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  Subjects -> ARCHITECTURE (Total: 219 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 264 Journals sorted by number of followers
Modernism/modernity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Environment and Planning B : Urban Analytics and City Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
European Planning Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Architectural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
A+BE : Architecture and the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Interiors : Design, Architecture and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Architecture and Urbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Architecture and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Architecture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Architecture and Urban Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Grey Room     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Urban Research & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Landscape Architecture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Architectural Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Medieval Latin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Urban Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
City, Territory and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
The Journal of Architecture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Environmental Science and Sustainable Development : International Journal Of Environmental Science & Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Design Ecologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Islamic Architecture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Architecture, Art & Humanistic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Architectural Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
URBAN DESIGN International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Architectural Engineering and Design Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environnement Urbain / Urban Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
TECHNE - Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Town and Regional Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Architectural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
OASE Journal for Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Artifact : Journal of Design Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Vernacular Architecture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Places Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of architecture&ENVIRONMENT     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
arq: Architectural Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Architectural Theory Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Home Cultures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Future Cities and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Apuntes : Revista de Estudios sobre Patrimonio Cultural - Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Architectural Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ambiances     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Landscape Architecture Frontiers     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
ABE Journal : Architecture Beyond Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
CLARA : Classical Art and Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Winterthur Portfolio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Architectural Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ARQ     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of the Built Environment and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers of Architectural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Enquiry / The ARCC Journal of Architectural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cities & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Housing and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
South East European Journal of Architecture and Design     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
DEARQ - Revista de Arquitectura / Journal of Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Human Capital in Urban Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Footprint : Delft Architecture Theory Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Academia : Architecture and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
GRID - Architecture, Planning and Design Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Terrain.org : A Journal of the Built & Natural Environments     Free   (Followers: 3)
MediaTropes     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin KNOB     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Livraisons d’Histoire de l’Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ArcHistoR     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Architecture and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
A&P Continuidad     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Smart Cities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BUILT : International Journal of Building, Urban, Interior and Landscape Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Fabrications: The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and New Zealand     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arqueología de la Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Planner     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ángulo Recto. Revista de estudios sobre la ciudad como espacio plural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
FORMakademisk - forskningstidsskrift for design og designdidaktikk     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arquitectura y Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Charrette     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Facade Design and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Palimpsesto     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
project baikal : Journal of architecture, design and urbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arena Journal of Architectural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nature : National Academic Journal of Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Joelho : Journal of Architectural Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Gazi University Journal of Science Part B : Art, Humanities, Design and Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eurasian Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Landscape Planning and Architecture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Sustainable Cities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Épités - Épitészettudomány     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
étapes: international     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Dibt Mitteilungen (Formerly-Mitteilungen Deut Inst Fuer Bautechnik)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Persianate Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Arquitectura e Ingenieria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín Académico. Revista de investigación y arquitectura contemporánea     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tafter Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Spool     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Der Architekt     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ARQUISUR     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Space Ontology International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ArDIn. Arte, Diseño e Ingeniería     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios del Hábitat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
REUDAR : European Journal of Roman Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Architectural Research in Finland     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Japan Architectural Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AURUM : Mühendislik Sistemleri ve Mimarlık Dergisi = Aurum Journal of Engineering Systems and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Architectural / Planning Research and Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Architecture, Design and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
disP - The Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Thresholds     Hybrid Journal  
Re. Revista de Edificación     Open Access  
Technology|Architecture + Design     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering     Open Access  
EN BLANCO : Revista de Arquitectura     Full-text available via subscription  
VITRUVIO : International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Porta Aurea     Open Access  
Undagi : Jurnal Ilmiah Arsitektur     Open Access  
International Journal of Architecture and Infrastructure Planning     Full-text available via subscription  
Montreal Architectural Review     Open Access  
Patrimoines du Sud     Open Access  
Vitruvian     Open Access  
Sens public     Open Access  
Journal of the Society for the Study of Architecture in Canada / Le Journal de la Société pour l'étude de l'architecture au Canada     Open Access  
Revista Geometria Gráfica     Open Access  
Construindo     Open Access  
Procesos Urbanos     Open Access  
PARC Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Construção     Open Access  
tecYt     Open Access  
De Res Architettura     Open Access  
Pensum     Open Access  
Revista de Investigación     Open Access  
Polis     Open Access  
Periodica Polytechnica Architecture     Open Access  
Les Cahiers de la recherche architecturale urbaine et paysagère     Open Access  
Elkawnie : Journal of Islamic Science and Technology     Open Access  
Riset Arsitektur     Open Access  
Loggia, Arquitectura & Restauración     Open Access  
Ars Longa : Cuadernos de arte     Open Access  
ZARCH : Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Architecture and Urbanism     Open Access  
Limaq     Open Access  
Mokslas – Lietuvos ateitis / Science – Future of Lithuania     Open Access  
Revista de Arquitectura     Open Access  
Ra : Revista de Arquitectura     Full-text available via subscription  
Módulo Arquitectura - CUC     Open Access  
Revista Amazônia Moderna     Open Access  
Continuité     Full-text available via subscription  
Eikonocity. Storia e Iconografia delle Città e dei Siti Europei - History and Iconography of European Cities and Sites     Open Access  
Ri-Vista : Ricerche per la progettazione del paesaggio     Open Access  
Opus Incertum     Open Access  
Firenze Architettura     Open Access  
Jurnal Arsitektur KOMPOSISI     Open Access  
Risco : Revista de Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Urbanismo     Open Access  
Revista Márgenes Espacio Arte y Sociedad     Open Access  
Panambí. Revista de Investigaciones Artísticas     Open Access  
Pós. Revista do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Arquitetura e Urbanismo da FAUUSP     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Proyectos Arquitectónicos     Open Access  
Cuaderno de Notas     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access  
Vivienda y Ciudad     Open Access  
Oculum Ensaios     Open Access  
Paranoá : cadernos de arquitetura e urbanismo     Open Access  
Paisagem e Ambiente     Open Access  
RevistArquis     Open Access  
Revista Arquitecturas del Sur     Open Access  
Room One Thousand     Open Access  
ESTOA Revista de la Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanismo     Open Access  
VLC arquitectura. Research Journal     Open Access  
Revista AUS     Open Access  
HBRC Journal     Open Access  
Liño     Open Access  
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access  
EGA Expresión Gráfica Arquitectónica     Open Access  
Informes de la Construcción     Open Access  
Arquiteturarevista     Open Access  
Revista INVI     Open Access  
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  

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Smart Cities
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2624-6511
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1227-1238: Mechanical, Structural, and
           Environmental Properties of Building Cements from Valorized Sewage Sludges

    • Authors: Rkia Zari, Abderrazzak Graich, Karima Abdelouahdi, Mohamed Monkade, Abdelaziz Laghzizil, Jean-Michel Nunzi
      First page: 1227
      Abstract: Building materials can enable the recycling of sewage sludge from tannery wastewater treatment by infiltration/percolation over coal and clay waste. The process avoids energy-intensive operations and yields a stable and environmentally friendly product. The sludge under study is mainly composed of SiO2, CaO, Al2O3, and Fe2O3, which is convenient to replace the mortar in cement. Different mortars were made by substituting a variable amount of sludge, from 0 to 30%, into the standard cement. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the mortar specimens were characterized after curing for 7 days and 28 days. The best properties were obtained with 15% sludge. Above 15%, the strength decreases at an early stage, as confirmed by SEM and XRD analysis, with more voids and ettringites at larger sludge content. The leaching tests of the mortar confirm that the cumulative values of heavy metals are far below the Deutsch regulatory limits (NEN 7043), justifying retention of the metals in the matrix. Radiological assessment of the sludge mortars also confirms their safety with the values of naturally occurring radioactive materials, surface radon exhalation and annual effective dose far below the required limits. The study suggests that 15% sludge can be used to sustainably replace cement and meet building safety requirement standards.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030059
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1239-1253: Can Bike-Sharing Reduce Car Use in
           Alexandroupolis' An Exploration through the Comparison of Discrete Choice
           and Machine Learning Models

    • Authors: Santhanakrishnan Narayanan, Nikita Makarov, Evripidis Magkos, Josep Maria Salanova Grau, Georgia Aifadopoulou, Constantinos Antoniou
      First page: 1239
      Abstract: The implementation of bike-sharing systems (BSSs) is expected to lead to modifications in the travel habits of transport users, one of which is the choice of travel mode. Therefore, this research focuses on the identification of factors influencing the shift of private car users to BSSs based on stated preference survey data from the city of Alexandroupolis, Greece. A binary logit model is employed for this purpose. The estimation results indicate the impacts of gender, income, travel time, travel cost and safety-related aspects on the mode shift, through which behavioural insights are derived. For example, car users are found to be twice as sensitive to the cost of BSSs than to that of car. Similarly, they are highly sensitive to BSS travel time. Based on the behavioural findings, policy measures are suggested under the following categories: (i) finance, (ii) regulation, (iii) infrastructure, (iv) campaigns and (v) customer targeting. In addition, a secondary objective of this research is to obtain insights from the comparison of the specified logit model with a machine learning approach, as the latter is slowly gaining prominence in the field of transport. For the comparison, a random forest classifier is also developed. This comparison shows a coherence between the two approaches, although a discrepancy in the feature importance for gender and travel time is observed. A deeper exploration of this discrepancy highlights the hurdles that often occur when using mathematically more powerful models, such as the random forest classifier.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030060
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1254-1278: Blockchain-Based Business Process
           Management (BPM) for Finance: The Case of Credit and Claim Requests

    • Authors: Bálint Molnár, Galena Pisoni, Meriem Kherbouche, Yossra Zghal
      First page: 1254
      Abstract: Because of the competitive economy, organizations today seek to rationalize, innovate, and adapt to changing environments and circumstances as part of business process improvement efforts. The strength of blockchain technology lies in its usage as an apt technology to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of business processes; furthermore, it prevents the use of erroneous or obsolete data and allows sharing of confidential data securely. The use of superior technology in the execution and automation of business processes brings opportunities to rethink the specific process itself as well. Business processes modeling and verification are essential to control and assure organizational evolution, therefore, the aim of this paper is three-fold: firstly, to provide business process management patterns in finance, based on blockchain, specifically for the loan-application process in the banking industry and claim process in the insurance industry that could be used and customized by companies; secondly, to critically analyze challenges and opportunities from the introduction of such approach for companies, and thirdly, to outline how companies can implement the loan business process as a web service. Partner companies (a bank and an insurance company) formulated the potential requirements for M2P along with the application of blockchain technology. An experimental design framework was established that gave the necessary services to model the requirements, check the models, and operationalize the models. The applied research methodologies are as follows: design science research paradigm and software case study, model-to-programming (M2P) of business processes, and utilization of patterns of workflow and blockchain.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030061
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1279-1302: Stormwater Sewerage Masterplan for
           Flood Control Applied to a University Campus

