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  Subjects -> ARCHITECTURE (Total: 219 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 264 Journals sorted alphabetically
A&P Continuidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
A+BE : Architecture and the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
ABE Journal : Architecture Beyond Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Academia : Architecture and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Actas de Arquitectura Religiosa Contemporánea     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiances     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Ángulo Recto. Revista de estudios sobre la ciudad como espacio plural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apuntes : Revista de Estudios sobre Patrimonio Cultural - Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ArcHistoR     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Architectural Engineering and Design Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Architectural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Architectural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Architectural Research in Finland     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Architectural Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Architectural Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Architectural Theory Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Architecture and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Architecture and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Architecture and Urban Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Architecture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ArDIn. Arte, Diseño e Ingeniería     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arena Journal of Architectural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ARQ     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
arq: Architectural Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Arqueología de la Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ARQUISUR     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquitectura Más (Arquitectura +)     Open Access  
Arquitectura y Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arquiteturarevista     Open Access  
Ars Longa : Cuadernos de arte     Open Access  
Artifact : Journal of Design Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
AURUM : Mühendislik Sistemleri ve Mimarlık Dergisi = Aurum Journal of Engineering Systems and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian Planner     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Boletín Académico. Revista de investigación y arquitectura contemporánea     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
BUILT : International Journal of Building, Urban, Interior and Landscape Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin KNOB     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Charrette     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cities & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
City, Territory and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
CLARA : Classical Art and Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Construction Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Construindo     Open Access  
Continuité     Full-text available via subscription  
Creative Space     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuaderno de Notas     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Proyectos Arquitectónicos     Open Access  
Cultural Heritage and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
De Res Architettura     Open Access  
DEARQ - Revista de Arquitectura / Journal of Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Der Architekt     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Design Ecologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Dibt Mitteilungen (Formerly-Mitteilungen Deut Inst Fuer Bautechnik)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
disP - The Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
EGA Expresión Gráfica Arquitectónica     Open Access  
Eikonocity. Storia e Iconografia delle Città e dei Siti Europei - History and Iconography of European Cities and Sites     Open Access  
Elkawnie : Journal of Islamic Science and Technology     Open Access  
EN BLANCO : Revista de Arquitectura     Full-text available via subscription  
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Enquiry / The ARCC Journal of Architectural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Environment and Planning B : Urban Analytics and City Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Environmental Science and Sustainable Development : International Journal Of Environmental Science & Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Environnement Urbain / Urban Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Épités - Épitészettudomány     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ESTOA Revista de la Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanismo     Open Access  
Estructuras     Open Access  
Estudios del Hábitat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
étapes: international     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Eurasian Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Planning Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Fabrications: The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and New Zealand     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Firenze Architettura     Open Access  
Footprint : Delft Architecture Theory Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
FORMakademisk - forskningstidsskrift for design og designdidaktikk     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Sustainable Cities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers of Architectural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Future Cities and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Gazi University Journal of Science Part B : Art, Humanities, Design and Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Grey Room     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
GRID - Architecture, Planning and Design Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
HBRC Journal     Open Access  
Herança : Revista de História, Património e Cultura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Home Cultures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Housing and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access  
Informes de la Construcción     Open Access  
interFACES     Open Access  
Interiors : Design, Architecture and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Architecture and Infrastructure Planning     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Human Capital in Urban Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Islamic Architecture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Landscape Planning and Architecture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Student Project Reporting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of the Built Environment and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Japan Architectural Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Joelho : Journal of Architectural Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Architectural / Planning Research and Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Architectural and Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Architectural Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Architectural Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Architecture and Urbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Journal of architecture&ENVIRONMENT     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Architecture, Art & Humanistic Science     Open Access  
Journal of Architecture, Design and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Delta Urbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Environmental Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Facade Design and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Landscape Architecture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Medieval Latin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Persianate Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Public Space     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Society for the Study of Architecture in Canada / Le Journal de la Société pour l'étude de l'architecture au Canada     Open Access  
Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Urban Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Jurnal Arsitektur KOMPOSISI     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access  
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Les Cahiers de la recherche architecturale urbaine et paysagère     Open Access  
Limaq     Open Access  
Liño     Open Access  
Livraisons d’Histoire de l’Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Loggia, Arquitectura & Restauración     Open Access  
MediaTropes     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Modernism/modernity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Módulo Arquitectura - CUC     Open Access  
Mokslas – Lietuvos ateitis / Science – Future of Lithuania     Open Access  
Montreal Architectural Review     Open Access  
Nature : National Academic Journal of Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
OASE Journal for Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Oculum Ensaios     Open Access  
On the w@terfront. Public Art. Urban Design. Civic Participation. Urban Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Opus Incertum     Open Access  
Oz : the Journal of the College of Architecture, Planning &Design at Kansas State University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Paisagem e Ambiente     Open Access  
Palimpsesto     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Panambí. Revista de Investigaciones Artísticas     Open Access  
Paranoá : cadernos de arquitetura e urbanismo     Open Access  
PARC Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Construção     Open Access  
Patrimoines du Sud     Open Access  
Pensum     Open Access  
Periodica Polytechnica Architecture     Open Access  
Places Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Polis     Open Access  
Porta Aurea     Open Access  
Pós. Revista do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Arquitetura e Urbanismo da FAUUSP     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Procesos Urbanos     Open Access  
project baikal : Journal of architecture, design and urbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ra : Revista de Arquitectura     Full-text available via subscription  
Re. Revista de Edificación     Open Access  
REUDAR : European Journal of Roman Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Amazônia Moderna     Open Access  
Revista Arquitecturas del Sur     Open Access  
Revista AUS     Open Access  
Revista de Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Arquitectura     Open Access  
Revista de Arquitectura e Ingenieria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Design, Tecnologia e Sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Investigación     Open Access  
Revista de Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Geometria Gráfica     Open Access  
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access  
Revista INVI     Open Access  
Revista Márgenes Espacio Arte y Sociedad     Open Access  
RevistArquis     Open Access  
Ri-Vista : Ricerche per la progettazione del paesaggio     Open Access  
Risco : Revista de Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Urbanismo     Open Access  
Riset Arsitektur     Open Access  
Room One Thousand     Open Access  
Sens public     Open Access  
Sinektika : Jurnal Arsitektur     Open Access  
Smart Cities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
South East European Journal of Architecture and Design     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Space Ontology International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Spool     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Tafter Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
TECHNE - Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technology|Architecture + Design     Hybrid Journal  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Environment and Planning B : Urban Analytics and City Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.653
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 39  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 2399-8083 - ISSN (Online) 2399-8091
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Modeling clusters from the ground up: A web data approach

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Christoph Stich, Emmanouil Tranos, Max Nathan
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      This paper proposes a new methodological framework to identify economic clusters over space and time. We employ a unique open source dataset of geolocated and archived business webpages and interrogate them using Natural Language Processing to build bottom-up classifications of economic activities. We validate our method on an iconic UK tech cluster – Shoreditch, East London. We benchmark our results against existing case studies and administrative data, replicating the main features of the cluster and providing fresh insights. As well as overcoming limitations in conventional industrial classification, our method addresses some of the spatial and temporal limitations of the clustering literature.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-18T05:22:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221108185
       
  • Physical geography and traffic delays: Evidence from a major coastal city

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      Authors: Albert Saiz, Luyao Wang
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Traffic congestion is a major environmental and social problem whose causes include urban sprawl, imbalanced home-job distributions, increased car ownership, and lack of public transportation. We focus on a relatively understudied factor: the existence of geographic barriers. We study traffic times and flows in the Boston metropolitan area, a major coastal city with substantial shape non-convexities. We show that natural barriers not only cause additional delays to the trips affected directly, but also worsen downtown congestion for everyone. Additionally, commuter flows between places separated by barriers decrease, generating additional traffic elsewhere. We also find that places next to geographic obstacles suffer from higher risks of congestion, due to their lower traffic-diffusion ability. Policymakers may consider specific solutions for congestion arising from constraining physical geographies.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-18T02:19:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221108406
       
  • Realising the Sustainable Development Goal 11.7 in the post-pandemic era
           – A case study of Taiwan

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      Authors: Yi-Ya Hsu, Zih-Hong Lin, Chong-En Li
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically impacted our daily lives worldwide. For instance, pandemic-prevention policies restrict people’s mobility, which causes problems in accessing urban greenspaces. Indeed, unequal access to urban greenspace has been accentuated during the most stringent lockdowns of 2020 and 2021. Amid such challenging circumstances, there has been a growing attention placed on Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 11.7, which has brought opportunities for urgent action. In this paper, we applied the Gini coefficient to our analysis of unequal access to urban greenspaces across all urban planning areas in six special municipalities in Taiwan. Moreover, we also conducted comparative analyses between the Gini coefficient and other socio-economic factors. The results show that approximately 63.98% of the urban planning area suffers from unequal access to greenspaces. In addition, urban greenspace provision and household income show significant positive correlations with the Gini coefficient, which reflects Taiwan’s environmental injustice. Furthermore, these findings can help city planners and decision-makers evaluate levels of equality in each urban planning area and decide which priority areas should be improved. Finally, this study can also be used as a reference for decision-makers to realise SDG 11.7 in the post-pandemic era.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T12:06:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221108403
       
  • Measuring urban nighttime vitality and its relationship with urban spatial
           structure: A data-driven approach

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      Authors: Chao Wu, Minwei Zhao, Yu Ye
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Nighttime vitality has garnered attention in recent years as an important indicator reflecting urban economy and quality of life. However, it is difficult to characterize this intangible issue. As a response, this study employed a data-driven approach to measure nighttime vitality and explored its relationships with urban spatial structure. Specifically, the data from Meituan.com—the largest Chinese shopping platform for local consumer products and retail services—were used to measure nighttime vitality based on a hierarchical weighting method. Multidimensional characteristics of the urban spatial structure were evaluated. Spatial regression models were conducted on the effect analysis of urban spatial structure on nighttime vitality. Relationship estimations were statistically significant with indicators, such as block functions, building density, interaction density, enclosure of locals, and the age structure of the main population. Our findings provide a more complete understanding of nighttime vitality, which is often overlooked in urban vitality studies. Insights derived from this study could help formulate spatial strategies to enhance nighttime vitality and quality of life.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T11:34:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221108191
       
  • From urban form to information: Cellular configurations in different
           spatial cultures

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      Authors: Vinicius M Netto, Edgardo Brigatti, Caio Cacholas
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Cities are different worldwide, but does this fact have any relation to culture' The idea that urban form embodies idiosyncrasies related to cultural identities captures the imagination of many in urban studies, but it is an assumption yet to be carefully examined. At its heart, the question of whether cities can be seen as cultural artefacts is informational: whether or not cultural traces can be encoded in the physical configuration of cities. Approaching spatial configuration as a proxy of urban culture, we investigate this possibility by focussing on buildings as the primary components shaping cities. Looking into how buildings aggregate in combinations and complexes, we explore Shannon’s information theory to introduce an entropy measure and analyse frequencies of cellular configurations of built form. We apply this method to downtown areas of 45 cities from different regions around the world. Assessing differences and similarities in cellular configurations, we identify clusters of cities potentially consistent with specific spatial cultures. Our findings suggest a classification scheme that sheds light on the ‘cultural hypothesis’: the possibility that different cultures and regions find different ways of ordering space. We conclude our analysis by arguing that the endless combinatorial possibilities of building configurations, missing from street network approaches, add complexity to cities and prompt a renewed interest in built form systems.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T09:54:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221107382
       
  • Examining the interplay between racial segregation patterns and access to
           hospital care

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      Authors: Gordon Cromley, Jie Lin
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Access to hospitals and especially intensive care units is an important issue given the current COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined the interplay between the pattern of spatial separation of racial groups and the access by those groups to hospital services as measured by the number of beds. Differences between racial groups in the Chicago Area were investigated using two models that calculated supply and cost accessibility to hospital care using Huff-style probabilities. An additional two models focused on minimizing the unevenness in congestion for ICU beds at hospitals. Results suggest that with respect to hospital beds, there was not much difference between racial groups in terms of supply accessibility, but there were greater differences in the travel cost for accessing those services. This is due to the association between the centrality dimension of residential segregation and the central location of hospitals in the Chicago Area. Results also suggest that the goal of even congestion levels results in higher travel costs with the region.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T03:50:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221108188
       
  • Investigating rural public spaces with cultural significance using
           morphological, cognitive and behavioural data

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      Authors: Nan Bai, Pirouz Nourian, Ana Pereira Roders, Raoul Bunschoten, Weixin Huang, Lu Wang
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      During the rural [re]vitalization process in China, national strategies required rural public spaces with cultural significance to be identified before planning decision-making. However, places identified as culturally significant by planners and visitors can differ from the ones mostly used and valued by locals. Even if there is a growing interest in integrating local perspectives and experiences in planning, studies seldom discuss and compare openly the adequacy of spatial configuration, cognition and behaviour to support it. This study took Anyi Historic Village Cluster as a case study to empirically investigate rural public spaces with three distinct, yet related approaches: (1) Morphological: spatial network centralities based on space syntax; (2) Cognitive: Lynchian village images with semi-structured interviews; (3) Behavioural: spatiotemporal occupation patterns using Wi-Fi positioning tracking. Significant places valued and used by locals and non-locals were detected with the multi-source data. Furthermore, multivariant regression models managed to characterize the relationship among different aspects of investigated rural public spaces, which also helped diagnose places of interest to prioritize in planning, demonstrating the advantage of integrating the sources of information in practice instead of studying them apart. Results can also assist rural planning on how to identify what to preserve, what to enhance, and how to develop such spaces, without overlooking the local needs or losing the rural identity.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T02:54:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211064290
       
