governance space given to smart city realization in a developing country context—i.e., Malaysia. The Putrajaya and Petaling Jaya smart cities of Malaysia were selected as the testbeds of the study, which used the multiple case study methodology and multiple data collection designs. The analyses were done through the qualitative observations and quantitative descriptive statistics. The results revealed that both of the investigated smart city cases remained limited in their provision of e-decision-making space. The inefficiency of implementing planned initiatives to link the city blueprints to e-platforms was also evidenced. The study evidenced that the political culture of e-decision-making is undersized in Malaysia, which hinders the achievement of e-democracy in the smart cities’ development. This study has contributed a case report on a developing country’s smart cities, covering the participatory issues from the angle of e-participation and e-platforms.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010005
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 90-107: A Comprehensive Methodology for
           Assessing the Impact of Smart City Interventions: Evidence from Espoo
           Transformation Process

    • Authors: Aristotelis Ntafalias, Giorgos Papadopoulos, Panagiotis Papadopoulos, Aapo Huovila
      First page: 90
      Abstract: In recent years, the world’s population living in cities has been rapidly increasing. Cities are transforming their infrastructure in a smarter and more efficient way so that sustainable development forms part of their long-term strategy. However, this transformation does not always result in expected benefits due to a variety of factors such as an absence of social acceptance, a lack of holistic design and the development of unilateral interventions. An analysis of the scientific literature related to the evaluation of the impact of smart city actions revealed a gap in the holistic methods for their assessment. To this end, an accurate evaluation of implemented smart solutions focusing on the energy domain is necessary in order to assess the expected and realized impact of each solution. This paper proposes a seven-step methodology for assessing the impact of smart city interventions and presents a use case for the city of Espoo. A number of major findings were the outcome of our research and development work, such as the need for a thorough analysis of the long-term vision of the city, a combined top-down and bottom-up approach and the ongoing cooperation between all stakeholders involved in urban planning and transformation, in which necessary Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are defined.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010006
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 108-130: Soft Assets Consideration in Smart
           and Resilient City Development

    • Authors: Eiko Wataya, Rajib Shaw
      First page: 108
      Abstract: For a smart city, soft or non-physical assets share an important capital component with many impacts in different contexts. They enable a city to deliver and mainstream a people-centered policy in addition to the benefits provided by traditional, hard infrastructure. Soft assets can involve social and human capital, knowledge, participation, and innovative approaches that drive value in the city. However, it is always a challenge for city policy makers to identify and strengthen these soft assets using a systemic approach due to their inherent characteristics. This paper argues that soft assets should be strategically integrated into the development process of smart and resilient cities. Therefore, exploring various approaches to prioritize soft asset consideration would provide helpful guidelines to city policy makers for municipal value creation, and identify where the greatest needs for soft or intangible assets lie. This paper examines how to identify and decide which soft assets should take priority in smart and resilient cities. The findings can assist policy makers in their consideration of an optimal mix and balance of soft assets required in the city to improve living structures for a people-centered approach.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010007
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 131-132: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Smart
           Cities in 2021

    • Authors: Smart Cities Editorial Office Smart Cities Editorial Office
      First page: 131
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010008
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 133-145: Bauhaus.MobilityLab: A Living Lab for
           the Development and Evaluation of AI-Assisted Services

    • Authors: Carsten Frey, Philipp Hertweck, Lucas Richter, Oliver Warweg
      First page: 133
      Abstract: With the vision “Innovation by experiment” the Bauhaus.MobilityLab started in July 2020 as a living lab in the district Brühl of the city Erfurt, Thuringia, Germany. As a unique project, it is coupling the sectors mobility, logistics and energy into a unified living lab. It allows to design, develop and evaluate innovative services to increase the quality of life in the city. Bauhaus.MobilityLab offers access to live smart city data of different domains and provides a set of powerful artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms for data processing, analytics and forecasting. In contrast to existing platforms, its uniqueness is the available and integrated living lab. It allows directly rolling out new smart city services and to evaluate the impact in the real world. This paper describes the implementation of the technical platform supporting the Bauhaus.MobilityLab, realized according to the DIN SPEC 91357 as an open urban platform. It focuses on data sharing based on the concepts of the International Data Spaces and the integration of AI algorithms. The concepts are presented based on examples in the energy domain.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010009
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 146-161: Barcelona under the 15-Minute City
           Lens: Mapping the Accessibility and Proximity Potential Based on
           Pedestrian Travel Times

