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International Journal of Human Capital in Urban Management
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2476-4698 - ISSN (Online) 2476-4701
Published by Sinaweb Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Dynamics of urban growth in mid-sized cities using census data

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Currently, 56% of the global population, reside in cities, and this urbanization trend is predicted to result in a more than doubling of the urban population by 2050. Similarly, mid-sized Indian cities have exhibited rapid urban growth in recent decades. However, a holistic study focusing on the temporal dynamics of urban growth in all the mid-sized Indian cities is lacking. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the urban growth pattern across eighty-eight mid-sized Indian cities with the help of Census data from 1971-2011.METHODS: This research, utilizing a quantitative approach, investigates the relationship between economic growth and urban expansion in selected cities. The cities are categorized based on the Gross State Domestic Product of respective states, and the study evaluates changes in municipal areas and demographic growth patterns through the decadal urban expansion rate and decadal population growth rate. The urban growth character is further analyzed by dividing the population growth rate by the decadal urban expansion rate, with a value less than 1 indicating inefficient land utilization. This comprehensive methodology aims to provide insights into the dynamics of urban growth and its correlation with economic development.FINDINGS: The results revealed that inefficient land utilization for urban growth during 1971-2011 had occurred in thirteen cities from the states with higher Gross State Domestic Product and three cities among the states with lower Gross State Domestic Product. Overall, the mid-sized Indian cities, such as Ajmer (0.65), Solapur (0.67), Asansol (0.79), Mangalore (0.83), Jhansi (0.84), Nellore (0.85), Belgaum (0.86), Thrissur (0.86), and Bareilly (0.89) exhibited the lowest PU values during 1971-2011.The major drivers for urban growth in mid-sized Indian cities are government policies and schemes, industrial growth, rise in Gross State Domestic Product, climatic conditions and terrains, social profile, transportation, and infrastructure. CONCLUSION: Overall, there has been inefficient land utilization in several cities, particularly those from states with varying levels of Gross State Domestic Product. Noteworthy cities like Ajmer, Solapur, and Belgaum consistently demonstrated efficient land utilization, reflected in their lower Population-to-Urban Expansion (PU) values. The study emphasizes the intricate influences shaping urban growth, encompassing government policies, industrial development, economic factors, climate, social dynamics, and infrastructure. Future research endeavors could further delve into the specific impact of these factors on urban expansion, employing longitudinal analyses, and explore the socio-economic ramifications of efficient or inefficient land utilization, contributing to more informed urban planning and policy formulation.
       
  • Digital marketing: consumers’ purchase intention towards e-commerce
           platform for urban region

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: One of the "15 Guiding Principles" designed to achieve the 2030 aim highlights the importance of giving priority to exploration in the digital economy as a crucial element in defining the future economy. Consumers’ interest in using social media and e-commerce platforms for their shopping activities is rising in this day of modern technology. However, based on a study conducted by the Small Medium Enterprise Corporation indicated that a substantial majority of Small and medium enterprise entrepreneurs, acknowledge the importance of incorporating digital technology into their fundamental business operations. Nevertheless, there is a noticeable discrepancy between the level of awareness regarding these technologies and their actual adoption. Therefore, the research objectives are to determine the relationship between perceived convenience, E-promotion, brand awareness, and personalization toward consumers’ purchase intention.METHODS: Data was collected from a wide range of individuals in urban areas using probability sampling methods. This study aims to gain a deeper understanding of the various factors that can impact individuals' intentions. A sample size of 385 participants from the e-commerce sector in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Therefore, stratified sampling is employed by considering pertinent characteristics such as location, age, and intention to use e-commerce. The analyses were conducted using SmartPLS software to measure the influence of digital marketing on consumers' purchase intention.FINDINGS: The variables of E-Promotion (β=6.601, p<0.05), Brand awareness (β=3.975, p<0.05), and Personalization (β=4.152, p<0.05) had a statistically significant impact on Customer Purchase Intention. Nevertheless, the variable of Perceived Convenience does not have a significant impact on Purchase Intention (β=1.646, p<0.05). Consequently, e-promotion was deemed the most influential component, followed by personalization in second place, and brand awareness in third place.CONCLUSION: The findings are expected to assist businesses in identifying the factors that influence the purchase intentions of urban consumers on an e-commerce platform. These encompass micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs), which serve as the foundation of Malaysia's economic development. The process of digitalization is anticipated to enhance opportunities for micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) to grow and flourish. The potential of digitalization to enhance integration across economic sectors and promote cost effectiveness through a collaborative economy is evident. This aligns with the goals stated in the My Digital Economic Blueprint, which is scheduled to be implemented until 2030.
       