  • Spatial variations of the third and fourth COVID-19 waves in Hong Kong: A
           comparative study using built environment and socio-demographic
           characteristics

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      Authors: Zidong Yu, Xintao Liu
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Since the first confirmed case was reported in January 2020, Hong Kong has experienced multiple waves of COVID-19 outbreaks. Recent literature has explored the spatial patterns of disease incidence and their relationships with the built environment and demographic characteristics. Nonetheless, few studies aim at the comparative patterns of different epidemic waves occurring in the same spatial context. This study analyses spatial patterns of the third and fourth COVID-19 epidemic waves and then evaluates the spatial relationship between case incidence and built environment and socio-demographic characteristics. By collecting local-related cases, this study incorporates a two-fold analytical strategy: (1) Using rank-size distribution and log-odd ratio to depict the spatial pattern of COVID-19 incidence rates; (2) through global and local regression models, investigating incidence’s associations with the urban built environment and socio-demographic characteristics. The results reveal that the two different epidemic waves have far distinct spatial tendencies to their infection risk factors, reflecting location-specific associations with the built environments and socio-demographics. Collectively, we discover that the third and fourth COVID-19 waves are likely associated with residential context and urban activities, respectively. Practical implications are discussed that would be of interest to policymakers and health professionals.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-04T11:54:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221107019
       
  • Re-examining Jane Jacobs’ doctrine using new urban data in Hong Kong

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      Authors: Jianxiang Huang, Yuming Cui, Lishuai Li, Mengdi Guo, Hung Chak Ho, Yi Lu, Chris Webster
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Jane Jacobs (1961) theorized that four urban form conditions, namely, mixed use, short block, aged buildings and density, are indispensable for the ‘exuberant diversity’ and conducive to, or perhaps even determinant of, the success of a city district. Jacobs’ theory has been used widely as a reference point in case study research and policy and design prescriptions. We found five studies that attempted to test it more formally, using various performance indicators such as mobile phone activities, walking, crime and mortality. Their findings were inconsistent and unable to settle theoretical controversies. Questions remained as what performance indicators are most strongly associated with her urban form conditions' Are these conditions independently associated with desired outcomes or in combination and what are the interaction effects' Our study aimed to test Jacobs’ theory that urban form conditions contribute to the vitality and success of city districts. Jacobs’ urban form conditions were measured using GIS data for each of Hong Kong’s Tertiary Planning Unit. Performance outcomes were gauged using a combination of ‘new urban data’, comprising Twitter activities, sentiment tones and Point-Of-Interest (POI), and ‘traditional data’, comprising walking commute, employment and mortality. Urban context, income and demographic indicators were used as controls in fitting spatial regression models to predict measures of performances based on urban conditions. Results showed that Jacobs’ urban form conditions contribute positively to ‘vitality’ indicators such as the density of tweets, walking trips and POI, but not with ‘failure and success’ indicators such as expressed sentiment on Twitter, employment, or mortality. Out findings suggest that her theory largely hold for Hong Kong, except that dwelling density should be substituted by building density, whilst tall buildings associated positively with desirable outcomes, contrary to Jacobs’ observation in the American context. More generally, we demonstrate how new urban data can be used to evaluate classic planning theories at scale.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-04T05:50:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221106186
       
  • Monitoring the well-being of vulnerable transit riders using machine
           

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      Authors: Martino Tran, Christina Draeger, Xuerou Wang, Abbas Nikbakht
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Using open-source data, we show that despite significant reductions in global public transit during the COVID-19 pandemic, ∼20% of ridership continues during social distancing measures. Current urban transport data collection methods do not account for the distinct behavioural and psychological experiences of the population. Therefore, little is known about the travel experience of vulnerable citizens that continue to rely on public transit and their concerns over risk, safety and other stressors that could negatively affect their health and well-being. We develop a machine learning approach to augment conventional transport data collection methods by curating a population segmented Twitter dataset representing the travel experiences of ∼120,000 transit riders before and during the pandemic in Metro Vancouver, Canada. Results show a heightened increase in negative sentiments, differentiated by age, gender and ethnicity associated with public transit indicating signs of psychological stress among travellers during the first and second waves of COVID-19. Our results provide empirical evidence of existing inequalities and additional risks faced by citizens using public transit during the pandemic, and can help raise awareness of the differential risks faced by travellers. Our data collection methods can help inform more targeted social-distancing measures, public health announcements, and transit monitoring services during times of transport disruptions and closures.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-01T01:55:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221104489
       
  • Time, the other dimension of urban form: Measuring the relationship
           between urban density and accessibility to grocery shops in the 10-minute
           city

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      Authors: Todor Kesarovski, Fabio Hernández-Palacio
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Compact settlements take advantage of economies of scale by sustaining a system of high-quality socio-economic services at close proximities. Urban density with a balanced mix of uses also benefits walking and cycling as mobility modes that provide sufficient access to urban amenities, especially when combined with effective public transport. Indeed, walking and cycling can decrease the use of cars for short-distance trips. From this perspective, urban density can help to reduce pollution, optimise energy consumption and decrease infrastructural expenditures while contributing to more attractive urban environments. These ideas have induced a new wave of time geography planning concepts, such as the ‘10-minute city’, to enhance urban sustainability. For these concepts to move beyond visionary narratives, they must be expressed in specific empirical frameworks. Thus, the current research focuses on accessibility to grocery shops, as an essential urban service, in the Stavanger metropolitan area (Norway) using 10 minutes isochrones for walking and cycling. The study integrates open data, GIS network analyses, statistical regressions and bivariate representations of the results. The research estimates the level of serviceability by quantifying the number of shops that are accessible for each location and interrelates this estimation with spatial and population densities. The paper also presents a method to detect spatial inequalities by visualising over/under-serviced areas. This visualisation can become a tool to support strategies to rebalance such imbalances. Moreover, this study offers a practical approach towards the ‘10-minute city’ concept, as it can be adjusted to different isochrones at different spatial scales. In general, this approach can serve both to analyse existing contexts and to model strategies to support sustainability policies, such as urban densification and the promotion of environmental-friendly transport.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-26T05:57:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221103259
       
  • Modelling the interdependence of spatial scales in urban systems

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      Authors: Janka Lengyel, Seraphim Alvanides, Friedrich Jan
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      The multitude of interwoven spatial scales and their relevance for urban systems has been of interest to the complexity science of cities since its conception. Today, we are well aware that urban environments are being simultaneously shaped and organised through actions at all levels. However, the fundamental question of how to reveal and quantify the interdependence of processes in between various spatial and temporal scales is less often addressed. Deepening our theoretical understanding of the multiscale spatiotemporal complexity of urban systems demands a transdisciplinary framework and the deployment of novel and advanced mathematical models. This article performs a multiscale analysis of urban structures using a large dataset of rent price values in the Ruhr area, Germany. We argue that, due to their many interacting degrees of freedom, urban systems exhibit similar features as other strongly correlated systems, for example, turbulent flows, notably the occurrence of extreme small-scale fluctuations. This analogy between urban and turbulent systems, which we support by empirical evidence, allows for the modelling of spatial structures on the basis of concepts and methods from turbulence theory. We demonstrate how by identifying the main turbulence-borrowed characteristics of an arbitrary two-dimensional urban field, it can be fully reproduced with a small number of prescribed points. Our findings have theoretical implications in the way we quantify and analyse scales in urban systems, model small-scale urban structures as well as potential policy relevance on understanding the evolution and spatial organisation of cities.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-26T05:20:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221091569
       
  • Exploring temporal variability in travel patterns on public transit using
           big smart card data

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      Authors: Xia Zhao, Mengying Cui, David Levinson
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Passengers generate travel behaviours on public transit, whose variations deserve an exploration with an aim to guide daily-updated managements. In this study, we investigate temporal variability in travel patterns for over 3.3 million passengers across 120 days who use public transit in Beijing. Temporal variability is characterized by a series of features in terms of space coverage, travel distance and travel frequency, based on which, passengers are clustered into two types, that is, commuters with daily travel routines, and non-commuters who do not. How, and to which extent, they change travel patterns over time are examined, with using approaches concerning multivariate regression and curve fitting. Results show that, (1) commuters are more likely to travel longer but cover less territory than non-commuters on weekdays, while the opposite patterns occur on weekends. The variation of day of week affects commuters less, compared to non-commuters, due to more fixed schedules, as expected; (2) travel distance and frequency are found to increase faster, more linearly, than space-coverage features, the last of which experience a progressive decreasing of marginal increases before reaching a plateau. The above findings facilitate transport practitioners to design sound management schemes for passengers in different categories.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T01:04:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221089662
       
  • Developing urban biking typologies: Quantifying the complex interactions
           of bicycle ridership, bicycle network and built environment
           characteristics

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      Authors: Ben Beck, Meghan Winters, Trisalyn Nelson, Chris Pettit, Simone Z Leao, Meead Saberi, Jason Thompson, Sachith Seneviratne, Kerry Nice, Mark Stevenson
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Extensive research has been conducted exploring associations between built environment characteristics and biking. However, these approaches have often lacked the ability to understand the interactions of the built environment, population and bicycle ridership. To overcome these limitations, this study aimed to develop novel urban biking typologies using unsupervised machine learning methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of travel surveys, bicycle infrastructure and population and land use characteristics in the Greater Melbourne region, Australia. To develop the urban biking typology, we used a k-medoids clustering method. Analyses revealed 5 clusters. We highlight areas with high bicycle network density and a high proportion of trips made by bike (Cluster 1; reflecting 12% of the population of Greater Melbourne, but 57% of all bike trips) and areas with high off-road and on-road bicycle network length, but a low proportion of trips made by bike (Cluster 4, reflecting 23% of the population of Greater Melbourne and 13% of all bike trips). Our novel approach to developing an urban biking typology enabled the exploration of the interaction of bicycle ridership, the bicycle network, population and land use characteristics. Such approaches are important in advancing our understanding of bicycling behaviour, but further research is required to understand the generalisability of these findings to other settings.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T10:46:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221100827
       
  • Exploring land use functional variance using mobile phone derived human
           activity data in Shanghai

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      Authors: Xiyuan Ren, ChengHe Guan, De Wang, Junyan Yang, Bo Zhang, Michael Keith
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Land use functions can categorize places where people perform different socioeconomic activities. This classification plays an important role in urban management, policy making, and resource allocation. However, due to the rapid changes of built environment and living demands, human activities might vary significantly, in space and time, even within the same land use function as conventionally defined, impeding the formulation of targeted and user-oriented planning policies. This study took the first step to explore land use subcategorization using mobile phone-derived human activities. The study area is the 5,298 census tracts in Shanghai. Sixteen million mobile phone users’ data were collected from Shanghai Mobile Co., Ltd., in 2014. We proposed a multi-dimensional indicator framework to capture collective features of activities and identified land use subcategories using the K-Means clustering method. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to detect the proportion of activity variances captured by the classification results. Subcategory labelling method was applied to reveal the relationship between land use subcategories and built environment factors. The results show that (1) Conventional land-use functional zones (LFZs) cannot fully capture the activity variances, especially in behavioral regularity and temporal variation; (2) According to the variance analysis, at least four to five subcategories should be identified upon current LFZs to capture the main activity variances; and (3) In the case of Shanghai, land use subcategories presented palpable spatial regularity, which revealed a citywide structure deserves for further study. We concluded that data-derived activity features can provide an innovative perspective complementary to existing land use classification standards and facilitate policymakers with their decision-making processes on urban resource allocation.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T10:56:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221103261
       
  • The shape and size of urban blocks

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      Authors: Ermal Shpuza
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Two measures of shape compactness and fragmentation are coupled together into a plot that is defined as a two-dimensionalmatrix for classifying boundary shapes. Block shapes in a large sample of cities result in a swallowtail distribution in the matrix, which exposes two fundamental ways of transforming the basic compact block: by dissection, corresponding to large blocks with internal dendritic streets, and by stretching and bending, corresponding to serpentine blocks in hilly terrains and edge blocks along highways, railroads, and canals. The density of cases in each matrix zone reveals the realization of actual blocks out of the probable shape combinations as a manifestation of the social logic of urban form. The observed affinity between the shape and size of non-basic blocks in cities is used to formulate a model that explains them according to the constraints of arranging plots along the streets combined with the requirements for the intelligibility of navigation and the minimization of travel distance. Considering blocks as intra-street cells, the proposed block classification reveals important links between topological and geometric aspects of the street networks thus contributing to urban modeling, morphological classification, and comparative studies.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T11:26:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221098744
       
  • Co-developing evidence-informed adaptation actions for resilient citywide
           sanitation: Local government response to climate change in Indonesia