    • Authors: Carles Ferrer-Ortiz, Oriol Marquet, Laia Mojica, Guillem Vich Vich
      First page: 146
      Abstract: Many academics, urban planners and policymakers subscribe to the benefits of implementing the concept of the 15-Minute City (FMC) in metropolises across the globe. Despite the interest raised by the concept, and other variants of chrono-urbanism, to date, only a few studies have evaluated cities from the FMC perspective. Most studies on the subject also lack a proper well-defined methodology that can properly assess FMC conditions. In this context, this study contributes to the development of an appropriate FMC-measuring method by using network analysis for services and activities in the City of Barcelona (Catalonia, northeastern Spain). By using network analyst and basing our analysis on cadastral parcels, this study is able to detail the overall accessibility conditions of the city and its urban social functions based on the FMC perspective. The resulting spatial synthetic index is enhanced with the creation of partial indexes measuring the impact of education, provisioning, entertainment, public and non-motorized transport, and care facilities. The results show that most residents of this dense and compact city live in areas with proximity to services, that can clearly be labeled as FMC, although there are some shortfalls in peripheral areas. Results validate the FMC methodology as a viable method to highlight spatial inequalities at the microscale level, a valuable tool for the development of effective planning policies.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010010
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 162-176: SmartNoshWaste: Using Blockchain,
           Machine Learning, Cloud Computing and QR Code to Reduce Food Waste in
           Decentralized Web 3.0 Enabled Smart Cities

    • Authors: Somdip Dey, Suman Saha, Amit Kumar Singh, Klaus McDonald-Maier
      First page: 162
      Abstract: Food waste is an important social and environmental issue that the current society faces, where one third of the total food produced is wasted or lost every year while more than 820 million people around the world do not have access to adequate food. However, as we move towards a decentralized Web 3.0 enabled smart city, we can utilize cutting edge technologies such as blockchain, artificial intelligence, cloud computing and many more to reduce food waste in different phases of the supply chain. In this paper, we propose SmartNoshWaste—a blockchain based multi-layered framework utilizing cloud computing, QR code and reinforcement learning to reduce food waste. We also evaluate SmartNoshWaste on real world food data collected from the nosh app to show the efficacy of the proposed framework and we are able to reduce food waste by 9.46% in comparison to the originally collected food data based on the experimental evaluation.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010011
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 177-205: Electric Vehicle Charging Load
           Allocation at Residential Locations Utilizing the Energy Savings Gained by
           Optimal Network Reconductoring

    • Authors: Preetham Goli, Kiran Jasthi, Srinivasa Rao Gampa, Debapriya Das, Wajiha Shireen, Pierluigi Siano, Josep M. Guerrero
      First page: 177
      Abstract: In this study, a two-stage methodology based on the energy savings gained by optimal network reconductoring was developed for the sizing and allocation of electric vehicle (EV) charging load at the residential locations in urban distribution systems. During the first stage, the Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA) was applied to minimize the annual energy losses of the radial distribution system through optimum network reconductoring. A multi-objective function was formulated to minimize investment, peak loss, and annual energy loss costs at different load factors. The results obtained with the flower pollination algorithm were compared with the particle swarm optimization algorithm. In the second stage, a simple heuristic procedure was developed for the sizing and allocation of EV charging load at every node of the distribution system utilizing part of the annual energy savings obtained by optimal network reconductoring. The number of electric cars, electric bikes, and electric scooters that can be charged at every node was computed while maintaining the voltage and branch current constraints. The simulation results were demonstrated on 123 bus and 51 bus radial distribution networks to validate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010012
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 206-222: Models for Supporting Mobility as a
           Service (MaaS) Design

