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International Journal of Human Capital in Urban Management
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2476-4698 - ISSN (Online) 2476-4701
Published by Sinaweb Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Human resource analytics: a novel approach to bridge the gap between human
           resource functions and organizational performance

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Human resource analytics played a vital role in human resource practices like training, selection and performance management and other function of human resource management. The objective of this study is to identify the major challenges by understanding when, how and why human resource analytics leads to enhancement of performance of organization and unveil the methods that increase organization performances. The aim of stud is identifying the types of human resource decisions that can benefit from analytics and understanding the challenges and opportunities associated with incorporating data into decision-making. Impact on human resource functions: examine the specific areas within human resource management where analytics can have a significant impact. This may involve studying talent acquisition, employee engagement, performance management, training and development, and other human resource functions to assess how data-driven approaches can enhance efficiency and effectiveness. METHODS: The present study is mainly based on the primary data which is collected from human resource management personal of top 10 private life insurance company is considered for data collection of research. The data were collected from 194 employees of the human resource department. Quantitative methods are used to examine primary data gathered from the companies. The data is collected through a questionnaire-based survey. The questionnaires were distributed to the target population, it is a closed questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis and t-test were applied to analyze the data. The statistical package for the social sciences software was used to process the data. Validity and reliability test along with one sample t-test, independent sample t-test are conducted in this research. FINDINGS: The study found that the benefits of human resource analytics such as quick and reliable information processing, helping managers to draw meaningful patterns in the data, deeper insights in the employee data. Human resource analytics on organizational performance, multiple regressions were applied. The study found that the model explained 59% of the variance (R square = .593). The digitalization of human resource functions refers to the process of leveraging technology and digital tools to automate, streamline, and enhance various human resource processes and activities. It involves using digital platforms, software applications, and data-driven approaches to improve efficiency, accuracy, and effectiveness in managing human resources. Digitizing human resource processes reduces complexity within the department while also improving administrative quality and human resource flexibility. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated the importance of these fast decision making, better and improvement in the quality of decision-making significantly affects the human resource organizational performance and human resource functions. The study is helpful for human resource professionals to concentrate more on duties that are relevant to their work. In terms of efficiency, it is found that digitizing human resource procedures leads to an increase in administrative quality and human resource flexibility, as well as a decrease in bureaucracy within the function. Digitalization is a tool that speeds up the communication process while lowering costs, allowing companies to be more productive and perform more effectively and efficiently.
  • Improvement of implementation processes of corporate environmental
           responsibility in conditions of urbanization

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: During the disclosure of the conceptual foundations of the environmental responsibility implementation in the functioning of corporations, the need to implement such approaches to conducting business activities that will provide rational usage of nature and balanced development of the national economy in accordance with the concept of sustainable development, where economic interests will be combined with ecological and social one, was identified.METHODS: On the basis of mathematical modeling methods and the developed algorithm, proposals regarding the implementation of economic forms of corporate environmental responsibility are substantiated. In particular, the author proposed a methodology for determining the integral indicator, which in turn makes it possible to calculate the level of corporative environmental responsibility.FINDING: In general, only 30-40% of corporations in Ukraine are environmentally responsible. In 2022, the share of implemented quality management and environmental protection certification systems among environmentally responsible corporations was 67%. The following indicators have the most significant positive influence on the change in the implementation level of corporate environmental responsibility: the number of certified quality management and environmental protection systems by Ukrainian corporations and the amount of current corporations’ expenditures on environmental protection.CONCLUSION: It has been suggested to stimulate the formation of corporate environmental responsibility system at the national level by developing and using effective financial and economic tools. This will make it possible to level the capabilities of corporations, introduce proven international standards and principles of environmental responsibility, and bring the national economy to the path of sustainable development.
  • Governance, ease of living, and citizens’ perception: Components for
           quality-of-life assessment in mid-sized smart cities

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Smart cities are technology-driven urban agglomerations. Sustainability, competitiveness, and quality of life are the three cardinal principles for smart cities. The available studies specific to smart cities are related to smart technologies, innovations, smart infrastructure, etc., and limited studies are conducted from citizens’ perspectives. The present study aims to assess the impact of governance, general well-being, also called ease of living of citizens, and citizens’ perception of smart cities on their quality of life in mid-sized smart cities of India. The innovation and novelty of present study is that it attempts to fill the research gap in studies on smart cities by adopting the citizen-centric approach rather than infrastructure and technology-centric approach in developing countries.  METHODOLOGY: Three Indian mid-sized smart cities, Pune, Nagpur, and Indore were identified for the study. For the purpose of this study, a few hypotheses were developed and a structured questionnaire was prepared from the literature review. The data was collected from Pune, Nagpur, and Indore smart cities and it was analyzed by performing factorial analysis and Structural Equation Modelling using appropriate statistical package software.FINDINGS: The findings from the statistical analysis validated the hypotheses. The results of the study indicate a strong positive impact of citizens’ perception of smart cities on quality of life (Standardized Estimates = 0.66) while governance (Standardized Estimates = 0.11) and ease of living (SE=0.46) presented low to medium impact relationship with citizens’ quality of life.CONCLUSION: The findings of this study concludes that citizens’ perception has highest influence on their quality of life. Considering these findings in the context of mid-sized smart cities, this study significantly contributes in existing research on tools and indicators of quality-of-life assessment in urban centers specifically in developing countries. This research article attempts to provide a substantial theoretical and practical contribution to urban studies.
  • Assessing user’s satisfaction in innovation centers with industrial
           heritage renovation