  • Building a business model of enterprise’s innovative development based
           on economic security as an element of urban management

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Social and economic processes, which create a combination of capital and intelligence, influence the development of the urbanization process. Urban areas develop together with economic growth. The main factor influencing the growth of the economy is the increase in production, which should be based on quality management through the implementation of a business model for the innovative development of the enterprise in the context of economic security. Thus, the purpose of the research is to define and characterize the components of the business model of an enterprise’s innovative development based on economic security and to describe the main practical aspects of its implementation.METHODS: Using general scientific and special research methods, the theoretical and categorical content was analyzed and specified, namely, the essence of urbanization, innovative activity, innovative development, and business models of the enterprise’s innovative development were revealed. The main principles contributing to the effective operation of innovative enterprises were defined.FINDINGS: It was substantiated that strategic business development provided a business model in which all business processes were identified and analyzed, and development was optimized considering correlations. The main features of the business reflected in the business model were specified. Considering that during the implementation of the innovative development strategy, the business model is aimed at managing the chain of innovative value creation, the basic background for the implementation of the business model was determined. To form a model of innovative development in the context of economic security, the aspects of adaptability of innovative development were investigated. The business model of the enterprise’s innovative development in the context of economic security was formed, and its components and their significance were determined. The main practical aspects for implementing the business model of the enterprise’s innovative development were highlighted. It was noted that in the conditions of a dynamic market environment, full of dangers and threats, 40% of the success of further implementation should be based on taking into account well-known theoretical and methodological aspects, and 60% should be the ingenuity of the personnel of the enterprise on which the business model is being formed.CONCLUSION: The business model ensures the transformation of innovative technologies into economic benefits for the company. The practical application of the proposed business model with selected components would contribute to the increase of the enterprise’s innovative potential and its development during current activity and in the future.
       
  • Designing a model of psychological security of knowledge workers in
           organizations (case study: Tehran Municipality)

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Knowledge workers are people whose work is highlighted by the continuous and systematic development of organizational knowledge through the discovery mechanism and creation of new knowledge. The number of knowledge workers is increasing in today’s organizations, and proper conditions must be provided for their activities. Also, effective use of knowledge workers requires optimal psychological safety for them. So far, not so many studies have investigated psychological safety, especially for knowledge workers, and there is an obvious research gap in this field. Therefore, the innovation of this research is to increase knowledge about the psychological safety of knowledge workers and to create local and practical knowledge in the mentioned field.METHODS: This research aims to design a psychological safety model for knowledge workers in the Tehran Municipality. The applied-developmental purpose aspect of this research puts it in the category of mixed (method) research. In the qualitative phase, a semi-structured method of interviewing experts, and thematic analysis techniques were used to design the research model. 18 experts from Tehran Municipality were purposefully selected to participate in the interviews. The model of the research was validated by structural equation modeling and Smart PLS software in the quantitative phase. For this purpose, 110 managers and specialists of Tehran Municipality were surveyed using a questionnaire.RESULTS: The results indicated that the personal, interpersonal, occupational, managerial, organizational, and spiritual dimensions are 6 dimensions that influence the psychological safety of knowledge workers in organizations. Also, several antecedents, moderating factors, and consequences were identified, which were created based on the identified variables of the research model. Also, the coefficient of determination was calculated as 0.740 for the psychological safety variable and 0.711 for the outcomes variable, based on the results of structural equation modeling, which indicates optimal values.CONCLUSION: Ultimately, the results of the research indicated that the psychological safety of knowledge workers is a complicated, multidimensional, and a dynamic phenomenon, and achieving it requires considering several factors and components, and of course, it brings valuable results.
       