    • Authors: Giuseppe Musolino, Corrado Rindone, Antonino Vitetta
      First page: 206
      Abstract: Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is the new approach in transportation systems that allows users to use different transport services as a single option, by using digital platforms and with integrated design. In MaaS many actors can be identified: MaaS operators, MaaS companies, MaaS users, citizens, system manager/planner. In order to be able to design the system in an integrated way, it is necessary to identify comprehensive methodologies that make it possible to reach sustainability targets in a context where the decisions to be taken are shared between several operators and affect users and citizens. In this paper, the methods to be adopted for the design of an integrated transport service system have been studied. The main aim of this paper concerns the specification of transport system models for estimating the effects of decision-makers’ actions on MaaS. The consolidated design methodologies of transport networks have been extended in the context of the MaaS. The paper reports a methodology that can be used and describes the main models to be used, which derive from consolidated specifications in the field of transport systems engineering. The methodologies have to be integrated into Intelligent and Communication Technology systems to build the Intelligent Transport System in the MaaS environment.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010013
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 223-240: Dynamic Pricing for Charging of EVs
           with Monte Carlo Tree Search

    • Authors: Jan Mrkos, Robert Basmadjian
      First page: 223
      Abstract: As electric vehicles (EVs) are slowly becoming a common occurrence on roads, commercial EV charging is becoming a standard commercial service. With this development, charging station operators are looking for ways to make their charging services more profitable or allocate the available resources optimally. Dynamic pricing is a proven technique to increase revenue in markets with heterogeneous demand. This paper proposes a Markov Decision Process (MDP)-based approach to revenue- or utilization- maximizing dynamic pricing for charging station operators. We implement the method using a Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) algorithm and evaluate it in simulation using a range of problem instances based on a real-world dataset of EV charging sessions. We show that our approach provides near-optimal pricing decisions in milliseconds for large-scale problems, significantly increasing revenue or utilization over the flat-rate baseline under a range of parameters.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 241-250: Economic Framework of Smart and
           Integrated Urban Water Systems

    • Authors: Neil Grigg
      First page: 241
      Abstract: Smart and integrated urban water systems have important roles in advancing smart cities, but their contributions go much further by supplying needed public services and connecting other sectors to meet sustainability goals. Achieving integration and gaining access to financing are obstacles to implementing smart water systems and both are implicit in the economic framework of smart cities. Problems in financing the start-up of smart water systems are reported often. The local and diverse nature of water systems is another barrier because an approach that works in one place may not work in another with different conditions. The paper identifies the challenges posed by the economic framework and provides examples from four cities with diverse characteristics. It outlines pathways to advance implementation of smart water systems by improving control strategies, advancing instrumentation and control technologies, and most of all, to help transform cities by raising customer awareness and trust through reliable and useful water information.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010015
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 251-275: A Cluster-Based Approach Using
           Smartphone Data for Bike-Sharing Docking Stations Identification: Lisbon
           Case Study

    • Authors: Tiago Fontes, Miguel Arantes, Paulo V. Figueiredo, Paulo Novais
      First page: 251
      Abstract: Urban mobility is a massive issue in the current century, being widely promoted the need of adopting sustainable solutions regarding transportation within large urban centres. The evolution of technologies has democratised smart cities to better plan and manage their mobility solutions, without compromising the social, economic, and environmental impacts. Pursuing the carbon neutrality and the climate agreement goals, soft mobility is one of the most popular emerging methods to provide greener alternatives regarding mobility. Among these transportation modes are the bicycle, which has been widely used in several public systems across the world, one of them being in Lisbon. This article provides a decision support system for bike-sharing docking stations for three council parishes of the city, namely, Parque das Nações, Marvila, and Beato. Taking advantage of clustering methods and GSM data from a telecommunication operator, this study pretends to highlight a novel approach to identify soft mobility hotspots, in specific bike-sharing docking stations, for suited mobility management systems in Lisbon’s city centre.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010016
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 276-293: Spatial Analysis of Economic
           Activities as a Tool for Effective Urban Policies