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adaptive reuse of heritage buildings is important because of their impact on preserving the city's identity and urban integrity, as well as their hidden capabilities and values. In recent years, one of the adaptive reuse projects in existing factories around the world and also in Iran is transforming them into innovation centers. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the effective indicators of designing innovation centers and adapting the industrial heritage buildings to these criteria. This study aims to investigate and prioritize the criteria and indicators of designing innovation centers with industrial heritage renovation.METHODS: The current study is performed in two phases. First, the related literature was studied and criteria regarding industrial heritage and innovation centers were distinguished. In the next phase, post-occupancy evaluation of two cases of innovation centers in Tehran and Mashhad (Azadi innovation factory and Mashhad innovation factory) was carried out and the results were gained by applying structural equation modeling method using SmartPLS software. Thus, users’ satisfaction level of these criteria and the importance of each criterion from the users' point of view were investigated.FINDINGS: The results revealed that, for designing innovation centers in industrial heritage sites, four main criteria such as environment, technology and energy, aesthetics and socio-cultural could be discussed. According to the presented structural equation modeling, according to users’ opinion, environment criteria with Path coefficients of 0.4 in both cases is the most important factor while technology criteria with Path coefficients of 0.3 ranks after it. The factor loadings show that attention should be paid to the appropriate dimensions of work spaces (0.8), flexible and appropriate furniture (0.7-0.9), and providing service areas (0.8). Also, creating a sense of place and increasing productivity and improving social interactions were very important from the users' point of view while designing adaptively reused heritage as innovation centers.CONCLUSION: For designing innovation centers the environment criteria are more important in users’ opinion and more attention should be paid to greenery, space and mass and access to the complex. The environmental comfort factors for users are also of high importance and the users’ satisfaction level reveals that in these two cases users are almost satisfied with the design.
  • Designing star employee retention model

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Star Employees are high performers who have little chance of staying with an organization unless they can get more value than what they have created. Identifying and keeping star employees is the concern of many organizations today. This research seeks to identify the factors that Retention organizational stars. METHOD: This research was conducted using a mixed method. First, using the qualitative method of content analysis, the dimensions of the star employee model and their retention techniques were identified, and then confirmed by the structural equation modeling method of the star employee model, and finally, after identifying the star employees, the retention techniques was extracted using the fuzzy Delphi technique. The statistical population of this study consists of Petroleum engineering and development company managers and their subordinate Star employees. To collect data, the purposeful sampling method was used with 8 selected experts through a questionnaire in person. FINDINGS: Research findings showed that the Star employees are people with six characteristics: performance (β = 0.865, p < 0.01), visibility (β = 0.737, p < 0.01), social capital (β = 0.537, p < 0.01), status (β = 0.891, p < 0.01), creativity (β = 0.905, p < 0.01) and rareness and inimitability (β = 0.913, p < 0.01). Also, 16 indicators were identified as the retention factors of Star employees by fuzzy Delphi method. These factors were classified in the form of two dimensions "focus on the individual/organization" and "short-term/long-term time". CONCLUSION: Based on the research results, in order to retention star employees, organizations should use different techniques: job design in such a way that there is freedom of action, work independence and flexibility, creating a flexible and creative work environment, creating a flexible and agile organizational structure and to benefit from a learning organization with a suitable social position, so that they can benefit from their capabilities and capacities in realizing organizational goals.
  • Development of accounting information system quality in local government:
           mediating role of accounting competency

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Several investigations were previously conducted on the crucial role of Accounting Information System in enhancing organizational performance and accountability. However, there is a limited amount of knowledge regarding the factors that influence the quality of Accounting information system, especially when considering their application in local government settings in developing countries. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the factors determining Accounting information system quality in local government of Indonesia, including availability and functions of network, hardware, and software. The mediating role of accounting competency was also explored using resource orchestration theory.METHODS: This study adopted a questionnaire survey method and conducted statistical hypothesis testing using Structural Equation Modelling-Partial Least Square (SEM-PLS) method. The data were obtained from local government organization staff in Yogyakarta Special Region, selected based on involvement in using software.FINDINGS: The results showed that availability and functions of network and software, as well as accounting competency, were positively correlated with Accounting information system quality, with p-values of 0.000, 0.023, and 0.000, respectively. Meanwhile, availability and functions of hardware did not show a significant correlation, as evidenced by p-value of 0.375. Accounting competency significantly mediated the relationship between availability and functions of network, software, and Accounting information system quality, with p-values of 0.032 and 0.001, respectively. Moreover, Adj. R2 was 0.467 (medium level), and the SRMR value assessed the model fit at 0.079 (good model fit).CONCLUSION: This study contributed a novel framework related to the determinants of improving Accounting information system quality in local government setting and addressed the debate surrounding the role of accounting competency in the system development. Moreover, there were emphases on the significant mediating role of accounting competency as a prerequisite for other determinants (availability and functions of network, hardware, and software) to promote better Accounting information system quality.
  • Analysis of the challenge of urban management from the viewpoint of
           experts and executive managers