    • Authors: Bethy Merchán-Sanmartín, Paúl Carrión-Mero, Sebastián Suárez-Zamora, Maribel Aguilar-Aguilar, Omar Cruz-Cabrera, Katherine Hidalgo-Calva, Fernando Morante-Carballo
      First page: 1279
      Abstract: Floods generated by rain cause significant economic and human losses. The campus of the Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral (ESPOL) has a drainage system that conducts stormwater to two discharge points outside the campus. The system works effectively at the macro-drainage level. However, a very crowded area is deficient at the micro-drainage level, which has registered flooding and the proliferation of vectors that affect people’s health. This work aimed to design a masterplan for stormwater sewerage by analyzing the existing situation and applying technical criteria that allow the establishment of solutions and strategies to control floods at the university campus. The methodology consisted of: (i) data collection and processing for the stormwater drainage system diagnosis; (ii) a design proposal for micro-drainage and (iii) a SWOT analysis to propose improvement strategies in water management. The resulting flows for return periods of 5 years, 10 years, and 25 years are 9.67 m3/s, 11.85 m3/s, and 15.85 m3/s, respectively. In the latter, as the most critical area (presence of flooding), the implementation of a trapezoidal channel 80.20 m long, with a capacity of 1.00 m3/s, for a return period of 25 years was proposed. The stormwater masterplan will contribute to the execution of activities within the campus and prevent accidents and the proliferation of diseases, constituting a water-management model that can be replicated locally, regionally, and internationally.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030062
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1303-1324: Dynamic Pricing for the Open Online
           Ticket System: A Surrogate Modeling Approach

    • Authors: Elizaveta Stavinova, Ilyas Varshavskiy, Petr Chunaev, Ivan Derevitskii, Alexander Boukhanovsky
      First page: 1303
      Abstract: Dynamic pricing is frequently used in online marketplaces, ticket sales, and booking systems. The commercial principles of dynamic pricing systems are often kept secret; however, their application causes complex changes in human behavior. Thus, a scientific tool is needed to evaluate and predict the impact of dynamic pricing strategies. Publications in the field lack a common quality evaluation methodology, public data, and source code, making them difficult to reproduce. In this paper, a data-driven method, DPRank, for evaluating dynamic pricing systems is proposed. DPRank first builds a surrogate price elasticity of demand model using public data generated by a hidden dynamic pricing model, and then applies the surrogate model to build an exposed dynamic pricing model. The hidden and exposed dynamic pricing models were then systematically compared in terms of quality using a Monte Carlo simulation in terms of a company’s revenue. The effectiveness of the proposed method was tested on the dataset collected from the website of a Russian railway passenger carrier company. Depending on the train type, the quality difference between the hidden and exposed models can vary by several dozen percent on average, indicating the potential for improving the existing (hidden) company’s dynamic pricing model.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030063
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1325-1344: Perceptions and Attitudes toward
           Risks of City Administration Employees in the Context of Smart City

    • Authors: Karolina Wielicka-Gańczarczyk, Izabela Jonek-Kowalska
      First page: 1325
      Abstract: Smart cities are required to be effectively and efficiently managed in order to ensure the desired level of sustainability and quality of life for all inhabitants. This is a particularly difficult challenge in crisis situations of considerable scale and intensity (for example, the COVID-19 pandemic, armed conflicts, social tensions). For this reason, the aim of this article is to identify the attitudes and perceptions of risk by city administration employees combined with an assessment of their impact on the consequences of risk (the implementation of internal and external threats). The analyses used the results of a survey conducted on a representative sample of 399 Polish municipal offices, as well as descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling. The obtained results show that: (1) employees of municipal offices negatively perceive risk and are aware of its destructive impact on the organization, but are reluctant to report the risks; (2) individual and collective measures are taken in offices to protect against risks, but employees are not always encouraged to report potential sources of risk (rarely in the form of an informal conversation and even more rarely in a systemic form); (3) for the most part, employees are aware that internal and external risks have a negative impact on the operation of municipal offices; (4) the consequences of risks are more strongly influenced by employees’ perceptions of risk than by individual, team, and systemic attitudes toward risk. The added value of the research presented in this article comes from diagnosing the behavioral aspects of urban risk management and assessing the impact of attitudes toward risks and risk perceptions (internal and external) in a broad, representative range.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030064
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1345-1384: The Metaverse as a Virtual Model of
           Platform Urbanism: Its Converging AIoT, XReality, Neurotech, and
           Nanobiotech and Their Applications, Challenges, and Risks

    • Authors: Simon Elias Bibri
      First page: 1345
      Abstract: With their exponentially rising computational power, digital platforms are heralding a new era of hybrid intelligence. There has recently been much enthusiasm and hype that the Metaverse has the potential to unlock hybrid intelligence. This is premised on the idea that the Metaverse represents an applied convergence of Artificial Intelligence of Things (AIoT) and Extended Reality (XR) that intersects with urbanism in terms of the distinctive features of platform-mediated everyday life experiences in cities. However, social interaction and its resulting social organization in the Metaverse are mediated and governed by algorithms and thus submitted to—a dream of—complete logical ordering. This raises a plethora of concerns related to the systemic collection and algorithmic processing of users’ personal, brain, and biometric data, i.e., profound societal—and the hardest to predict ethical—implications. Therefore, this study analyzes and synthesizes a large body of scientific literature on the unfolding convergence of AIoT and XR technologies, neurotechnology, and nanobiotechnology in the realm of the Metaverse in order to derive a novel conceptual framework for the Metaverse as an envisioned virtual model of platform urbanism. Further, it examines the key challenges and risks of these converging technologies in relation to the Metaverse and beyond. This study employs thematic analysis and synthesis to cope with multidisciplinary literature. The analysis identifies seven themes: (1) Platformization, (2) platform urbanism, (3) virtual urbanism, (4) XR technologies, (5) AIoT technologies, (6) neurotechnology, and (7) nanobiotechnology. The synthesized evidence reveals that, while neurotechnology and nanobiotechnology have numerous benefits and promising prospects, they raise contentions and controversies stemming from their potential use to inflict harm to human users—if left unchecked—through the black box of the algorithmic mediation underpinning the Metaverse. The findings serve to steer the Metaverse to contribute to human flourishing and wellbeing by adhering to and upholding ethical principles as well as leveraging its underlying disruptive technologies in meaningful ways. They also aid scholars, practitioners, and policymakers in assessing the pros and cons of these technologies, especially their inevitable ramifications.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030065
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1385-1397: The Concept of Learning Cities:
           Supporting Lifelong Learning through the Use of Smart Tools

    • Authors: Ionelia Hirju, Radu-Ionut Georgescu
      First page: 1385
      Abstract: This paper presents an initiative in which QR codes on public transport are used to provide citizens with books that they can read and that will improve their general knowledge. It builds on the concept of the learning city and combines it with smart city tools. This paper aims to use a descriptive–empirical approach, including an experiment in Bucharest. This research aims to contribute to the academic world, urban sociology, public administration, and lifelong learning education.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030066
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1398-1415: From Traffic Congestion to
           Sustainable Mobility: A Case Study of Public Transport in Odesa, Ukraine

    • Authors: Sergii Myronenko, Hennadii Oborskyi, Dmytro Dmytryshyn, Vyacheslav Shobik, Dirk Lauwers, Frank Witlox
      First page: 1398
      Abstract: Consistent and reliable information on passenger traffic is considered crucial for the efficient operation of the public transport (PT) network. The PT network is used to improve public services and thus attract more passengers. This study evaluated the passenger traffic in Odesa, Ukraine, due to the inefficient urban transport system. The main aim of this study was to make PT better by examining passenger distribution on traffic routes and specifying characteristics of PT travel influencing individual satisfaction. The metric-tabular method was used to collect data and examine the number of incoming and outgoing passengers at each bus stop. The results of the passenger and PT analysis provide valuable recommendations for optimizing future routes. It is beneficial for transport companies to implement such recommendations so that inefficient transport on the route can be reduced by either reforming the route network or choosing the optimal number of buses. According to the findings of this study, understanding PT services is the most important determinant of PT adoption. The main implications of the findings are of particular interest to policymakers who develop policies in the field of passenger transport and also to transport scientists and students.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030067
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1416-1434: A Cloud-Based Data Storage and
           Visualization Tool for Smart City IoT: Flood Warning as an Example

    • Authors: Victor Ariel Leal Sobral, Jacob Nelson, Loza Asmare, Abdullah Mahmood, Glen Mitchell, Kwadwo Tenkorang, Conor Todd, Bradford Campbell, Jonathan L. Goodall
      First page: 1416
      Abstract: Collecting, storing, and providing access to Internet of Things (IoT) data are fundamental tasks to many smart city projects. However, developing and integrating IoT systems is still a significant barrier to entry. In this work, we share insights on the development of cloud data storage and visualization tools for IoT smart city applications using flood warning as an example application. The developed system incorporates scalable, autonomous, and inexpensive features that allow users to monitor real-time environmental conditions, and to create threshold-based alert notifications. Built in Amazon Web Services (AWS), the system leverages serverless technology for sensor data backup, a relational database for data management, and a graphical user interface (GUI) for data visualizations and alerts. A RESTful API allows for easy integration with web-based development environments, such as Jupyter notebooks, for advanced data analysis. The system can ingest data from LoRaWAN sensors deployed using The Things Network (TTN). A cost analysis can support users’ planning and decision-making when deploying the system for different use cases. A proof-of-concept demonstration of the system was built with river and weather sensors deployed in a flood prone suburban watershed in the city of Charlottesville, Virginia.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030068
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1435-1484: State-of-the-Art Review on
           Shipboard Microgrids: Architecture, Control, Management, Protection, and
           Future Perspectives

    • Authors: Asmaa M. Aboelezz, Bishoy E. Sedhom, Magdi M. El-Saadawi, Abdelfattah A. Eladl, Pierluigi Siano
      First page: 1435
      Abstract: Shipboard microgrids (SBMGs) are becoming increasingly popular in the power industry due to their potential for reducing fossil-fuel usage and increasing power production. However, operating SBMGs poses significant challenges due to operational and environmental constraints. To address these challenges, intelligent control, management, and protection strategies are necessary to ensure safe operation under complex and uncertain conditions. This paper provides a comprehensive review of SBMGs, including their classifications, control, management, and protection, as well as the most recent research statistics in these areas. The state-of-the-art SBMG types, propulsion systems, and power system architectures are discussed, along with a comparison of recent research contributions and issues related to control, uncertainties, management, and protection in SBMGs. In addition, a bibliometric analysis is performed to examine recent trends in SBMG research. This paper concludes with a discussion of research gaps and recommendations for further investigation in the field of SBMGs, highlighting the need for more research on the optimization of SBMGs in terms of efficiency, reliability, and cost-effectiveness, as well as the development of advanced control and protection strategies to ensure safe and stable operation.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030069
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1485-1506: Generating Natural Cities Using 3D
           Road Network to Explore Living Structure: A Case Study in Hong Kong