    • Authors: Stella Manika, Konstantinos Karalidis, Aspa Gospodini
      First page: 276
      Abstract: The economic activities of each city greatly shape and predict their development as well as make them more competitive both locally and globally. In the last two decades, as part of the international economic crisis, Greece has been at the center of changes that have resulted in the closure of thousands of businesses. This significantly affected Greek cities by changing their economic profile and robustness via the spatial distribution of their economic activities. Economic geography, as a sector that examines the geographical distribution of economic activities, is an important methodological base for analysing business locations and urban spatial processes. This paper aims to analyse, through a combination of economic geography theories and spatial analysis methods, the spatial patterns of economic activities and to identify urban areas that are resilient in difficult times of crisis. Thus cities that have the ability, via the proposed analysis/methodological framework, to control and evaluate their economic profile and prospects, can be transformed into smart cities by adopting ad hoc urban renaissance and resilient policies.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010017
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 294-317: Energy Community in
           Action—Energy Citizenship Contract as Tool for Climate Neutrality

    • Authors: Rossella Roversi, Andrea Boeri, Serena Pagliula, Giulia Turci
      First page: 294
      Abstract: Cities are responsible for 65% of energy consumption and for the 70% of CO2 emissions. Incisive actions are fundamental to bring cities towards climate neutrality by 2050 working by and for the citizens. For this reason, the “100 climate-neutral cities Mission” anticipates the target of climate neutrality by 2030. The objective of this paper, developed within the H2020 GRETA project—GReen Energy Transition Actions (GA101022317), is to investigate energy communities and climate city contracts as key interventions to face the ambitious goal of implementing citizens-centered and climate-neutral cities. To achieve this objective, this paper is structured as follows: (1) an updated framework of European and Italian legislation concerning energy communities; (2) an overview of climate city contracts’ definition and key aspects; (3) a selection and analysis of energy communities’ case studies; (4) a description of already developed pilot climate city contracts. The results provide more advanced knowledge about EU energy communities strategies and about the possible contractual agreements that can guarantee commitment between parties and can allow the active participation of citizens in the energy system. The lessons learned contribute to the application in the GRETA Italian case study, whose first participation activities are also described in the paper.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010018
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 318-346: A Survey of Adaptive Multi-Agent
           Networks and Their Applications in Smart Cities