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The importance of integrated urban management has become increasingly evident in today's world, particularly for large cities facing physical, spatial, and demographic growth and complexity. In Iran, the lack of effective citizen participation and integrated management has posed a significant challenge to the urban management system. To address this issue, this research focuses on the role of citizens and urban activists in various levels of Tehran metropolis management, including policy making, planning, supervision, and control. It also evaluates the legislative and executive layers to emphasize their importance in achieving effective urban management.METHODS: The present study adopts a qualitative research design, with a practical orientation in terms of its objectives, and an analytical-exploratory approach for data collection. The study focuses on experts and city managers as the statistical population of interest. To gather data, a questionnaire was developed and distributed among the target community. The reliability of the questionnaire was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, which yielded a high value of 0.97. Data analysis involved the use of descriptive statistics, including frequency, frequency percentage, mean, and standard deviation, as well as inferential statistics, specifically the one-sample t-test. The statistical analysis was conducted using the SPSS software package.FINDINGS: According to the findings, 31.4% of the responses identified the citizens and 25.7% of the responses identified the municipality as the owner of the city. 68.6% of the answers have identified the municipality as the manager of Tehran city. Also, 80% of the respondents said that management fragmentation is the biggest challenge of urban development in Iran. The most influential institutions in the process of urban management are Tehran Municipality at the policy-making level, self-governing experts and researchers at the planning level, the Tehran Islamic Council at the monitoring and control level, the Islamic Council at the legislative level and Tehran Municipality at the executive level, while the citizens are the last.CONCLUSION: The present urban management approach faces significant obstacles in the form of fragmentation and inadequate coordination among decision-making entities. These challenges result in disarray, duplication of efforts, and squandering of resources. Consequently, the absence of transparency and lucidity in the roles of city proprietors and managers, coupled with the lack of precise delineations for the engagement of organizations, individuals, and institutions in the urban management process, could impede the attainment of sustainable development objectives and curtail the capacity of civil society to comprehend and partake in effective urban governance.
  • Social content as a key factor for the efficiency of digital tourism

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Due to the development of Information and communication technologies, data clouds produced by several sources containing vital information about cities, give more opportunities to tourists to access more information and services. Tourists can overcome challenges such as movement and finding information and services by improving the digital Tourism System’s efficiency. Digital tourism system can help tourists to move and to live in unfamiliar destinations, know different cultures, and buy services and productions more easily and independently. Therefore, digital tourism systems and their efficiency are a significant concern, which this research aims to address by evaluating the position of digital tourism systems and identifying the dimensions and influential factors affecting their efficiency.METHODS:  This study was a quantitative research and its target population consists of tourists or residents of the city of Mashhad use digital tourism systems. Due to the large population size, encompassing nearly 3 million residents and 20 million tourists annually, and considering the methods for determining the sample size for this study due to limitations arising from COVID-19, online questionnaires were utilized for data collection. Out of a total of 778 distributed questionnaires, 389 questionnaires were fully and accurately completed. The collected data was analysed using SPSS data analysis software to assess the analysis and relationships between the factors affecting the efficiency of digital tourism systems in Mashhad.FINDINGS: The results showed that more than 82% of respondents are using digital tourism system for managing their travels and three main functions of digital tourism system mentioned by tourists are “reservation services” (41%), “take information” (31%), “moving, find destination” (28%). Additionally, in brightness of this study, it demonstrated that digital tourism system usually uses smart recommender systems to personalise its recommendations, which need tourists' information. However, many of tourists (56%) are unwilling to share their personal information. one of the most important finding of this research is that receiving social content significantly correlates with users' confidence in digital tourism system for sharing their personal information.CONCLUSION: The findings showed that digital tourism system can optimise its personalisation process by using social content. It can ameliorate the users’ confidence in digital tourism system for sharing their personal information, which will increase the efficiency of digital tourism system. This finding cannot only be a solution to overcome tourists' challenges but also is a key factor for tourism companies that are the beneficiaries of digital tourism system to achieve their business goals. Moreover, it is a wake-up alert for the public sector to accept its responsibility for legislating, monitoring and producing social content in digital tourism systems.
  • Analyzing spatiotemporal changes in urban green spaces' ecosystem service
           value and resilience

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Urban ecosystem services are provided by a multitude of habitats, including green and water spaces. Such services are commonly under the control of heavy demand raised by the large number of beneficiaries. In this context, urban green spaces viz. parks and gardens supply these services for city residents. From this perspective, this study is to analyze the spatiotemporal changes in the ecosystem servicevalue of urban green spaces in Districts 1 and 14 (out of 22) of Tehran Municipality, Tehran, Iran. The level of resilience (namely, capacity and adaptability) of these districts, once confronted with climate change and environmental degradation, particularly carbon sequestration, is then investigated. As an innovation, the current study ultimately assesses the ecosystem services value of urban green spaces with higher accuracy to exert more actions to improve these spaces.METHODS: This library-based documentation study utilized spatiotemporal modeling with reference to software packages and field visits. In the first step, remote sensing was applied to create land-use maps using ENVI 5.3 software package and its formulas, algorithms, and extensions. In the second step, the InVEST software and model were used to model carbon sequestration in selected districts. To assess carbon sequestration and its changes over time, land-cover maps were generated for three 10-year periods (2003, 2013, and 2023) with 30 m accuracy via Landsat satellite-based program. The maps were classified in ENVI 5.3, and the net carbon sequestration in land, along with the market size of carbon sequestration, was estimated using the InVEST model, incorporating land-use maps, land-cover types, and carbon sequestration in reservoirs. Organic carbon content was determined based on other carbon reservoirs, previous surveys, and available data. Each carbon reservoir unit was valued in dollars, and discount rates and annual changes in carbon value were calculated based on global and local conditions surveys.RESULTS: The study results obtained from land-cover/use maps produced during 2003, 2013, and 2023 in the selected districts, demonstrated a diminishing trend of green spaces and barren lands, while the area of ​​built land has increased over time. The numerous changes in land use in the company of construction in green spaces and barren lands in District 1 from 2003 to 2013 had further led to 191401608 tons of emission, including 179114669 tons of carbon, valued 49056267 and 4636422 million Dollars, respectively. In District 14, the emission during 2003-2023 was also equal to 18.3644 tons of carbon, and that was 3444.14 tons of carbon for the period of 2013-2023, worth 1873871 and 1749769 thousand Dollars, in that order.CONCLUSION: Indiscriminate construction and development of built-up areas in Tehran have undermined green spaces and barren lands, negating the benefits of green infrastructure efforts. This has resulted in a reduction in urban green spaces, hampering their capacity for carbon absorption and sequestration. Consequently, reduced carbon deposition will contribute to higher temperatures, diminishing the resilience of these urban areas.
  • Urban development scenarios on flood peak discharge in an arid urban
           watershed using the WinTR-55 hydrologic model

