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  Subjects -> ARCHITECTURE (Total: 219 journals)
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Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2029-9990 - ISSN (Online) 2335-2000
Published by Kaunas University of Technology Homepage  [10 journals]
  • Research Dialogue between Materials and Products in Architecture

    • Authors: Heidi Turunen
      Pages: 5 - 20
      Abstract: The materials life cycle consists of several phases. If application areas are targeted for architecture, comprehending the demands of the end-use phase might not be clear at the research and development phase, leading to an entity appearing fragmented. The aim of this study is to help bring order to the material research or development phases. The objective is to generate a review tool, which helps to observe different areas where architecture operates, and contemplate simultaneously the aspects during the different phases of the material development. The review tool of the material life cycle consists of tracking the raw materials until the re-used raw material, resulting in eight different stages of the material life cycle. In addition, each of the eight stages of the material life cycle is possible to observe with the five different viewpoints, which are present in architecture. These eight material life cycle stages and five aspects have been formulated as a chart. The chart consists of 40 different approaches facilitating discussion between different operators during the different phases of the material development. The chart might help set goals, frame areas, and improve comprehension of the research and development processes of the materials, especially when interdisciplinarity is involved in the research process.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.sace.31.2.30963
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Sustainable Neighbourhood Evaluation Criteria -Design and Urban Values
           (Case study: Neighbourhoods from Al-Mafraq, Jordan)

    • Authors: Ahlam Eshruq Labin, Saqer Sqour, Abdelmajeed Rjoub, Rami Al Shawabkeh, Safa Al Husban
      Pages: 21 - 38
      Abstract: A sustainable neighbourhood is critical in preserving the environment for future generations, as various societies are suffering from increasing reliance on vehicles and low social interaction. This study aims to compare two neighbourhoods in terms of implementing the sustainable neighbourhood criteria. This study is based on eight sustainable neighbourhood evaluation criteria related to design and urban values are: regional issues, compacted form, mixed land-use, connectivity, pedestrian-oriented building, public sphere of the neighbourhood, relationship with transit, and walkability. University District and Jordan Villa Compound newly developed residential neighbourhoods located in Al-Mafraq city in Jordan were chosen as a case study to evaluate the sustainable neighbourhood criteria. The primary and secondary data were obtained from various resources, including; previous studies that related to the topic, site surveys and personal interviews. The results show that The University District is more sustainable and walkable than the Jordan villa compound; due to several reasons as the grid pattern of planning and the high population density. The importance of this study comes from implementing the sustainable neighbourhood evaluation criteria to develop communities to become more sustainable and walkable.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.sace.31.2.30953
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Investigating the Impact of Educational Space Design in Fostering Social
           Distancing: A Case Study of the University of Technology Buildings, Iraq

    • Authors: Ahmed M. Hameed Al-Delfi, Abdullah S. Salman
      Pages: 39 - 57
      Abstract: In the light of the ongoing outbreak of epidemics, the Iraqi government ordered the temporary closure of university buildings and explicit compliance with social distancing, fearing increased infection rates among the large numbers of students. This closure, and the fear of infection, acted as an obstacle for users of educational spaces. To overcome this challenge, the study aimed to investigate the impact of educational space design on the effectiveness of social distancing to reduce the spread of epidemics. The shape, area, and furniture arrangement pattern were determined in the study of educational spaces design as a spatial configuration through the level of wayfinding and permeability. To better understand the relationship between the design of the current educational spaces and the effectiveness of social distancing, this study used a visual survey, field visits, and a quantitative method using a space syntax analysis. And the analysis was carried out on various models of educational spaces design in three elected samples of the buildings of the Technological University Baghdad, Iraq. The analysis values were represented in quantitative tables to illustrate the values of the space syntax attributes and charts showing measures of permeability and wayfinding in all the analysed models. The study results show an impact and a close relationship between the elements of educational space design as a spatial composition and the effectiveness of social distancing. This relationship is formed by the effect of the shape, space, and furniture arrangement pattern in changing the values of spatial space relationships. Furthermore, permeability and wayfinding as spatial characteristics depend on those relationships and control users’ circulation within the educational space, which is essential in determining the effectiveness of social distancing.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.sace.31.2.30746
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Toward A Conceptual Framework for Evaluating the Quality of Urban Open