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      Authors: Juliet Willetts, Cindy Priadi, Osha Ombasta, Dwica Wulandari, Inas Imtiyaz, Ni Nyoman Sri Natih Sudhiastiningsih, Jeremy Kohlitz, Freya Mills, Maraita Listyasari
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Already climate-related hazards are impacting sanitation systems in Indonesia and elsewhere, and climate models indicate these hazards are likely to increase in frequency and intensity. Without due attention, to maintain existing progress on Sustainable Development Goal 6’s target 6.2 and to increase it to meet ambitions for 2030 will be difficult. City governments need new forms of evidence to respond, as well as approaches to enable them to consider sufficient breadth of strategies to adapt effectively. This paper describes a co-production research process which engaged local governments in four cities in Indonesia experiencing different climate hazards. Local government engagement took place across three stages of (i) inception and design, (ii) participation as key informants and (iii) joint analysis and engagement on the findings. We adapted and simplified a risk prioritisation process based on current literature and employed a novel framework of a ‘climate resilient sanitation system’ to prompt articulation of current and proposed climate change adaptation response actions. In contrast to many current framings of climate resilience in sanitation that focus narrowly on technical responses, the results paint a rich picture of efforts needed by city governments across all domains, including planning, institutions, financing, infrastructure and management options, user awareness, water cycle management and monitoring and evaluation. Local government commitment and improved comprehension on the implications of climate change for sanitation service delivery were key outcomes arising from the co-production process. With strengthened policy and capacity building initiatives from national level, this foundation can be supported, and Indonesian city governments will be equipped to move forward with adaptation actions that protect on-going access to sanitation services, public health and the environment.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T03:12:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221098740
       
  • Strategic archetypes of planning processes: Model and evidence

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      Authors: Lasse Gerrits, Peter K Marks, Sofia Pagliarin, Ward Rauws
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Complex planning processes bear the hallmarks of evolution, in that actors seek to obtain the results that serve their needs best. That is, seek to increase their fitness. As in biological evolution, there are multiple pathways toward fitness. With the rise of adaptive planning approaches, the question how such pathways can be identified in strategic planning processes becomes pivotal. To answer this question, we adapt the fitness landscape model from biology and analyze several strategic planning processes. The analysis demonstrates that one can trace how different pathways to fitness emerge, and which pathways are more successful given the circumstances. We then synthesize these pathways into six strategic archetypes of actor behavior and of interactions between actors.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T08:57:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221098746
       
  • Are people equally exposed to seismic and climate-change-induced
           hazards' Evidence from the San Francisco Bay Area

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      Authors: Chih-Hao Wang, Na Chen
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Many studies have shown that a comprehensive plan with sufficient mitigation elements can significantly reduce natural disaster impact. However, they often neglect the need to match the implementation of mitigation measures to the local conditions because the ability to cope with impacts from a severe disaster varies by socioeconomic group. Therefore, it is extremely important to identify who and what are more exposed to a natural hazard and design adequate mitigation measures accordingly. This study aims to (1) identify seismic and climate-change-induced (sea-level rising and wildfire) hazardous locations in the San Francisco Bay Area, and (2) examine whether all neighborhoods, in four dimensions (economic, social, land use, and capital investment), are equally exposed to each natural hazard at three spatial scales (county, region, the Bay) over two time periods (2020–2060, 2060–2099). Methodologically, the study region and its sub-regions were divided into hazard and non-hazard zones with a defined hazard level for three natural hazards. Vulnerability variables in the four dimensions were collected at the census tract level. A two-sample t-test was then conducted to examine whether each vulnerability variable was significantly different between the two zones (hazard and non-hazard) for a specific natural hazard at a specific spatial scale in a specific time period. The findings reveal where, who, and what are exposed to different natural hazards. Corresponding mitigation measures for local governments are suggested. The results also highlight whether the spatial pattern of each hazard changes over time and whether local governments should work on mitigation alone, cooperate with other counties, or act together.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-15T04:03:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221100552
       
  • Understanding and predicting the occurrence of void street interfaces

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      Authors: Luiz de Carvalho Filho, Patrizia Sulis
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Void street interfaces (VSIs) – building plinths with restricted visual interaction, accessibility, and public use – constitute an urban feature often associated with undermining the public domain, limiting free access and preventing interaction between social groups. Moreover, VSIs have been described as products of inequality designed to segregate and hinder integration between public and private urban spaces. This study assesses VSIs across six cities in Brazil, a country notable for its profound inequality and sociospatial fragmentation. The main aims of this research are: (i) to develop and test a predictive model for VSIs using socioeconomic indicators drawn from open-source ground-truth data; (ii) to identify the variance of VSI within selected case studies. In the development phase of the predictive model, data from the city of Recife are used to build the model. The testing phase involves the analysis of VSIs in the cities of Fortaleza, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Curitiba and Porto Alegre. The model can potentially assist urban planners in better understanding and locating VSIs and mitigating undesirable outcomes.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T09:34:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221093067
       
  • Sanitation potpourri: Criteria for planning mix of sanitation systems for
           citywide inclusive sanitation

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      Authors: Anant Mitra, Abishek S Narayan, Christoph Lüthi
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Sanitation is a universal need and thus requires universal access. Despite having the world’s largest sanitation campaign, only 37% of urban India has access to safely managed sanitation systems. Due to the heterogeneity of Indian cities, a mix of different sanitation systems is required to meet the demands of these rapidly urbanising cities. The Manila principles on Citywide Inclusive Sanitation (CWIS) propose a mix of technologies as a key pillar in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals on urban sanitation. However, there is a lack of understanding on the criteria to consider when planning the technological options for CWIS. The mega-city of Chennai is chosen as a case study, and mixed methods including a Faecal Waste Flow diagram (SFD), Social Network Analysis (SNA) and interviews are applied. This study then presents a set of 14 contextually relevant criteria for the implementation of sewered and non-sewered technologies in the city. The SFD shows that 35% of Chennai’s faecal waste remains unsafely managed while using SNA identified that the water and sanitation utility, the municipal corporation and the slum clearance board are the best placed stakeholders in the city to create a change in the sanitation situation. Furthermore, 17 drivers and barriers for the implementation of non-sewered technologies are identified. The criteria catalogue was also theoretically tested for an example ward in Chennai. The findings of the study show that a catalogue of physical, technical, institutional and financial criteria is useful for planning a mix of technologies with the CWIS approach.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T10:28:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221091568
       
  • Water and sanitation for all: Citizen science, health equity, and urban
           climate justice

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      Authors: Jason Corburn
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T09:42:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221094836
       
  • Urban-GAN: An artificial intelligence-aided computation system for plural
           urban design

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      Authors: Steven Jige Quan
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      The current urban design computation is mostly centered on the professional designer while ignoring the plural dimension of urban design. In addition, available public participation computational tools focus mainly on information and idea sharing, leaving the public excluded in design generation because of their lack of design expertise. To address such an issue, this study develops Urban-GAN, a plural urban design computation system, to provide new technical support for design empowerment, allowing the public to generate their own designs. The sub-symbolic representation and artificial intelligence techniques of deep convolutional neural networks, case-based reasoning, and generative adversarial networks are used to acquire and embody design knowledge as the density function, and generate design schemes with this knowledge. The system consists of an urban form database and five process models through which the user with little design expertise can select urban form cases, generate designs similar to those cases, and make design decisions. The Urban-GAN is applied to hypothetical design experiments, which show that the user is able to apply the system to successfully generate distinctive designs following the urban form “styles” in Manhattan, Portland, and Shanghai. This study further extends the discussion about the plural urban design computation to general reflections on the goals and values in AI technique application in planning and design.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T06:15:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221100550
       
  • How does street space influence crash frequency' An analysis using
           segmented street view imagery

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      Authors: Jonathan Stiles, Yuchen Li, Harvey J Miller
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Road crashes in metropolitan areas are challenging to prevent because they stem from the interactions of drivers and other system users in intricate built environments. Recent theories indicate that features of the built environment may induce unsafe driving by shaping users’ expectations and behaviors. The availability of street view imagery and methods of scene parsing create new possibilities for understanding how features of the built environment influence crash incidence. Most previous crash research using street imagery has applied manual processing methods. In this paper, we develop and apply automated machine parsed imagery in conjunction with self-explaining roads theory to consider how the street space visible to drivers influences crash frequency, using data from Columbus, Ohio, USA. While controlling for road network and area characteristics, we model the association of individual street elements with crash frequency. We then conduct a cluster analysis to define four types of street spaces, which are used in a subsequent model. We find that an Open Road type of metropolitan street space, characterized by more visible sky, roadway, and signage are associated with the greatest increase in crashes, and that the majority of these spaces exist on arterial or collector class road segments. We theorize that the visual similarity of this type of street space to highways promotes faster, less careful driving, which combines with their mixed land uses to make them the least safe. This points to the importance of traffic calming for such roads in high-activity areas, and the need to differentiate environments of non-highways from highways to promote careful driving.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T02:24:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221090962
       
  • Algorithmic definitions of street network centrality sub-shapes: The case
           of superblocks

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      Authors: Chen Feng, John Peponis
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      The shape and distribution of the most integrated streets, collectively called the integration core, is critical to the characterization of local and global street network types in the space syntax literature. The description of the shape, position, and distribution of integration cores relative to the underlying street networks, however, has remained largely intuitive. We propose analytic and algorithmic definitions of integration core types. We then study empirical and experimental superblock designs with rectangular boundaries, as a particular kind of urban spatial syntax. The analysis leads to a clear understanding of the different ways in which the local street network, internal to the superblock, is structured and interfaced with the perimeter. When used as part of an automated sorting and query process applied to a universe of experimentally generated designs, our definitions and algorithms provide new insights about the interplay between the local generators of street network differentiation and the emergent syntactic structures of the superblock as a whole.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T07:50:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221098739
       
  • Development of a planning support system to evaluate transit-oriented
           development masterplan concepts for optimal health outcomes

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      Authors: Paula Hooper, Julian Bolleter, Nicole Edwards
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      There is growing consensus that planning professionals need clearer guidance on features of the built environment that promote health benefits. Concomitantly, the smart city movement has created renewed opportunity and interest in data-driven urban modelling to support land use planning. Planning Support Systems (PSS) are spatially enabled computer-based analytical tools incorporating health-related metrics that apply empirical evidence on built environment relationships with health-related outcomes to inform real-world urban design, urban planning and transportation planning decisions. This paper presents the development of the Urban Health Check PSS to use local empirical data to explore and predict relative health impacts associated with proposed urban design planning changes from alternative new station precinct masterplan concepts. We present a case study where we compare a baseline scenario with alternative design concepts for a new train station precinct in Perth, Western Australia, that incorporated possible built environment interventions. Subsequently, we discuss potential future applications of health impact PSS for the translation and application of health evidence into practice.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T06:13:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221092419
       
  • The geography of public transport competitiveness in thirteen medium sized
           cities

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      Authors: Erik B Lunke, Nils Fearnley, Jørgen Aarhaug
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Securing sufficient accessibility with public transport is essential for reducing private car commuting. While most studies of transport accessibility are based on travel times, other quality factors such as the perceived disadvantage of congestion and service frequency are also of importance for transport mode choice. In this study, we use generalized journey times to calculate accessibility and public transport competitiveness, allowing us to account for other characteristics of commute trips than just travel time. We use detailed trip data to calculate generalized journey times to typical employment areas in thirteen urban regions in Norway. The results show that public transport services compete better with the car in the largest cities. Specifically, public transport is competitive for access to central employment areas but less so for less central employment areas. In the smaller cities, the private car is the most competitive mode on most commute trips. With detailed travel data, the method developed in this study can be replicated in other contexts to provide a more holistic measure of accessibility than traditional methods.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T05:29:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221100265
       
  • Effects of Gehl’s urban design guidelines on walkability: A virtual
           reality experiment in Singaporean public housing estates

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      Authors: Heidi Silvennoinen, Saskia Kuliga, Pieter Herthogs, Daniela Rodrigues Recchia, Bige Tunçer
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Walkability has become an important theme of urban design research and practice. Evidence suggests that environmental attractiveness can have a significant impact on the amount of walking activities that take place, but relatively little research exists on which environmental features linked to attractiveness increase walkability. Using a virtual reality experiment, the present study examined the effects on walkability of three key features, as defined by Jan Gehl, an influential urban planning practitioner and theorist: liveliness, high-quality façades and low buildings. A virtual reality simulation allowed isolating the effects of these features, while avoiding confounding factors, such as the presence of shops, which has been difficult to do in past field studies. Our study confirmed that the combination of features recommended by Gehl promoted walking activity in the study’s context. Further exploratory analyses suggested that improved façade quality was positively linked to walking activity, and that building height and liveliness had negligible effects. Our findings contribute to the existing understanding of walkability, which may benefit urban planning practice and models of walkability. Further research is necessary to confirm our results regarding the effects of specific features on walking activity in different contexts.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-08T03:18:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221091822
       
  • Unveiling spatial patterns of disaster impacts and recovery using credit
           card transaction fluctuations