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Land use change can directly affect rainfall-runoff relationships. The change in land use is an essential factor in runoff production. This research evaluated the effect of urban development scenarios of land use change on runoff in Gonabad city of Iran. The innovation and importance of this work are to determine which land use changes have the greatest impact on the flood discharge in this urban area. Also, determine how much the minimum development of urban green space is to control and reduce peak flood discharge in this city that is located in a dry area.METHODS: The effect of urban development scenarios on runoff was evaluated by the WinTR-55 model in 5 sub-basins of Gonabad city. The main data required for inputting to the WinTR-55 model are sub-area and reach characteristics, curve number, and storm data. The storm data in TR-55 are 24-hour rainfall amounts in a return period of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 years. The changes in the maximum flood discharge and flow hydrograph in each sub-area and return period were calculated by the WinTR-55 model under existing land use conditions and 9 scenarios of urban development.FINDINGS: The greatest increase in runoff production was related to the conversion of abandoned fallow and agricultural lands to residential. Also, the most effective increase or decrease of land cover change in peak flow discharge and total flow volume was at the 2-year return period. The decreased effect of the development of green spaces and urban gardens on peak flow discharge and total flow volume was seen only if their development was more than 50%. The average maximum decrease in peak discharge and total flow volume was 22.7% and 16.1%, respectively. While the average maximum increase in peak discharge and total flow volume was 84.4% and 53.9%, respectively.CONCLUSION: The effect of increasing green spaces and urban gardens on the reduction of peak discharge and volume of runoff was also evident in the study area. Land management and preventing the conversion of permeable land uses such as agricultural, gardening, fallow lands, and rangeland will be much simpler and less costly. Urban land use management to prevent urban floods requires the expansion of permeable surfaces, especially green spaces, and urban gardens. These are the important novelty of this research that can be beneficial for future urban developments of Gonabad city and its flood management activities.
  • An elucidation of comparative political ecology in urban areas regarding
           the allocation of urban green infrastructure

    • Abstract: BACKGROUNS AND OBJECTIVES: As an integral component of urban space, green space assumes a pivotal role in the purification and filtration of air, provision of recreational opportunities, and augmentation of the aesthetic allure of the urban landscape. In contemporary urban settings, the significance of urban green spaces is widely acknowledged and embraced as an indispensable facet of the city. The consequences of urban expansion and the resulting environmental problems have indefinitely made the presence of green spaces and their proper distribution essential. Meanwhile, it is necessary to pay attention to achieving spatial balance in the distribution of urban parks, as they are an important component of urban green spaces, particularly in large cities. The population in Karaj city in Iran, has experienced an excessive increase, particularly in the last three decades. This has resulted in the rapid expansion of urban areas the destruction of the natural landscape and the structural pattern of both natural and artificial ecosystems. The city of Karaj, formerly known as Baghshahr, has transformed into a metropolis, with only a few traces of its once abundant urban green spaces remaining. This research aims to evaluate the demand for green space and the distribution capacity among the districts of 3 and 8 of Karaj city. The objective of the current study is to provide solutions based on spatial justice to increase the use of green space.METHODS: The current research utilizes a combination of descriptive-analytical and critical methods, as well as documentary and survey methods. To analyze and evaluate the condition of green spaces and their mapping, information, and data from relevant organizations and satellite images have been utilized within specific spatial-temporal scales and GIS software.Results: The results showed that the highest weight obtained was related to participation, with a weight of 0.118. This was followed by social capital, with a weight of 0.116 percent. The lowest weight was related to public services, with a weight of 0.040.CONCLUSION: District 3 has more green space than District 8 due to the presence of gardens and trees planted by the municipality on the outskirts of the district. Additionally, the political ecology in these neighborhoods has not been impacted by District 3. However, Jahanshahr and Molana neighborhoods in District 8 have a high per capita population due to their small population and large areas of parks. Additionally, the presence of Family, fruit, Fateh and small Iran Gardens, contribute to the high population density in these neighborhoods. However other areas in the district experience a significant shortage of urban green spaces and are affected by the influence of political ecology at both the neighborhood and regional levels.
  • Servant leadership and work engagement: Exploring the mediation role of
           affective commitment and job satisfaction