    • Authors: Zhiyang Xiao, Zhenhan Peng, Zidong Yu, Xintao Liu
      First page: 1485
      Abstract: Compared with administrative cities, natural cities can be generally referred to as the areas generated based on the density of different urban facilities (e.g., point of interest, road network, etc.). To some extent, natural cities are outperformed in some related urban studies, such as urban living structure analysis. Nevertheless, traditional ways of generating natural cities are mostly limited to the planar space. Modern cities such as Hong Kong are vertical cities with high buildings, 3D road networks and land uses. Therefore, traditional nature cities could be biased when applied to 3D cities. In this work, a 3D road network in Hong Kong is adopted to extract true road intersections and generate modified natural cities to explore urban living structures. Numerous living structure units are classified into two parts: tiny and serried ones representing natural cities and vast ones representing rural areas. The classification method applies head/tail breaks, and a clustering algorithm was fitted for heavy-tailed distribution. According to the living structure theory, the living structures of the proposed natural cities and traditional natural cities based on the same road network in Hong Kong are compared. The findings show that the distribution of modified natural city regions is more reasonable compared with typical ones. The improved model will more clearly show the inherent living structure of the city and will allow an analysis of the relationship between the part and wholeness of the city.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030070
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1507-1522: IoT-Based Segregation with Location
           Tracking and Air Quality Monitoring for Smart Cities

    • Authors: Abhishek Kadalagere Lingaraju, Mudligiriyappa Niranjanamurthy, Priyanka Bose, Biswaranjan Acharya, Vassilis C. Gerogiannis, Andreas Kanavos, Stella Manika
      First page: 1507
      Abstract: Massive human population, coupled with rapid urbanization, results in a substantial amount of garbage that requires daily collection. In urban areas, garbage often accumulates around dustbins without proper disposal at regular intervals, creating an unsanitary environment for humans, plants, and animals. This situation significantly degrades the environment. To address this problem, a Smart Waste Management System is introduced in this paper, employing machine learning techniques for air quality level classification. Furthermore, this system safeguards garbage collectors from severe health issues caused by inhaling harmful gases emitted from the waste. The proposed system not only proves cost-effective but also enhances waste management productivity by categorizing waste into three types: wet, dry, and metallic. Ultimately, by leveraging machine learning techniques, we can classify air quality levels and garbage weight into distinct categories. This system is beneficial for improving the well-being of individuals residing in close proximity to dustbins, as it enables constant monitoring and reporting of air quality to relevant city authorities.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030071
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1523-1544: Exploring the Challenges and Issues
           in Adopting Cybersecurity in Saudi Smart Cities: Conceptualization of the
           Cybersecurity-Based UTAUT Model

    • Authors: Nawaf Alhalafi, Prakash Veeraraghavan
      First page: 1523
      Abstract: This study aims to explore the challenges and issues in adopting cybersecurity practices in smart Saudi cities and to develop and validate a newly developed cybersecurity-based unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 3 (UTAUT3) model. The study has a twofold purpose. First, it identified the key challenges and issues in adopting smart cities in Saudi smart cities. Second, it developed a technology-based model to adopt cybersecurity practices in Saudi smart cities. Two surveys were conducted to achieve these objectives. The first survey identified challenges and gaps in adopting cybersecurity practices in smart cities, revealing concerns about weak cybersecurity platforms, privacy breaches, and the impact of IT infrastructure advancements on Saudi culture (N = 554: common public). The second survey focused on developing and validating a cybersecurity-based UTAUT3 model (N = 108: IT professionals), emphasizing nine factors: performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, safety, resiliency, availability, confidentiality, and integrity of cybersecurity. The model’s validity and reliability were assessed, demonstrating its potential for understanding user behavior and adoption patterns in smart cities. The study findings provide valuable insights into the factors influencing the adoption of cybersecurity measures in smart Saudi cities, highlighting the need for targeted strategies, effective awareness programs, and collaboration between stakeholders to promote a secure and resilient digital environment. Future research may focus on refining the model, extending its applicability to other regions or countries, and investigating the impact of emerging technologies and evolving cyber threats on user behavior and cybersecurity practices.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030072
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1545-1559: Innovations in Shared
           Mobility—Review of Scientific Works

    • Authors: Katarzyna Turoń, János Tóth
      First page: 1545
      Abstract: Shared mobility is developing at a very fast pace around the world, becoming an alternative to classic forms of travel and, according to the public, providing innovative services. In recent years, these innovative services have also gained wide interest among scientists from a multicriteria point of view. However, among the topics and reviews in the literature, no review paper considering shared mobility in terms of innovation was identified. This article’s research objective was to indicate the perception of innovation in shared mobility in scientific works. The results indicate that innovations in shared mobility are a niche topic considered in few scientific works. What is more, in most cases, shared mobility services are perceived as innovative in themselves without detailed service analysis. Moreover, the issues of open innovation, which are closely related to the concept of accessible Mobility as a Service system and smart cities, are often overlooked. In addition, there was no work identified that fully referred to all areas of innovative service. The article supports researchers in the determination of further research directions in the field of shared mobility and fills the research gap in the field of knowledge about open innovation, especially in the context of the development of shared mobility services in smart cities.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030073
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1560-1588: Blue Seaports: The Smart,
           Sustainable and Electrified Ports of the Future

    • Authors: Daniel Clemente, Tomás Cabral, Paulo Rosa-Santos, Francisco Taveira-Pinto
      First page: 1560
      Abstract: Seaports are at the forefront of global trade networks, serving as hubs for maritime logistics and the transportation of goods and people. To meet the requirements of such networks, seaport authorities are investing in advanced technologies to enhance the efficiency and reliability of port infrastructures. This can be achieved through the digitalization and automation of core systems, aimed at optimizing the management and handling of both goods and people. Furthermore, a significant effort is being made towards a green energy transition at seaports, which can be supported through marine renewable sources. This promotes energy-mix diversification and autonomy, whilst reducing the noteworthy environmental footprint of seaport activities. By analyzing these pertinent topics under the scope of a review of container-terminal case studies, and these ports’ respective contexts, this paper seeks to identify pioneering smart seaports in the fields of automation, real-time management, connectivity and accessibility control. To foster the sustainable development of seaports, from an energy perspective, the potential integration with marine renewable-energy systems is considered, as well as their capabilities for meeting, even if only partially, the energy demands of seaports. By combining these fields, we attempt to construct a holistic proposal for a “model port” representing the expected evolution towards the seaports of the future.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030074
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 676-691: Open Data Insights from a Smart
           Bridge Datathon: A Multi-Stakeholder Observation of Smart City Open Data
           in Practice

    • Authors: Sage Cammers-Goodwin
      First page: 676
      Abstract: “Open Data” efforts are growing, especially in Europe, where open data are seen as a possible ethical driver of innovation. As smart cities continue to develop, it is important to explore how open data will affect the stakeholders of smart public spaces. Making data open and accessible not only has a managerial and technical component but also creates opportunities to shift power dynamics by granting individuals (and entities) access to data they might not otherwise be able to obtain. The scope of those who could access these data is wide, including data-illiterate citizens, burgeoning startups, and foreign militaries. This paper details the process of making data “open” from the MX3D smart bridge in Amsterdam through a “datathon”. The development and outcomes of opening the data and the event itself bring us closer to understanding the complexity of open data access and the extent to which it is useful or empowering for members of the public. While open data research continues to expand, there is still a dearth of studies that qualitatively detail the process and stakeholder concerns for a modern smart city project. This article serves to fill this gap.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020032
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 692-708: Perceived City Sustainability and
           Tourist Behavioural Intentions

    • Authors: Stefania Conti, Álvaro Dias, Leandro Pereira
      First page: 692
      Abstract: The focus on the sustainability of tourism destinations and firms is a global trend. However, the implications of those investments in tourist behavioural intentions need further investigation. This study proposes a conceptual framework for exploring the influence of sustainability perceptions and travel behaviour on the intention to recommend and revisit. The results from structural equation modelling and importance–performance matrix analysis show a direct relationship between travel behaviour and perceived sustainability. Additionally, it shows a direct relationship between travel behaviour and perceived value, corroborating previous research on green tourists. By increasing perceived sustainability, managers and marketers can enhance their sustainability strategies based on tourists’ feedback and market the destination to more specific targets via tailored communication. Sustainability perceptions were also found to be a key driver of satisfaction and to have indirect consequences on behavioural intentions of loyalty, representing the ultimate goal of a destination.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020033
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 709-727: Smart Contracts for Managing the
           Chain-of-Custody of Digital Evidence: A Practical Case of Study

    • Authors: Pablo Santamaría, Llanos Tobarra, Rafael Pastor-Vargas, Antonio Robles-Gómez
      First page: 709
      Abstract: The digital revolution is renewing many aspects of our lives, which is also a challenge in judicial processes, such as the Chain-of-Custody (CoC) process of any electronic evidence. A CoC management system must be designed to guarantee them to maintain its integrity in court. This issue is essential for digital evidence’s admissibility and probative value. This work has built and validated a real prototype to manage the CoC process of any digital evidence. Our technological solution follows a process model that separates the evidence registry and any evidence itself for scalability purposes. It includes the development of an open-source smart contract under Quorum, a version of Ethereum oriented to private business environments. The significant findings of our analysis have been: (1) Blockchain networks can become a solution, where integrity, privacy and traceability must be guaranteed between untrustworthy parties; and (2) the necessity of promoting the standardization of CoC smart contracts with a secure, simple process logic. Consequently, these contracts should be deployed in consortium environments, where reliable, independent third parties validate the transactions without having to know their content.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020034
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 728-743: Guidelines for Renewal and
           Securitization of a Critical Infrastructure Based on IoT Networks

    • Authors: Cristina Villar Miguelez, Victor Monzon Baeza, Raúl Parada, Carlos Monzo
      First page: 728
      Abstract: Global warming has increased uncertainty regarding managing traditional water supply systems. Unfortunately, there is a need for the smart management of water supply systems. This work aims to design a solution for renewing and securing critical infrastructure that supplies water and provides water purification inside the range of applications of Industry 4.0 for Smart Cities. Therefore, we analyze the renewal requirements and the applicable use cases and propose a solution based on IoT networks for critical infrastructure in the urban environment. We describe the architecture of the IoT network and the specific hardware for securing a water supply and wastewater treatment chain. In addition, the water level control process for the supply chain and the system that ensures the optimal level of chemicals for wastewater treatment are detailed. Finally, we present the guidelines for infrastructure operators to carry out this operation within Industry 4.0, constituting a development framework for future research on the design of Smart Cities.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020035
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 744-763: Involvement of Local Authorities in
           the Protection of Residents’ Health in the Light of the Smart City
           Concept on the Example of Polish Cities