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      Authors: Faxi Yuan, Amir Esmalian, Bora Oztekin, Ali Mostafavi
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      The objective of this study is to examine spatial patterns of disaster impacts and recovery of communities based on fluctuations in credit card transactions (CCTs). Such fluctuations could capture the collective effects of household impacts, disrupted accesses, and business closures and thus provide an integrative measure for examining disaster impacts and community recovery. Existing studies depend mainly on survey and sociodemographic data for disaster impacts and recovery effort evaluations, although such data has limitations, including large data collection efforts and delayed timeliness results. Also, there are very few studies have concentrated on spatial patterns of disaster impacts and short-term recovery of communities, although such investigation can enhance situational awareness during disasters and support the identification of disparate spatial patterns of disaster impacts and recovery in the impacted regions. This study examines CCTs data Harris County (Texas, USA) during Hurricane Harvey in 2017 to explore spatial patterns of disaster impacts and recovery duration from the perspective of community residents and businesses at ZIP-code and county scales, respectively, and to further investigate their spatial disparities across ZIP codes. The results indicate that individuals in ZIP codes with populations of higher income experienced more severe disaster impact and recovered more quickly than those located in lower income ZIP codes for most business sectors. Our findings not only enhance the understanding of spatial patterns and disparities in disaster impacts and recovery for better community resilience assessment but also could benefit emergency managers, city planners, and public officials in enhanced situational awareness and resource allocation.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T09:31:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221090246
       
  • The spontaneous rules of spontaneous development

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      Authors: Aleksandar D Slaev, Stefano Cozzolino, Boriana Nozharova, Jetchka Ilieva
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      This study contributes to the long but still heated debate on spontaneity in urban development. While the critics of spontaneity consider it synonymous with chaos, its proponents emphasise the benefits of spontaneous order. In this paper, we assume that spontaneous development may have both positive and negative aspects and we seek to identify what determines whether and to what extent spontaneity will produce a beneficial social/spatial order. The prevalence of advantages or disadvantages may be due to specific historical, geographical and social causes, but we emphasise one critically important factor: the presence of spontaneous social rules.To contribute to this debate, we acknowledge the institutional nature of spontaneous rules and underscore the need for rules to develop over time. We examine three spontaneous developments in Plovdiv, Bulgaria’s second largest city. As these settlements are typical for spontaneous forms in Southeast Europe, we draw conclusions relevant primarily to this region, but also in wider contexts. We find that spontaneous rules’ development is what determines whether order emerges and to what degree its benefits are realised. The suitability of spontaneous rules depends on local cultures, habits and values rooted in society.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T07:39:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221090963
       
  • Deserving poor in public sanitation: Tracing the policymaking processes of
           who gets what, when, how, and why in Delhi

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      Authors: Tanushree Bhan
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigates why sanitation outcomes vary across urban poor communities in Delhi, India. Unequal access to quality sanitation has serious implications for the health, dignity, and economic well-being of the poor and public health in general due to risks of environmental contamination. For this multiple-case study, a sample of 7 communities is drawn from slums, public housing, and homeless shelters. The database comprises of direct observations of sanitation outcomes in these communities, interviews with 67 key policy informants, official documents of relevant government agencies, newspaper articles, and court filings. The qualitative dataset is analyzed using process-tracing to uncover policy decisions across communities. Findings show that inequitable sanitation outcomes are manufactured by biases that blame the poor for service deficits and make the provision of entitled benefits contingent on political mobilization of exhibiting “good citizenship.” This has serious implications for democratic accountability between the government and the very citizens that are most in need of public services to meet their sanitation needs.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T03:40:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221089325
       
  • Favelas 4D: Scalable methods for morphology analysis of informal
           settlements using terrestrial laser scanning data

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      Authors: Arianna Salazar Miranda, Guangyu Du, Claire Gorman, Fabio Duarte, Washington Fajardo, Carlo Ratti
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      One billion people live in informal settlements worldwide. The complex and multilayered spaces that characterize this unplanned form of urbanization pose a challenge to traditional approaches to mapping and morphological analysis. This study proposes a methodology to study the morphological properties of informal settlements based on terrestrial LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data collected in Rocinha, the largest favela in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. To measure the morphology of the informal settlement, we propose a series of five metrics related to the geometric characteristics of streets: street width, street elevation, facade heterogeneity, facade density, and street canyon. Our analysis operates at two resolutions, including a global analysis focused on comparing different favela streets to one another and a local analysis unpacking the variation of morphological metrics within streets. We show that our methodology reveals meaningful differences and commonalities in terms of the global morphological characteristics across streets and their local variations, which align with the historical evidence of the favela’s development. Finally, we create morphological maps at high spatial resolution from LiDAR data to inform urban planning assessments of concerns related to crowding, structural safety, air quality, and accessibility in the favela. The methods for this study are automated and can be easily scaled to analyze entire informal settlements, leveraging the increasing availability of inexpensive LiDAR scanners on portable devices such as cellphones.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T11:52:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221080174
       
  • The “ghost neighborhood” phenomenon in China—geographic locations
           and intra-urban spatial patterns

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      Authors: Lifeng Shi, Tobias Leichtle, Michael Wurm, Hannes Taubenböck
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      The phenomenon of “ghost cities” in China has attracted much attention in the past decade. However, the exact areal extents, specific spatial characteristics and economic development conditions of this phenomenon have been rarely investigated and recorded at intra-urban scale throughout China. Against this background, we base our study on a recently published “ghost neighborhood” map of entire China, and we analyze their geographic locations using multiple spatial metrics and categorization approaches at an intra-urban scale. The main results are as follows: 1) we categorize “ghost neighborhoods” into seven representative intra-urban pattern types across China; 2) the newly built “ghost neighborhoods” (after 2001) are mainly concentrated in thriving cities, while a small number of old “ghost neighborhoods” (before 2000) are found in resource depleted areas, that is, in cities of decline; 3) the newly built “ghost neighborhoods” are generally located at the urban edge, far away from city centers, while old “ghost neighborhoods” are found within the built-up area and spatially closer to city centers. Additionally, we relate general processes of urbanization in China with the representative types of “ghost neighborhoods.”
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T12:45:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221092775
       
  • New algorithms for generating isovist field and isovist measurements

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      Authors: Arash Hosseini Alamdari, Khosro Daneshjoo, Mansour Yeganeh
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Isovist fields are powerful tools for expressing and analyzing spatial configurations. There is also useful software that allows one to calculate the isovist field variables. However, the complexity and the speed of the isovist field production algorithms have limited the diverse uses of isovist fields as a spatial configuration expressive model. In this paper, we present an algorithm for generating the isovist field which is simpler than the rivals. This algorithm relies on calculating the isovist for the corner points before generating the isovist fields. A complementary algorithm is also proposed which quickly updates isovist field calculations after limited changes in the environment take place. The speeds of these two algorithms are also checked here in real cases and are compared to the well-known fast algorithms. In addition, more efficient methods are proposed to calculate variables related to distance-to-the-walls metrics within an isovist. This method, which is fast and accurate, uses slices of isovist as a base to calculate these variables with the help of integral calculations. We hope these methods accelerate the evolution of isovist field models and help make algorithmic design based on isovist fields a more convenient technique.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T05:50:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221083680
       
  • Household choices of sanitation infrastructure and impact on disease in
           India

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      Authors: Piyush Tiwari, Raghu Dharmapuri Tirumala, Jyoti Shukla
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      In the recent past, there has been a substantial push to increase the sanitation infrastructure in India to end open defecation and improve level of hygiene. The choice of the type of sanitation, however, depends on demographic, socio-economic, tenurial, cultural and sanitation surroundings, which not only impacts sanitation practices but also incidences of diseases. This paper empirically analyses the determinants of households’ choice of toilet facility and the relation between incidence of diseases and sanitation using National Sample Survey Office’s 76th round of the survey for 2018-19. The results indicate that the social, economic and cultural factors have significant impact on the households’ choices of a toilet. There is a preference for flush type toilets connected to a sewer among households with better socio-economic status. This research finds that the quality of microenvironment within which a household lives has a significant impact on the incidence of disease. The results imply that the interventions for improved sanitation need to be holistic, emphasising microenvironment improvement and providing better access to sanitation infrastructure and inculcating more hygienic behavioural practices.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T02:29:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221088293
       
  • Generating megacity-scale building height maps without DGNSS surveyed
           GCPs: An open-source approach

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      Authors: Pratyush Tripathy, Krishnachandran Balakrishnan, Carlo de Franchis, Amit Kumar
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      This paper describes an open-source method for generating megacity-scale building height maps without proprietary software or Differential Global Navigation Satellite System surveyed ground control points (GCPs). We use the open-source Satellite Stereo Pipeline (S2P) software along with four scenes of 2.5m resolution Cartosat-1 data for Bengaluru to demonstrate this. Digital Surface Models (DSMs) of 5 m resolution are generated using S2P, and terrain removal is achieved using 30m SRTM data resampled to 5m. The resulting normalized DSM is calibrated and validated using 1270 GCPs. These were generated by counting the number of occupiable floors of buildings and marking zero elevation ground points. The final building height map of Bengaluru covers a total area of about 1420 km2, and across the four scenes, has RMSE values ranging from 2.8m to 3.9m—an error of approximately one floor. Furthermore, we implemented this workflow using stereo imagery for Mumbai, and the RMSE values obtained were comparable to those for Bengaluru. Hence the method we describe is a very cost-effective way of generating megacity-scale building height maps. The height maps generated using this method can be used to better understand numerous urban characteristics including land use intensity and population distribution and can play a crucial role in urban planning and policy making.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-24T04:59:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221084990
       
  • Temporal change in relationships between urban structure and surface
           temperature

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      Authors: Justin D Stewart, Peleg Kremer
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Surface temperature influences human health directly and alters the biodiversity and productivity of the environment. While previous research has identified that the composition of urban landscapes influences the physical properties of the environment such as surface temperature, a generalizable and flexible framework is needed that can be used to compare cities across time and space. This study employs the Structure of Urban Landscapes (STURLA) classification combined with remote sensing of New York City’s land surface temperature (LST). These are then linked using machine learning and statistical modeling to identify how greenspace and the built environment influence urban surface temperature. Further, changes in urban structure are then connected to changes in LST over time. It was observed that areas with urban units composed of largely the built environment hosted the hottest temperatures while those with vegetation and water were coolest. Likewise, this is reinforced by borough-level spatial differences in both urban structure and heat. Comparison of these relationships over the period between 2008 and 2017 identified changes in surface temperature that are likely due to the changes in the presence of water, low-rise buildings, and pavement across the city. This research reinforces how human alteration of the environment changes LST and offers units of analysis that can be used for research and urban planning.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T05:09:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221083677
       
  • Living apart together: The economic value of ethnic diversity in cities

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      Authors: Jessie Bakens, Raymond JGM Florax, Henri LF de Groot, Peter Mulder
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      In consumer cities, the presence and location of immigrants impacts house prices through two channels, which both can be valued positively as well as negatively: (i) their presence and contribution to population diversity and (ii) the creation of immigrant-induced consumer amenities like those associated with ethnic restaurants in terms of both their quantity as well as diversity. We hypothesize that these two mechanisms create a trade-off in which city dwellers want to live apart yet consume together. We use unique microdata of house prices and ethnic restaurants in the city of Amsterdam over the 1996–2011 period and a generalized propensity score (GPS) matching technique for multiple continuous treatments to estimate the trade-off between consumers’ love for ethnic goods and their variety on the one hand, and ethnic residential composition on the other hand. We find evidence for the existence of such a trade-off: proximity to ethnically diverse restaurants indeed compensates for a negative correlation between the presence of immigrants and house prices. This trade-off mostly holds for neighborhoods featuring both a diverse population and a high level of amenities in terms of restaurants.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T08:37:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221082112
       
  • Where the Crosswalk Ends: Mapping Crosswalk Coverage via Satellite Imagery
           in San Francisco

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      Authors: Marcel E. Moran
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Marked crosswalks are the primary means of safeguarding pedestrian travel at intersections in American cities. In the face of decades-high pedestrian fatalities nationwide, the provision of adequate crosswalks is highly salient. Though, how they are spatially distributed across an entire city, and vary by neighborhood, has drawn little academic scrutiny. Given that, this study utilizes satellite imagery to map the presence of marked crosswalks throughout San Francisco, a dense, walkable city that has struggled to reach its pedestrian-safety goals. For the first time, this allows for a calculation of “crosswalk coverage” for the city as a whole. Manual review of satellite imagery documents that crosswalks are present at 58% of San Francisco’s roughly 6,400 intersections, though they are not evenly distributed across neighborhoods. Both hotspot analysis and comparing crosswalk coverage by Census tracts demonstrates that northern neighborhoods—even outside of the downtown core—maintain higher percentages of intersections with crosswalks than those in the southern half. Intersections exhibit crosswalk “corridor effects,” in that crosswalks often cluster along certain streets, including (but not limited to) commercial areas. In addition, crosswalks in four neighborhoods were analyzed to a deeper extent, including category (e.g., ladder, continental, and standard), condition, and “completeness” or the number of adjacent blocks with a connecting crosswalk. Across these roughly 1,000 intersections, coverage varied from 51% in the Bayview (a historic African American community) to 83% in Pacific Heights (a high-income, majority-white neighborhood). Though these patterns track somewhat with local pedestrian and automobile volumes, crosswalk coverage diverges from these data in many ways, indicating other factors at play in their distribution. Overall, satellite imagery can be used to identify marked crosswalks at scale, evaluate their quality, and probe geographic variation. Armed with such granular data, planners can consider the ways in which crosswalks are present throughout cities—and where notable gaps exist—in their pursuit of Vision Zero goals.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T05:17:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221081530
       