  • Examining the role of green human resource management practices on
           environmental behavior with the environmental knowledge mediation effect

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Green human resource management contributes to developing an eco-friendly culture by influencing employee green behavior. This study intends to examine the role of green human resource management on voluntary and innovative work eco-friendly behavior using the mediating effect of environmental knowledge. This study examined the direct relationship between Green human resource management practices (recruitment, training and development, compensation, performance appraisal, and employee involvement) and green employee behavior (voluntary and green innovative work behavior). This addresses the growing environmental challenges and the need for sustainable business practices. In order to promote environmentally conscious behavior at work, employers can benefit from the study's implications.METHODS: This study evaluated how environmental knowledge mediates the connection between the green human resource management practices and environmental behavior. Data was drawn from 15 firms in the Indian service sector. To analyze a quantified data set collected through a survey method using structured questionnaire and sent to all respondents through Google forms online survey by using simple random sampling technique. All analyses were conducted using "Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling.FINDINGS: The analysis showed that green human resource management practices positively affect employee green behavior. Specifically, the results indicate that green recruitment, compensation, and employee involvement were positively related to one dimension of employee green behavior (green innovative work behavior). Green Performance appraisal was also found to affect green voluntary behavior positively. The path coefficients were positive, when the model’s path coefficients (β) and t-statistics were used to evaluate the relationship between the independent and dependent variables, t- value should greater than 1.96 and p value should be greater than 0.05, in this study the following hypotheses are statistically significant (H1c: β=0.392, P<0:000; H2a: β=-0.391, P<0.044; H2d: β=0.348, P<0.000; H2e: β=0.255, P<0:001; H3b: β=-0.297, P<0.000; H3de: β=0.239, P=0.049; H3e: β=0.545, P=0.000).CONCLUSION: This study examined how employees' environmental knowledge can affect their employee green behavior through green human resource management practices. Environmental knowledge cannot mediate the association between a few green human resources management practices and Employee green behavior, according to the outcomes of the study. Effective green HRM strategies can influence employees' green knowledge, affecting their employee green behavior. The significance of green human resource management in greening businesses, especially in the service sector, is highlighted, especially in an emerging country like India. This research presents an overview of the study's findings, limitations, and implications.
       
  • The impact of implementing green human resources practices on employee
           engagement sustainability

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Malaysia's food and beverage industry provides a diverse range of regional and global cuisines, reflecting the country's diverse population. Profit, the development of new products, customer and employee satisfaction, and the sustainability of employee engagement have an impact on an organization's productivity. Positive attitudes towards green human resources management—which encompasses green hiring and selection, green training and development, and green remuneration and reward—are a sign of engaged employees. Businesses in this industry found it difficult to retain employees due to insufficient green hiring and selection procedures, inadequate training and development programs, and insufficient compensation and benefits. This research examines the relationship between green training and development, green recruitment and selection, and green compensation and reward for employee engagement and sustainability in the Malaysian food and beverage industry.METHODS: For this investigation, the quantitative method was used to analyze information using IBM SPSS software version 26. The objective was to improve the industry's efficient functioning for long-term growth. A total of 210 surveys were distributed to Klang Valley workers in this industry using convenience sampling and a non-probability sampling approach. Taro Yamane's approach was used to calculate the sample size. Convenience sampling is a non-probability sampling technique where sample units are selected based on their accessibility to the researcher.FINDINGS: As a result, all three variables - green training and development, green recruitment and selection, and green compensation and reward - have a positive and significant relationship with employee engagement sustainability. The hypotheses have been accepted with a p-value ranging from 0.000 to 0.236. In the case of hypothesis 1, there is a positive correlation (r = 0.760, p ≤ 0.01) between green training and development and employee engagement sustainability. Similarly, hypothesis 2 shows a positive correlation with a significant p-value of 0.236 between green recruitment and selection and employee engagement sustainability. Hypothesis 3 also indicates a significant correlation (r = 0.762, p ≤ 0.01) between green compensation and reward and employee engagement sustainability.CONCLUSION: The study provides empirical evidence and conceptual proof that the establishment and management of a fund designed to promote the development of human resources within a specific jurisdiction are governed by the Pembangunan Sumber Manusia Berhad Act of 2001. The interaction between this act and Green Human Resource Management may differ depending on the specific laws and policies of a country or region. Organizations can utilize funds from the Human Resource Development Corps to carry out projects related to Green Human Resource Management, such as eco-friendly training and development courses. Green Human Resource Management seeks to support environmental responsibility and sustainability initiatives.
       