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: As organizations seek effective ways to lead in a dynamic world, servant leadership will likely remain relevant. Servant leaders focus on serving others and nurturing the growth of employees to create positive work environments. However, there still exists a gap in the literature on the link between servant leadership and work engagement. Thus, this study aims to investigate the relation between servant leadership and work engagement by exploring the mediating role of affective commitment and job satisfaction.METHODS: Using a purposive sampling process, self-administered questionnaires are distributed to 154 employees working in Central Java – Indonesia public health institution from March to June 2023. Partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) with SmartPLS 3.0 software is utilized to analyze the data.FINDINGS: The results indicate that servant leadership has a significant direct effect on affective commitment (β = 0.321, t-statistic = 3.226, p < 0.05) and job satisfaction (β = 0.429, t-statistic = 5.556, p < 0.05). Furthermore, it is found that affective commitment (β = 0.527, t-statistic = 8.518, p < 0.05) and job satisfaction (β = 0.306, t-statistic = 4.275, p < 0.05) significantly affect work engagement. This study, upon further investigation, reveals that affective commitment (β = 0.170, t-statistic = 3.079, p < 0.05) and job satisfaction (β = 0.131, t-statistic = 3.179, p < 0.05) significantly mediate the relationship between servant leadership and work engagement.CONCLUSION: The results from PLS-SEM analysis reveal no direct relationship between servant leadership and work engagement. Additionally, the roles of affective commitment and job satisfaction are found to mediate the relationship between servant leadership and work engagement of employees in public health institution. When employees are satisfied and feel emotionally connected to their leader and organization, they are more likely to find their work meaningful and enjoyable, leading to higher levels of work engagement.
  • Adoption intention of artificial intelligence enabled smart city services
           from citizens' perspective

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Urban administrators of major cities in India are planning to deploy advanced information technologies such as artificial intelligence to deliver e-governance services. It is expected to enable citizens to acquire relevant information to their commonly asked questions without significant technological expertise. With its text, speech, and image processing capabilities similar to human beings, artificial intelligence is predicted to have both positive and negative social impact. The objective of this paper was to develop a conceptual framework consisting of enablers and barriers in adopting artificial intelligence enabled service delivery in a smart city from citizens’ perspectives. The study is novel in terms of empirically finding factors influencing adoption intention of artificial intelligence for availing citizen services in a nation like India which has a very large population and developing economy.METHODS: The study utilized an extended unified theory of acceptance and use of technology framework and employed survey-based data collection technique. A structured survey was circulated as part of primary data collection. The responses were collected from 772 sample respondents from three upcoming smart cities in India and were further examined by deploying the structural equation modeling technique using IBM SPSS and AMOS tools.FINDINGS: The proposed framework in this research study has social implications in terms of key factors that are critical when conceptualizing government services using artificial intelligence to avoid any harmful effects on society. The findings demonstrated six enablers and three barriers significantly affecting adoption intention (p<0.05) and explained 81 percent of the variance (R2) with the model's Goodness-of-fit index above 0.9. The quantitative results are also validated with the case studies from six smart cities across the globe for designing and deploying artificial intelligence-based services in the public sector.  CONCLUSION: the study highlights that the smart city management must make sufficient effort to ensure that artificial intelligence service delivery in a smart city is equitable for all socioeconomic levels of city residents. The study provides several policy recommendations for governments and technology service providers when deploying artificial intelligence-based services for citizens in developing countries like India.
  • The impact of the job turnover procedure on enhancing the productivity in
           the Ministry of Education

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The use of job turnover as a strategic management approach has become crucial in the progression of human capital and in enhancing the effectiveness and output of organizations. This has been widely recognized through scientific studies. With the significance of this matter in mind, the objective of this study is to investigate how the departure of employees from their jobs impacts the efficiency of the Ministry of Education in Iran.METHODS: The present study was conducted via a survey methodology. The statistical population comprising all individuals employed by the Ministry of Education encompassed a total of 1500 employees. The size of the sample was ascertained utilizing Morgan's table of 306 individuals and cluster sampling. Furthermore, to ensure the sufficiency of the sample, Bartlett's test was employed. The research data was acquired through a comprehensive analysis of the relevant research literature and a researcher-designed questionnaire consisting of 74 items rated on a Likert scale. The validation of the questionnaire was verified by esteemed scholars and experts with a minimum of 5 years of experience in the fields of management and academic research, whereas the reliability of the data was ensured by conducting a test to confirm the construct reliability. A series of measures were obtained, with a minimum measure value of 0. 7, and a variance of each construct exceeding 0. The statistical data was subjected to analysis by means of the employment of SPSS version 28 and Lisrel version 11 software applications.FINDINGS: The present study's findings demonstrate significant correlations between various aspects of the job turnover process and organizational productivity. Specifically, the analysis showed strong positive associations between job turnover at the individual (r = 0. 71), intra-organizational (r = 0. 82), and extra-organizational (r = 0. 65) levels and the dimensions of efficiency (r = 0. 84) and effectiveness (r = 0. 89) of the organization. There exists a noteworthy correlation with the Iran’s Ministry of Education.COONCLUSION: The current study indicates that the job turnover phenomenon, as it pertains to individual, intra-organizational, and extra-organizational levels, exerts an impact on the productivity, efficiency, and overall organizational effectiveness of the Ministry of Education. Moreover, the simultaneous occurrence of job turnover in all three dimensions enhances its effectiveness.
  • The effect of human resource agility on organizational sustainability:
           Structural equation modeling approach