  • A longitudinal analysis of travel demand and its determinants in the
           Greater Toronto-Hamilton Area

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      Authors: Dena Kasraian, Shivani Raghav, Bilal Yusuf, Eric J Miller
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      This study provides a unique long-term investigation of regional travel demand that addresses several gaps in the existing longitudinal literature. Firstly, it investigates the development of travel demand in terms of both vehicle kilometres travelled (VKT) and passenger kilometres travelled (PKT), based on actual demand, congestion and equilibrium distances, using road and multi-modal transit networks in the Greater Toronto-Hamilton Area (GTHA). Secondly, it identifies influential travel demand determinants after testing an extensive set of variables including longitudinal gravity-based transport accessibility measures. Thirdly, it investigates to what extent the determinants’ influence changes over time and various locations within the study area, providing new insights into the temporal and intra-regional variations of travel demand and its determinants. The findings show that VKT and PKT have grown in absolute and per trip terms, mainly due to substantial population growth, especially in the suburban areas. Whilst average potential travel times by transit have decreased, they are substantially longer than auto travel times. Furthermore, travel demand determinants vary significantly across space by degrees of urbanity, especially for VKT. The findings call for area- and population segment-specific land use and transportation policies across the GTHA.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T06:02:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221082109
       
  • Examining neighborhood effects on residents’ daily activities in central
           Shanghai, China: Integrating “big data” and “thick data”

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      Authors: Shenjing He, Chenxi Li, Yang Xiao, Qiyang Liu
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      This research combines “big data” and “thick data” approaches to examine the correlation and causation between residential neighborhood features and people’s daily commuting and traveling patterns by integrating two datasets: household survey data and mobile phone data. We focus on “lilong” neighborhoods—a primary form of traditional residential neighborhood in central Shanghai. The characteristics of lilong neighborhoods are assessed using “thick data” from surveys in 105 lilongs, while residents’ daily activities are mapped out using “big data” from two weeks of mobile phone usage. We match these two datasets at neighborhood level based on their geospatial references. Four multinomial logistic regression models are developed to examine neighborhood effects on lilong residents’ daily activities. Our research confirms the major mechanisms of neighborhood effects and unravels their relative importance in shaping the patterns of residents’ daily activities. Conceptually, this study sheds new light on the understanding of how people’s life quality and wellbeing are affected by neighborhood characteristics through highlighting the importance of social interactions and the access to/quality of public facilities. Methodologically, incorporating household survey data (thick data) and mobile phone data (big data) is proven to be a novel and effective approach for examining neighborhood effects at a relatively large scale.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-31T10:24:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221078307
       
  • Exploiting COVID-19 related traffic changes to evaluate flow dependency of
           an FCD-defined congestion measure

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      Authors: Megan M Bruwer, Simen J Andersen
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Traffic congestion poses a significant problem in urban areas globally, and yet no measure of congestion is universally applied. Various studies have evaluated congestion measures, however, none have identified and demonstrated a best-practice congestion metric that can compare congestion between road segments, networks, and city zones. Furthermore, no studies have proven the link between a congestion metric and traffic flow, despite suggestion by Lomax et al. in their seminal 1997 Quantifying Congestion report that an appropriate congestion metric should vary predictably according to flow. This paper aims to address these gaps in traffic congestion literature. Various congestion measures are evaluated according to standard criteria. Although this process has been followed before, this paper adds a unique criterion that requires congestion to be quantifiable from commercial floating car data (FCD), due to its extensive availability and relative affordability. The most appropriate congestion measure is evaluated to be the speed reduction index (SRI). The application of the SRI to describe spatiotemporal congestion patterns and flow dependency is then demonstrated in a case-study analysis in South Africa. This analysis exploited traffic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 (particularly, the stepwise increase from severely reduced traffic flows as lockdown levels eased), to evaluate SRI. The wide range of flows enabled an unprecedented regression analysis comparing congestion level and flow. The results of the regression analysis are highly significant (p < 0.001) indicating that SRI-based congestion measurement tracks flow variation. This study further identified that unidirectional congestion, quantified by the SRI, is impacted by high bi-directional flow along arterials. These findings confirm the appropriateness of the SRI quantified from commercial FCD to measure congestion.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T11:48:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221081529
       
  • Impacts of scheduled desludging on quality of water and wastewater in Wai
           city, India

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      Authors: Jigisha Jaiswal, Dinesh Mehta, Meera Mehta
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      The common practice for desludging of septic tanks is ‘demand-based desludging’ rather than a regular service. Such practices have adverse social and environmental impacts. Scheduled desludging is advocated to maintain the performance of septic tanks and avoid adverse effects on the environment. Wai, a small town in the state of Maharashtra, India, is the first city in India to implement scheduled desludging. This paper discusses impact of scheduled desludging on water quality. The quality of water before scheduled desludging and after scheduled desludging is assessed. It describes monitoring the quality of groundwater, river water, effluent from drains and supernatants from septic tanks. It reflects the linkages of scheduled desludging and improved supernatants and drain water quality which as a result improves the river and groundwater quality. The results suggest positive impact of regular desludging on the performance of septic tanks. This has led to improvement in the quality of drain water, ground water and river water.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-26T04:24:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221078596
       
  • Key determinants of particulate matter 2.5 concentrations in urban
           environments with scenario analysis

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      Authors: Bumseok Chun, Kwangyul Choi, Qisheng Pan
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Particulate matter (PM) 2.5 generates a variety of negative effects on health, such as heart and lung disease, asthma, and respiratory symptoms. The pollutants in the atmosphere primarily result from human activities, and, in urban settings, increases in traffic volume and higher building density can elevate the level of PM2.5. Building on previous research, this study primarily focuses on two highly developed urban areas in the Texas Triangle region: Travis County in the Austin Metropolitan Area and Harris County in the Greater Houston Area. It explores different types of urban features, such as urban structures, land use/land cover, traffic volume, and distance from roads, that affect the PM2.5 concentration in urban environments at the local scale. Throughout this study, we use various research methods, including geographically weighted regression, to estimate the PM2.5 concentrations at local scales, 3D city models to derive urban characteristics, and the random forest algorithm to predict the effects of urban features on PM2.5 concentrations. Our findings suggest that developed land use, tall buildings in dense areas, and major traffic networks are the key contributors to PM2.5. However, we also find that tree canopy cover can significantly reduce PM2.5 concentrations.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-24T07:08:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221078306
       
  • Household expenditure and accessibility of water in urban India

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      Authors: Raghu Dharmapuri Tirumala, Piyush Tiwari
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Accessibility and affordability are critical challenges for household water consumption in urban India. While the previous research on affordability and water tariff setting is substantial, the interplay of water access equity and its impact on household water expenditure is less understood due to the absence of granular household level data in India. This research draws upon the NSSO’s 76th round of data collected across the country to explore the differences in water access and expenditure amongst various income categories. Using regression analysis, this paper investigates the association between the socio-economic, tenurial status, sources of water, sufficiency, and access related factors and the household expenditure on water. Results show that water is a scarce commodity for lower sections of society and that they are incurring higher costs, making the water relatively unaffordable. The research findings indicate that the policymakers and project proponents need to develop more targeted metrics for measuring the disparities and configure interventions that mitigate the inequalities in urban water provision.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-23T06:11:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221080178
       
  • Analysis of shape grammars: Continuity of rules

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      Authors: Alexandros Haridis, George Stiny
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      The rules in a shape grammar apply in terms of embedding to take advantage of the parts that emerge visually in the appearance of shapes. While the shapes are kept unanalyzed as a computation moves forward, part-structures for shapes can be defined retrospectively by analyzing how the rules were applied. An important outcome of this is that rule continuity is not built-in but it is “fabricated” retrospectively to analyze the computation as a continuous process. An aspect of continuity analysis that has not been addressed in the literature is how to decide which mapping forms to use to study the continuity of rule applications. This is addressed in this paper using recent results on shape topology and continuous mappings. A characterization is provided that distinguishes the suitable mapping forms from those that are inherently discontinuous or practically inconsequential for continuity analysis. It is also shown that certain intrinsic properties of shape topologies and continuous mappings provide an effective method of computing topologies algorithmically.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-11T05:30:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211044734
       
  • A systems theoretic process analysis (STPA) approach for analyzing the
           governance structure of fecal sludge management in Japan

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      Authors: Nikhil Bugalia, Surjyatapa R Choudhury, Yu Maemura, KE Seetharam
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Fecal sludge management (FSM) stakeholders have hitherto been unable to benefit from analytical approaches based on systems thinking principles, as studies utilizing theoretical frameworks to analyze governance structures remain in a nascent stage. One such prominent framework is the Systems Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA), which has no FSM-related applications in the literature. Relying on official documents such as ministerial ordinances, this study conducts a multistage STPA for a well-established and sustainable FSM system, that is, the Johkasou system in Japan. The analysis maps the key stakeholders and their interactions to comprehensively identify potential risks and corresponding novel indicators to help manage risks within the Johkasou system. The features of governance structure thus obtained also highlight the steps necessary to address governance issues for Japan and other countries attempting to establish sustainable FSM. The study extends the STPA literature by providing a substantial validity of STPA’s capability for analyzing the FSM governance structure against robust and independent criteria that define the objectives of a “good” governance structure, that is, efficiency, accountability, and legitimacy. The STPA results identify novel leading indicators to guide Japanese policymakers to improve FSM management. The results from STPA also effectively provide valuable insights for other countries by highlighting the various features contributing to an effective governance structure of the Johkasou, such as centralized decision-making in a combination of a hierarchy of goals to establish a clear division of responsibility across various actors. The study also notes potential challenges for field implementation of STPA and discusses directions that future work could explore.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-10T04:02:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221075639
       
  • Detecting shifts in metropolitan structure: A spatial network perspective

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      Authors: Harry Odell, Eva María Navarro-López, Nuno Pinto, Iain Deas
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      The spatial distribution of metropolitan areas creates a complex system of competing and cooperating economic units. Understanding the size, scale and functional structure of such systems is an important topic in regional science. This paper uses commuter flow data over a 40 year period to analyse the changing structure of the Greater Manchester metropolitan area. We apply a combination of complex network analysis, residual network analysis and spatial network visualisation to detect Greater Manchester’s polycentric structure and identify intra-regional communities. This method is able to identify economic geographies in a highly complex and interdependent commuter network. We comment on the role of administrative boundaries in shaping metropolitan regions and discuss the potential of our work to inform debates on regional governance geographies and local government planning practices.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T05:47:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211065767
       
  • A microsimulation of spatial inequality in energy access: A bayesian
           multi-level modelling approach for urban India

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      Authors: André P Neto-Bradley, Ruchi Choudhary, Peter Challenor
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Access to sustained clean cooking in India is essential to addressing the health burden of indoor air pollution from biomass fuels, but spatial inequality in cities can adversely affect uptake and effectiveness of policies amongst low-income households. Limited data exists on the spatial distribution of energy use in Indian cities, particularly amongst low-income households, and most quantitative studies focus primarily on the effect of economic determinants. A microsimulation approach is proposed, using publicly available data and a Bayesian multi-level model to account for effects of current cooking practices (at a household scale), local socio-cultural context and spatial effects (at a city ward scale). This approach offers previously unavailable insight into the spatial distribution of fuel use and residential energy transition within Indian cities. Uncertainty arising from heterogeneity in the population is factored into fuel use estimates through use of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling. The model is applied to four cities in the South Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, and comparison against ward-level survey data shows consistency with the model estimates. Ward-level effects exemplify how specific wards compare to the city average and to other urban areas in the state, which can help stakeholders design and implement clean cooking interventions tailored to the needs of those households.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T04:18:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211073140
       
  • Using mobile phone big data to discover the spatial patterns of rural
           migrant workers’ return to work in China’s three urban agglomerations
           in the post-COVID-19 era

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      Authors: Kai Liu, Pengjun Zhao, Dan Wan, Xiaodong Hai, Zhangyuan He, Qiyang Liu, Yonghui Qu, Xue Zhang, Kaixi Li, Ling Yu
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Knowing how workers return to work is a key policymaking issue for economic recovery in the post-COVID-19 era. This paper uses country-wide time-series mobile phone big data (comparing monthly and annual figures), obtained between February 2019 and October 2019 and between February 2020 and October 2020, to discover the spatial patterns of rural migrant workers’ (RMWs’) return to work in China’s three urban agglomerations (UAs): the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Region, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta. Spatial patterns of RMWs’ return to work and how these patterns vary with location, city level and human attribute were investigated using the fine-scale social sensing related to post-pandemic human mobility. The results confirmed the multidimensional spatiotemporal differentiations, interaction effects between variable pairs and effects of the actual situation on the changing patterns of RMWs’ return to work. The spatial patterns of RMWs’ return to work in China’s major three UAs can be regarded as a comprehensive and complex interaction result accompanying the nationwide population redistribution, which was affected by various hidden factors. Our findings provide crucial implications and suggestions for data-informed policy decisions for a harmonious society in the post-COVID-19 era.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T07:22:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211069375
       
