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International Journal of Human Capital in Urban Management
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2476-4698 - ISSN (Online) 2476-4701
Published by Sinaweb Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Investigation of spatial-physical development model based on spatial
           analysis, GIS and Holdern entropy model

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Irregular and unplanned development of cities has led to some difficulties with the natural environment and human well-being reflected in the inappropriate spatial structure. Perception of physical-spatial pattern leads to the invention of appropriate policies to equitable distribution of services in urban areas and achievement of balanced development. This study aims to analyze the physical-spatial pattern of the Mashhad City from 1986 to 2016 conducted based on GIS data of the census blocks of Mashhad.METHODS: The current study was performed using descriptive-analytical method. In order to achieve that, spatial statistics tools including Moran coefficient, hotspots and directional distribution (standard deviational ellipse) have been used on ArcGIS PRO 2.5 software as well as Holdren model. Population is one of the prominent variables affecting growth and physical-spatial development of the city, therefore, the population has been considered as an indicator in this research.FINDINGS: The obtained values of the Moran Index (1986=0.13, 1996=0.14, 2006=0.15, and 2016=0.15) represented that the population pattern of the city was clustered, compact and continuous. Likewise, Hotspots revealed high population density in the continuous area from east to northwest in addition to the neighborhoods around the Vakil Abad highway. Standard deviational ellipse of the population illustrated that the population distribution was heading to the northwest. Applying Holdren model and data analysis showed that Mashhad experienced the horizontal and sprawl growth.CONCLUSION: Obtaining balanced future development and avoiding unplanned encroachment of the city boundary are integral issues. As a result, the current and legal city limit must be maintained and inner development and compact pattern must be implemented.
  • The relationship between technology and economic growth: The moderating
           role of human capital

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Most economists believe that the lack of investment in manpower is the cause of low economic growth in developing countries, and as long as these countries do not use their knowledge to improve their professional skills, the return on labor and capital will remain at a low level. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of human capital on the relationship between technological advances and economic growth in Southwest Asia within 2000 and 2018. For this purpose, the growth of internet economy in the world and the development of education for strengthening the human capital and its effect on the world economic growth were studied.METHODS: The technological advances were assessed using two Components of the number of… internet users …and the number of mobile subscribers. The scope of this research is from 2000 to 2018.The Generalized Movement Method and the EViews 10.0 software were used to test the research hypothesis through model.FINDINGS: The first model showed that the significant effect of human capital on the relationship between internet and economic growth. In this model, the internet coefficient was equal to 0.357, implying that the economic growth in the studied countries would increase at a rate of 0.0357 units with the increase of the internet coefficient by one unit. Moreover, the human capital coefficient was equal to 0.0618, implying that the economic growth in the intended countries would be improve by 0.06 units with the increase of the human capital coefficient by one unit. The second model revealed the significant relationship between mobile phones and economic growth in the countries with a higher human capital involving the educated employed people. This was consistent with the results of self-correlation of fixed effects.CONCLUSION: According to the results, it was concluded that human capital would moderate the relationship between internet and economic growth. Moreover, it was confirmed that the effect of education on the relationship between mobile phones and economic growth was significant.
  • Determinants of technical inefficiency in solid waste collection service

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Developing countries have been experiencing a rapid increase in their population. This comes in hand with more human activity and hence increased solid waste generation as one of the by-products. The continuous surge in solid waste generation is a challenge to these countries. Thus the need to make conducive decisions for solid waste management. To achieve this, in 2009, the Government of Tanzania privatized solid waste management services and enacted the Environmental Regulations Law. However, only 20% of solid waste generated in urban Tanzania is collected but instead dumped in landfills. In Morogoro, one of the urban centers in Tanzania, municipal officials can only collect and dispose in landfills less than 35% of the 200 tons of solid waste generated per day. This raises concerns about the technical efficiency of solid waste management and specifically solid waste collection services in Morogoro municipality. The purpose of this study is to measure technical efficiency and analyze the determinants of technical inefficiency for solid waste collection services in Morogoro municipality.METHODS: Primary data was collected using a structured questionnaire with both open-ended and closed-ended questions. Morogoro municipality has a population of 290 waste management agents from whom a sample of 201 was selected using cluster and purposive sampling methods. A stochastic frontier approach was used to measure technical efficiency and analyze the factors determining technical inefficiency. STATA 14 software was used for model estimation and tests. .FINDINGS: Results show that technical efficiency for solid waste collection services in Morogoro Municipality is 81.56% that is below the technical efficiency threshold of 95%. Thus solid waste collection services in Morogoro municipality are inefficient. In addition, age of the waste management agent, number of houses participating in waste collection, and number of waste collection tools belonging to the waste management agents are significant determinants of technical inefficiency.CONCLUSION: Results suggest an improvement in solid waste collection through increased wide service coverage. Increased community participation is a necessity and thus mass awareness campaigns are unavoidable.  It is appropriate to procurement enough tools and labor force by the solid waste collection agents. Morogoro municipal authority should provide a stern law enforcement process.
  • Providing a lean human resources management model