  • Lessons learned from urban crisis management system in COVID-19 pandemic
           using social network analysis

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Crises of high uncertainty and complexity provoke discussion about new requirements of crisis management systems, which is of utmost importance in developing a cooperative environment and providing effective responses. This study aims to analyze the cooperative system of Tehran Municipality departments involved in crisis management of the COVID-19 pandemic, who are called actors afterward, and thereby presents the lessons learned through this pandemic.METHODS: The Social network analysis has been applied in this research to analyze the collaboration system. Accordingly, the crisis management actions taken by Tehran Municipality is first explored and, 38 actors and 11 areas of knowledge are identified. The two-dimensional matrix of actors-actions and the cooperative system of the actors are then analyzed based on the indicators of degree and betweenness centrality in UCINET and NetDraw software to investigate the position of the actors' tacit knowledge power in the cooperative network.FINDINGS: The actors’ cooperative system generally has high density and coherence; however, it seems that the position of some actors must be strengthened within the structure of the crisis management in Tehran Municipality. The results of degree centrality index identified 7 actors with higher degree centrality (20% of total actors), and 7 actors with lower degree centrality (20% of total actors). Moreover, the betweenness centrality of the network of actors is analyzed to find the highest and lowest betweenness power in the cooperative network. Afterward, a series of recommendations are proposed based on a designed systematic intervention. Moreover, a cooperative system of pandemic crisis management would be developed based on the key actors’ experiences and the lessons learned from failures.  CONCLUSION: Existing knowledge presents a valuable prospect for policy-makers in urban crisis management to not only establish an organizational cooperative system but also capitalize on the insights gained and contemplate pragmatic collective measures to enhance urban resilience in the face of pandemic crises.
       
  • Human resource analytics: a novel approach to bridge the gap between human
           resource functions and organizational performance

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Human resource analytics played a vital role in human resource practices like training, selection and performance management and other function of human resource management. The objective of this study is to identify the major challenges by understanding when, how and why human resource analytics leads to enhancement of performance of organization and unveil the methods that increase organization performances. The aim of stud is identifying the types of human resource decisions that can benefit from analytics and understanding the challenges and opportunities associated with incorporating data into decision-making. Impact on human resource functions: examine the specific areas within human resource management where analytics can have a significant impact. This may involve studying talent acquisition, employee engagement, performance management, training and development, and other human resource functions to assess how data-driven approaches can enhance efficiency and effectiveness. METHODS: The present study is mainly based on the primary data which is collected from human resource management personal of top 10 private life insurance company is considered for data collection of research. The data were collected from 194 employees of the human resource department. Quantitative methods are used to examine primary data gathered from the companies. The data is collected through a questionnaire-based survey. The questionnaires were distributed to the target population, it is a closed questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis and t-test were applied to analyze the data. The statistical package for the social sciences software was used to process the data. Validity and reliability test along with one sample t-test, independent sample t-test are conducted in this research. FINDINGS: The study found that the benefits of human resource analytics such as quick and reliable information processing, helping managers to draw meaningful patterns in the data, deeper insights in the employee data. Human resource analytics on organizational performance, multiple regressions were applied. The study found that the model explained 59% of the variance (R square = .593). The digitalization of human resource functions refers to the process of leveraging technology and digital tools to automate, streamline, and enhance various human resource processes and activities. It involves using digital platforms, software applications, and data-driven approaches to improve efficiency, accuracy, and effectiveness in managing human resources. Digitizing human resource processes reduces complexity within the department while also improving administrative quality and human resource flexibility. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated the importance of these fast decision making, better and improvement in the quality of decision-making significantly affects the human resource organizational performance and human resource functions. The study is helpful for human resource professionals to concentrate more on duties that are relevant to their work. In terms of efficiency, it is found that digitizing human resource procedures leads to an increase in administrative quality and human resource flexibility, as well as a decrease in bureaucracy within the function. Digitalization is a tool that speeds up the communication process while lowering costs, allowing companies to be more productive and perform more effectively and efficiently.
       
  • Improvement of implementation processes of corporate environmental
           responsibility in conditions of urbanization

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: During the disclosure of the conceptual foundations of the environmental responsibility implementation in the functioning of corporations, the need to implement such approaches to conducting business activities that will provide rational usage of nature and balanced development of the national economy in accordance with the concept of sustainable development, where economic interests will be combined with ecological and social one, was identified.METHODS: On the basis of mathematical modeling methods and the developed algorithm, proposals regarding the implementation of economic forms of corporate environmental responsibility are substantiated. In particular, the author proposed a methodology for determining the integral indicator, which in turn makes it possible to calculate the level of corporative environmental responsibility.FINDING: In general, only 30-40% of corporations in Ukraine are environmentally responsible. In 2022, the share of implemented quality management and environmental protection certification systems among environmentally responsible corporations was 67%. The following indicators have the most significant positive influence on the change in the implementation level of corporate environmental responsibility: the number of certified quality management and environmental protection systems by Ukrainian corporations and the amount of current corporations’ expenditures on environmental protection.CONCLUSION: It has been suggested to stimulate the formation of corporate environmental responsibility system at the national level by developing and using effective financial and economic tools. This will make it possible to level the capabilities of corporations, introduce proven international standards and principles of environmental responsibility, and bring the national economy to the path of sustainable development.
       