  • Spatial and functional organizations of industrial agglomerations in
           China’s Greater Bay Area

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      Authors: Zidong Yu, Jinyan Zu, Yang Xu, Yimin Chen, Xintao Liu
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Industrial agglomeration is a concentration phenomenon of economic activities in cities. In recent years, the geographic and functional structures of industries are constantly changing due to global industrialization and regional urbanization. Thus far, a scarcity of research has investigated spatial-functional organizations of sectoral industries in urbanized megaregions. By using points of interest (POIs) data collected in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA), this paper seeks to portray the spatial extent of industrial agglomerations and to label their functional characteristics. A kernel density function is first applied to measure the spatial extent of industrial agglomerations. Next, we explore the industrial functions by implementing a semantic-based information retrieval to label the functional characteristics of industrial agglomerations via words that are tokenized from POI registered names. The empirical results suggest that the concentrations of industrial activities are strongly heterogeneous across different economic sectors, revealing that agglomerations across the GBA can provide a variety types of industrial products and services. Concerning manufacturing industries, the present analysis further confirms the existence of both specialization and diversification agglomerations along with far distinct spatial characteristics. This research supplements empirical evidence and provides novel insights into the geographical and functional organizations of economic activities regarding one of the largest urban megaregions in the world. The implications that are related to megaregional economic collaboration and development are discussed.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T10:32:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221075641
       
  • Urban form planning and tsunami risk vulnerability: Analysis of 12 Chilean
           coastal cities

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      Authors: Magdalena Vicuña, Jorge León, Simón Guzmán
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Urban form has a significant impact on risk. Spatial planning instruments can optimize urban form in areas exposed to hazards. This work discusses how urban planning instruments, specifically Communal Regulatory Plans (CRPs), affect vulnerability to the risk of tsunami inundation in Chilean coastal cities. We analyze urban form and address exposure, susceptibility, and response capacity parameters. Exposure is evaluated by comparing existing and planned densities and to what extent planned risk areas coincide with inundation zones. We analyze existing critical facilities and land uses permitted by the CRP in inundation zones to evaluate susceptibility. We explore response capacity through the street network connectivity and green areas outside the inundation zone and how CRPs influence the structuring of new roads and new green spaces. We found that CRPs do not hold the sufficient capacity to incorporate and manage the tsunami inundation risk adequately. The planning scenario leads to a systematic increase in vulnerability as cities develop in exposed areas. We suggest to strengthen CRPs capacities to prevent the construction and reconstruction of areas affected by tsunamis, reinforcing the urban fabric’s potential for evacuation, and to strengthen joint work between municipal urban planning and disaster risk management departments, among other recommendations.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T10:30:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221075635
       
  • Charting the past and possible futures of planning support systems:
           Results of a citation network analysis

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      Authors: Claire Daniel, Christopher Pettit
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Recent years have seen a renewed interest in the possibilities of digital technology to assist with urban planning, spurred by increased digitisation of planning work, and ever improving data availability and processing capabilities. Hidden behind recent developments is over 30 years of research and development by scholars in the field of Planning Support Systems (PSS), although to date there have been few attempts to systematically characterise their output or achievements. This paper reports on the results of a citation network analysis (CNA) on the PSS literature contained within the Scopus database, a systematic method to describe the overall structure of the field, mapping out of key research streams and how they change over time. The analysis reveals 27 distinct research streams under four themes, split between technical and applied research. There is strong evidence of a field still clearly defined by its roots in comprehensive software systems used for scenario and land use planning although shifting over time from a focus on the development of modelling techniques to applied research and case studies in the use of applications. Research output has remained steady in the context of exponential growth in related literature including smart cities, urban science and urban analytics. These findings support calls for a refreshed approach to the field as planning support science and the map produced by this analysis provides a valuable framework to navigate past research efforts to inform a new era of digital planning efforts.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T10:29:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211072866
       
  • Walking in the cities without ground, how 3d complex network volumetrics
           improve analysis

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      Authors: Lingzhu Zhang, Alain JF Chiaradia
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Pedestrian route choice, wayfinding behaviour and movement pattern research rely on objective spatial configuration model and analysis. In 3D indoor and outdoor multi-level buildings and urban built environments (IO-ML-BE), spatial configuration analysis allows to quantify and control for route choice and wayfinding complexity/difficulty. Our contribution is to compare the interaction of the level of definition (LOD) of indoor and outdoor multi-level pedestrian network spatial models and complexity metric analyses. Most studies are indoor or outdoor and oversimplify multi-level vertical connections. Using a novel open data set of a large-scale 3D centreline pedestrian network which implement transport geography 2D data model principles in 3D, nine spatial models and twelve spatial complexity analyses of a large-scale 3D IO-ML-BE are empirically tested with observed pedestrian movement patterns (N = 17,307). Bivariate regression analyses show that the association with movement pattern increases steadily from R2 ≈ 0.29 to 0.56 (space syntax, 2.5D) and from R2 ≈ 0.54 to 0.72 (3D sDNA) as the 3D transport geography spatial model LOD and completeness increases. A multivariate stepwise regression analysis tests the bi-variate findings. A novel 3D hybrid angular-Euclidean analysis was tested for the objective description of 3D multi-level IO-ML-BE route choice and wayfinding complexity. The results suggest that pedestrian route choice, wayfinding and movement pattern analysis and prediction research in a multi-level IO-ML-BE should use high-definition 3D transport geography network spatial model and include interdependent outdoor and indoor spaces with detailed vertical transitions.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T10:28:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211070567
       
  • Investigating configurational and active centralities: The example of
           metropolitan Copenhagen

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      Authors: Maria Andrakakou, Carsten Keßler
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Identifying centralities in cities helps determine how public space is perceived and utilized in everyday life. Sustainable mobility, social sustainability and spatial justice can be examined by investigating centralities in the urban form. In this study, we investigate configurational centralities in metropolitan Copenhagen created by the road network based on space syntax analysis and active centralities of land-use patterns with a geographical approach. The purpose of the research is to present a reproducible methodology for determining the active and configurational centralities. Using this methodology, we explore the meaning of the centralities in terms of pedestrian and cyclist accessibility, as well as the role of the configurational centralities in shaping land-use patterns. The results serve as input to an analysis of their relation through Kernel Density Correlation and spatial correlation. The results of correlations indicate that areas close to the city centre and around the Finger Plan – Copenhagen’s strategic development plan – tend to be more central and favourable for pedestrians and cyclists. On the contrary, central areas far from the city centre, especially in Northern Copenhagen, and areas between the axes of the Finger Plan are more car-oriented since centralities are dispersed and located around highways or road segments designed for cars. The workflow presented in this paper is provided as a set of open-source R scripts that draw largely on data from OpenStreetMap, thus enabling replications of the study for other cities.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T10:26:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211072861
       
  • Anomalous human activity fluctuations from digital trace data signal flood
           inundation status

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      Authors: Hamed Farahmand, Wanqiu Wang, Ali Mostafavi, Mikel Maron
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      The emergence of mobile platforms equipped with Global Positioning System technology enables real-time data collection affording opportunities for mining data applicable to rapid flood inundation assessment. The collected data can be employed to complement existing methods for rapid flood inundation assessment, such as remote sensing, to enhance situational awareness. In particular, telemetry-based digital trace data related to human activity have intrinsic advantages to be used for inundation assessment. In this study, we investigate the use of Mapbox telemetry data, which provides human activity indices with high spatial and temporal resolutions, for application in rapid flood inundation assessment. Using data from Hurricane Harvey in 2017 in Harris County, Texas, we (1) study anomalous fluctuations in human activities and analyze the differences in activity level between inundated and non-inundated areas and (2) investigate changes in the concentration of human activity, to explore the disruption of human activity as an indicator of flood inundation. Results show that both analyses can provide valuable rapid insights regarding flood inundation status. Anomalous activities can be significantly higher/lower in flooded areas compared with non-flooded areas. Also, the concentration of human activity during the flood propagation period across affected watersheds can be observed. This study contributes to the state of knowledge in smart flood resilience by investigating the application of ubiquitous telemetry-based digital trace data to enhance rapid flood inundation assessment. Accordingly, the use of such digital trace data could provide emergency managers and public officials with valuable insights to inform impact evaluation and response actions.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T10:25:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211069990
       
  • Spatially-explicit prediction of low-density peri-urban development:
           comparison between urban and rural scenarios in the Moreton Bay Region in
           South East Queensland, Australia

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      Authors: Siqin Wang, Yan Liu, Yongjiu Feng, Zhenkun Lei
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Mainstream urban modelling literature focuses on urban expansion featured by a relatively fast urbanisation process, but relatively less research is available to understand and model the slow-paced urban and rural land development in the low-density peri-urban context. This study aims to address this knowledge gap by simulating the urban and rural land development in the Moreton Bay Region in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia using two cellular automata (CA) models that are coupled with a generalised simulated annealing (GSA) algorithm. With the total land available for development estimated using a Markov Chain model, the GSA-CA urban and rural models were developed, respectively, to simulate urban and rural land development from 1991 to 2011, and then to predict their future development to 2041 following vigorous model calibrations. The modelling results illustrate three snapshots of the predicted spatial patterns of urban and rural development in 2021, 2031 and 2041, with moderate growth in both the urban and rural areas over time, but with urban development occurring in a more compact form than rural development. The GSA-CA modelling approach is capable of optimising the CA transition rules and has the potential to be applied to other geographical contexts to support regional planning, decision-making and scenario designation for future land development in cities that have entered the saturation phase of urbanisation.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T10:24:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211069382
       
  • Predictive multi-watershed flood monitoring using deep learning on
           integrated physical and social sensors data

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      Authors: Shangjia Dong, Tianbo Yu, Hamed Farahmand, Ali Mostafavi
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents a deep learning model based on the integration of physical and social sensors data for predictive watershed flood monitoring. The data from flood sensors and 3-1-1 reports data are mapped and fused through a multivariate time series approach. This data format is able to increase the data availability (partially due to sparsely installed physical sensors and fewer reported flood incidents in less urbanized areas) and capture both spatial and temporal interactions between different watersheds and historical events. We use Harris County, TX as the study site and obtained seven historical flood events data for training, validating, and testing the flood prediction model. The model predicts the flood probability of each watershed in the next 24 hours. By comparing the flood prediction performance of three different datasets (i.e., flood sensor only, 3-1-1 reports only, and integrated dataset), we conclude that the physical-social data integrated approach can better predict the flood with an accuracy of 0.825, area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AURC) of 0.902, area under the precision-recall curve (AUPRC) of 0.883, area under the F-measure curve (AUFC) of 0.762, and Max. F-measure of 0.788.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T10:22:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211069140
       
  • Modelling and simulating ‘informal urbanization’: An integrated
           agent-based and cellular automata model of urban residential growth in
           Ghana

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      Authors: Felix S. K. Agyemang, Elisabete Silva, Sean Fox
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      The global urban population is expected to grow by 2.5 billion over the next three decades, and 90% of this growth will occur in African and Asian countries. Urban expansion in these regions is often characterised by ‘informal urbanization’ whereby households self-build without planning permission in contexts of ambiguous, insecure or disputed property rights. Despite the scale of informal urbanization, it has received little attention from scholars working in the domains of urban analytics and city science. Towards addressing this gap, we introduce TI-City, an urban growth model designed to predict the locations, legal status and socio-economic status of future residential developments in an African city. In a bottom-up approach, we use agent-based and cellular automata modelling techniques to predict the geospatial behaviour of key urban development actors, including households, real estate developers and government. We apply the model to the city-region of Accra, Ghana, drawing on local data collection, including a household survey, to parameterise the model. Using a multi-spatial-scale validation technique, we compare TI-City’s ability to simulate historically observed built-up patterns with SLEUTH, a highly popular urban growth model. Results show that TI-City outperforms SLEUTH at each scale, suggesting the model could offer a valuable decision support tool in similar city contexts.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-13T01:57:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211068843
       
  • Smart cities and climate-resilient urban planning

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      Authors: Ayyoob Sharifi, Yoshiki Yamagata
      First page: 1347
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T05:03:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221102400
       
  • Evaluation of urban planning methods toward bioclimatic and resilient
           urban spaces

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      Authors: Dimitra V Chondrogianni, Yorgos J Stephanedes
      First page: 1354
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Open urban spaces play a key role in achieving city resilience, the urban ability to survive in extreme conditions caused by phenomena such as heat waves and urban heat islands and to absorb change and disruption. Urban regeneration planning and intervention design are critical for providing thermal and wind comfort to citizens and enhancing urban resilience. Supporting decision makers, the microclimate created in urban planning use cases is simulated to identify, assess, and rate the bioclimatic impacts of alternative plans. The Bioclimatic Index is proposed based on the simulation results and the rated plans to strengthen evaluation of urban regeneration plans and interventions that empower urban microclimate and resilience. The methodology is applied to an abandoned space in the Old Port of Patras, Greece, of wet Mediterranean climate, and can be extended to urban areas with similar characteristics.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-24T12:34:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211063220
       