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Agile human resource practices have become one of the most important concerns of modern departments because of their role in achieving competitive advantage. The majority of academics believe that in order to implement Agility of human resource practices, many scholars argue that effective implementation of agile HR practices requires trained and motivated personnel. This research aims at clarifying the effect of human resources agility in Organizational Sustainability at Jordanian hotel sector.METHODS: The current study looks at the effect of human resource agility on organizational sustainability. A quantitative approach was used through a questionnaire-based survey. A descriptive analytical strategy was utilized in the study. The study targeted the entire workforce of Jordan's hotel sector, consisting of 21,835 employees across 22 hotels. The study's sample consisted of 410 workers that are employed in the hotel sector in Jordan. Numerous statistical methods, including frequency, percent, mean, standard deviation, Cronbach's alpha, exploratory factor analysis, average variance extracted, and composite reliability, have been employed to meet the aims of this research. Additionally, a structural equation modeling was used to quantify the impact of human resource agility on organizational sustainability.FINDINGS: Findings showed that resilience resilience had a positive influence on social and economic sustainability) Estimate = 0.323 and 0.207; C.R = 3.660 and 2.357; P-value = 0.01 and 0.00(. While environmental sustainability was not significantly impacted by resilience. Additionally, the results showed that adaptability significantly influence all organizational sustainability dimensions, including social, environmental and economic sustainability (Estimate = 0.247, 0.203 and 0.521; C.R = 2.312, 2.698 and 5.296; P-value = 0.021, 0.011 and 0.00(. Additionally, the results showed that proactivity significantly impact on social and environmental sustainability (Estimate = 0.475, 0.319; C.R = 5.085, 3.524; P-value = 0.00, 0.00 (.CONCLUSION: The study suggests that the hotel industry should provide and promote agile human resource practices in order to maintain organizational sustainability and prevent organizational decline. look into and analyze the mediating role of job embeddesness on the relationship between human resource agility and organizational sustainability at other industrial or service fields in Jordan as well as across different nations and various regional boundaries. The study also recommends that scholars explore the mediating role of job embeddedness in the relationship between HR agility and organizational sustainability, both within Jordan and across other countries and regions.
  • Conceptualizing collective decision-making in organizations: A grounded
           theory approaches

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Collective decision-making can increase the probability of reaching the correct decision. In Collective decision-making, information, experience, and knowledge are shared, and managers can use the wisdom of their employees with this method. In addition, in Collective decision-making, learning and ideation take place, and employees express their opinions freely and reach a common decision with the help of each other. METHODS: In this study, the concepts related to Collective decision-making are explained using the research background. Then, by using the grounded theory method, the most important questions related to why and how Collective decision-making are answered. To get the opinions of organizational and academic experts in this field, a semi-structured interview was conducted with 54 people who were selected by purposeful sampling. After collecting the data through interviews, the components are coded in an open, axial, and selective. FINDINGS: Through coding, 26 concepts were obtained which were later classified into 5 categories: causal conditions, contextual conditions, intervening conditions, central phenomenon, strategies, and consequences. The findings of this study provide a comprehensive model for the central phenomenon of Collective decision-making.CONCLUSION: The results show that collection alliance, increased awareness and knowledge, growth, and development of members, increased wisdom and collective intelligence, increased members' commitment, increased quality of decision-making, and increased justice are the most important consequences of Collective decision-making. This study is important because it broadens the perspective of managers, and provides a deeper understanding of the nature of Collective decision-making in the organization.
  • Identifying the dimensions of employee experience according to the effect
           of satisfaction, work place and organizational culture

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The employee's experience during employment can play a very important role in various aspects of the employee-employer relationship and subsequently in the personal improvement of the employee and the development and progress of the organization. Due to the fact that so far, the experience of employees has not been measured with regard to the effect of job satisfaction, workplace and organizational culture, this research has innovation. Therefore, the purpose of this research is the identifying the dimensions of employee experience according to the effect of satisfaction, workplace, and organizational culture.METHODS: This study is applied and descriptive. The statistical population consisted of employees of the municipality of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer Ahmed provinces. The statistical population of the research included 823 municipal employees, which was estimated to be 260 for the statistical sample according to the online Cochran formula. The researcher-made questionnaire was compiled according to the research literature and sent to the statistical sample through the porsline link of the questionnaire.  For content validity, the evaluation of scientific and executive experts who are aware of the subject and society showed that the questions of the questionnaire evaluate the variables and their relationships well. In the measurement model, the internal consistency of the model or reliability has been measured by calculating Cronbach's alpha coefficient and shared reliability. To measure divergent validity, Fornell and Larcker criteria were used. Data analysis was done using the software of structural equations of Lisrel.FINDINGS: Convergent validity and Cronbach's alpha were used to fit the measurement. The convergent validity was higher than the standard value of 0.5, which was acceptable for all variables. Cronbach's alpha was higher than the standard value of 0.7, which was acceptable for all variables. The t-statistic was used to test the hypotheses. The amount of t-statistic for culture and satisfaction variable was more than the acceptable limit, i.e. 1.96, which means that these two hypotheses have been confirmed. The value of t statistic was less than acceptable and this hypothesis was rejected.CONCLUSION: Considering the relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction with employee experience, there is a need for managers to try to carry out activities or make decisions that increase employee job satisfaction and improve and make organizational culture more effective in order to create an effective experience and be efficient for employees.
  • The effect of digital leadership on the performance of businesses: the
           mediating role of organizational entrepreneurship