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Quick advancement of technology, rising risks, globalization, and expectations for privatization are among the environmental characteristics that current organizations are facing. To be successful in this setting, lean human resources provide a competitive advantage, which its implementation results in the continuous removal of wastes (obstacles) and the high-quality and low-cost providing of services. Therefore, the objective of the current study is to Evaluation of lean human resource management model in the Islamic Council of Tehran. Tehran's City Council as a service organization must reform the structure of Human Resource to increase the skills of employee, so this study aimed to changing the approach of Human Resource Management to Lean and increasing the productivity. METHODS: The present study uses a quantitative approach. This article has a “descriptive-correlational” methodology of the type of “analysis of variance-covariance matrix”. In other words, the relationship between variables is analyzed based on the purpose of the research. The survey was carried out in the form of a desk and field research. The research model was extracted via analysis and interpretation of the interviews with the experts of the Islamic City Council of Tehran by employing the thematic analysis method and four rounds of the Delphi technique. Eventually, the measurement model and the structural model to assess the relationships between variables, as well as confirm the developed model, were examined utilizing the data gained from the Islamic City Council of Tehran.FINDINGS: On the basis of the findings achieved from the structural equation modeling, the items "Performance Appraisal" with a factor loading of 0.89, "Employment" with a factor loading of 0.91, "Improvement" with a factor loading of 0.77, "Remuneration" with a factor loading of 0.87, "Supply" with a factor loading of 0.92, "Compensation System (Benefits and Rewards)" with a factor loading of 0.84, "Flow" with a factor loading of 0.76, "Relationships" with a factor loading of 0.79, and "Maintenance" with a factor loading of 0.86 explain the latent variable of the "lean human resource management model in the Islamic City Council of Tehran".CONCLUSION: Results of this investigation have presented a comprehensive model for the evaluation of the lean human resources management in Tehran's City Council that could be exploited by industrialists and scholars.NOVELTY AND ORGINALITY: The LHRM model has not been designed and localized for Tehran's City Council up to now. Therefore, this research enhances the existing knowledge about LHRM.
  • Is there a connection between tariffs and economic growth' A
           computable general equilibrium analysis based on the Global Trade Analysis
           Project model

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tariff policy has a significant impact on a country's economic progress. The primary objective of this paper was to describe the construction of the Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model and then analyze the economic impacts among simulated countries by introducing policy shocks like increases and decreases in tariffs.   METHODS: Tariff reductions resulted in an increase in intraregional and interregional trade, which is expected to spur long-term investment and economic growth. To examine the economic implications in multiple ways, this article initially used a tariff removal scenario and subsequently increased the tariff. The relationship between production, activity, elements, and other economic sectors of regions was depicted in this paper using a computational general equilibrium model based on the global trade analysis project model.      FINDINGS: The simulation resulted in a lower tariff having a beneficial influence on Korea's economic growth compared to other countries. In the agricultural and processed food sectors, Korea's trade balance improved dramatically, with exports and imports continuing high, while exports and imports in the manufacturing and service sectors declined. In contrast to other countries, Korea's processed food output surged by 198%. Finally, in comparison to other countries, Korea's welfare grew by $ US currency 17.56 billion. On the other hand, the trade balance between China and the United States fell by $US currency 6.25 billion and $US currency 7.95 billion, respectively. Korea's trade balance increased considerably, rising by $ 21.78 billion in US currency. Korea's GDP fell by about 0.8%, while China's dropped by nearly 0.3%. Other countries' gross domestic product changed slightly. CONCLUSION: The influence of various tariff policies on countries is examined in this research paper. Computational general equilibrium analysis of tariff policies in the agriculture, processed food, infrastructure, manufacturing, and service sectors has gotten little attention in the past, so this paper used the Global trade analysis project model to try to fill in the gaps and find the benefits of mutual economic policy among countries. 
  • Identify and prioritize the factors affecting fiscal discipline in

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Global events in recent months, such as the (COVID-19) pandemic, have put pressures on the public budget Especially in municipalities that have made it more difficult to understand and measure. Meanwhile, Fiscal discipline as one of the most basic concepts of optimal management of resources and expenditures requires purposeful research and in this regard, the present study was conducted to identify and ranking the factors affecting the fiscal discipline of Municipalities to improve financial aspects of urban management.METHODS: In this research, the mixed exploratory approach has been used so that the qualitative method has played an exploratory role and the quantitative method has played a confirmatory role. Also, in the qualitative stage, the Meta-Synthesis Method and in the quantitative stage, the Shannon entropy method have been used to ranking the factors.FINDINGS: By reviewing 34 studies out of 114 initial studies, researchers identified 14 indicators and 110 codes as factors affecting the Fiscal discipline of Municipalities mentioned in various studies during the years 2000 to early 2021; Identified and categorized in the form of four balanced scorecard (BSC) perspectives.CONCLUSION: The results of this research, in addition to the richness of the literature on the concept of fiscal discipline, assist municipalities in managing fiscal discipline and supervisory institutions in assessments by providing a categorized checklist of factors.
  • Leadership style and company performance in the manufacturing industry

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Leadership styles will have different effects on company performance, so many literatures in China study the relationship between leadership styles and company performance in manufacturing. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between leadership styles and company performance in Chinese manufacturing. As a result of ineffective management in leading employees, China is currently experiencing poor financial and marketing performance, which has resulted in poor business operations and lower productivity, both of which have a direct impact on the company's performance in China's manufacturing industry. METHODS: This study adopts quantitative research method to collect data of factors affecting company performance through questionnaires, the sampling technique is snowball sampling. A total of 450 questionnaires were sent out to the respondents, and a total of 384 questionnaires were returned. Among them, 290 questionnaires were usable. A preliminary study was conducted to ensure that the adjusted questionnaire items were appropriate and valid for the study. In actual data collection, 290 responses were successfully collected in this study, with a response rate of 65%. The SPSS software was utilized to analyze the data in this study. FINDINGS: Based on the quantitative data analysis, the findings found that dictatorial leadership style paternalistic leadership style, autocratic leadership style, and laissez-faire leadership style insignificantly correlated with company performance in China. Democratic leadership style significantly correlated with company performance in China. Further, research findings have been discussed in the discussion of results. CONCLUSION: These findings may provide the purpose of this study that characterize company performance, confirm leadership style in the Chinese manufacturing sector, and apply performance theory to further analyze the effect of leadership style. The Tannenbaum and Schmidt leadership styles should suggest that leadership behaviour varies along a continuum, with a level of follower participation and involvement in decision-making growing as leaders move away from the authoritarian extreme.
  • Designing and explaining the model of factors influencing the formation of
           a career path with a postmodern approach