    • Authors: Nasim Nezamoddini, Amirhosein Gholami
      First page: 318
      Abstract: The world is moving toward a new connected world in which millions of intelligent processing devices communicate with each other to provide services in transportation, telecommunication, and power grids in the future’s smart cities. Distributed computing is considered one of the efficient platforms for processing and management of massive amounts of data collected by smart devices. This can be implemented by utilizing multi-agent systems (MASs) with multiple autonomous computational entities by memory and computation capabilities and the possibility of message-passing between them. These systems provide a dynamic and self-adaptive platform for managing distributed large-scale systems, such as the Internet-of-Things (IoTs). Despite, the potential applicability of MASs in smart cities, very few practical systems have been deployed using agent-oriented systems. This research surveys the existing techniques presented in the literature that can be utilized for implementing adaptive multi-agent networks in smart cities. The related literature is categorized based on the steps of designing and controlling these adaptive systems. These steps cover the techniques required to define, monitor, plan, and evaluate the performance of an autonomous MAS. At the end, the challenges and barriers for the utilization of these systems in current smart cities, and insights and directions for future research in this domain, are presented.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010019
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 348-363: A Decentralized Blockchain-Based
           Trust Management Framework for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    • Authors: Tahani Gazdar, Ohoud Alboqomi, Asmaa Munshi
      First page: 348
      Abstract: Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) are one of the pillars of the Internet of Vehicles, they provide plenty of applications ranging from safety to entertainment. Safety applications largely depend on reliable and authentic traffic-related data. However, ensuring the data reliability and authenticity is facing many challenges due mainly to the scalability of VANETs such as the high speed, the long roads, and the open nature of VANETs. This paper addresses these challenges by proposing a decentralized Blockchain-based trust management framework (BC-TMF) aiming to compute trust metrics for vehicles. These trust metrics rely on the authenticity of the messages. Each vehicle assesses the authenticity of the received messages in real-time, calculates a local trust metric for the originator of such messages, then shares it with a miner. Periodically each miner aggregates the received trust metrics into global trust metrics, then packs them in a block. To investigate the efficiency and consistency of the proposed framework, extensive simulations are conducted. The obtained results show that the proposed BC-TMF has an excellent capability in computing accurate trust metrics for vehicles. Besides, it outperforms the existing ones in terms of the accuracy of computed trust metrics, particularly for malicious vehicles.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010020
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 364-381: Designing Geographic Information
           System Based Property Tax Assessment in India

    • Authors: Anu Singh, Suraj Kumar Singh, Gowhar Meraj, Shruti Kanga, Majid Farooq, Nikola Kranjčić, Bojan Đurin, Sudhanshu
      First page: 364
      Abstract: Property tax is the primary source of revenue for municipal bodies. In India, municipal corporations are facing issues in property tax collection, and the primary reason for it is a lack of count of assessed properties under its jurisdiction. Also, the storage of information on the properties is mainly based on manual efforts, which leads to data redundancy and failure to appropriate tax collection. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) consists of technology, personnel, and resources to create, maintain, visualize, search, and share geospatial data and services. The study has been carried out in the Hauz Khas Ward, South Delhi Municipal Corporation, Delhi. This paper aims to develop a spatial database for property tax management. It includes capturing the building footprint, road, land use such as parks, paved area, drains, and demarcation of boundaries such as locality slums, based on a regular grid net with a cell size of 250 m by 250 m. The generated geospatial database has been finally used to evaluate parameters for property tax calculation. Moreover, this spatial database can be organized as different models for any web-based application for municipal services. This study provides a working example of a GIS-based property tax collection solution for whole of India and other South-Asian countries.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010021
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 382-404: Technology Developments and Impacts
           of Connected and Autonomous Vehicles: An Overview

    • Authors: Hafiz Usman Ahmed, Ying Huang, Pan Lu, Raj Bridgelall
      First page: 382
      Abstract: The scientific advancements in the vehicle and infrastructure automation industry are progressively improving nowadays to provide benefits for the end-users in terms of traffic congestion reduction, safety enhancements, stress-free travels, fuel cost savings, and smart parking, etc. The advances in connected, autonomous, and connected autonomous vehicles (CV, AV, and CAV) depend on the continuous technology developments in the advanced driving assistance systems (ADAS). A clear view of the technology developments related to the AVs will give the users insights on the evolution of the technology and predict future research needs. In this paper, firstly, a review is performed on the available ADAS technologies, their functions, and the expected benefits in the context of CVs, AVs, and CAVs such as the sensors deployed on the partial or fully automated vehicles (Radar, LiDAR, etc.), the communication systems for vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure networking, and the adaptive and cooperative adaptive cruise control technology (ACC/CACC). Secondly, for any technologies to be applied in practical AVs related applications, this study also includes a detailed review in the state/federal guidance, legislation, and regulations toward AVs related applications. Last but not least, the impacts of CVs, AVs, and CAVs on traffic are also reviewed to evaluate the potential benefits as the AV related technologies penetrating in the market. Based on the extensive reviews in this paper, the future related research gaps in technology development and impact analysis are also discussed.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5010022
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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