    • Authors: Karolina Wielicka-Gańczarczyk, Izabela Jonek-Kowalska
      First page: 744
      Abstract: According to the modern guidelines of the Smart City (SC) concept, smart cities are not only cities that are above average in terms of technology, but first and foremost are focused on the needs of their residents. A key need for quality of life is taking care of health, including education, prevention, and access to medical infrastructure. In the context of the given circumstances, this article seeks to answer the following research question: What is the level of involvement of local authorities in protecting the health of residents in Polish cities in the context of the Smart City concept' The involvement of local authorities in healthcare is considered in five aspects: (1) monitoring of residents’ health needs; (2) health education; (3) preventive healthcare; (4) healthcare infrastructure; and (5) environment and recreation. To obtain answers to the above research problem, surveys were conducted at the local government level in 399 Polish cities. The research utilized statistical measures of central tendency, indices of variation, and measures of interdependence. The results allow formulating the following key conclusions: (1) most of the surveyed cities do not monitor the health needs of their residents, contrary to the recommendations of the SC concept; (2) cities take measures to protect the health of their residents, but these are focused on sports and recreation; (3) the most neglected health areas are health education and environmental and climate protection. The level of involvement of the city authorities in protecting the health of residents is therefore quite low and is mainly image-related. The lack of monitoring of the expectations of the local community has a negative impact on the effectiveness of healthcare activities and the real improvement in the quality of urban life. Meanwhile, according to research results, cooperation with residents and care for meeting their needs is an important determinant of the effectiveness of healthcare. Given the above conditions, it is difficult to be effective both in terms of improving the quality of life of residents and developing fully sustainable smart cities. The research also shows that the involvement of the city authorities in holistic pro-health activities increases with the size of the city, which means that larger entities are more aware of cooperation with stakeholders and the importance of health for quality of life. Therefore, they are better prepared to implement the assumptions of the Smart City concept. The originality and scientific value of the conducted analysis will help fill the research gap in identifying the health determinants of Smart City development and assessing the involvement of city authorities in protecting the health of residents in a multifaceted perspective.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020036
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 764-795: A Bibliometric Analysis of Research
           on the Convergence of Artificial Intelligence and Blockchain in Smart

    • Authors: Morteza Alaeddini, Maryam Hajizadeh, Paul Reaidy
      First page: 764
      Abstract: Smart cities aim to enhance the quality of life for citizens by integrating information technology in various aspects of daily life. This paper focuses on recent innovations in the integration of two prominent technologies, artificial intelligence (AI) and blockchain, to manage complex interactions between smart connected devices, individuals, government agencies, and the private sector. By conducting a systematic scientometric analysis and visualization of 505 articles published between 2017 and 2023, we uncover the social, conceptual, and intellectual structures of the literature in this field through co-authorship, co-word, and co-citation networks. Our analysis identifies key insights, research hotspots, specialties, and emerging trends by examining important nodes in the bibliometric networks. The findings of this study can be of interest to both academics and practitioners working in the fields of AI, blockchain, and smart cities.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020037
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 796-808: Car-Sharing Systems in Smart Cities:
           A Review of the Most Important Issues Related to the Functioning of the
           Systems in Light of the Scientific Research

    • Authors: Katarzyna Turoń
      First page: 796
      Abstract: Currently, short-term car rental services (car-sharing) are a solution that is an alternative to individual motorization, which can be used in cities. With the level of sophistication of the relevant systems, there are more and more problems with their proper functioning. However, to understand the essence of some of the problems or properly introduce a new system to the market, it is important to understand how the systems work and the main relationships between the factors affecting car-sharing. This work aims to comprehensively present the most important aspects related to the functioning of car-sharing in light of the current research, as a form of compendium of knowledge about car-sharing. A review of the literature indicates that the leading areas of research in the field of car-sharing are seven topics related to the origin and history of services, the analysis of the functioning of the services market and criteria affecting the development of the relevant systems, the management of vehicle systems and location, issues related to the sustainable development of transport, IT systems, electromobility in car-sharing, and service optimization and modeling. A detailed analysis of the work carried out in this area allowed for the identification of 15 leading factors influencing car-sharing. This article supports the implementation and improvement of car-sharing services. In addition, it supports researchers during literature reviews and the search for a coherent list of the factors influencing car-sharing.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020038
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 809-818: The Role “Chief Digital Officer
           (CDO)” in Public Municipalities—The Conceptual Effect of a
           Functional Profile for Successful Transformation

    • Authors: Christian Schachtner
      First page: 809
      Abstract: The objectives of this study are to demonstrate the effect of a function called ‘Chief Digital Office’ as a responsible positioning of digitization at the C-level. This is intended to show both the importance of digitization measures and the effect of change projects with a methodical approach in cross-sectional tasks for strategic work. The previous work shows different functional layouts and individual responsibilities without conceptual foundations in the implementation of digital strategies. To provide the first contribution to a common framework for the work of CDOs, a basic concept for public administration based on the municipalities is to be launched. The results lead to statements about the optimization potentials of the status of the study survey of the digitization of German municipalities: “Digital Vorangehen [Leading the way digitally] (2020)”. In particular, this includes the development of a holistic digital agenda, the use of future technologies and the mindset for the development of innovative implementation solutions in both internal service provision and outward-looking services. The value lies in contributing to the establishment of the framework of ‘Public Digital Transformation Governance’ to transfer the fundamental standardization of the action strands into a functional profile.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020039
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 819-845: Blockchain in the Construction
           Industry between 2016 and 2022: A Review, Bibliometric, and Network

    • Authors: Milad Baghalzadeh Shishehgarkhaneh, Robert C. Moehler, Sina Fard Moradinia
      First page: 819
      Abstract: In recent years, applications of Blockchain technology (BCT) have been progressing at a galloping rate in miscellaneous fields, such as finance, education, travel, healthcare, and insurance. However, BCT has gained much popularity in the construction industry, especially in developed nations worldwide, as it can solve real-world problems, including poor payments, inadequate cooperation and collaboration, inappropriate data sharing among stakeholders, and poor efficiency. The current research employs a bibliometric and systematic literature review (SLR) on utilizing BCT in the construction industry. Using co-occurrence and co-citation studies, network visualization and other methodologies concerning the Web of Science (WOS) database and the research contacts’ patterns were investigated in 482 academic papers. Notable publications, conferences, significant writers, nations, organizations, and funding organizations have been acknowledged. Our research reveals that the primary study topics are BCT in the construction industry, supply chain management, smart contracts, sustainability, building information modeling (BIM), the Internet of Things (IoT) and energy efficiency. Several possible fields for further research are mentioned, including the use of BCT in: (i) circular economy, (ii) risk management, (iii) smart villages, and (iv) infrastructure construction projects.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020040
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 846-877: An Extensive Preliminary Blockchain
           Survey from a Maritime Perspective

    • Authors: Rim Abdallah, Jérôme Besancenot, Cyrille Bertelle, Claude Duvallet, Frédéric Gilletta
      First page: 846
      Abstract: The maritime industry is moving towards a digital ecosystem to achieve substantial mutual profits. To achieve this, there have been attempts to combine existing, disjointed systems into more efficient, standardized platforms that can be scaled up. However, this transition has faced challenges. To address these issues, it is suggested that innovative technologies such as blockchain be utilized due to their alignment with the sector’s needs. This study uses a triangulation approach by examining a mix of literature, web-based data, applications, and projects to showcase the contribution of blockchain and its potential use cases. We also explore its potential use cases based on other sectors using projection and parallelism. Additionally, the study delves into limitations and possible solutions. This research acts as a preliminary study for the implementation of blockchain in the maritime industry, and advocates for its use as a revolutionary approach. The findings will be beneficial for scholars, policy makers, and practitioners in the maritime industry.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020041
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 878-896: Smart Governance Toolbox: A
           Systematic Literature Review

    • Authors: Erna Ruijer, Anouk Van Twist, Timber Haaker, Thierry Tartarin, Noel Schuurman, Mark Melenhorst, Albert Meijer
      First page: 878
      Abstract: Smart city projects rely upon dynamic and complex multi-stakeholder collaboration. This collaboration can be challenging. In this study, we use an instrumental lens and argue that tools can help public professionals in dealing with smart governance challenges. Building upon smart governance and collaborative governance models, we conceptualize smart governance as a toolbox. Based on our “smart governance toolbox”, we assess the variety of tools available for professionals to initiate and support multi-stakeholder collaboration by reviewing academic and grey literature. This review results in the identification of a broad range of tools that research and practice have developed. However, we also demonstrate that certain parts of the ‘smart governance toolbox’ remain almost empty: there are few tools for assessing the smart collaborative governance context, facilitating the collaborative structure, tackling technology issues, and measuring outcomes of smart city practices. Future design research should focus on developing instruments needed to make the smart governance toolbox complete.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020042
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 897-912: ChronoEOS 2.0: Device Fingerprinting
           and EOSIO Blockchain Technology for On-Running Forensic Analysis in an IoT

    • Authors: José Álvaro Fernández-Carrasco, Xabier Echeberria-Barrio, Daniel Paredes-García, Francesco Zola, Raul Orduna-Urrutia
      First page: 897
      Abstract: In industrial environments there are critical devices, so their correct operation must be ensured. In particular, having a secure record of the different events related to these devices is essential. Thus, this record can be used in future forensic investigations in case of accidents or production failures. In this sense, blockchain technology can bring reliability to the event log. In this paper, ChronoEOS 2.0, an extension of ChronoEOS, is presented. This new version can record the events that occur in multiple industrial robotic arms by deploying a Smart Contract in the EOSIO blockchain so that all events are immutably recorded in the blockchain. Furthermore, the new version allows using a unique fingerprint of the robot before registering an event in the blockchain. This fingerprint depends only on the characteristics of the operation and configuration of the robot. For this reason, ChronoEOS 2.0 not only increase the ability of ChronoEOS in terms of handling multiple devices but also increases the security and reliability of the operations. Finally, in this study, we verify that the new improvements have little impact on the hosting resources (RAM and Network are not altered, while CPU consumption is slightly higher due to the device fingerprinting module).
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020043
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 913-928: Trustworthy Users: Using IOTA and
           IPFS for Attribute Validation in CP-ABE and dCP-ABE Schemes

    • Authors: Aintzane Mosteiro-Sanchez, Marc Barcelo, Jasone Astorga, Aitor Urbieta
      First page: 913
      Abstract: Attribute spoofing is a major security threat in information exchange solutions based on Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based-Encryption (CP-ABE) and distributed CP-ABE (dCP-ABE), which can compromise privacy and security. This threat occurs when an attacker forces the Attribute Authorities to generate keys for attributes they do not possess. This paper analyzes the threat of attribute spoofing and identifies the primary attack vectors, including direct interference with the Attribute Authority and compromise of the shared attribute storage database. The authors propose a solution based on IOTA, a DAG-type DLT, and Interplanetary File System (IPFS) to prevent attribute spoofing. The solution requires distributed attribute storage, validation, and user authentication to counteract the two attack vectors effectively. The proposed solution mitigates the consequences of attribute spoofing, including privilege escalation and reduction, acquisition of private keys, and cutoff of data access. The authors also evaluate their proposal through a value-chain use case and conclude that it effectively mitigates the consequences of attribute spoofing.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020044
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 929-943: Analyzing Air Pollution and Traffic
           Data in Urban Areas in Luxembourg

    • Authors: Wassila Aggoune-Mtalaa, Mohamed Laib
      First page: 929
      Abstract: Monitoring air quality is gaining popularity in the research community since it can help policymakers make the right decisions for mitigating the negative effects of the ever-increasing pollution in cities. One of the significant sources of air pollution in urban areas is road transport. Assessing and understanding the relationship between urban traffic and local pollutants is crucial to maintaining sustainable urban mobility. This paper presents an exploratory data analysis of air pollution and traffic in some cities in Luxembourg. Furthermore, we studied the link that several pollutants have with other parameters, such as temperature and humidity. The paper also focuses on traffic and offers more insights for sustainable urban mobility.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020045
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 944-964: Smart Solutions for Municipal Flood
           Management: Overview of Literature, Trends, and Applications in German