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Rapid technological advances, widespread globalization advances, and the strong desire of people to change their career paths make the question of job and career path selection and decision making, and future predictions important today. Future work self is a new concept in the career path process that originates from the postmodern approach that has entered in the field of management in the last ten years and organizations that guide and manage individual career paths need to understand the factors that influence career path design. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of designing and explaining models of factors that influence the design of career paths by the postmodern approach. METHOD: This study is a mixed method (qualitative-quantitative) in terms of development goal. First, library methods, scientific texts and related articles, and internal and external research on the topic were reviewed, followed by qualitative interviews with the participation of 15 professors, experts and the middle management of Municipality of Tehran in the field of human resource management, psychology, career counseling and, which were selected by purposive sampling method, was performed. The data of this stage were collected with the help of semi-structured interviews and analyzed by the Thematic analysis method. The statistical population of the quantitative section included experts of human resources of the Municipality of Tehran, who were familiar with the subject of research, from which 94 people were selected by simple random method. The data of this stage were collected with the help of a questionnaire and analyzed using structural equation modeling. RESULTS: At the individual level, 38 keywords in the form of 9 Sub-themes and 3 Main-themes, which were: self-concept, job concern, personality, and at the environmental level, 46 keywords, in the form of 16 Sub-themes, and 6 Main-themes, which were: key personalities, family circumstances, educational conditions, community conditions, media and technology and political conditions were extracted from the interviews. Findings from double confirmatory factor analysis showed that the factor numbers are all greater than 0.4 and the significance of the relationship between indices, components and constituent dimensions has been confirmed and all items had a t-statistic greater than 1.96, so none of the items were removed from the model and in total, all coefficients were significant at the 95% level. And the study of model fit indices and the result of 0.573 showed a strong fit of the model. CONCLUSION: According to the results of this study, individual factors (self-concept, job concern and personality) and environmental factors (key personalities, family conditions, educational conditions, community conditions, media and technology and political conditions) that affect the formation of career path were identified and the effect of these factors was determined through the model.
  • Toward behavior-based placemaking: the evolution of place concept in urban
           design knowledge

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The concept of place as a multidimensional approach in the evolution of urban design concepts has always sought to improve the quality of urban environments and spaces. “Place” results from humans’ environmental experiences and cognition of space which is perceived through meaning in people’s minds within the interaction of humans and place. Placemaking is considered a participatory process and a practical approach for urban designers, which can be implemented by improving the physical quality of urban spaces. In urban design studies, several perspectives have been proposed regarding the structure of the place model. This paper aimed to examine the evolution of placemaking in urban design theories to propose a place model based on behavior. How and in what way behavior can contribute to the formation of place is the primary question of this research. In other words, what is the role of behaviors analysis and behavioral patterns in the formation of an urban place' METHODS:  Descriptive-analytical method is used to review the concept of place and its conceptual evolution to provide placemaking recommendations and suggestions based on the proposed place model. In the case study section, Studies have been done using behavioral observation tools such as place-based graphic maps, movement path tracing of individuals, and recording various behavioral patterns by time intervals at the Hafezieh intersection, Shiraz, Iran.FINDINGS: The results of analyzing behavioral maps of Hafezieh intersection and recommendations from global experiences regarding public life and behavioral studies revealed that the combination of four aspects of form, function, meaning, and ecosystem with emphasis on the specific role of behavioral studies could lead to flourishing placemaking.CONCLUSION: Paying attention to the role of behavior-based placemaking in recent urban thoughts can promote sustainable urban design and determine optimal policies for social interactions, communication, and the importance of human behaviors that define a thriving place and support its constant progress.
  • Direct and indirect analysis of contamination levels in lakes of two
           adjacent areas

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:  In the state of Florida there are more than 2.5 million acres of fresh water available; rivers, streams, springs, artificial canals, wetlands, and lakes. Polk and Osceola Counties are under a class III classification, which means that are considered recreational waters, and people can carry out fishing and/or swimming activities within the facility. Some of the problems these lakes face is eutrophication due to pollutants such as phosphorous, nitrogen, and growth of cyanobacteria, impacting directly the quality and public health. The aim of this analysis is evaluating the effect of the presence of Total phosphorus and Total nitrogen in the water quality, and an indirect analysis of cyanobacteria by the evaluation of Secchi Disk and Chlorophyll-a analysis, in order to identify statistically differences between two counties in Florida state, to contribute with a possible improvements and ecological buffer plan to be used to reduce pollution in the lakes of the state of Florida.METHODS: Based on this premise, it is intended to analyze secondary data on the quality of the water in the lakes of Polk and Osceola counties by evaluating the trophic status in each lake, and statistically evaluated using ANOVA, histograms and pareto analysis.FINDINGS: Results obtained determined that lakes from Osceola County are more contaminated that lakes from Polk County since it has three lakes in eutrophic status vs two lakes in eutrophic conditions at Polk County (from 52-69 for Osceola County and 42-59 for Polk County). Similar pattern is observed when evaluating histograms and pareto plots for each parameter between the counties. ANOVA test showed that F>F critical and p-value<α, demonstrating that there is difference between both counties.CONCLUSION: After the analysis was completed, it is recommended an evaluation by zone and improve water quality. It has been demonstrated that there is a need of new alternatives for the conservation and preservation of lakes in the state of Florida. Buffer zones are an alternative that can be very beneficial to conservation of lakes functioning also as a natural home for the flora and fauna. For the zone studied, it is recommended the use of Riparian buffers. These systems are known to improve and maintain water quality; at the same time protecting and improving fish and wildlife habitat.
  • Adsorption studies of Iodine removal by low-cost Bioinspired Mushuma and
           Mupane bark derived adsorbents for urban and rural wastewater reuse