  • Governance, ease of living, and citizens’ perception: Components for
           quality-of-life assessment in mid-sized smart cities

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Smart cities are technology-driven urban agglomerations. Sustainability, competitiveness, and quality of life are the three cardinal principles for smart cities. The available studies specific to smart cities are related to smart technologies, innovations, smart infrastructure, etc., and limited studies are conducted from citizens’ perspectives. The present study aims to assess the impact of governance, general well-being, also called ease of living of citizens, and citizens’ perception of smart cities on their quality of life in mid-sized smart cities of India. The innovation and novelty of present study is that it attempts to fill the research gap in studies on smart cities by adopting the citizen-centric approach rather than infrastructure and technology-centric approach in developing countries.  METHODOLOGY: Three Indian mid-sized smart cities, Pune, Nagpur, and Indore were identified for the study. For the purpose of this study, a few hypotheses were developed and a structured questionnaire was prepared from the literature review. The data was collected from Pune, Nagpur, and Indore smart cities and it was analyzed by performing factorial analysis and Structural Equation Modelling using appropriate statistical package software.FINDINGS: The findings from the statistical analysis validated the hypotheses. The results of the study indicate a strong positive impact of citizens’ perception of smart cities on quality of life (Standardized Estimates = 0.66) while governance (Standardized Estimates = 0.11) and ease of living (SE=0.46) presented low to medium impact relationship with citizens’ quality of life.CONCLUSION: The findings of this study concludes that citizens’ perception has highest influence on their quality of life. Considering these findings in the context of mid-sized smart cities, this study significantly contributes in existing research on tools and indicators of quality-of-life assessment in urban centers specifically in developing countries. This research article attempts to provide a substantial theoretical and practical contribution to urban studies.
       
  • Assessing user’s satisfaction in innovation centers with industrial
           heritage renovation

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adaptive reuse of heritage buildings is important because of their impact on preserving the city's identity and urban integrity, as well as their hidden capabilities and values. In recent years, one of the adaptive reuse projects in existing factories around the world and also in Iran is transforming them into innovation centers. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the effective indicators of designing innovation centers and adapting the industrial heritage buildings to these criteria. This study aims to investigate and prioritize the criteria and indicators of designing innovation centers with industrial heritage renovation.METHODS: The current study is performed in two phases. First, the related literature was studied and criteria regarding industrial heritage and innovation centers were distinguished. In the next phase, post-occupancy evaluation of two cases of innovation centers in Tehran and Mashhad (Azadi innovation factory and Mashhad innovation factory) was carried out and the results were gained by applying structural equation modeling method using SmartPLS software. Thus, users’ satisfaction level of these criteria and the importance of each criterion from the users' point of view were investigated.FINDINGS: The results revealed that, for designing innovation centers in industrial heritage sites, four main criteria such as environment, technology and energy, aesthetics and socio-cultural could be discussed. According to the presented structural equation modeling, according to users’ opinion, environment criteria with Path coefficients of 0.4 in both cases is the most important factor while technology criteria with Path coefficients of 0.3 ranks after it. The factor loadings show that attention should be paid to the appropriate dimensions of work spaces (0.8), flexible and appropriate furniture (0.7-0.9), and providing service areas (0.8). Also, creating a sense of place and increasing productivity and improving social interactions were very important from the users' point of view while designing adaptively reused heritage as innovation centers.CONCLUSION: For designing innovation centers the environment criteria are more important in users’ opinion and more attention should be paid to greenery, space and mass and access to the complex. The environmental comfort factors for users are also of high importance and the users’ satisfaction level reveals that in these two cases users are almost satisfied with the design.
       