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The digital age has led to significant changes in all aspects of human life, including the way businesses operate. It is expected that the digitalization process of this type of business will accelerate in the coming years, therefore the results of this research can have a great impact on increasing their productivity and economic growth. In this context, the current study aims to investigate the impact of digital leadership on the performance of businesses, with a particular focus on the mediating role of organizational entrepreneurship.METHODS: This research is applied in terms of research purpose and descriptive-survey method. The statistical population of this study consists of 601 employees and managers working in the printing and publishing industry in Tehran province. The sample size was determined using Cochran's formula, and a total of 235 individuals were selected using available sampling techniques. Data was collected using standard questionnaires, and SmartPLS4 software and structural equation modeling were utilized to analyze the data. This approach allows for the examination of the complex relationships between digital leadership, organizational entrepreneurship, and business performance in the publishing industry.FINDINGS: This research examines the fit of a model at three levels of measurement: structural, general, and combined reliability. The R2 (equal path squared) values for organizational entrepreneurship and the performance of printing and publishing businesses are 0.739 and 0.653, respectively, indicating a strong level of fit for the structural model. The t-statistic was used to check the assumed relationships between the variables, with seven sub-hypotheses used to measure the main hypothesis. The t-coefficients relevant to the seven existing relationships have been confirmed, supporting the main hypothesis.CONCLUSION: Businesses that adopt digital leadership strategies are more likely to develop new digital facilities and make significant changes in their strategy-making processes and organizational culture. These findings emphasize the importance of digital leadership in the publishing industry and suggest that businesses that embrace digital leadership strategies are more likely to succeed in the digital age. The insights gained from this study can be used to develop effective digital leadership strategies to help publishing businesses thrive in an increasingly digital world.
  • The impact of green training, green reward, and green recruitment on
           organizational citizenship behavior for environment

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Green Tourism to be an important factor as a medium of learning information for residents, managers and government. However, since Covid-19 this sector has experienced a decline in the performance of human resources for greening at the Gembira Loka Zoo conservation agency, even though this plays an important role. At the beginning of this pandemic, it was like "starting from scratch" in procuring environmentally friendly human resources. This study aims to analyze the Effect of Green Training, Green Reward, and Green Recruitment on Organizational Citizenship Behavior for Environment Employees at the Gembira Loka Zoo conservation agency, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. This research is interesting, because of the innovative research conducted in the conservation sector on employees who are environmentally conscious.METHODS: This study uses inferential statistics. Field and library methods, literature reviews, and questionnaires were used to gather information. This study used a saturated sample method with quota sampling technique on 147 employees of the Gembira Loka Zoo conservation agency with Variance Based Structural Equation Modeling analysis. The outer model was made by testing the quality of raw material instruments with reliability tests using the Cronbah's Alfa method and Composite Reliability > 0.7. The validity test used convergent validity and discriminant validity with outer loading factor > 0.70, and discriminant validity with Average Variable Extract > 0.50. Inner model by looking at goodness-of-fit. Finally, the collected data was analyzed using SmartPLS version 4 software.FINDINGS: Based on the results of Structural Equation Model test, all indicators are reliable where the loading factor and Composite reliability > 0.7, all variables are valid because Average Variance Extracted > 0.50, P <0.05 value for hypotheses 2 and 3 is accepted, while hypothesis 1 is rejected because P > 0.05. This model is in accordance with the goodness of fit measures.CONCLUSION: The results of the study show that Green Training has no effect on Organizational Citizenship Behavior for the Environment, but green reward and green recruitment have a positive and significant effect on Organizational Citizenship Behavior for Environment, and green recruitment has a positive and significant effect on Organizational Citizenship Behavior for Environment.
  • An analysis of factors associated with employee satisfaction in
           information technology companies

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: An employee's satisfaction and performance are linked to the company's work discipline, personal factors, and organizational culture. This paper studies these three factors in the context of Information Technology companies and their connection to employee satisfaction. Job satisfaction is a significant issue in Information Technology Companies, leading to increased labour turnover in Information Technology Companies. The study highlights the relevance of Information Technology companies to understanding the reasons behind their employees' satisfaction. Until now, little is known concerning the variants of job satisfaction among Information Technology employees, enriching the understanding in this particular professional area. The study was conducted to assess the job satisfaction needs of the employees in major Information Technology companies. The study helps to know the preferences and problems of the employees.METHODS: In this study, data was collected from employees from various Information Technology companies to uncover the factors that impact the satisfaction of employees. Considering the study's goal and the literature review, the technique was analytical and interpretive. Due to large populations random sampling method is convenient for the study. The study's objectives were achieved explicitly via the questionnaire's design. To test the proposed hypotheses, all data were processed using the Structural Equation Modelling, Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) and Analysis of Moment Structures.FINDINGS: Information Technology companies need their employees to feel satisfied to achieve the overall objectives and remain loyal to the company to achieve company success. From the responses, we learned that 31% of the respondents were satisfied with their employer about the various allowances and benefits they receive. Also, we knew that around 50% of the respondents were happy with their choice of the company because of its future commitments. 102 of the respondents highly disagreed that they were satisfied with the attitude and nature of their employees. Also, 22.26% of the male respondents have said they are only sometimes motivated to go to work. The limitation of this study was that the collected data was only of the general employees of the Indian Information Technology companies and not to specific departments of those companies. Also, no categories of companies were defined as per turnover.CONCLUSION: By recognizing the importance of job satisfaction, managers can create an environment that motivates and engages employees, leading to better performance, increased productivity, and reduced employee turnover.
  • Experts profiling on a healthier built environment: lowering the threat of
           climate change