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Water pollution and scarcity are becoming a serious challenge worldwide and methods of treating or recycling the wastewater are becoming expensive, especially in rural areas of least developed countries. An affordable wastewater recycling approach is imminent and should be cost-effective, using local materials to alleviate the water shortage and pollution challenges. The use of adsorbents from different biomass has been on the highway and tree barks are no exception for that matter. This research, therefore, intends to test the use of novel material’s capacity to remove Iodine from an aqueous solution under set conditions and use Bayesian statistics to validate the results as compared to the Frequentist approach.METHODS:  This study is qualitative and developmental research where Bayesian and Conventional statistics were applied to complimentarly validate the results.  Kinetic models, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy were used to characterize the novel adsorbent to check for its potential and capability in removing Iodine from water. Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) was then used to select the best model.FINDINGS: The findings demonstrated that the Bayesian approach was simultaneously applied with classical methods to compare their parameter estimation. Mupane biochar performed better than Mushuma, Pseudo-Second-Order model described both materials better with lower AICc values of 37.76 and 38.03 than other kinetic models respectively, indicating a chemisorption mechanism. Bayesian approach remarkably revealed slightly higher qt estimations of 40.712 and 41.639 mmol/g than conventional statistics with 40.01 and 40.29 mmol/g for Mushuma and Mupane biochar. Elovich model subsequently fit the data, henceforth demonstrating a heterogenous surface property with chemisorption phenomena. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy exhibited C (81.93 mol% and 86.91 mol %) and O (16.12 mol% and 11.49 mol%) for Mushuma and Mupane respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Material performances were insignificant however, Mupane marginally outperformed Mushuma bark.  However, further examination is required in determining the surface area, adsorption isotherms, and functional groups available. This African tree-bark biochar promised to be good adsorbents of wastewater contaminants and their kinetic mechanisms can be a benchmark to suggest their applications as potential candidates for environmental-ecosystem-protection and water re-use strategy, especially in rural and urban areas.
  • An investigation into vandalism and its effects on urban beauty

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Vandalism or intentional destruction of public property and belongings is one of the social hazards that always leads to huge jeopardy and damage to municipal facades, furniture, municipal spaces and distorts the beauty of the city. In this regard, the present study investigated vandalism and its impacts on urban beauty in the city of Chenaran.METHODS: The research methodology applied in this study was mixed (qualitative-quantitative). At the outset, the qualitative section was conducted in a semi-structured interview with 16 people who were graduates of geography, urban planning and sociology in 4 focus groups of 4 people. Following that, by applying the information of this section, the main examples and cases of vandalism (destructive vandalism and written vandalism), various types of vandalism (recreational, property, ideological and vindictive vandalism), the effects of urban beauty vandalism (destruction of facades, destruction of furniture and destruction of urban spaces) as well as factors affecting vandalism (individual and social) were identified. Analyzes were performed in NVIVO 7 software. Then, by using the findings of the qualitative section and theoretical studies, a questionnaire (Based on the Likert scale) was prepared and distributed among the sample size of the quantitative section (382 citizens of Chenaran). Questionnaire analysis was performed with Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis model in SPSS software.FINDINGS: The findings demonstrated that factors like socio-economic status, degree of socialization, feelings of injustice and discrimination, association with vandals and individual factors are influential in vandalism. The results of regression analysis also illustrated that 63% of the alterations in vandalism are as a result of the relationship between a linear combination of independent variables and the remaining 37% or "Coefficient of Non-Determination" is as a consequence of other factors which were not considered in this study. Feelings of injustice and discrimination (0.168) and association and communication (0.161) have a direct impact, but the socio-economic status (-0.166), the degree of socialization (-0.154) and individual factors (-0.145) have the opposite effect.CONCLUSION: Vandalism affects the beauty of the city in several ways, including feelings of abuse and discrimination with a value of 0.168 and then meetings and communication with a value of 0.161 in which factors such as alteration of people's notions, reconstruction and fixing damaged equipment and the participation of citizens are crucial.
  • Designing organizational trauma models in the sport organizations

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVS: The theory of organizational trauma or organizational crisis, is one of the theories to deal with organizational unrest. Some of these crises show signs of a traumatic experience. If not properly managed, the experience of mass harm appears to disappear under the surface behind the mask of silence, leading to dysfunctional tissue behavior. The aim of the present study is to design an organizational trauma model for Sports Organization in the Municipality of Tehran.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Survey methods are, mixed with exploratory approaches. Qualitative sampling were performed  using the view of 11 faculty / managers and statistical sampling in the snowball sampling method and  quantitative section, considering that  5 to 10 people are required for each item,  so 350 people were selected by stratified random sampling method. The means of collecting data for the qualitative part of the interview was semi-structured, in that the results of the interview were designed in the form of a questionnaire with three main components. Expert content validity and composition validity (exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis) and combined reliability indicators include Cronbach's alpha, divergence and convergence validity, and structural equation modeling, SPSS software Version 23 and LISREL version 8.54 were used.FINDINGS: The results showed the final model in 3 factors: individual factors 26.268, structural and technological 21.517, environmental factors 15.228, which in total had 62.841% predictability. Also individual (T-Value = 11.70, β = 0.93), environmental (T-Value = 12.122, β = 0.92) and structural factors (T-Value = 9.91, = 0.76) b) had a significant effect on the concept of organizational trauma. In the goodness-of-fit test, a total of seven indicators of model fit were confirmed, so all three identified factors can be integrated into the structural model of the research.CONCLUSION: The results presented in this paper insinuate that in-service training, salaries and benefits based on organizational position and years of service and taking into account various environmental factors can be fruitful in developing the proposed model. 
  • Conceptual model of the role of urban pause space in promoting social

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVS: Urban pause refers to those places where social interactions, human communication and the presence of people, which is the identity and meaning of the environment, are formed and are a place for citizens to gather. In fact it is a pedestrian area or a public place for urban open space. In modern applications, the social interactions of citizens in today's cities, including Tehran, have been severely damaged. The purpose of this study is to achieve a conceptual model including principles and criteria to increase social interactions of citizens in 15 Khordad Square in Tehran, Iran to determine how to realize the appropriate urban pause space, increase social interactions of residents and passers-by in this area. METHODS: The present study has been done in a descriptive-analytical manner and based on a survey strategy with an exploratory and mixed approach, various aspects of urban space, urban pause space and citizens' social interactions are examined. The statistical population included researchers and academic elites with knowledge relating to the research topic, as well as urban planning experts, senior managers and social science experts working in Municipality of Tehran. Using a snowball sampling method, a researcher made questionnaire were distributed to 100 people. Cronbach's alpha test was performed in order to achieve reliability and validation of criteria and sub-criteria of field measurement tools. Spss software were used to analyze the obtained data.  FINDINGS: The results showed that based on the standard deviation calculations, the average score of all       propositions (sub-criteria and criteria) was higher than 4 (based on 5 and average 3) accepted by experts and specialists.  The standard deviation of the propositions below 1 showed that 3 functional, physical and semantic dimensions and a total of 18 components and 54 indicators in the formation of the final research model were accepted and approved by experts and specialists. CONVLUSION: Social interactions in parts of the city not only lead to the identity of the neighborhood and the region, but also lead to human communication and the presence of people and personality and give meaning to specific places with historical and nostalgic background in the city. Biological, spiritual and psychological needs and the most important aspect of the principles of urban management. Such a city can be the main link between dynamic urban spaces and tourists.
  • Application of Data Envelopment Analysis to assess the efficiency using
           income aspect in the local government

