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Footprint : Delft Architecture Theory Journal
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.13
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1875-1490 - ISSN (Online) 1875-1504
Published by TU Delft Homepage  [7 journals]
  • What is Populism'

    • Authors: Lea-Catherine Szacka, Salomon Frausto
      Abstract: The editorial introduction to this issue of Footprint questions the complex concept of populism, explaining how, in recent debates, it has more and more often been related to architectural issues. Partly based on the analysis of political philosopher and historian Jan-Werner Müller, our understanding of the term reaches to both ends of the political spectrum. Yet rather than simply aiming to provide a clear definition of populism, this editorial sheds more light on a debated concept, showing its multi-facetted aspects in relation to space and aesthetics. Through the categories of media, politics and aesthetics, this introduction also shows the logical progression between the different pieces included in the issue. Acknowledging the complex nature of the word populism is essential for the understanding of the variety of takes included in this issue.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.7480/footprint.15.2.6310
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2022)
  • Mary McLeod in conversation with Salomon Frausto and Leá-Catherine

    • Authors: Mary McLeod
      Abstract: In February 1989, architectural historian and theorist Mary McLeod published her now seminal essay entitled ‘Architecture and Politics in the Reagan Era: From Postmodernism to Deconstructivism’ in Assemblage 8. In the essay, she examined the relationship between architecture and politics in the 1980s, a time of unprecedented change. The following conversation discusses the circumstances under which the essay was originally written and offers her reflections thirty years later to think about the relationship between architecture and populism today.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.7480/footprint.15.2.6305
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2022)
  • Negative Anthropology

    • Authors: Stephan Trüby
      Abstract: Is there an architectural and urban planning agenda at work behind the politics of contemporary (neo-)fascists and populist, radical and extremist right-wing forces' The Right-Wing Spaces research project, which has been running since 2018 at the Institute for Principles of Modern Architecture (Design and Theory) (IGmA) at the University of Stuttgart, suggests that the answer to this question is fairly unequivocal, at least in the German context: ‘architecture … seems to have become a key tool of an authoritarian, populist right with a revisionist take on history.’[i] The interim findings of the project were presented in ‘Rechte Räume: Bericht einer Europareise’ (Right-wing spaces: report on a journey through Europe), ARCH+ 235 (2019), an issue that was guest-curated by IGmA, as well as in my 2020 essay collection Rechte Räume: Politische Essays und Gespräche (Right-wing spaces: political essays and conversations).   [i] Stephan Trüby, Rechte Räume: Politische Essays und Gespräche (Basel: Birkhäuser, 2020), 138. The Right-Wing Spaces research project is headed by Philipp Krüpe (IGmA) and myself, https://www.igma.uni-stuttgart.de/en/research/research-projects/page_0002_0001/.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.7480/footprint.15.2.6299
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2022)
  • End Times and Architectural Style on the Christian Campus

    • Authors: Rachel Engler
      Abstract: This paper examines the idea of architectural style on evangelical Christian campuses built during the Cold War, a period during which religious cosmologies came into contact with the prospect of nuclear disaster, allowing for a temporary alliance between secular and religious visions of the end of human history. In this context of Cold War-era end-of-the-world thinking, and in relation to the biblical anticipation of the apocalypse, I consider the contrasting choices of so-called futuristic and neo-vernacular idioms in the building projects of television evangelists. What does it mean to revive styles of the past, or to build in a mode oriented toward the future, when the end of history is imminent' Design undertaken within the framework of assumed apocalyptic narratives troubles notions of permanence and durability—historically vital terms for thinking about building. The paper takes two primary case studies: Robertson’s Regent University in Virginia Beach, which hosts the Christian Broadcasting Network and was built in a “Jeffersonian” vernacular; and Oral Roberts’s Tulsa university, unique at the time for its gilded modernism.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.7480/footprint.15.2.6132
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2022)
  • Cult of war

    • Authors: Elena Markus, Nina Frolova
      Abstract: The Main Cathedral of the Russian Armed Forces in Kubinka near Moscow is a quintessential example of the post-Soviet populist ideology, representating a mixture of ostensibly religious values with multiple secular cult objects.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.7480/footprint.15.2.6128
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2022)
  • There and Back Again