  • Designing star employee retention model

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Star Employees are high performers who have little chance of staying with an organization unless they can get more value than what they have created. Identifying and keeping star employees is the concern of many organizations today. This research seeks to identify the factors that Retention organizational stars. METHOD: This research was conducted using a mixed method. First, using the qualitative method of content analysis, the dimensions of the star employee model and their retention techniques were identified, and then confirmed by the structural equation modeling method of the star employee model, and finally, after identifying the star employees, the retention techniques was extracted using the fuzzy Delphi technique. The statistical population of this study consists of Petroleum engineering and development company managers and their subordinate Star employees. To collect data, the purposeful sampling method was used with 8 selected experts through a questionnaire in person. FINDINGS: Research findings showed that the Star employees are people with six characteristics: performance (β = 0.865, p < 0.01), visibility (β = 0.737, p < 0.01), social capital (β = 0.537, p < 0.01), status (β = 0.891, p < 0.01), creativity (β = 0.905, p < 0.01) and rareness and inimitability (β = 0.913, p < 0.01). Also, 16 indicators were identified as the retention factors of Star employees by fuzzy Delphi method. These factors were classified in the form of two dimensions "focus on the individual/organization" and "short-term/long-term time". CONCLUSION: Based on the research results, in order to retention star employees, organizations should use different techniques: job design in such a way that there is freedom of action, work independence and flexibility, creating a flexible and creative work environment, creating a flexible and agile organizational structure and to benefit from a learning organization with a suitable social position, so that they can benefit from their capabilities and capacities in realizing organizational goals.
       
  • Development of accounting information system quality in local government:
           mediating role of accounting competency

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Several investigations were previously conducted on the crucial role of Accounting Information System in enhancing organizational performance and accountability. However, there is a limited amount of knowledge regarding the factors that influence the quality of Accounting information system, especially when considering their application in local government settings in developing countries. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the factors determining Accounting information system quality in local government of Indonesia, including availability and functions of network, hardware, and software. The mediating role of accounting competency was also explored using resource orchestration theory.METHODS: This study adopted a questionnaire survey method and conducted statistical hypothesis testing using Structural Equation Modelling-Partial Least Square (SEM-PLS) method. The data were obtained from local government organization staff in Yogyakarta Special Region, selected based on involvement in using software.FINDINGS: The results showed that availability and functions of network and software, as well as accounting competency, were positively correlated with Accounting information system quality, with p-values of 0.000, 0.023, and 0.000, respectively. Meanwhile, availability and functions of hardware did not show a significant correlation, as evidenced by p-value of 0.375. Accounting competency significantly mediated the relationship between availability and functions of network, software, and Accounting information system quality, with p-values of 0.032 and 0.001, respectively. Moreover, Adj. R2 was 0.467 (medium level), and the SRMR value assessed the model fit at 0.079 (good model fit).CONCLUSION: This study contributed a novel framework related to the determinants of improving Accounting information system quality in local government setting and addressed the debate surrounding the role of accounting competency in the system development. Moreover, there were emphases on the significant mediating role of accounting competency as a prerequisite for other determinants (availability and functions of network, hardware, and software) to promote better Accounting information system quality.
       
  • Analysis of the challenge of urban management from the viewpoint of
           experts and executive managers

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The importance of integrated urban management has become increasingly evident in today's world, particularly for large cities facing physical, spatial, and demographic growth and complexity. In Iran, the lack of effective citizen participation and integrated management has posed a significant challenge to the urban management system. To address this issue, this research focuses on the role of citizens and urban activists in various levels of Tehran metropolis management, including policy making, planning, supervision, and control. It also evaluates the legislative and executive layers to emphasize their importance in achieving effective urban management.METHODS: The present study adopts a qualitative research design, with a practical orientation in terms of its objectives, and an analytical-exploratory approach for data collection. The study focuses on experts and city managers as the statistical population of interest. To gather data, a questionnaire was developed and distributed among the target community. The reliability of the questionnaire was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, which yielded a high value of 0.97. Data analysis involved the use of descriptive statistics, including frequency, frequency percentage, mean, and standard deviation, as well as inferential statistics, specifically the one-sample t-test. The statistical analysis was conducted using the SPSS software package.FINDINGS: According to the findings, 31.4% of the responses identified the citizens and 25.7% of the responses identified the municipality as the owner of the city. 68.6% of the answers have identified the municipality as the manager of Tehran city. Also, 80% of the respondents said that management fragmentation is the biggest challenge of urban development in Iran. The most influential institutions in the process of urban management are Tehran Municipality at the policy-making level, self-governing experts and researchers at the planning level, the Tehran Islamic Council at the monitoring and control level, the Islamic Council at the legislative level and Tehran Municipality at the executive level, while the citizens are the last.CONCLUSION: The present urban management approach faces significant obstacles in the form of fragmentation and inadequate coordination among decision-making entities. These challenges result in disarray, duplication of efforts, and squandering of resources. Consequently, the absence of transparency and lucidity in the roles of city proprietors and managers, coupled with the lack of precise delineations for the engagement of organizations, individuals, and institutions in the urban management process, could impede the attainment of sustainable development objectives and curtail the capacity of civil society to comprehend and partake in effective urban governance.
       