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Given the tremendous progress of today's societies and the expectations of the people from public institutions that are increasing day by day, having complex organizations is inevitable. As a non-parametric border method, data envelopment analysis approach has been presented as a relative assessment tool to evaluate performance assessment of The Municipality of Tehran with 22 districts. This paper aims to assess all 22 districts of Tehran in terms of cash and sustainable income. METHODS: In this paper, BCC output-oriented model has been opted to employ DEA for the performance assessment of Tehran Municipality in 2020. In order to formulate optimal programs, especially in the income programs of the regions, it is necessary to consider the specific conditions and characteristics of each region. Therefore, while cash and sustainable incomes have been selected as the model's output, number of building permits, number of inhabitants, number of housing deals, and the price of the residential unit have been considered as inputs of BCC-O model. FINDINGS: BCC-O approach was implemented to classify 22 districts of the Municipality of Tehran. The findings revealed that 50 percent of districts namely 1, 6, 9, 12, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 operated efficiently. Also, it was determined that there has not been a proportional analogy between cash and sustainable income in comparison with input indices. For such areas an alternative program is proposed using the method. CONCLUSION: Due to the continuous increase of Tehran's county population and consequently the increase of citizens' requests and the lack of resources and facilities in Tehran Municipality on the other hand, it is necessary to formulate and implement the annual plans of the regions with higher accuracy. Given that at present the annual plan of cash and stable income of regions are based on past years' performance ignoring specific conditions of each region, so it is possible to evaluate a more real and precise value of income plan through DEA model with considering the conditions of each district. Decision-makers of inefficient districts can modify the approved plans of cash income and sustainable income base on the optimal value of the proposed data envelopment analysis model. Based on BCC-O model, guidelines are provided for transferring inefficient districts from the current state to the efficient ones. These values can be the basis for compiling the revenue plan for next year in districts of the Municipality of Tehran.
  • The sustainable semantic foundations of the traditional neighborhoods in
           the desert cities

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In cities with a hot and harsh climate, defining space and territory in a sustainable and environmentally manner in urban management and human capital is critical. Cultural values and climatic adaptation played a prominent role in the neighborhood's basic elements. The main objective of the research is to identify and clarify the semantic foundations of neighborhood design in desert cities of Iran, which will be used in future improvement and rehabilitation plans. METHODS: Naeen City, which has a particularly integrated neighborhood design structure, was chosen as the case study to support this concept. The grounded theory has been used to conduct this qualitative research and neighborhood design as a text has been considered in five physical, social, environmental, functional and aesthetic categories and identified in detail 73 themes as first level open coding. These themes were interpreted under each of the three classes of social, scientific, and aesthetic. Then as the second level open coding, 29 topics are identified in 5 categories. Finally, 10 core themes have been recognized as the Sustainable Semantic foundations of the traditional neighborhoods in the desert cities of Iran after integrating and reflecting on the collected themes.FINDINGS: The results showed that in the category of physical structure, a focal point and hierarchy in neighborhoods; in the category of social structure, social capital and human and religious values; in the category of functional structure, functional stability and climate adaption; in the category of aesthetic structure, physical and visual identity are the most important factors in the neighborhood design in desert cities of Iran.CONCLUSION: The findings revealed that the neighborhood in traditional Iranian cities was formed by the connectivity of physical and social elements and components, and it was the community of these neighborhoods that gave meaning to the Iranian city. Cities and neighborhoods are defined in perfect agreement with their surroundings. Neighborhoods, unlike residential units, do not require physical boundaries, and the services that people require are supplied with an emphasis on ease of access. Both as a municipal center and as an informal arena for public gatherings, the neighborhood center has been highlighted and exploited. The concentration is on common public areas that have given neighborhoods a sense of life.
  • Policy and societal relevance of traffic noise models in urban zones

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Road traffic noise is a matter of challenge for both people and policymakers. For instance, the price of lands/houses which are close to road traffic noise is reduced. The key objective of this study is to propose a conceptual model to illustrate details of a road traffic noise model, along with its policy and societal relevance. The second objective is to consider the honking of horns in such a conceptual model, as honking is a remarkable traffic noise factor, however, it has been neglected in some noise abatement policies. METHODS: By the use of previously proposed traffic noise models, some attempts were made to figure out how the models were applicable in minimizing road noise and how they would be helpful for environmentalists in conducting Environmental Impact Assessment. The proposed models were used to design a conceptual model explaining how policymakers and people in the urban areas may implement the traffic noise models.  FINDINGS: 5 groups of policymakers including roadway engineers, acoustical engineers, acoustic specialists, expert witnesses, and traffic engineers; and 5 groups in the society comprising drivers, people, health practitioners, property owners, and ecosystem may benefit from the traffic noise models. Finally, a conceptual model entailing 3 actors of a traffic noise model (meteorological, traffic, and infrastructure factors) and its 2 outputs i.e. equivalent and maximum noise levels were obtained.  CONCLUSION: Given the conceptual model derived from the road traffic noise models, one is capable of understanding their policy and societal relevance. It is recommended dynamic road noise maps of urban areas be obtained using the models during various times of day and night so that number of inhabitants in different noise spectrums of the map to be specified. Such a noise map is beneficial for both people and policymakers.  
  • Evaluation of ‘guanxi’ concept between Chinese supervisors and workers
           in hydropower projects: conflicts and safety perspectives