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are indications that climate change and its consequences are already creating threats to the built environment in Nigeria. These environmental threats have negative implications for healthy, well-being, and urban sustainability. This empirical study aim to identify how climate change has influenced the built environment in Nigeria's South-Western region, considering the following objectives: to explore the reasons for climate change in South-western, Nigeria, to determine the consequences of environmental issues on inhabitant health in South-western, Nigeria; and to critically determine the key measures of climate change mitigation and adaptation to enhance the environmental sustainability of the Southwestern region of Nigeria.METHODS: An empirical quantitative method comprising 300 questionnaires survey was administered, and 235 were retrieved and used as a sample population for the research analysis. The distribution of questionnaires was based on the convenience sampling methods among professionals within the built environment. The internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (α), and the analysis was performed using the Statistical Software program; SPSS for Windows, version 22.FINDINGS: The results from descriptive analysis revealed that Land-degradation, biodiversity loss, pollution, deforestation, urbanization, health challenges and population growth are predictors factors of climate change with mean scores of 4.2576, 4.2300, 4.0775, 4.0875, 4.1075, 3.8450 and 4.0925 respectively. Furthermore, the research showed a causal linkage relationship of climate change and the factors of land degradation, biodiversity, pollution and deforestation of (p<0.001). Generally, the results affirm that the predictors of climate change are attributed to the factors of land degradation, biodiversity loss, pollution, urbanization and deforestation in the region.CONCLUSION: The research gives an understanding about the impacts of climate change in the south west region, Nigeria and remains a veritable document to government and policy maker towards the prevention and mitigating measures on climate change impacts. The outcome of the research has revealed negative impacts of environmental issues on inhabitants’ health through air pollution, temperature related effects and mental related infectious diseases. The climate change mitigation and adaptations results agreed that greening the environment/green infrastructure, provision of stronger urban-rural connections and promulgation of law that discourages human activities impacts are few among the items recommended in mitigating and combating the impacts of climate change in South-western Nigeria.
  • Changing pattern of livelihood capitals of urban slum dwellers during
           COVID-19 pandemic

    • Abstract: FINDINGS: Study reveals that about 47.8% (central), 57.5% (interim) and 45.1% (peripheral) slum dwellers are illiterate and live in a miserable condition. Human capital index is found higher in central slums (0.435) than peripheral (0.406) and interim (0.387). The social capital index is revealed as similar of human capital index. But physical capital index claims the trend as central (0.776)> interim (0.646)> peripheral (0.536). Again, financial capital index of the central slum dwellers is higher as they receive help during pandemic and get earning opportunity and these slum areas are located near the central business district. In addition, natural capital index is totally different and peripheral slum dwellers are in better position (0.635) than interim (0.549) and central (0.358) slums. Finally, the study concludes that mean livelihood capital index of central (0.4334) slum dwellers are better than interim (0.4216) and peripheral (0.4222) slums which assesses all the study slums as moderate.CONCLUSION: The study suggests that financial improvement is becoming an ultimate need for slum dwellers since the financial capital index reveals as poor among all the slum areas. Moreover, individual or community-based strategies, international collaborations, government and non-governmental organizations need to come forward to improve not only the financial capital but also other four capitals in all slum areas to build a sustainable livelihood as majority of them live below the standard livelihoods.
  • Constructing the organizational excellence model using technique for order
           of preference by similarity to ideal solution and Analytic hierarchy

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Excellence models are essential for organizations to improve performance. Deming Prize, Canada Awards for Excellence, Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, and European Quality Award are the most well-known excellence models worldwide. These models do not present any mathematical model in accordance with a comprehensive step-by-step roadmap for implementation. Moreover, they are general models and have not been customized for a specific organization. So, this article presents a comprehensive, graphical, step-by-step roadmap to implement an excellent model for Tehran Municipality that is elevated by Technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution and analytical hierarchical process to make decisions by mathematical analysis.METHODS: Different excellence and performance models have been studied, and then an excellence model for deputies of Tehran Municipality is designed. Also, an Analytical hierarchical process for weight extraction and a Technique for order of preference by similarity to an ideal solution for ranking is applied.FINDINGS: A novel excellence model for deputies of Tehran Municipality has been developed. Strategies, goals, objectives, targets, critical success factors, and general, proprietary, and transaction indexes are defined. Analytic hierarchy process  calculates weights of indexes based on arbitrary data, and results are presented in 11 Tables. The most important index was the proprietary index, with a weight of 70% for the deputy of technical and construction. The less important index was the general index for the deputy of planning, human capital development, and council affairs, weighing 8%. Moreover, deputies of Tehran Municipality have been ranked by TOPSIS. The best deputy got 71%, and the worse got 7% scores.CONCLUSION: This study constructed a customized five-step excellence model for Tehran Municipality to reach excellence. The model can help Tehran Municipality for better urban planning. Step one constructs the performance assessment team. Step two extracts indexes by brainstorming method with the help of the European foundation for quality management model. Step three collects, cleans and loads the data in the data warehouse. In step four, weights of the indexes and facets are calculated based on AHP, and then facets, indexes, and goals are ranked by technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution as an effective multi-criteria decision making tool. Finally, the model has been implemented at offices of plan monitoring, project control, and performance evaluation in planning, human capital development, and council affairs department at Tehran Municipality.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
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