    • Authors: Neven Josipovic, Kathrin Viergutz
      First page: 944
      Abstract: The paper outlines the challenges municipalities face when it comes to dealing with flood disasters and identifies general concepts for smart solutions that address the challenges and help cities to improve their flood resilience. It follows a unique and novel transdisciplinary approach in that it condenses the scientific literature to the most salient concepts in the fields of big data, digital twins, and remote sensing and support. As for big data applications, their main improvement to conventional flood management stems from the integration of different data streams to improve situational awareness. Digital twins not only help to improve the speed and quality of management decisions by visualizing complex data in a simple and accessible way during a disaster; they can also simulate the evolution of a disaster while taking into account the unique characteristics and conditions of a city, thereby acting as a critical element of an early warning system. Remote sensing and support with UAV solve the problem of physical and informational access to a disaster zone. In conclusion, the paper shows that smart solutions can be of great benefit for flood management, and that cities should strive to enhance existing infrastructure and processes with digital technologies.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020046
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 965-986: An Application of the DHI Methodology
           for a Comparison of SARS-CoV-2 Epidemic Hazards in Customer Delivery
           Services of Smart Cities

    • Authors: Rafał Burdzik
      First page: 965
      Abstract: Current awareness of epidemic threats and critical experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic require extension of the management model in the smart city, especially in the field of mobility and transport services, with monitoring of epidemic hazards. This paper addresses the issue of epidemic hazards, a new challenge in smart cities, and customer delivery services. The novel DHI methodology for epidemic hazards assessment is presented and applied to compare customer delivery services in aspects of SARS-CoV-2 epidemic hazards. The case studies presented a detailed analysis of epidemic hazards on the basis of process algorithms and dedicated quantitative scales to assess factors influencing the mechanisms of virus transmission. The developed DHI methodology and the results obtained for transport services constitute important cognitive knowledge for the administrative personnel in smart city.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020047
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 987-1008: Design and Implementation of a
           Real-Time Crowd Monitoring System Based on Public Wi-Fi Infrastructure: A
           Case Study on the Sri Chiang Mai Smart City

    • Authors: Thalerngsak Wiangwiset, Chayada Surawanitkun, Wullapa Wongsinlatam, Tawun Remsungnen, Apirat Siritaratiwat, Chavis Srichan, Prachya Thepparat, Weerasak Bunsuk, Aekkaphan Kaewchan, Ariya Namvong
      First page: 987
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant changes in many aspects of daily life, including learning, working, and communicating. As countries aim to recover their economies, there is an increasing need for smart city solutions, such as crowd monitoring systems, to ensure public safety both during and after the pandemic. This paper presents the design and implementation of a real-time crowd monitoring system using existing public Wi-Fi infrastructure. The proposed system employs a three-tiered architecture, including the sensing domain for data acquisition, the communication domain for data transfer, and the computing domain for data processing, visualization, and analysis. Wi-Fi access points were used as sensors that continuously monitored the crowd and uploaded data to the server. To protect the privacy of the data, encryption algorithms were employed during data transmission. The system was implemented in the Sri Chiang Mai Smart City, where nine Wi-Fi access points were installed in nine different locations along the Mekong River. The system provides real-time crowd density visualizations. Historical data were also collected for the analysis and understanding of urban behaviors. A quantitative evaluation was not feasible due to the uncontrolled environment in public open spaces, but the system was visually evaluated in real-world conditions to assess crowd density, rather than represent the entire population. Overall, the study demonstrates the potential of leveraging existing public Wi-Fi infrastructure for crowd monitoring in uncontrolled, real-world environments. The monitoring system is readily accessible and does not require additional hardware investment or maintenance. The collected dataset is also available for download. In addition to COVID-19 pandemic management, this technology can also assist government policymakers in optimizing the use of public space and urban planning. Real-time crowd density data provided by the system can assist route planners or recommend points of interest, while information on the popularity of tourist destinations enables targeted marketing.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020048
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1009-1042: European Union Smart
           Mobility–Aspects Connected with Bike Road System’s Extension
           and Dissemination

    • Authors: Radosław Wolniak
      First page: 1009
      Abstract: The analysis of scientific research described in peer-reviewed journals demonstrates the significance of bicycle road networks in relation to smart mobility. This research was conducted for European Union cities that meet the criteria of having a developed bicycle route network and are ranked among the top 100 European bicycle-friendliest cities in 2021. The study also analyzed whether each city was on national or international lists of smart cities or had smart city initiatives. The study indicates that a comprehensive and well-developed network of bicycle paths is a crucial element in the development of smart mobility solutions within a modern smart city. Among EU countries, cities in northern and central Europe, particularly in Germany, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, and the Netherlands, have the best-developed bicycle networks. The research on the correlation between the average temperature level in a country and the average values for smart city bike lanes showed a statistically significant negative correlation between the two variables. The lower a country’s average annual temperature, the more that a bicycle infrastructure is present in its smart cities, as measured by the length of bicycle paths and the saturation of the city with bicycle paths per square kilometer and per 1000 residents. After removing outliers (Finland, Ireland, and Luxembourg), a significant relationship was observed between the wealth of a country and the length and density of bicycle paths in smart cities. The linear correlation coefficient between the length of bicycle roads and GDP per capita was found to be −0.73, which is a high coefficient value.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020049
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1043-1058: “15-Minute City” and
           Elderly People: Thinking about Healthy Cities

    • Authors: Felipe Ulloa-Leon, Juan Correa-Parra, Francisco Vergara-Perucich, Francisca Cancino-Contreras, Carlos Aguirre-Nuñez
      First page: 1043
      Abstract: Considering the global scenario of population aging, which countries such as Chile are going through, the social problems that it means in terms of viability and quality of life for the elderly are increasing and are a cause for concern. For this reason, this study summarizes the results of investigating the accessibility of services and recreational spaces under the parameters of a “15-minute city” for the elderly people in the city of Santiago de Chile. The investigation employed a multivariate geostatistical analysis with a quantitative approach and was developed on a census block scale to test some of the principles of the 15-min city along with the principles on active aging of the elderly. The results are surprising, show a good territorial coverage for the study area and open the possibility of Santiago becoming a 15-min city for older adults. However, there are still several challenges in terms of public policies, from mental and physical health to the design of public spaces, which are fundamental to think about for cities of the future.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-20
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020050
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1059-1086: Impacts of Product Variety and
           Supply Chain Networks on the Influx of Information Exchange in Industry

    • Authors: Estu Rizky Huddiniah, Hilmil Pradana
      First page: 1059
      Abstract: Managing product variety is a challenging problem given the increasing complexity of supply chain networks. To overcome this complexity, managing integration in the supply chain is essential for companies to coordinate effectively. By managing the influx of information exchange between the various entities involved in the supply chain network, integration can be achieved successfully. In this paper, we are targeting research questions regarding the impact of the influx of information exchange on product variety and supply chain networks and the key factors influencing its exchange from different industries’ perspectives. To investigate our research questions and to conduct a case study across different industries and companies, this study aims to explore the impact of supply chain network complexity, which causes an influx of information exchange due to increasing product variety through qualitative research. In our results, by categorizing the raw interview data, we visualize correspondent opinions to facilitate deep analysis, including factors such as product variety, supply chain networks, and information exchange. The key factors that can influence the influx of information exchange from different industries’ and companies’ perspectives are presented in our results to provide valuable insights into the significant factors affecting the success of the smart business.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-04-03
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020051
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1087-1108: Smart City Transformation: An
           Analysis of Dhaka and Its Challenges and Opportunities

    • Authors: Ashish Kumar Karmaker, S M Rezwanul Islam, Md Kamruzzaman, Md Mamun Ur Rashid, Md Omer Faruque, Md Alamgir Hossain
      First page: 1087
      Abstract: Cities worldwide are experiencing rapid urbanization and an increasing population, creating a pressing need for smart infrastructure to enhance citizen services. Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, faces similar technological and socio-economic challenges, making it crucial to transform it into a sustainable smart city. This research analyzes the opportunities and challenges of smart cities and Dhaka through SWOT and PESTEL analyses. The study employs a fuzzy rule-based inference system in a MATLAB simulation to calculate the smart city index based on parameters such as governance, transportation, waste management, utility management, healthcare, and industrial automation. The findings reveal that good governance has the highest impact on the smart city index, followed by transportation. The paper proposes a sustainable smart city transportation framework and management technique, outlining future research directions. The proposed framework is expected to impact socio-economic, technological, and environmental aspects positively.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020052
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1109-1131: Effects and Externalities of Smart

    • Authors: Yelena Popova, Sergejs Popovs
      First page: 1109
      Abstract: The concept of a smart city is widely implemented all over the world, and this fact creates both possibilities and new challenges for all participants and stakeholders of the process. This study examines the implementation of smart governance in the context of smart cities. The goal of the research is to distinguish between the effects and externalities of the smart governance domain, both positive and negative ones; the effects and externalities are elicited from the outcomes of smart governance implementation revealed from a review of scientific publications devoted to the results, barriers, and facilitators of smart governance functioning. The publications were selected according to a systematic review methodology, then the selected articles were analyzed and the factors that foster the processes of smart governance implementation (facilitators) or vice versa hamper the acquisition of results (barriers), as well as the outcomes of smart governance, were extracted. The extracted factors were attributed to six areas: Information, Efficiency, Citizen-Centricity, Transparency, Digital Divide, and Regulation. Further, the outcomes of smart governance implementation were distinguished as effects and externalities, which were both positive and negative.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020053
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1132-1151: AHSS—Construction
           Material Used in Smart Cities