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The duality of Chinese management style called guanxi might have a potential difference between Chinese and African ideologies, and may give rise to injustice in some overseas contracting projects leading to conflicts, fights and safety issues. Therefore, effective action is needed in improving Chinese contractors-local workers relationships on project sites. Hence, assessing the extent to which Chinese managers practice guanxi on African workers, and how guanxi is affecting conflict and safety standards shows the extent of hope in mitigating risks and improving management. Specifically, this case study attempted to sort out and rank all difficulties Chinese managers encounter while undertaking hydropower projects in Cameroon, to find out whether or not there is a supervisor-worker guanxi relationship on dam construction sites and whether or not guanxi is implicated in Sino-Cameroonian workers conflict and safety.METHODS: SWARA method was used to analyze and rank difficulties, qualitative and quantitative assessments were undertaken for theories studies. After a workshop and semi-interview with Decision Makers a first survey was designed to gather scores of difficulties that ended to a ranking from most to least important using SWARA method. Then two questionnaires were structured and sent to local workers and Chinese project engineers, to gather all information about guanxi, conflicts and safety score. After a consistency study on 526 local workers and 40 Chinese manager’s responses selected from three different hydropower projects, the overall Cronbach’s alpha was 0.93 for supervisors and 0.88 for workers.FINDINGS: The results of SWARA ranking showed that the problem areas giving rise challenges to Chinese contractors are mainly related to the language barrier (W=47.7%) and interpersonal issues (w=13.35%).The findings of hypotheses testing suggest that guanxi is not applied on local workers by Chinese managers with statistics X=4.36<26 and X=2.3514 respectively, thus ,hypotheses H21 and H22 were both supported; yet workers do have conflict relationship and do not feel safe working with Chinese managers stated with statistics 27.4 and 24.9 respectively. However, the application of guanxi may play an important role in positively affecting the conflicts and safety management in Chinese oversea megaprojects. Using these results, recommendations were thrown on project, conflict, and safety management. CONCLUSION: As the number of Chinese investments in infrastructures in Africa keeps increasing, the findings in this research may provide all parties with crucial information for better understanding of local workers they might hire for their numerous projects. This study has shown that Chinese managers do not practice guanxi on the local workers, yet it may help in improving safety and conflict management. Therefore, there is need for 
  • Planning implication of universities growth on land use: Confirmatory
           evidence from GIS spatial analysis

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Universities have customarily been seen as agents of development in the regions they serve owing to their roles of teaching, research, innovation and community extension. There is however a dearth of knowledge on how they influence land use change with a specific reference to compliance with planning standards. This paper therefore through a case study investigates the impacts that the growth of Kisii University has on land use change in Nyamage, a neighbourhood where it is situated within Kisii Municipality, Kenya.  It subsequently links the observed change to compliance with planning standards. METHODS: Guided by the theory of regulatory compliance, the study adopted a case study research design with a sample size of 226 drawn from 577 developments in Nyamage. Spatial data on land use change was collected using satellite images from Google Earth covering three epochs of 2005, 2014 and 2021. Analysis was undertaken using GIS. Data investigating compliance with planning standards were conversely collected using an observation checklist, land survey maps and analyzed using a one-sample t-test and paired t-test. FINDINGS: The study established that in 2005, forest, short vegetation, transitional and built-up areas respectively covered 17%, 39%, 34% and 11%. These by 2021 correspondingly changed by 46%, -10%, -29% and 57% for the forest, short vegetation, transitional and built-up areas. The latter recorded the highest land use change, a condition mainly credited to the hostels built by private developers in an attempt to meet a demand created by students who could not find accommodation within the university. Research findings further disclosed that developments around the university were not complying with the planning standards used in regulating plot sizes, building coverage ratio and road reserves, leading to land use conflicts. CONCLUSION: The establishment and growth of Kisii University have remarkably influenced land use change, which in the absence of development control contributes to the disregard of planning standards. This is because the government mainly sees universities as an avenue for spurring regional economic growth with less attention on their spatial implications. These findings may enlighten policy-making institutions with critical information for effective planning and development control around universities. The study also fills a gap that hitherto existed on the nexus between land use change and compliance with planning standards as relates to the growth of universities. It additionally enlightens the international audience on how the impacts of universities growth on land use may be evaluated through a triangulation of spatial and statistical approaches.
  • Evaluation of the impact of strategic human resource management subsystems
           on improving innovation capability

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVS: Today, creative and innovative manpower is one of the most important assets and capital of organizations. Although strategic human resource management can be effective in enhancing employee innovation capability, not many research examined the impact of this type of management subsystems on innovation. Therefore, the purpose of current study is to evaluate the impact of strategic HRM subsystems on improving innovation capability in Municipality of Tehran.METHODS: The present study is mixed in terms of applied-developmental purpose and among the researches. In the qualitative stage of the research, the theme analysis method was used and the purposeful participants were selected and interviewed, which included 13 university professors and 19 managers of Municipality of Tehran. Based on the results of the qualitative stage, the strategies of 7 strategic HRM subsystems were identified and a research model was designed. In a quantitative step, in order to validate the model, the structural equation modeling method and smartPLS software were used. For this purpose, while conducting the validity and reliability of the researcher-made questionnaire, 169 managers and experts in Municipality of Tehran who were randomly selected were interviewed.FINDINGS: According to the study, the relationship between strategic HRM subsystems and innovation capability is positive and significant. Also, the results showed that the coefficient of determination for the strategic HRM variable is 0.611, which means that 61.1% of the changes in the innovation capability variable can be predicted with strategic HRM strategies and its subsystems.  Moreover, among human resource subsystems, "talent management system and succession management" and "service compensation and reward system" have the greatest impact on innovation capability.CONCLUSION: The results showed that strategic human resource management subsystems are effective on innovation capability in Municipality of Tehran, and the results of this study can be utilized and generalized in municipal organizations and public non-governmental organizations that have an almost similar organizational structure.
  • The effect of community-based crisis management on the resilience to
           disasters with the mediating role of social capital