  • Land use planning: An opportunity to avert devastation from bushfires

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      Authors: Kim Maund, Mark Maund, Thayaparan Gajendran
      First page: 1371
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Land use planning (LUP) provides a mechanism to reduce risk and increase resilience to natural hazards. We sought to understand the extent that key stakeholders in LUP consider natural hazard risk in determination of rezoning applications. The aim was to identify why land uses are permitted within areas exposed to risk of natural hazards like bushfires. Presenting the case of New South Wales, a state ravaged by devastating bushfires, we explore decision-making practices within the regulatory planning environment. We utilised a qualitative exploratory research design involving a multi-criteria decision-making framework as a lens to explore how key stakeholders make decisions to consider bushfire risk within the policy environment. Our findings identify the lack of a consistent process employed in LUP decision-making and priority given to decision-making criteria that emphasises achieving targets for employment and housing and results in low priority given to bushfire risk. We suggest that placing higher priority on bushfire risk in decision-making, within and between organisations, is necessary to consider bushfire risk within regulatory LUP activities to support disaster risk reduction and create resilient communities.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-04T03:45:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211064291
       
  • Urban commons in the techno-economic paradigm shift: An information and
           communication technology-enabled climate-resilient solutions review

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      Authors: Herlin Chien, Keiko Hori, Osamu Saito
      First page: 1389
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      The commons concept has evolved in multiple ways after the publication of Ostrom’s seminal work in 1990, which emphasized the evolution of resource management institutions and the usefulness of self-governance. As we move into the 21st century, one of the institutional transformations is catalyzed by the emergence of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as a techno-economic paradigm shift and the epochal creation of a new online social structure. However, there is a lack of understanding about the impact of ICT on common resource management, particularly in urban settings, that is urban commons. This study presents a systematic literature review of ICT-enabled urban commons with particular attention to its application to climate-related issues such as climate mitigation/adaptation in order to improve our collective ability to leverage ICT for building a more sustainable and resilient city. A total of 66 pieces of literature were included in our qualitative synthesis. We analyzed the geographical, categorical, and climate relevance. Subsequently, we used the coupled infrastructure system framework as a system thinking approach to dissect distinct usefulness of ICT-enabled commons in the building of relationships between resource system, resource user, infrastructure, and infrastructure provider to tackle climate-related issues. Our findings identified three key contributions of ICT to innovate climate-resilient solutions: 1) to redefine role of resource user as co-producer, co-designer, and co-monitor; 2) to enable real-time data-driven urban planning; 3) to improve resource efficiency and effectiveness. In other words, in a time of insufficient and limited public resources, the public sector can leverage the power of technology to harness public support and engage non-traditional stakeholders to make cities more sustainable and resilient while allowing policy-making to be big data-driven to tackle new urban problems that cannot be otherwise uncovered without the aid of ICT. The results provide directions to rethink the city based on collective action to diversity modes to govern common resources.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-05T04:22:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211066324
       
  • A systematic review of municipal smart water for climate adaptation and
           mitigation

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      Authors: Allison Lassiter, Nicole Leonard
      First page: 1406
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines how research on smart water is contributing to climate-resilient municipal water systems around the globe. We identify smart water research trends over time, relationships with climate adaptation and mitigation goals, and applicability to places with developed or developing water and electrical infrastructure. To do so, we systematically review the literature, identifying research on Information Communication Technology-enabled technologies related to water supply, wastewater, and stormwater management. We assess the relationship between each study and climate adaptation and mitigation objectives: managing greater variation in water quantity, leading to scarcity and increased stormwater; managing declining water quality; and low-carbon water systems. We find 96 relevant studies and identify five major categories of research addressing climate adaptation and mitigation: monitoring, modeling, system design, system feedbacks, and uptake and implementation. We find there is a recent acceleration in smart water research, with a concentration of studies focused on modeling. There is an emphasis on water efficiency using data from Advanced Metering Infrastructure, which is most applicable to cities with developed water grids and consistent electrical supplies. Secondarily, there is a concentration of work using distributed sensors for early detection of water quality degradation, which is being done in all municipal contexts. There is far less research on uptake and implementation of smart approaches, especially at the institutional level. In addition, there is relatively little work that explicitly relates smart water technologies to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. While smart water approaches are applicable everywhere, there is a need to for expanded focus on areas without developed water grids or consistent electricity for smart water to meaningfully contribute to Sustainable Development Goal 6.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-18T09:10:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211072864
       
  • Mainstreaming climate resilience: A GIS-based methodology to cope with
           cloudbursts in Turin, Italy

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      Authors: Grazia Brunetta, Ombretta Caldarice, Martino Faravelli
      First page: 1431
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Cities play an increasingly significant role in the challenges posed by climate change, mainly due to their role in economic and demographic drivers. It is generally agreed that the intensification of climate change effects, such as extreme weather events, requires strengthening in the mechanisms of adaptation and the endogenous self-organization of urban systems. An operative way to adapt is by mainstreaming climate resilience, i.e., the iterative process of integrating climate change considerations into policymaking, budgeting, implementation, and monitoring processes at national and subnational levels. This paper falls under this heading, and it aims at building an innovative methodology to experiment with data-driven approaches to support the resilient transition of the city of Turin in Italy. The process aims to create territorial knowledge of specific weather phenomenon, that cloudburst events are, by filling the gap of existing hazard information with original vulnerability datasets. The proposed approach will create a hydraulic vulnerability map by identifying cloudburst vulnerable areas with a GIS-based spatial overlay. The paper will employ an array of datasets combined with original modelling techniques elaborated with the help of the open-source InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs) software program. The results allow us to understand what would happen if the urban water network failed to discharge during a phenomenon of intense rain and, consequently, which city areas should undergo adaptation and transformation to reduce their flooding vulnerability.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-12T09:06:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221076500
       
  • Planning decentralized urban renewable energy systems using algal
           cultivation for closed-loop and resilient communities

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      Authors: Steven Jige Quan, Soowon Chang, Daniel Castro-Lacouture, Thomas K Igou, Florina Dutt, Jiaqi Ding, Yongsheng Chen, Perry Pei-Ju Yang
      First page: 1464
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      To tackle climate challenges, communities need to harvest renewable energy and resources on site locally to close the loops for enhancing the resilience of communities facing unpredictable and uncertain future changes. A decentralization planning of urban renewable energy systems is proposed by treating urban waste streams and producing biomass through applying algal biotechnology. When applying algal technology as a renewable and decentralized energy source in urban systems, the overall performance can vary by levels of urban nutrients, solar and CO2 resources, and the transportation cost when considering its application to different urban densities, urban form, and the spatial scale of urban settings. This research explores three potential impacts on the algal system’s energy performance: (1) urban density, (2) urban form in different contexts, and (3) spatial scale. The research examines the impacts by testing urban settings given in actual contexts in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Four neighborhoods representing the high-density urban, mid-density urban, mixed suburban, and typical suburban areas are investigated. The density-scale–performance relationships are explored through testing different urban forms of neighborhoods in both hypothetical and actual neighborhood settings. A GIS-based model is developed to estimate the overall energy performance of the decentralized renewable energy system in urban environments. Results show that the energy performance is positive mainly for high-density urban neighborhoods with small-to-medium scales, up to 0.36 MJ per ton of municipal solid wastes for actual settings and 0.37 MJ for hypothetical cases. Neighborhoods with higher density have higher energy performance while up scaling has negative effects on the energy performance with a low degree of significance. Optimal scales are found as a 1-km radius in real test beds and 1.3 km in hypothetical settings, in which the results show trade-offs between scaling effects in the system efficiency gain and the transportation cost increase.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T05:49:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221101713
       
  • A grammar-based optimization approach for walkable urban fabrics
           considering pedestrian accessibility and infrastructure cost

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      Authors: Fernando T Lima, Nathan C Brown, José P Duarte
      First page: 1489
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Designing urban areas that provide smaller distances to their amenities is a key factor toward more walkable environments. Moreover, this is a critical aspect of climate-resilient urban planning since it is broadly assumed that areas with greater walkability discourage automobile usage and reduce CO2 emissions. Generative and data-driven design approaches, in turn, increase designers’ ability to explore wider sets of potential solutions. In this sense, identifying designs with an optimized performance out of the vast possibilities that computation can provide is crucial. Shape grammars are a formal method of shape generation that facilitate the elaboration of complex patterns and meaningful designs. This paper hypothesizes that coupling shape grammars with multi-objective optimization can help address trade-offs and decision-making in urban design. It focuses on the pedestrian accessibility and infrastructure cost (as estimated by cumulative street length) trade-off in urban fabrics as a case study to verify the suitability of a grammar-based optimization approach for more dynamic and efficient solution-finding in urban design. Our findings suggest that a grammar-based optimization approach is helpful in addressing urban trade-offs as it could be used to filter the design space and provide optimal alternative fabric layouts with increased pedestrian accessibility and decreased infrastructure cost.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-20T07:28:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211048496
       
  • Human mobility data and analysis for urban resilience: A systematic review

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      Authors: Masahiko Haraguchi, Akihiko Nishino, Akira Kodaka, Maura Allaire, Upmanu Lall, Liao Kuei-Hsien, Kaya Onda, Kota Tsubouchi, Naohiko Kohtake
      First page: 1507
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      The impacts of disasters are increasing due to climate change and unplanned urbanization. Big and open data offer considerable potential for analyzing and predicting human mobility during disaster events, including the COVID-19 pandemic, leading to better disaster risk reduction (DRR) planning. However, the value of human mobility data and analysis (HMDA) in urban resilience research is poorly understood. This review highlights key opportunities for and challenges hindering the use of HMDA in DRR in urban planning and risk science, as well as insights from practitioners. A gap in research on HMDA for data-driven DRR planning was identified. By examining human mobility studies and their respective analytical and planning tools, this paper offers deeper insights into the challenges that must be addressed to improve the development of effective data-driven DRR planning, from data collection to implementation. In future work on HMDA, (i) the human mobility of vulnerable populations should be targeted, (ii) research should focus on disaster mitigation and prevention, (iii) analytical methods for evidence-based disaster planning should be developed, (iv) different types of data should be integrated into analyses to overcome methodological challenges, and (v) a decision-making framework should be developed for evidence-based urban planning through transdisciplinary knowledge co-production.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T08:29:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221075634
       
  • An integrated framework for assessment of smart city resilience

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      Authors: Hamed Khatibi, Suzanne Wilkinson, Graham Eriwata, Lukuba N Sweya, Mostafa Baghersad, Heiman Dianat, Khaled Ghaedi, Ahad Javanmardi
      First page: 1556
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Cities are becoming smarter in their functions; however, they are not necessarily resilient and able to survive the impact of disasters. An integrated, smart and resilient city is a quest for today and future sustainability that has been scarcely studied. Therefore, this current paper develops a comprehensive framework for re-evaluating cities’ smartness and assessing their resilience against unforeseen disruptive events. A top-down approach is adopted with an expert’s validation process and evaluated in a hypothetical city’s water supply system to demonstrate its workability. The study contributes towards a holistic framework that includes smartness re-evaluation and resilience assessment components that can be used to ensure the resiliency of smart cities from both developed and developing countries resisting disasters.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-24T04:39:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221092422
       
  • Visualizing green space accessibility for more than 4,000 cities across
           the globe

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      Authors: Xuejing Long, Yijun Chen, Yuheng Zhang, Qi Zhou
      First page: 1578
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Green space accessibility has benefits for promoting physical and mental health of urban residents. Many studies have investigated this measure but used limited cities. To fill this gap, this study visualizes green space accessibility for 4353 cities across the globe. Three global open datasets and two different scales (city- and national-scales) were involved for the analysis. We found that most countries and cities have a relative high value in terms of the green space accessibility, and those with a relatively low value are mostly located in South American, African, and Asian countries and cities. The results may be useful not only for local governments to implement precise planning for reducing potential inequality in access to green space, but also for researchers to further investigate the relationship between green space accessibility and various issues related to urban built-up environment.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-06T11:29:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221097110
       
  • Professor Stan Openshaw (1946–2022)

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      Authors: Paul Longley, Linda See, Michael Batty
      First page: 1585
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T09:46:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221108684
       
  • Planning data

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      Authors: Michael Batty
      First page: 1588
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-28T04:34:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221105496
       
  • The electrification of road transport and its urban effects

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      Authors: Aharon Kellerman
      First page: 1593
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T03:26:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221088291
       