    • Authors: Owen Hopkins
      Abstract: This essay explores the defining role that council housing has played in populist politics in Britain from the post-war era to the present. Central to this was Margaret Thatcher’s Right to Buy scheme – an archetypal populist policy that became totemic of her broader reconfiguration of British society. Building on the demonisation of council housing that paved the way for Right to Buy, today, it stands as the implicit foil for the present right-wing government’s populist advocation of ‘beauty’ (i.e. traditional styles) as a way of removing objections to future development. Meanwhile, the populist left argues for a return to the mass council house building of the post-war era, despite the recent success of small-scale, tactical council housing projects, such as those by Peter Barber Architects. The essay argues that the polarised and asymmetrical nature of this debate, conflating questions of aesthetics, typology and planning and tenure type, is typical of populist politics, ensuring a middle ground is by definition impossible. The essay concludes with the contention that if populist politics tends towards a monocultural architecture and urbanism, then a built environment that allows room for different forms, ideas and agendas may itself help foster a politics of pluralism.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.7480/footprint.15.2.6127
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2022)
  • Cedric Price’s Pop-Up Parliament

    • Authors: Dennis Pohl
      Abstract: The digital era has supposedly had a drastic impact on contemporary forms of political debate. Live-tweets, podcasts, and posts have become the main channels for politics, polemics, and populism alike. But these tendencies are not only an acceleration of the politics of media brought about by the logics behind television, cybernetics, and computation in the post-war era. They gained strength when populist politics appropriated information access via mass media, which once promised the emancipation of ordinary citizens by architectural means through pop-culture. In this essay I seek to elaborate how Cedric Price’s 1965 design of the Pop-Up Parliament dealt with a media-technical condition of politics, while proposing that architecture was an integral part of the media network of governing. Price’s project is paradigmatic of the 1960s, a period when the media operations of information compression, prediction, and audience targeting became more decisive for politics than the content of debate. This analysis allows us, on the one hand, to problematise conventional definitions of populism towards a media-based concept, and on the other, to further our understanding of architecture as a political medium operating directly with media such as documents, television, and computers. This essay argues that the advent of digital media calls for a different architectural history of populism, one which engages with the operativity of media and cultural techniques, rather than relying upon the symbolic representation of ideology in architecture.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.7480/footprint.15.2.6115
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2022)
  • Architectural Antiquization

    • Authors: Mari Lending
      Abstract: xx
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.7480/footprint.15.2.6108
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2022)
  • New Classical Architecture as Retrotopia

    • Authors: Pierre Chabard
      Abstract: Cet article s’attache à retracer la généalogie des idées portés par le réseau anglo-saxon d’architectes new classical qui partagent le souhait de renouer avec les traditions prémodernes et avec une « architecture classique », largement idéalisée et réinventée. Résonnant avec les arguments réactionnaires et identitaires de la droite populiste actuelle, cette doctrine architecturale s’est structurée au tournant des années 1980 au plus fort des débats autour du postmodernisme et s’est développée depuis lors, en dehors des scènes courantes de l’architecture contemporaine, à la faveur d’importants relais politiques (notamment, au Royaume Uni, celui du Prince de Galles) et de la structuration d’un cadre institutionnel et d’une commande spécifiques. Au-delà de leur positionnement stylistique, les protagonistes de cette new classical architecture revendiquent une volonté de revenir aux modes de construction artisanaux traditionnels et manifestent un certain rapport au temps résolument anti-historiciste qui rejoint ce que Zygmunt Bauman a appelé la retrotopia.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.7480/footprint.15.2.5402
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
  • Spatial and Architectural Dramalities of Trump