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In recent years, the occurrence of natural disasters, including floods, earthquakes, storms, and the like, has increasingly resulted in severe concerns in Iran as such disasters were unfortunate, causing human and financial losses, especially in disaster-prone areas like the south of Kerman province. Thus, it is critical to focus on innovative Community-based Crisis Management approaches. The present research aims to study the effect of community-based crisis management on the resilience to disasters with the role of social capital in the south of Kerman province. Although much research has been conducted in this area in recent years, no study can be found that has simultaneously measured these three variables and from the citizens' perspective, which is the innovation of this paper. METHODS: Research data were collected using a questionnaire; thus, the research questionnaire was distributed among many citizens in the south of Kerman province. Research findings were analyzed through using LISREL.FINDINGS: The results showed that the community-based crisis management variable with an impact factor of 0.37 has a positive and significant effect on citizens' resilience. Social capital also plays a mediating role in the relationship between community-based crisis management and resilience, while having a positive and significant effect on citizens' resilience.CONCLUSION: The research findings help policymakers, managers, and crisis management experts deliver effective programs to reduce vulnerability and enhance citizen resilience of south of Kerman province against natural disasters.
  • Investigation of the exterior skin proportions of urban district buildings
           with a climatic management approach

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Lack of paying attention of contemporary architecture and urban planning to the environment and adaptation to the climate of the region has caused many environmental problems. To solve a part of the problem, the present paper was conducted to achieve the proportions governing the exterior skin of open spaces of urban districts that have unique characteristics to adapt to the climate of their region, since about 2/3 of Iran is covered by arid climate, it was examined. The old texture of Yazd is one of the best architectural models compatible with arid climate of Iran, which its teachings can give suitable guidelines for contemporary architecture and urban planning. In this regard, three districts from the historical texture of Yazd were selected as research samples.METHODS: This research is of applied in terms of aim and its methodology is descriptive-analytical conducted by library method and field survey. The method of research and data analysis is a combination of quantitative and quantitative, in which the geometric properties of 143 plots were studied first and then, by comparing and analyzing the results, the fit was obtained.FINDINGS: The results showed that the average height of the exterior skin in the squares was more than that in the passages and entrances; this ratio is 1.22 for the entrances and 1.35 for the passages. The average width of the exterior skin is greater in the squares, followed by the passages and entrances, respectively, with ratios of about 2.3 and 12, respectively. The ratio of height to exterior skin width is 1 to 5.7 in the squares and 1 to 39 in passages, exterior skin width is about 6 times in the squares and 39 times in passages.  These proportions are a sign of the influence of the region's climate, the generalization of which in similar climates will increase the harmony with the climate.CONCLUSION: Results suggest the existence of proportions and relations in the exterior skin that are affected by the climatic characteristics of the arid region of Iran and can be managed in the open spaces of urban districts.
  • Designing and explaining the improvisation model in the organizational
           entrepreneurship process

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Improvisation befalls during work and one cannot reprieve the response to the challenge and take action after thinking and planning. Improvisation can also enable organizations to be flexible and adapt to complex and turbulent conditions.  Extensive researches have been conducted in the field of organizational entrepreneurship, but as far as experts have examined, the design of organizational entrepreneurship model with an improvisational approach has not been considered by researchers in this field, so the issue has remained largely unknown among researchers. Therefore, the objective of the current study is to design and illustrate the improvisation model in the organizational entrepreneurship process in 22 districts, organizations, and companies affiliated with the Municipality of Tehran.METHODS: The present study is an exploratory study using a mixed approach (qualitative-quantitative). A semi-structured and in-depth interviews were conducted with 9 experts in The Municipality of Tehran and university professors. Next, through the implementation of the coding process and expert approval, four dimensions were identified, including human, facilitator, behavioral and environmental factors. In the quantitative part, the statistical population consists of 63,000 managers and experts employed in 22 districts, organizations and companies affiliated to the Municipality of Tehran. The sample size was estimated through Cochran's formula of 381 people and to validate the model, a 47-item researcher-made questionnaire was designed and distributed to the available sample members. The data were statistically analyzed in a quantitative section to analyze the path and test the hypotheses by PLS3 software.FINDINGS: In the qualitative part, four main components and the related matrixes of human factors, facilitating factors, behavioral factors, and environmental factors, were identified. Indicators of facilitating factors including support and motivational policies, human factor indicators including strategy and personality traits, behavioral factor indicators including communication and culture, and environmental factor indicators including internal and external organizational factors. The results in the quantitative section also showed that environmental factors with 0.324 and behavioral factors with 0.249 had the highest and lowest impact on organizational entrepreneurship with improvisation approach, respectively. Finally, the native model is obtained by explaining the coefficients of the path in each section.CONCLUSION: Local government managers need to create a creative environment in which employees can come up with ideas and participate in decision-making. In short, organizations respond quickly and dynamically to environmental and critical situations. Hence and according to the results, it turned out that not everyone can be a successful entrepreneur or make an improvised decision, and not all organizations can implement their entrepreneurial spirit with an improvisational approach, because these cases require different capabilities that the people in question must have.
  • Analysis of human resource architectural components based on governance