  • Quantifying changes in bicycle volumes using crowdsourced data

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      Authors: Ali Al-Ramini, Mohammad A Takallou, Daniel P Piatkowski, Fadi Alsaleem
      First page: 1612
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Most cities in the United States lack comprehensive or connected bicycle infrastructure; therefore, inexpensive and easy-to-implement solutions for connecting existing bicycle infrastructure are increasingly being employed. Signage is one of the promising solutions. However, the necessary data for evaluating its effect on cycling ridership is lacking. To overcome this challenge, this study tests the potential of using readily-available crowdsourced data in concert with machine-learning methods to provide insight into signage intervention effectiveness. We do this by assessing a natural experiment to identify the potential effects of adding or replacing signage within existing bicycle infrastructure in 2019 in the city of Omaha, Nebraska. Specifically, we first visually compare cycling traffic changes in 2019 to those from the previous two years (2017–2018) using data extracted from the Strava fitness app. Then, we use a new three-step machine-learning approach to quantify the impact of signage while controlling for weather, demographics, and street characteristics. The steps are as follows: Step 1 (modeling and validation) build and train a model from the available 2017 crowdsourced data (i.e., Strava, Census, and weather) that accurately predicts the cycling traffic data for any street within the study area in 2018; Step 2 (prediction) use the model from Step 1 to predict bicycle traffic in 2019 while assuming new signage was not added; Step 3 (impact evaluation) use the difference in prediction from actual traffic in 2019 as evidence of the likely impact of signage. While our work does not demonstrate causality, it does demonstrate an inexpensive method, using readily-available data, to identify changing trends in bicycling over the same time that new infrastructure investments are being added.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T08:21:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211066103
       
  • Using weighted multilayer networks to uncover scaling of public transport
           system

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      Authors: Yanyan Gu, Yandong Wang
      First page: 1631
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      The public transport system is considered as one of the most important subsystems in metropolises for achieving sustainability objectives by mediating resources and travel demand. Representing the various urban transport networks is crucial in understanding travel behavior and the function of the transport system. However, previous studies have ignored the coupling relationships between multi-mode transport networks and travel flows. To address this problem, we constructed a multilayer network to illustrate two modes of transport (bus and metro) by assigning weights of travel flow and efficiency. We explored the scaling of the public transport system to validate the multilayer network and offered new visions for transportation improvements by considering population. The proposed methodology was demonstrated by using public transport datasets of Shanghai, China. For both the bus network and multilayer network, the scaling of node degree versus Population were explored at 1 km * 1 km urban cells. The results suggested that in the multilayer network, the scaling relations between node degree and population can provide valuable insights into quantifying the integration between the public transport system and urban land use, which will benefit sustainable improvements to cities.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T08:00:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211062905
       
  • The private rental housing market before and during the COVID-19 pandemic:
           A submarket analysis in Cracow, Poland

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      Authors: Mateusz Tomal, Marco Helbich
      First page: 1646
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      How the COVID-19 pandemic has altered the segmentation of residential rental markets is largely unknown. We therefore assessed rental housing submarkets before and during the pandemic in Cracow, Poland. We used geographically and temporally weighted regression to investigate the marginal prices of housing attributes over space–time. The marginal prices were further reduced to a few principal components per time period and spatially clustered to identify housing submarkets. Finally, we applied the adjusted Rand index to evaluate the spatiotemporal stability of the housing submarkets. The results revealed that the pandemic outbreak significantly lowered rents and modified the relevance of some housing characteristics for rental prices. Proximity to the university was no longer among the residential amenities during the pandemic. Similarly, the virus outbreak diminished the effect of a housing unit’s proximity to the city center. The market partitioning showed that the number of Cracow’s residential rental submarkets increased significantly as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, as it enhanced the spatial variation in the marginal prices of covariates. Our findings suggest that the emergence of the coronavirus reshaped the residential rental market in three ways: Rents were decreased, the underlying rental price-determining factors changed, and the spatiotemporal submarket structure was altered.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T10:34:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211062907
       
  • TOPOI – A method for analysing settlement units and their linkages in an
           urban–rural fabric

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      Authors: Vanessa Carlow, Olaf Mumm, Dirk Neumann, Anne-Kathrin Schneider, Boris Schröder, Maycon Sedrez, Ryan Zeringue
      First page: 1663
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Many years, urbanisation research has largely focused the development of urban agglomerations and megacity regions, whereas less attention was paid on the development of medium-sized cities, small towns, villages, or rural areas. Yet many interrelations and spatial linkages between urban and rural areas exist. In this paper, we present a novel method called ‘TOPOI’ for the integrated analysis and description of settlement units in an urban–rural setting. The TOPOI-method enhances the understanding of the built environment by clustering and describing settlement units of similar characteristics with view to their physical form, function, and connectivity. The method is built on known planning parameters, but does not limit the analysis of settlement units to their administrative boundaries. Based on 11 indicators, 13 TOPOI-classes were identified in two exemplary study regions revealing new insights into urban–rural settlement types. This allows a better understanding of urban–rural linkages and therefore opens up new pathways for a more sustainable development.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T09:34:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211043882
       
  • Analyze the usage of urban greenways through social media images and
           computer vision

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      Authors: Yang Song, Huan Ning, Xinyue Ye, Divya Chandana, Shaohua Wang
      First page: 1682
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Urban greenway is an emerging form of urban landscape offering multifaceted benefits to public health, economy, and ecology. However, the usage and user experiences of greenways are often challenging to measure because it is costly to survey such large areas. Based on the online postings from Instagram in 2017, this paper used Computer Vision (CV) technology to analyze and compare how the general public uses two typical greenway parks, The High Line in New York City and the Atlanta Beltline in Atlanta. Face and object detection analysis were conducted to infer user composition, activities, and key experiences. We presented the temporal patterns of Instagram postings as well as the group gatherings, smiling, and representative objects detected from photos. Our results have shown high user engagement levels for both parks while teens are significantly underrepresented. The High Line had more group activities and was more active during weekdays than the Atlanta Beltline. Stronger sense of escape and physical activities can be found in Atlanta Beltline. In summary, social media images like Instagram can provide strong empirical evidence for urban greenway usage when combined with artificial intelligence technologies, which can support the future practice of landscape architecture and urban design.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-12T03:37:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211064624
       
  • Who settles where' Simulating urban growth and socioeconomic level
           using cellular automata and random forest regression

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      Authors: Anahi Molar-Cruz, Lukas D Pöhler, Thomas Hamacher, Klaus Diepold
      First page: 1697
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Cities in developing countries share a pattern of accelerated and largely unplanned urbanization that results in internal socioeconomic inequalities. The modeling of urban growth with spatial distribution of socioeconomic groups has been studied only to a limited extent. This paper proposes a method to simulate both urban growth and the socioeconomic group that is likely to settle in a particular location as a function of local environmental characteristics. Using a cellular automata model, newly urbanized cells are identified and then, as a post-processing step, distributed among five socioeconomic groups in a preferential settlement selection process. A land value map learned with a random forest regressor is used for this purpose. Our case study is Greater Mexico City during the period 1997–2010. We identified that the main features influencing the location of socioeconomic groups are the closest socioeconomic group, the distance to water bodies, and the distance to the urban center. This suggests that the newly urbanized cells are likely to settle in neighborhoods of similar socioeconomic levels. Moreover, the increasing distance from the urban center results in a generally decreasing land value. However, regions with a high land value were also found in remote areas where environmental features that improve the ecosystem services are present.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-22T02:35:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211056957
       
  • Uncovering spatial heterogeneity in real estate prices via combined
           hierarchical linear model and geographically weighted regression

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      Authors: Yigong Hu, Binbin Lu, Yong Ge, Guanpeng Dong
      First page: 1715
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Spatial heterogeneity is important for exploring data relationships between real estate price and its influential factors. The geographically weighted regression (GWR) technique has been frequently adopted for this purpose. In this study, we collected a second-hand real estate house price data set of Wuhan, in which each property is located the same as the community it belongs to. Thus, this data set possesses a typical characteristic, that is, dozens or even hundreds of observations could be allocated to one pair of coordinates, but vary in their attributes. This specific feature might lead to serious problems with bandwidth optimisations and coefficient estimates for calibrating the GWR model. We then proposed an extension by combining the hierarchical linear model (HLM) and GWR, namely HLM-GWR to cope with these problems. Results show that the HLM-GWR performs much better than the conventional GWR and HLM technique in terms of bandwidth optimisation, coefficient estimates. With a controlled simulation test, we again validated the advantage of the HLM-GWR model in comparison to both the HLM and GWR in handling this specific scenario. Overall, HLM-GWR is workable and should be recommended in this case or other scenarios with observations of similar spatial distributions.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-22T02:41:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211063885
       
  • The economics of architectural aesthetics: Identifying price effect of
           urban ambiences by different house cohorts

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      Authors: Ka Shing Cheung, Chung Yim Yiu
      First page: 1741
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      Although interest in sensory atmospheres and urban ambiences has been growing in urban studies, little is known about the economics of such ambiences. In architecture research, urban atmospheres or ambiences have been studied qualitatively through surveys and interviews. So far, the value of ambience has been focused and quantified only for heritage buildings. However, non-heritage buildings and open spaces also shape urban ambiences, either positively or negatively. This paper seeks to empirically disentangle cohort ambience effects on house prices based on the proportion of various house cohorts to the total number of houses within either a 0.5 km or a 1.0 km radial circle. Based on more than 56,000 housing transactions from 2010 to 2019 in Auckland, New Zealand, the results confirm that houses in a neighbourhood with historic ambience have a premium of more than 20%, ceteris paribus. This finding opens up a new research agenda on the economics of architectural aesthetics and suggests that there should be further studies of the price effects of various types of urban ambiences. The results may also have important implications for architects, urban planners and government officials conducting cost-benefit analyses.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-28T02:16:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211064625
       
  • Urban sustainability assessment in Geneva: Relevance of the local
           neighbourhood unit

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      Authors: Melissa Pang, Claudia R. Binder, François Golay
      First page: 1757
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      The physical characteristics of an urban system are typically heterogeneously expressed, creating distinct neighbourhoods shaped by specific local features. Hence, spatially explicit expression of sustainability across the urban system is expected and should not be ignored. In this paper, we present an empirical study that explicitly accounts for the spatial heterogeneity of local-scale urban form features and the significance of a neighbourhood in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland. Our work first established a typology of urban form features, followed by the definition of local-scale functional neighbourhood boundaries using well-established criteria across the study area. An assessment of the sustainability of the resulting neighbourhoods revealed that significant differences can be observed between the different neighbourhood types across various components of urban sustainability. These results highlight the relevance, and argue for the importance, of incorporating local-scale approaches for more effective urban sustainability assessment to support urban planning and policymaking in the transition towards sustainability.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-05T05:34:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211066105
       
  • Street edge subdivision: Structuring ground floor interfaces to stimulate
           pedestrian visual engagement

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      Authors: James Simpson, Megan Freeth, Kimberley Jayne Simpson, Kevin Thwaites
      First page: 1775
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      There have been numerous attempts to identify what makes the ground floor interfaces of street edges engaging for pedestrians. Their subdivision has often been highlighted as important, predominantly, in line with functions along their length. However, the effect of subdivision on street edge engagement is yet to be empirically tested. We use mobile eye-tracking to systematically examine where and for how long pedestrians visually engage ground floors in relation to their subdivision. We consider three scales of subdivision: morphologically defined plinths (different building ground floors), territorially defined segments (different areas of territorial ownership) and spatially defined micro-segments (different spaces separated by pillars and partitions). Results show that segments dominate ground floor visual engagement, with micro-segments also having a significant influence. Plinths were shown to have no direct effect upon such engagement. We subsequently use these findings to show how subdivision should be approached by design decision-makers when seeking to actively encourage pedestrian engagement with ground floors along street edges.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T10:21:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211068050
       
  • Gendered cities: Studying urban gender bias through street names

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      Authors: Dolores Gutiérrez-Mora, Daniel Oto-Peralías
      First page: 1792
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      This paper uses text analysis to measure gender bias in cities through the use of street names. Focusing on the case of Spain, we collect data on 15 million street names to analyze gender inequality in urban toponyms. We calculate for each Spanish municipality and each year from 2001 to 2020 a variable measuring the percentage of streets with female names over the total number of streets with male and female names. Our results reveal a strong gender imbalance in Spanish cities: the percentage of streets named after women is only 12% in 2020. We also observe substantial intra-urban differences, with female named streets being relatively scarcer in town centers. Concerning new streets, gender bias is lower but still far from parity. The second part of the paper analyzes the correlation of our indicator of gender bias in street names with variables related to gender attitudes and values, with the results suggesting that it constitutes a useful cultural measure of gender equality at the city level. This study thus helps to measure a relevant phenomenon, given the strong symbolic power attributed to street names, which has been elusive to quantify so far.
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-11T05:03:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083211068844
       
  • Happiness and international migration – The spatial dimension of a
           relationship

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      Authors: Aron Kincses, Géza Tóth
      First page: 1810
      Abstract: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, Ahead of Print.
      The relationship between international migration and happiness is evident and has long been studied in international literature (Brailovskaia et al., 2017; Shamsuddin and Katsaiti, 2020; William, 2019). In this study, we examine the relationship between countries’ levels of happiness and net migration rates relative to their neighbours. The question arose as to whether high happiness is, in any case, associated with a positive migration balance, and whether an unfavourable happiness situation is associated with high emigration. Are there any countries that deviate somewhat from this simple assumption'
      Citation: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T02:46:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23998083221103265
       
 
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