    • Authors: Sophie Suma
      Abstract: Summary Entry  Theatricalizing: the media as a space of representation  Popularizing: the wall as a symbol  Transgressing: Architecture as an Instrument  Output ________________________________________________________________________________________   Keywords: Trump, architecture, dramality, media, populism   Entry  In 2004, in the credits of the opening episode of the first season of the reality show The Apprentice (NBC, 2004-2014), Donald Trump presents New York as his city. This introductory sequence shows Trump in his limousine talking about business and power, driving past the various buildings he  had built and on which his logo appears. After listing all of his professional conquests and making an inventory of the companies he has developed in real estate, fashion, aeronautics and leisure sectors, Trump announces that he needs an "apprentice", a new collaborator who will be able to help him manage his transactions. According to him, the Trump Tower in the heart of Manhattan is the place to be. The background music is none other than For the Love of Money by The O'Jays (1973), which gives some additional clues to the tone of the series, where the candidates are dismissed one by one at the end of each episode by the now famous and infamous words : “you’re fired”, which sound like a sentence in the mouth of the promoter.   As we begin to understand the purpose of the show, the first episode of The Apprentice welcomes the candidates who will reside in the tower for the duration of the adventure.  Trump also organizes a tour of the building's interior, work spaces and meeting rooms, and even his own top floor apartments. Immense and luxurious, the rooms follow one another and reveal an anthology of golden and ostentatious ornaments. Fountains and fountains, chandeliers and furniture in a classical style, and pink marble on almost every wall. Everything here seems to be made to measure. Champagne flutes in hand, the candidates are amazed by so much luxury. Fascinated, they gaze at the large floor-to-ceiling windows framing a breathtaking view of the city, giving the impression of owning New York. Trump presents this place as a symbol of professional success and business supremacy. The Trump Tower is his pride and joy, and he displays it for all to see through the reality show by inviting the public into the intimacy of his family.  Here is an illustration of what Mark Burnett (President of MGM Television, creator and co-producer of The Apprentice) has defined as drama. Taken from the English dramality, it is a neologism proposed by the producer to qualify his reality shows. It refers to the association of the words drama and reality, two elements now establishing the new paradigm of reality as seen by television in the 1990s. This television drama featuring Donald Trump on the small screen long before he became President of the United States is not chosen at random, as this program also shows how he views American space, architecture and territory. Thanks to the various episodes of The Apprentice, Trump appeared regularly on television for more than a decade. His repeated appearances have certainly brought Trump's ideology into popular and political spheres, but they also give us the definition of drama. Television dramality is established through three different processes: theatricalization by dramatizing "authentic" facts and emotions (as close as possible to a real frame of reference), popularization by showing everyday activities, transgression by hijacking social codes and decency. I then hypothesize that if dramality is a television genre,   it also takes shape in the way Trump mediatizes his political activities and public appearances. His descents down the escalator of the Trump Tower, from the time of The Apprentice to the day of the candidacy for the 2016 Presidential elections, his popular Border Wall Speeches, his transgression of democracy and his neglect of American myths demonstrate the close relationship he maintains with dramaturgy. The proposed executive order entitled "Making Federal Buildings Beautiful Again" and the July 4, 2019 show at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington illustrate his contradictory position, between conservatism and symbolic violence. It is perhaps through the critical analysis of this spatial and architectural drama that the image of an anti-democratic President emerges : one who does not seem to put the interests of Americans before his own, but rather announces a form of nationalism.  
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.7480/footprint.15.2.5394
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
  • Scattering in the Urban Field

    • Authors: Gabriel Cuéllar, Athar Mufreh
      Abstract: Whereas real estate-driven development tends to invest in singular and concentrated sites, resident-led development thrives in scattered patterns. The properties of community land trusts (CLTs) — one of the foremost models of resident-led development whereby land is claimed and used by a community without landlords — are almost always dispersed in a context where every property line is a potential obstacle to development. What these populist landholdings lack in terms of economy of scale is compensated for by virtues of proximity. This article examines the historic phenomena of property scattering and spatial patterns of CLTs across the US, articulating the possibility of designing patterns of scattered landholdings that support the values of resident-led development.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.7480/footprint.15.2.5391
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
  • Actual or Perceived:

    • Authors: Jesse Foster Honsa
      Abstract: A "housing crisis" is often naively understood as a simple market imbalance between supply and demand, frequently occurring within cities in a capitalist mode of development. If that were the case, the solution would be to simply open the pipes and build more houses, a regulatory action delegated to technocrats. But as Reinhardt Koselleck reveals, crisis is a concept constructed by special interest groups with the aim of challenging absolute power, enlarging a sphere of popular criticism towards business-as-usual. This paper considers the operative nature of 'housing crisis' and related terms by investigating their use as a tool for urban reform in the 19th and 20th centuries in London. In newspaper articles, think tank publications and government reports, criticism often took on qualitative dimensions, leveraging change to housing practices. Crisis itself has had different meanings, from a moral apocalypse to a political risk to an historic opportunity. This is in contrast to how the term is used today, where it is no longer a climactic moment of decision and relief, but a perpetual and seemingly unsurmountable condition. While London's housing crisis is today universally accepted according to experts' statistics, it is rarely addressed on popular aesthetic grounds.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.7480/footprint.15.2.5386
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
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