    • Authors: Bożena Szczucka-Lasota, Tomasz Węgrzyn, Abílio Pereira Silva, Adam Jurek
      First page: 1132
      Abstract: With the level of development of the smart city, there are more and more research sub-areas in which the latest material and technological solutions are used, enabling the proper management and functioning of these cities. On the one hand, the introduced materials and technologies are designed to facilitate the functioning of residents both in the urban space and at home; on the other hand, the implemented solutions strive to be consistent with the principles of sustainable development. As shown in this article, reports on new technical and technological solutions and their positive and negative effects are strongly emphasized in publications on the development of smart cities. The most highlighted materials research in the smart city area concerns smart materials and their characteristics and applications. A research gap in this area is in the presentation of material solutions, particularly materials intended for the load-bearing structures of vehicles (electric vehicles, flying vehicles) or infrastructure elements (buildings, shelters, etc.) designed to increase the durability of the structure while reducing its weight. This paper aims to comprehensively present the most important research areas related to the functioning of smart cities in light of previous research, with particular emphasis on new material solutions used for thin-walled load-bearing structures in smart cities made of AHSS (advanced high-strength steel). These solutions are very essential for smart cities because their use allows for the installation of additional devices, sensors, transmitters, antennas, etc., without increasing the total weight of the structure; they reduce the number of raw materials used for production (lighter and durable thin structures), ensure lower energy consumption (e.g., lighter vehicles), and also increase the passive safety of systems or increase their lifting capacity (e.g., the possibility of transporting more people using transports at the same time; the possibility of designing and arranging, e.g., green gardens on buildings; etc.). AHSS-welded joints are usually characterized by too-low strength in the base material or a tendency to crack. Thus, the research problem is producing a light and durable AHSS structure using welding processes. The research presented in this article concerns the possibility of producing welded joints using the Metal Active Gas (MAG) process. The test methods include the assessment of the quality of joints, such as through visual examination (VT); according to the requirements of PN-EN ISO 17638; magnetic particle testing (MT); according to PN-EN ISO 17638; and the assessment of the selected mechanical properties, such as tensile strength tests, bending tests, and fatigue strength checks. These methods enable the selection of the correct joints, without welding defects. The results have a practical implication; advanced production technology for obtaining AHSS joints can be used in the construction of the load-bearing elements of mobile vehicles or parts of point infrastructure (shelters, bus stops). The obtained joint is characterized by adequate strength for the production of the assumed structures. The originality of the manuscript is the presentation of a new, cheaper, and uncomplicated solution for obtaining an AHSS joint with good mechanical properties. The application of the presented solution also contributes to sustainable development (lower fuel and material consumption use by mobile vehicles) and may contribute to increasing the load capacity of mobile vehicles (the possibility of transporting more people).
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020054
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1152-1166: Understanding the Links between
           Diversity and Creativity as Assessed in the Boroughs of London

    • Authors: David Pac-Salas, Leandro Sepulveda, Juan Miguel Baez Melian, Jaime Minguijon
      First page: 1152
      Abstract: This paper analyses the links between creativity and diversity in the different boroughs of London. Based on rich data from the UK Census of Population of 2011 and other sources, we specifically analysed the correlations between creativity and diversity within the London boroughs. The main results of this study indicate that there is no direct correlation between creativity and diversity. Some significant correlations have been observed, however, between variables that shape such indices. Namely, the “creative class” tend to live in more diverse, more heterogeneous neighbourhoods (alongside people from many different countries) and they are more prepared to tolerate such diverse environments. The study also shows that diversity of geographical origin (measured by country of origin) is a more relevant factor for boosting creativity than variables such as religious diversity. This article contributes to the theoretical field of research exploring the impact of diversity on creative people and cities.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-04-17
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020055
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1167-1184: Camera-Based Smart Parking System
           Using Perspective Transformation

    • Authors: Bowie Liu, Hawking Lai, Stanley Kan, Calana Chan
      First page: 1167
      Abstract: The concept of the “smart city” has emerged with the advancement of technology, but some facilities are not sufficiently intelligent, such as parking lots. Hence, this paper proposes an inexpensive and plug-to-play camera-based smart parking system for airports. The system utilizes inverse perspective mapping (IPM) to provide an aerial view image of the parking lot, which is then processed to extract parking space information. The system also includes a guidance system to assist drivers in finding available parking spaces. The system is simulated on a 3D scene based on the parking lot of Macao International Airport. In the experiment, our system achieved an accuracy rate of 97.03% and a mean distance error of 8.59 pixels. This research study shows the potential of enhancing parking lots using only cameras as data collectors, and the results show that the system is capable of providing accurate and useful information. It performs well in parking lots with open space, in particular. Moreover, it is an economical solution for implementing a smart parking lot.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020056
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1185-1201: Factors Affecting Car-Sharing

    • Authors: Katarzyna Turoń
      First page: 1185
      Abstract: Car-sharing systems, i.e., short-term car rental services, are solutions indicated as an alternative to individual motorization; they can be used in an increasing number of cities around the world. These services, along with their intensive development, are becoming more and more complex. Due to their complexity, they involve not only an increasing number of stakeholders or infrastructure elements, but also indicate numerous links with the functioning of cities, especially smart cities. To properly implement or improve the car-sharing system, both in terms of operational issues regarding the system’s functioning or changes in the vehicle fleet, it is important to be familiar with the elements that make up car-sharing, as well as the factors that affect it. This work aims to present the factors affecting car-sharing, as well as the transport model of car-sharing services. This work fills the research gap stemming from the lack of comprehensive studies and knowledge on car-sharing. A detailed analysis of the literature shows that there are six main groups of factors affecting car-sharing: economic and technical, transport, social, environmental, organizational, and other issues; among these factors, more than 150 quantitative and qualitative criteria can be distinguished. Furthermore, the work also showed factors that are a niche in the literature and can be the basis for further research on car-sharing. Detailed familiarity with these factors could translate into increased profitability and, above all, success in the functioning of on-the-market services. This article supports the implementation and improvement of car-sharing services. In addition, it supports scientists in the preparation of scientific papers and mathematical models in the field of car-sharing and the factors that affect it.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020057
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1202-1226: Intelligent and Environmentally
           Friendly Solutions in Smart Cities’ Development—Empirical
           Evidence from Poland

    • Authors: Agnieszka Janik, Adam Ryszko, Marek Szafraniec
      First page: 1202
      Abstract: This study presents a comprehensive analysis aiming to identify the implementation level of intelligent and environmentally friendly solutions (IEFS) in cities in Poland, and barriers impeding their development. Based on a representative sample of 280 cities, it was evident that the implementation level of IEFS in Poland is relatively very low. The most common barriers to IEFS implementation as indicated by representatives of city authorities were high costs, lack of adequate funds, and lack of awareness of benefits resulting from applying IEFS. Nevertheless, regression analyses showed that the IEFS implementation level was mostly affected by cities’ population size and perception of individual IEFS as integral elements of the smart city concept. It was also revealed that the high costs of implementing IEFS, the lack of their inclusion in local development strategies, the lack of appropriate legal regulations, the lack of widespread good practices, and the resistance of inhabitants to change and to new technologies perceived as impediments had significant negative effects on the implementation level of specific IEFS. Furthermore, the analyses demonstrated that perceiving certain issues as barriers did not hinder the implementation of such solutions. Based on a discussion of the results, relevant recommendations and directions for future research are proposed.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020058
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 179-195: Semantic Reasoning for Geolocalized
           Assessment of Crime Risk in Smart Cities

    • Authors: Rosario Minardi, Maria Luisa Villani, Antonio De Nicola
      First page: 179
      Abstract: The increasing number of crimes affecting urban areas requires the adoption of countermeasures to tackle this problem from different perspectives, including the technological one. Currently, there are many research initiatives with the goal of applying machine or deep learning techniques leveraging historical data to predict the occurrence of crime incidents. Conversely, there is a lack of tools aiming at crime risk assessment, in particular, by supporting the police in conceiving what could be the crime incidents affecting a given city area. To this purpose, we propose the Crime Prevention System, a modular software application for qualitative crime risk assessment. This consists of an ontology of crime risk, a module to retrieve contextual data from OpenStreetMap, semantics reasoning functionalities, and a GIS interface. We discuss how this system can be used through a case study related to the Italian city of Syracuse.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010010
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 196-242: Sociotechnical Characteristics of
           Conceptually Related Smart Cities’ Services from an International

    • Authors: Nammi Kim, Seungwoo Yang
      First page: 196
      Abstract: Sustainable smart cities (SSCs) have developed various services and technologies with multi-stakeholderism under multiple names. The characteristics of SSCs are specified by implementing conceptually related smart cities (CRSCs), which are ICT-based transformative cities. Many scholars point out that in-depth empirical studies of CRSCs are necessary to clarify the nature of the sociotechnical transition of SSCs while avoiding the oversimplified narratives of techno-utopia. Utilizing a periodic matrix taxonomy, this study aims to examine empirical characteristics of CRSCs services’ socio-technical transformation from international perspectives. The target cities were sampled using cluster sampling through three screening steps based on four representative documents reflecting the critical aspects of the operational definition of SSCs. The city-level data were collected using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocol and preprocessed with coding and weighting to create a periodic matrix taxonomy. The outcomes are the commonalities and different services’ sociotechnical transitions of sampled European cities from perspectives of multi-stakeholderism. The outcomes have managerial implications demonstrating empirically the sequences of service transformation of European megacities. Theoretical implications for the existing theories also arise through empirical analysis of historical real-city data and specification of stakeholders’ partnerships in conceptually related smart cities.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010011
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 243-262: Exploiting 2D/3D Geomatics Data for

    • Authors: Lucrezia Gorgoglione, Eva Savina Malinverni, Carlos Smaniotto Costa, Roberto Pierdicca, Francesco Di Stefano
      First page: 243
      Abstract: The scarce knowledge and documentation of Underground Built Heritage (UBH) assets frequently limit their full exploitation and valorization. The aim of this work is to reflect on the techniques, functions, and technical features of a specific case study in a very broad context that can, however, be a building block for the understanding, preservation, and reuse of architectural and engineering values that represent a fundamental trace of the history of a society. Therefore, to fill these knowledge gaps, it was constructed a 3D GIS model, multi-scale, and interoperable database, capable of management, promotion, and valorization of UBH. The case study focuses on the old water supply system of the city of Lisbon, as UBH site, with galleries and cisterns that are points of connection with the urban environment above. For the creation of 3D models of the structure under investigation, it was decided to carry out a survey with Mobile Mapping System as a first step, which allowed the construction of a dense point cloud useful to build 3D models of individual objects. Finally, the 3D models were imported into the 3D GIS environment and multi-information could be linked for each previously identified element for greater knowledge sharing. This research has demonstrated how geomatic techniques can be effectively used in conjunction with the information management systems of GIS to explore this “hidden” heritage and has highlighted the limitations and problems of 3D digitization of the UBH. The results obtained offer the possibility of extending and adapting the methodology to different application contexts and the possibility of customizing the data representation.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010012
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 263-290: Industrial Data Homogenization and
           Monitoring Scheme with Blockchain Oracles

    • Authors: Denis Stefanescu, Patxi Galán-García, Leticia Montalvillo, Juanjo Unzilla, Aitor Urbieta
      First page: 263
      Abstract: Research efforts on Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLTs) for industrial applications have constantly been increasing over the last years. The use of DLTs in the Industry 4.0 paradigm provides traceability, integrity, and immutability of the generated industrial data. However, Industry 4.0 ecosystems are typically composed of multiple smart factory clusters belonging to several companies, which are immersed in constant interaction with other business partners, clients, or suppliers. In such complex ecosystems, multiple DLTs are necessarily employed to maintain the integrity of the data throughout the whole process, from when the data is generated until it is processed at higher levels. Moreover, industrial data is commonly heterogeneous, which causes compatibility issues, along with security and efficiency issues in the homogenization process. Thus, the data needs to be pre-processed and homogenized in a secure manner before being exploited. Consequently, in this work, we address the issues mentioned above by providing an industrial raw data pre-processing and homogenization process according to a standard data model. We employ decentralized blockchain oracles to guarantee the integrity of the external data during the homogenization process. Hereafter, we design an interoperable plant blockchain for trustworthy storage and processing of the resulting homogenized data across several industrial plants. We also present a prototype implementation of the aforementioned scheme and discuss its effectiveness. Finally, we design a monitoring scheme to overview the usage the performance of the architecture processes and identify possible performance and security issues.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010013
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 291-315: On the Implementation of a
           Blockchain-Assisted Academic Council Electronic Vote System