    • Abstract: Human Resource Architecture, one of the components of organizational architecture, is the process of identifying and combining the appropriate elements of human resource management to create and present a vision of human resources in the organization. Organization in which there is a coordination between employee behavior, human resource systems, resource activities, and the mission and goals of the organization. Governance is also an economic and political means of exercising power in a country's economic, political and social institutions, or as a set of traditions and institutions in which a sovereign operates, or for managing all relationships, and is defined as an executive term at all levels. The purpose of this study is to investigate the architectural performance of human resource management in municipalities.METHODS: This study is quantitative and developmental research. In this study, non-interactive method and thematic analysis of documents were used. Initially, 30 documents were identified and examined, and then the text reading table using the Scopus index identified 7 fully related documents. Next, three open, axial and selective encodings are performed on the specified documents. MAXQDA2020 software was used for data analysis. Then, to verify the validity of the identified components of the cryptographic output, its validation was performed using a distribution of 75 questionnaires among middle and senior managers of the Municipality of Tehran, using LISREL software.FINDINGS: Considering the coding, finally, human resource architecture with a governance approach in four dimensions (partnership and network governance; contractual and joint governance from above; outsourcing and job-oriented governance and hierarchical and knowledge-based governance) and 15 components of the category was classified. In partnership and network governance, the most repetition in component-related documents emphasizes on joined-up management (5 repetitions) and in contract and partnership governance, the most repetition is related to the commitment and accountability components (5 repetitions) and outsourced and job-oriented government with private component. (6 repetitions) and hierarchical and knowledge-based governance with an internalization component (4 repetitions). Based on the findings of confirmatory factor analysis, only the internalization component (T-Value <1.96) was not approved in the Municipality of Tehran.CONCLUSION: From the coding, it is finally concluded that the human resource architecture with a four-way governance approach  of the partnership and network architecture; contractual and joint governance from above; Outsourcing and job-oriented architectures as well as hierarchical and knowledge-based architectures have  the most iterations in the reviewed literature.
  • Identifying and analyzing the content deficiencies of the civil service
           management law as a model for legislation in urban management

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The civil service management law in the administrative system of the country is a public policy and the mother law, which includes valuable concepts and norms in the field of administrative law. Despite the fact that some chapters of this law, including the chapter of people's rights (chapter 3), are considered as innovations; however, some of the goals of the law in this chapter have not yet been achieved. As a result, this chapter of the law needs further scrutiny and implementation. Therefore, this study intends to take an important step towards the growth of the country's administrative system by identifying the pathologies of this chapter and providing corrective solutions.METHOD: The research is inductive and qualitative. The interviewees in the present study are members of parliament, managers and experts, who were selected by snowball sampling method. The data collection tool is a semi-structured interview and the "Theme Analysis" approach is used to analyze the data. The coding is done by MAXQDA quality software.RESULTS: The findings of the study showed that the content deficiencies identified in the chapter on people's rights are: "Lack of attention to the needs of society, lack of law enforcement trustee, lack of trustee for public awareness, lack of mechanism for accountability Citizens, failure to specify and specify the bodies supervising the implementation of the chapter on people's rights, suffice to express the generalities in the provisions of the law and the lack of expression of the law in a common language between users and legislators and etc. These findings indicate that the observance of transverse features in the Civil Service Management Law, such as: "Responding to the needs of society, efficiency, focus on justice, feasibility and progress, etc." is ambiguous.CONCLUSION: Given that a rule lacks transversal features, it may be called a law, but it may not have the power to persuade citizens or executors to enforce it. On the other hand, considering the importance and key role of the chapter 3 of the Civil Service Management Law on citizenship rights, which includes: "Duties and responsibilities of citizens towards each other, duties and responsibilities of citizens towards the city and the ruling forces of the country, duties of the government towards citizens and people." In order to increase the quality of the law and protect the rights of the people in the quality of public administration, it is necessary to eliminate the deficiencies identified in this study. Also, the method and model considered in this research, to review the law, can be considered in other laws and public policies, including urban management laws.
  • Developing a model to promote employee engagement in the organization
           using the Grounded theory

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: For public organizations such as municipalities, which are run by the public budget and limited public sector resources and are responsible for providing services to a large part of the community with multiple needs, having a committed and dedicated staff is important. Engagement to work is a positive attitude in employees, that its outcome is important for both the individual and the organization. Therefore, it is important to identify the factors that help to promote this engagement. The present study was conducted with the aim of developing a model to promote the engagement of municipal employees in District 10.METHODS: The research strategy was data foundation and the interview method was used to collect data. The obtained data from interviews were encoded and conceptualized using a three-step analysis method (open coding, axial coding, and selective coding).FINDINGS: According to the research findings, the dimensions of engagement from the perspective of employees, which include non-profit, organizational engagement, time order, commitment to work, learning effort, responsibility, altruism, work conscience, interest in work.CONCLUSION: The analysis of research data also shows that the effective factors in promoting employee engagement, job matching, motivation system, personal characteristics, organizational justice, performance appraisal system, appropriate service compensation system, creating opportunities for growth and security. And contextual factors, job analysis, development strategies, organizational culture, managerial factors, ergonomic features of the organization are among the contextual factors associated with promoting engagement. On the other hand, environmental factors related to the municipality and economic and social factors have a deterrent role in promoting engagement.
  • Evaluation of affecting mechanisms of urban development and its regional

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nowadays, many factors and forces impact urban development and uneven growth are the product of various processes such as political, physical, economic, social, and cultural ones. This study aims to evaluation and analyze the mechanisms affecting the urban development of Boroujerd city located in Lorestan province of Iran and its regional penetration after a proposal of a conceptual framework.METHODS: The research method is structural-analytical-descriptive, which is the main purpose of applied research by collecting data, analytical, quantitative, and documentary methods that have been used to explain the conceptual framework of research in the form of indicators. Delphi with an emphasis on fuzzy logic was also utilized.FINDINGS: The results of regression analysis showed that the correlation coefficient of the variable land exchange on Boroujerd urban development is equal to 0.740 and also the level of activity of this city in the two economic sectors of industry and services is of basic type and showed a higher value than other urban areas of the province and it is mentioned up to unemployment index shows that this city has less unemployment (19.3%) than other cities in the province and the average rate of the province (23.9%).On the other hand, the impact of factors and indicators of natural population growth in Boroujerd in the field of urban development was 1.97, which was a small part of urban population growth and development.CONCLUSION: Finally, it can be said that economic and social indicators have an undeniable role in the formation and development of the city and its penetration of influence and should be considered by city officials and stakeholders. So based on the development of policies such as Planning to organize the privacy and sphere of influence, preventing the settlement of immigrants, prevent the land mechanism and also new development patterns can solve the future matters of the city. Finally, for future research, the scale of action of urban sphere of influence can be proposed and evaluated with mid-scale variables.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
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