  • Analyzing spatiotemporal changes in urban green spaces' ecosystem service
           value and resilience

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Urban ecosystem services are provided by a multitude of habitats, including green and water spaces. Such services are commonly under the control of heavy demand raised by the large number of beneficiaries. In this context, urban green spaces viz. parks and gardens supply these services for city residents. From this perspective, this study is to analyze the spatiotemporal changes in the ecosystem servicevalue of urban green spaces in Districts 1 and 14 (out of 22) of Tehran Municipality, Tehran, Iran. The level of resilience (namely, capacity and adaptability) of these districts, once confronted with climate change and environmental degradation, particularly carbon sequestration, is then investigated. As an innovation, the current study ultimately assesses the ecosystem services value of urban green spaces with higher accuracy to exert more actions to improve these spaces.METHODS: This library-based documentation study utilized spatiotemporal modeling with reference to software packages and field visits. In the first step, remote sensing was applied to create land-use maps using ENVI 5.3 software package and its formulas, algorithms, and extensions. In the second step, the InVEST software and model were used to model carbon sequestration in selected districts. To assess carbon sequestration and its changes over time, land-cover maps were generated for three 10-year periods (2003, 2013, and 2023) with 30 m accuracy via Landsat satellite-based program. The maps were classified in ENVI 5.3, and the net carbon sequestration in land, along with the market size of carbon sequestration, was estimated using the InVEST model, incorporating land-use maps, land-cover types, and carbon sequestration in reservoirs. Organic carbon content was determined based on other carbon reservoirs, previous surveys, and available data. Each carbon reservoir unit was valued in dollars, and discount rates and annual changes in carbon value were calculated based on global and local conditions surveys.RESULTS: The study results obtained from land-cover/use maps produced during 2003, 2013, and 2023 in the selected districts, demonstrated a diminishing trend of green spaces and barren lands, while the area of ​​built land has increased over time. The numerous changes in land use in the company of construction in green spaces and barren lands in District 1 from 2003 to 2013 had further led to 191401608 tons of emission, including 179114669 tons of carbon, valued 49056267 and 4636422 million Dollars, respectively. In District 14, the emission during 2003-2023 was also equal to 18.3644 tons of carbon, and that was 3444.14 tons of carbon for the period of 2013-2023, worth 1873871 and 1749769 thousand Dollars, in that order.CONCLUSION: Indiscriminate construction and development of built-up areas in Tehran have undermined green spaces and barren lands, negating the benefits of green infrastructure efforts. This has resulted in a reduction in urban green spaces, hampering their capacity for carbon absorption and sequestration. Consequently, reduced carbon deposition will contribute to higher temperatures, diminishing the resilience of these urban areas.
       
  • Urban development scenarios on flood peak discharge in an arid urban
           watershed using the WinTR-55 hydrologic model

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Land use change can directly affect rainfall-runoff relationships. The change in land use is an essential factor in runoff production. This research evaluated the effect of urban development scenarios of land use change on runoff in Gonabad city of Iran. The innovation and importance of this work are to determine which land use changes have the greatest impact on the flood discharge in this urban area. Also, determine how much the minimum development of urban green space is to control and reduce peak flood discharge in this city that is located in a dry area.METHODS: The effect of urban development scenarios on runoff was evaluated by the WinTR-55 model in 5 sub-basins of Gonabad city. The main data required for inputting to the WinTR-55 model are sub-area and reach characteristics, curve number, and storm data. The storm data in TR-55 are 24-hour rainfall amounts in a return period of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 years. The changes in the maximum flood discharge and flow hydrograph in each sub-area and return period were calculated by the WinTR-55 model under existing land use conditions and 9 scenarios of urban development.FINDINGS: The greatest increase in runoff production was related to the conversion of abandoned fallow and agricultural lands to residential. Also, the most effective increase or decrease of land cover change in peak flow discharge and total flow volume was at the 2-year return period. The decreased effect of the development of green spaces and urban gardens on peak flow discharge and total flow volume was seen only if their development was more than 50%. The average maximum decrease in peak discharge and total flow volume was 22.7% and 16.1%, respectively. While the average maximum increase in peak discharge and total flow volume was 84.4% and 53.9%, respectively.CONCLUSION: The effect of increasing green spaces and urban gardens on the reduction of peak discharge and volume of runoff was also evident in the study area. Land management and preventing the conversion of permeable land uses such as agricultural, gardening, fallow lands, and rangeland will be much simpler and less costly. Urban land use management to prevent urban floods requires the expansion of permeable surfaces, especially green spaces, and urban gardens. These are the important novelty of this research that can be beneficial for future urban developments of Gonabad city and its flood management activities.
       