    • Authors: João Alves, António Pinto
      First page: 291
      Abstract: The digitisation of administrative tasks and processes is a reality nowadays, translating into added value such as agility in process management, or simplified access to stored data. The digitisation of processes of decision-making in collegiate bodies, such as Academic Councils, is not yet a common reality. Voting acts are still carried out in person, or at most in online meetings, without having a real confirmation of the vote of each element. This is particularly complex to achieve in remote meeting scenarios, where connection breaks or interruptions of audio or video streams may exist. A new digital platform was already previously proposed. It considered decision-making, by voting in Academic Councils, to be supported by a system that guarantees the integrity of the decisions taken, even when meeting online. Our previous work mainly considered the overall design. In this work, we bettered the design and specification of our previous proposal and describe the implemented prototype, and validate and discuss the obtained results.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010014
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 316-318: Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of
           Smart Cities in 2022

    • Authors: Smart Cities Editorial Office Smart Cities Editorial Office
      First page: 316
      Abstract: High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...]
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010015
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 319-338: Modeling a Digitally Enhanced Real
           World Inspired by Agential Realism—Exploring Opportunities and

    • Authors: Risa Kimura, Tatsuo Nakajima
      First page: 319
      Abstract: In this paper, we propose a conceptual-model called the virtualizing/reframing (V/R) twin model to construct a digitally enhanced real world. The V/R twin model simulates the real world, and is an extension of the conventional digital-twin model, which can accurately model the real world and provides a general-purpose method for building digital services that enhance the real world. The major difference between the proposed model and the conventional digital-twin model is its consideration of diverse new information-presentation devices that have been recently developed. The V/R twin model is inspired by agential realism to include the “entanglement of the social and the material”, and the proposed observable-world consists of the social and material that are separate, according to the current context. After explaining the outline of the V/R twin model, where four virtualizing-patterns and reframing-patterns are introduced, the potential opportunities for the V/R twin model are examined, from multiple perspectives.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010016
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 339-367: Assessing the Energy and Climate
           Sustainability of European Union Member States: An MCDM-Based Approach

    • Authors: Jarosław Brodny, Magdalena Tutak
      First page: 339
      Abstract: Topics related to sustainable economic development are currently important issues in the modern world. However, the implementation of this concept and related operational strategies raises many controversies. On the one hand, it offers hope for ecological, safe, and independent economic development, while on the other hand, it raises public concerns about the costs of such changes. These problems are widely appreciated in the EU, which is the undoubted leader in implementing the concept of sustainable economic development. With regard to this issue, this paper presents the developed methodology for assessing the sustainable energy and climate development of the EU-27 countries. The basis of this assessment is 17 selected indicators characterizing the most important areas related to this development. Their selection was conditioned by the assumptions of the Europe 2020 Strategy and the goals (7 and 13) of the UN Agenda for Sustainable Development 2030. Five widely used methods for multi-criteria analysis supporting management processes (CODAS, EDAS, TOPSIS, VIKOR, and WASPAS) were used for the study. In order to carry out an unambiguous assessment and determine the final ranking of countries in terms of energy and climate sustainability, a methodology was developed to specify the normalized value of the Final Assessment Score (Asfinal). Based on it, the sustainability of individual EU-27 countries in 2010, 2015, and 2020 was assessed, and this assessment formed the basis for dividing these countries into four classes (levels) in terms of sustainability. The results confirmed the high differentiation of the EU-27 countries in terms of sustainability, indicating leaders as well as countries with low levels of sustainability. The countries with the highest and most stable levels of sustainable development of the economy are Sweden and Denmark. The results provide opportunities for their interpretation, both in terms of analyzing changes in individual indicators and in terms of the global assessment of sustainable development in individual countries. These results should be used when developing an energy and climate strategy for the next few years for the EU as a whole and for individual countries.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010017
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 368-391: Analysis of the Bicycle Roads System
           as an Element of a Smart Mobility on the Example of Poland Provinces

    • Authors: Radosław Wolniak
      First page: 368
      Abstract: Based on cited literature, it can be observed that the bike road system is an important part of Smart Mobility. The amount of bicycle roads can be seen as one of the technical-infrastructure indicators used to measure the potential of the Smart Mobility system. Taking this into account the analysis of the development of bike roads in particular provinces of Poland, which is conducted in this paper is a contribution to the knowledge about Smart Cities in the area of Smart Mobility. This publication uses data on the operation of bicycle roads in Poland from 2012 to 2021 for analysis. It uses data collected by the Polish Central Statistical Office. The analysis covered the last 10 years. The latest data that is currently available in terms of complete statistics are from 2021, and it was decided to end the conducted analysis this year. The data for all Polish 16 provinces were analyzed in the paper. The main important finding of the paper is finding the correlation between the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and the length of bicycle roads in Poland. Also, the very important finding of the paper is connected with the analysis of geographical patterns of bicycle roads in Poland. The analysis of the correlations between the variables allows us to conclude that more is invested in bicycle paths in the provinces located in northwestern Poland than would result from the wealth of the provinces as measured by GDP per capita. In particular, this is the case in Greater Poland, Pomerania, and Kuyavia-Pomerania. By contrast, in central and southwestern Poland, investments in bicycle paths in individual provinces are smaller than their wealth level would suggest. This situation is particularly the case in Opole Province, Lesser Poland, Lower Silesia, Subcarpatia, and Holy Cross. For these provinces in particular, it should be recommended to accelerate the construction of new bicycle roads, which will have a positive impact on the quality of life of residents in smart cities as well as ecology. Analysis of the functioning of bicycle roads as an element of a Smart City on the example of Poland Provinces.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010018
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 392-409: Smart Thinking on Co-Creation and
           Engagement: Searchlight on Underground Built Heritage

    • Authors: Carlos Smaniotto Costa, Rolando Volzone, Tatiana Ruchinskaya, Maria del Carmen Solano Báez, Marluci Menezes, Müge Akkar Ercan, Annalisa Rollandi
      First page: 392
      Abstract: This paper aims to explore public participation for activating underground built heritage (UBH). It describes and analyses practices of stakeholders’ engagement in different UBH assets, based on experiences gathered in the scope of the European COST Action ‘Underground4value’. It brings together five inspiring cases from Italy, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, in which digital and mobile technologies were used as tools to improve community experiences in UBH. Thus, the paper discusses ‘smartness’ from the perspective of people and communities around cultural assets, where ‘smartness’ becomes a new connotation and a pathway to advance (local) knowledge and know-how. Therefore, this paper takes on the challenge to define a smart city as an ecosystem for people’s empowerment and participation, and, in particular, to explore social tools for creating new values in heritage placemaking—where sharing knowledge becomes a fundamental principle.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010019
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 410-444: The Smart Community: Strategy Layers
           for a New Sustainable Continental Framework

    • Authors: Vlad Stoicescu, Teodora Ioana Bițoiu, Cătălin Vrabie
      First page: 410
      Abstract: The topic investigated in this article is a comparison, contrast, and integration effort of European strategies for sustainable development with the evolving market initiatives that are beginning to fuel the fourth industrial revolution. Several regulatory initiatives from continental bodies come into effect to radically change access to finances for business development, based on sustainability goals, and an analysis of the legislation and trends becomes essential for an effective pivot tactic in the face of adversity, as well as change management policies to pre-emptively adapt and perform. The general research question is “what the strategic tools are best employed to overcome the hurdles laid forth by the drastic changes legally required for a sustainable future'” The research methods include a quantitative analysis of norms, regulations, and legislation, including strategic initiatives circulated in the European Union governmental bodies, integrated with qualitative research of the literature. The study finds and draws synergies between national strategies that have recently been drafted or are currently evolving with sustainability-centric initiatives such as the hydrogen initiative, the nuclear initiative, the natural gas initiative, the renewables initiative, the synthetics, and biomass initiative, the ESG initiative, the digital initiative. The findings are to contribute to the business administration field by providing an appropriate image of the organizational design model in the sustainability era, and a strategy framework to build the optimum long-term vision founded on continental regulatory initiatives that have come into effect.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010020
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 445-468: The Pandemic and the Creative
           Performance of Cities: An Empirical Study in Portugal

    • Authors: Margarida Rodrigues, Mário Franco, Cidália Oliveira, Ana Pinto Borges, Rui Silva
      First page: 445
      Abstract: In a pandemic and post-pandemic environment, the consequences for the creative economy have been brutal and nefarious. Thus, this study aims to measure cities’ creativity performance, through a composite index, reported in the year 2021. In this sense, the results show that culture, the creative economy and enabling environment, as subdimensions of creativity, show that cities suffered a significant setback in their creative performance. However, this is currently being reversed so that creativity continues to contribute to the performance and growth of cities, whereby the formation of networks/partnerships as allies of the creative class and industries that characterise this dimension becomes even more important. This means that the creative class was one of the most affected by the pandemic, given that its activities are sustained mainly by the public, which corroborated recent studies. The study’s main contribution lies in the use of the Composite Index, in which it was concluded that creativity generates employment and wealth for a country’s economy. Finally, some limitations and avenues for future research were outlined.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010021
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 469-490: The Evaluation in the Urban Projects
           Planning: A Logical-Deductive Model for the Definition of “Warning
           Areas” in the Esquilino District in the City of Rome (Italy)

    • Authors: Pierluigi Morano, Francesco Tajani, Felicia Di Liddo, Ivana La Spina
      First page: 469
      Abstract: With reference to the current focus on urban redevelopment issue, the evaluation of the projects plays a central role for the definition of effective urban development policies. In the present research, a logical-deductive model for the identification of “warning areas” is proposed. Given an urban area to be renovated, the developed methodological approach starts from the detection of the main existing architectural, historical and environmental emergencies in order to investigate the appreciation of the reference market for the higher or lower proximity to each considered urban pole. Thus, an econometric technique is implemented to examine the influence of each locational factor on selling prices, by assuming the property asset price increase as a proxy of the benefits generated by the urban redevelopment intervention for local communities. Furthermore, the proposed methodology is applied to the Esquilino district in the city of Rome (Italy), for which a relevant urge of urban regeneration is found, to orient the selection phases of the areas that need more attention from public entities.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 491-509: A Day Ahead Demand Schedule Strategy
           for Optimal Operation of Microgrid with Uncertainty

    • Authors: Amrutha Raju Battula, Sandeep Vuddanti, Surender Reddy Salkuti
      First page: 491
      Abstract: A microgrid energy management system (EMS) with several generation and storage units is crucial in attaining stable and reliable operation. Optimal scheduling of energy resources in EMS becomes arduous due to uncertainty in the forecasting of intermittent renewable sources, electricity pricing, and load demand. However, with the demand response (DR) approaches the operational benefits in the EMS framework can be maximized. In order to improve the cost-effectiveness of the microgrid, a novel day-ahead energy management strategy is proposed for optimal energy allocation of the distributed generators with environmental consideration. An incentive load control-based demand response program is developed to improve the operational results. The forecasting uncertainties are handled using probability-based Hong’s 2 m approximation method. The suggested approach uses a metaheuristic genetic algorithm (GA) to solve the constrained convex problem in determining optimal load shifting. Incentive pricing is developed to adapt to the demand shifting for the benefit of the customers and utility operators. Two case studies with grid-connected and islanded modes are studied to assess the strategy. Results indicate that the proposed technique reduces the overall cost fitness by 12.28% and 18.91% in the two cases, respectively. The consistency in operational parameters with popular methods confirms the effectiveness and robustness of the method for day-ahead energy management.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010023
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 510-530: Assessing the Effectiveness of Air
           Quality Improvements in Polish Cities Aspiring to be Sustainably Smart

    • Authors: Izabela Jonek-Kowalska
      First page: 510
      Abstract: Environmental and climate protection is one of the areas of development of modern smart cities intensively exposed in the literature. Nevertheless, it often remains only a scientific postulate or a strategic record of city authorities. With these circumstances in mind, this article addresses conceptual assumptions with actual achievements in improving air quality in 16 Polish cities aspiring to be smart. In this way, an answer is sought to the following research problem: To what extent do Polish cities aspiring to be smart and operating in a developing economy realize the climate quality improvement goals exposed today by the smart city concept and the environmental requirements of the European Union' The research was conducted in a long-term perspective covering the period from 2010 (entry into force of EU air quality standards) to 2022. In addition, with reference to contemporary urban environmental studies, special attention was paid to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on air quality in the surveyed cities. In the course of the study, data on PM10 concentrations were used and statistically analyzed using measures of variability and cluster analysis as an unsupervised classification method. The results allow the formulation of the following key conclusions: (1) PM10 levels were systematically reduced in all 16 cities studied, which allows a positive assessment of the municipal authorities’ efforts to improve urban air quality; (2) the leaders in the effectiveness of PM10 reduction are Warsaw and Wrocław; and (3) after the COVID-19 pandemic, most of the cities studied managed to maintain or improve urban air quality. The originality of the considerations and analysis undertaken is due to the following considerations: (1) to fill the research gap in terms of the long-term assessment of the effectiveness of air quality improvement in cities aspiring to be smart and located in developing or emerging economies; (2) to make a cognitive contribution to the environmental research stream on smart city development (gaining knowledge on the effectiveness of cities’ actions to improve air quality); and (3) to conduct an analysis of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on air quality in Polish cities located in various provinces.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010024
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 531-562: A Framework for Effective Design
           Thinking Based Smart Cities Projects in Qatar

    • Authors: Dana AlAli, Nadarajah Manivannan, Yanmeng Xu
      First page: 531
      Abstract: With the growing implementation of smart city projects and the significance of the research problem related to effective design thinking, the opinion of the ordinary citizens have become very relevant and contemporary. The current paper presents a quantitative empirical study focused on the attitudes towards and the readiness to accept smart cities in the specific context of Qatar. The study employs a survey questionnaire as a data collection tool. The survey is distributed online among a sample of 40 respondents from Qatar, including both residents and non-residents of smart cities in the country. Even though the sample is not representative of the Qatari population, the present study provides preliminary findings and fundamental insights into this novel topic in a specific socio-economic context. The major findings of the study uncovered that the respondents show quite positive attitudes toward diverse aspects related to smart economy, smart people, smart governance, smart mobility, smart environment, and smart living, as well as significant readiness to accept this lifestyle. However, the respondents demonstrate concerns related to the privacy and security of the people living in smart cities. The superiority of fundamental aspects of life like housing and healthcare in smart cities compared to conventional ones are also questioned by the respondents.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010025
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 563-585: Renewable Energy Communities in
           Positive Energy Districts: A Governance and Realisation Framework in
           Compliance with the Italian Regulation

    • Authors: Riccardo Trevisan, Emilio Ghiani, Fabrizio Pilo
      First page: 563
      Abstract: Renewable energy communities, first outlined in the European Directives and recently transposed into the Italian regulatory framework, are introduced as innovative entities capable of fostering cooperation between active and passive users involved in the production, sharing, and use of locally produced energy according to innovative management schemes. Renewable energy communities empower the end-customers. Citizens and legal entities are committed to a rational and economical use of energy to achieve the community’s climate neutrality goals and pursue the ecological and energy transition objectives defined in the national recovery and resilience plan. In the future, a significant number of energy communities different actors participating from the residential, industrial, commercial, and tertiary sectors are expected to develop within city districts or in suburban settings. This paper proposes and develops a methodology capable of bridging the complexity that can characterise the prototyping, implementation, and management of an energy community within a positive energy district. The approach presented here can also be extended to other application contexts in urban or rural settings. Requirements and best practices for administrative, technical, and technological management have been identified to achieve this goal. Italy is one of the first states to embed in its regulatory framework the European Directives regarding renewable energy communities. These will have a significant impact on network management models and will provide new ways for creating social inclusion that may help achieve climate sustainability goals. A governance model has been formalised for the empowerment of energy community members, outlining a framework useful for planning the proper implementation of a renewable energy community according to current Italian regulations.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010026
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 586-613: Privacy and Security Concerns in the
           Smart City

    • Authors: Brian F. G. Fabrègue, Andrea Bogoni
      First page: 586
      Abstract: This article will highlight negative personal privacy and informational security outcomes that may arise from development programs currently pursued in smart cities. It aims to illustrate the ways in which the remedies proposed so far appear insufficient from a legal or practical standpoint, and to set forth a number of tactical approaches that could be used to improve them. Cities require spatial efficiency to address rising complexities, which can only be attained through an adequately efficient exchange of information among its citizens and administrators. Unprecedented volumes of private, public, and business data can now be collected, processed, and transmitted thanks to present technology. According to the authors’ analysis of current trends in technology, data collection, legislation, and the related public acceptance in Italy and Switzerland, governments, corporations, employers, and individuals will increasingly experience hazard and damage given the ease at which tracking technologies can be abused. The study clarifies how significant data privacy and information protection are in the making of a successful smart urban community and provides insights on local Italian and Swiss policy makers’ interest about digital innovation tied to the development of data protection.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010027
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 614-625: What Influences Older Urban
           Poor’s Attitude towards Online Job Search' Implications for Smart
           Cities Development

    • Authors: Chonticha Asavanirandorn, Watchara Pechdin, Ritthikiat Ngamsomsak, Ruttiya Bhula-Or
      First page: 614
      Abstract: There is an increasing number of older adults being encouraged to come back to the workforce in search of better financial security in their later years. At the same time, the job market nowadays has increasingly depended on technology to recruit new workers, especially in Smart Cities, a concept that has been recently introduced to developing countries. As a result, the use of the Internet for job searches has become increasingly important for older adults living in urban environments, especially those with limited resources. However, there has not been an in-depth paper exploring the various factors that may affect the older population’s ability to use this new development to their advantage. This study offered a closer look at the social and economic factors that influence acceptance of using the Internet to look for a job among older urban poor in Thailand. By understanding the influences that shape their attitudes and behaviors towards online job searches, it is then possible to guide the development of Smart Cities and offer better assistance to older adults who wish to use the Internet for employment opportunities. We applied a logit regression model on data collected from individuals aged pre-retirement and retirement (n = 1505) in two Thai cities with significantly different economic development levels. The results showed that gender, religion, family arrangement, and income had a significant impact on older adults’ online job search activities, especially when it came to women, people of the Islamic faith, people living with partners, and high-income individuals. Urban planners are recommended to take these aforementioned factors into account while formulating the Smart Cities development plan.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010028
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 626-638: Research on LMS and KPIs for Learning
           Analysis in Education

    • Authors: Milena Krumova
      First page: 626
      Abstract: Learning Analysis (LA) trends show that KPIs used for better understanding and investigation of the learning process are diverse and often depend on the goals of the analyses. One of the most crucial questions for the implementation of LA is the availability of data. Currently, each education organization uses some type of Learning Management System (LMS), thus gathering, storing, and managing different data about the learning process. The initial point of this research is the fact that the time framework of the learning process is predefined, and that learning process analyses must be done according to this limit because each learning activity takes time to be performed. This research conducts an overview of the LMS and proposes KPI clusters for measuring and analyzing learning processes regarding (i) learning engagement, (ii) learning community building and management, and (iii) knowledge no-boundaries. It is structured into three parts. Based on the research methods used (a literature review, desk research, and experiments), (1) a review of LMS is conducted, then (2) the learning analysis is presented, (3) KPI analyses are done, and, finally, a new KPI model for LA is proposed, which includes 22 KPIs grouped into 4 Clusters. In the conclusion, the advantages of the model are explained along with the scientific contribution of the research. The next research steps, regarding the implementation of the model in the real classroom, are presented at the end.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010029
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 639-651: Smart City Achievement through
           Implementation of Digital Health Services in Handling COVID-19 Indonesia

    • Authors: Amandita ‘Ainur Rohmah, Rini Rachmawati, Estuning Tyas Wulan Mei
      First page: 639
      Abstract: The digital transformation of health services is one of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Various overseas studies have shown a positive response to digital health services, especially in handling the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to compare the implementation of digital health services between regions in Indonesia and analyze strategies in the health sector that are appropriate in the era of digital transformation in handling COVID-19 in Indonesia. The focus of this research is on the implementation of digital transformation of health services as one of the derivatives of the Smart City implementation, especially the dimension of Smart Living. The research was conducted using qualitative methods with systematic literature reviews and SWOT analysis techniques. The typology map of the implementation of digital health services in Indonesia shows that digital health services dominate in the Western and Central parts of Indonesia, which varies widely from the Central and Eastern parts of Indonesia, which tend to have limited forms of digital transformation. Various factors certainly influence the difference in implementing digital health services in each region. Therefore, multiple strategies are needed, such as infrastructure improvement, stakeholder collaboration, and increasing the factors that influence the implementation of digital health services.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010030
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 652-675: Blockchain Orchestration and
           Transformation for Construction

    • Authors: Mohammad Darabseh, João Poças Martins
      First page: 652
      Abstract: Blockchain-related studies that focus on solving AECO (Architecture, Engineering, Construction and Operation) digital management environment issues, such as data protection and data ownership, show the projected benefits of Blockchain-based digital construction environments. However, adopting such technology will require a holistic approach to ensure it does not result in data redundancy, leading to digital system inefficiencies. This article studies the Blockchain construction synergies from the infrastructure point of view to understand its future in construction. The article visualises Blockchain infrastructure elements and fits them within the construction project’s digital environment. A novel framework for Blockchain orchestration and implementation and a blueprint for developing Blockchain applications for construction are presented. The proposed blueprint is then used to develop a Blockchain application using Hyperledger Firefly. The article builds on the previous literature and Blockchain applications on the Ethereum public Blockchain. The expected benefit of such a framework is providing a practical perspective on the implementation side of Blockchain in construction.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010031
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
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