  • An elucidation of comparative political ecology in urban areas regarding
           the allocation of urban green infrastructure

    • Abstract: BACKGROUNS AND OBJECTIVES: As an integral component of urban space, green space assumes a pivotal role in the purification and filtration of air, provision of recreational opportunities, and augmentation of the aesthetic allure of the urban landscape. In contemporary urban settings, the significance of urban green spaces is widely acknowledged and embraced as an indispensable facet of the city. The consequences of urban expansion and the resulting environmental problems have indefinitely made the presence of green spaces and their proper distribution essential. Meanwhile, it is necessary to pay attention to achieving spatial balance in the distribution of urban parks, as they are an important component of urban green spaces, particularly in large cities. The population in Karaj city in Iran, has experienced an excessive increase, particularly in the last three decades. This has resulted in the rapid expansion of urban areas the destruction of the natural landscape and the structural pattern of both natural and artificial ecosystems. The city of Karaj, formerly known as Baghshahr, has transformed into a metropolis, with only a few traces of its once abundant urban green spaces remaining. This research aims to evaluate the demand for green space and the distribution capacity among the districts of 3 and 8 of Karaj city. The objective of the current study is to provide solutions based on spatial justice to increase the use of green space.METHODS: The current research utilizes a combination of descriptive-analytical and critical methods, as well as documentary and survey methods. To analyze and evaluate the condition of green spaces and their mapping, information, and data from relevant organizations and satellite images have been utilized within specific spatial-temporal scales and GIS software.Results: The results showed that the highest weight obtained was related to participation, with a weight of 0.118. This was followed by social capital, with a weight of 0.116 percent. The lowest weight was related to public services, with a weight of 0.040.CONCLUSION: District 3 has more green space than District 8 due to the presence of gardens and trees planted by the municipality on the outskirts of the district. Additionally, the political ecology in these neighborhoods has not been impacted by District 3. However, Jahanshahr and Molana neighborhoods in District 8 have a high per capita population due to their small population and large areas of parks. Additionally, the presence of Family, fruit, Fateh and small Iran Gardens, contribute to the high population density in these neighborhoods. However other areas in the district experience a significant shortage of urban green spaces and are affected by the influence of political ecology at both the neighborhood and regional levels.
       
  • Servant leadership and work engagement: Exploring the mediation role of
           affective commitment and job satisfaction

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: As organizations seek effective ways to lead in a dynamic world, servant leadership will likely remain relevant. Servant leaders focus on serving others and nurturing the growth of employees to create positive work environments. However, there still exists a gap in the literature on the link between servant leadership and work engagement. Thus, this study aims to investigate the relation between servant leadership and work engagement by exploring the mediating role of affective commitment and job satisfaction.METHODS: Using a purposive sampling process, self-administered questionnaires are distributed to 154 employees working in Central Java – Indonesia public health institution from March to June 2023. Partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) with SmartPLS 3.0 software is utilized to analyze the data.FINDINGS: The results indicate that servant leadership has a significant direct effect on affective commitment (β = 0.321, t-statistic = 3.226, p < 0.05) and job satisfaction (β = 0.429, t-statistic = 5.556, p < 0.05). Furthermore, it is found that affective commitment (β = 0.527, t-statistic = 8.518, p < 0.05) and job satisfaction (β = 0.306, t-statistic = 4.275, p < 0.05) significantly affect work engagement. This study, upon further investigation, reveals that affective commitment (β = 0.170, t-statistic = 3.079, p < 0.05) and job satisfaction (β = 0.131, t-statistic = 3.179, p < 0.05) significantly mediate the relationship between servant leadership and work engagement.CONCLUSION: The results from PLS-SEM analysis reveal no direct relationship between servant leadership and work engagement. Additionally, the roles of affective commitment and job satisfaction are found to mediate the relationship between servant leadership and work engagement of employees in public health institution. When employees are satisfied and feel emotionally connected to their leader and organization, they are more likely to find their work meaningful and enjoyable, leading to higher levels of work engagement.
       
 
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