    • Authors: Sara Eltarabily
      Pages: 58 - 84
      Abstract: Urban open spaces have frequently been a vital destination for people to connect with one another. The efficiency of urban open spaces depends on their social, health, environmental, and economic benefits. However, little attention has been given to the impact of the relationship between the spatial environment and social interactions on the quality of urban open spaces to be vibrant spaces responding to the change in users’ needs. This study examines the integration between placemaking and space syntax approaches where overlapping relationships between the social and spatial aspects are found. This study aims to extract a conceptual framework with specific stages that can be followed for evaluating “quality” in urban open spaces and then can enhance the weaknesses. Thus, it is to direct the designers’ attention to rediscovering social and recreational uses in these spaces according to people’s needs and spatial configurations. The De Lesseps Bay project in Port Said city, in Egypt, was firstly analyzed through a quantitative method using the space syntax tool “DepthmapX” to understand social decisions and behaviors based on the selected spatial indicators, and secondly through a qualitative method using face-to-face interviews and field observations checklists to understand users’ needs in the place using the Pareto principle and a scoring system. The findings revealed the quality indicators of the place as the most needed factors for users such as attractiveness, vitality, clustered and integrated activities, visual appeal, safety, people connectivity, and accessibility. The spatial relations directly affected the “access and image” and “comfort and image” attributes of the placemaking approach, as well as indirectly affected the “uses and activities” and “sociability” attributes. This paper suggests expanding the concept of “quality” to include the comprehensive principles of creating vibrant spaces to continue responding to the change in community needs and renewal of other things in an urban environment.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.sace.31.2.31311
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the use and attitudes towards urban
           public spaces

    • Authors: Athina Mela, George Varelidis
      Pages: 85 - 95
      Abstract: The benefits of interaction with urban public space, particularly green spaces are numerous for citizens, especially those who live in metropolitan areas. The outbreak of the pandemic, as well as the restrictive measures put in place to prevent the virus's spread, caused enormous changes in people's daily lives and activities. Using a structured questionnaire, the current study intends to capture the shift in attitudes and perceptions of residents of the Attica region during the 2nd wave of restriction measures (7/11/20 – 3/7/21). During the pandemic, visitation in urban public spaces increased, according to the data. The great majority of participants preferred to visit mostly urban public areas within walking distance of their residence (up to 15 minutes), especially in the afternoon and relatively frequently, with 45 percent claiming to visit them "daily" or "3-4 times a week," and only 3% claiming “never”. The analysis showed an increase in the visits during the pandemic from participants who reported better-perceived quality of the spaces, better accessibility, safety during the day, and a feeling of relaxation in the free public spaces of their area. Additionally, those reported living in areas with many available spaces were more likely to increase the frequency of visits during the pandemic.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.sace.31.2.31545
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Study of the influence of indoor plants as an indicator of biophilic

    • Authors: Anita Kavathekar, Shaila Bantanur
      Pages: 96 - 108
      Abstract: Urbanization in Indian metropolitan cities deteriorating the outdoor environment by polluting water, soil, and air to a great extent. Some of the cities are at a fatal level of contamination affecting indoor environments. Many studies had reported the impact of a high level of CO2 indoors on the occupants. Its effect depends upon the concentration of CO2, the duration of exposure, and the concentration of oxygen (O2). Still the effects range from increased respiratory rates to cardiac ailments and carcinoses. India is a developing country so the sustainable and affordable approaches will be more applicable in this context. This study tries to find a well-grounded way to improve indoor air quality. The current pilot study focuses on examining the effect of indoor plants on indoor air quality by measuring CO2 levels. This study has used three different species of plants for three different classrooms of higher education institutes. The study was performed in an unsealed environment where air velocity and CO2 were measured. Statistical analysis results show that indoor CO2 concentration has been reduced by 11% than outdoors after placing the plants. This study also shows the correlation between CO2 concentration and the distance from the plant using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Hence indoor vegetation can be considered a sustainable way of purifying the air and altering the microclimate of the classrooms for the well-being of the occupants.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.sace.31.2.30791
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • Voronoi geometry for building facade to manage direct sunbeams

    • Authors: Ali Goharian, Khosro Daneshjoo, Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad, Mansour Yeganeh
      Pages: 109 - 124
      Abstract: Nowadays, ultra-advanced facades have made great strides, and parametric simulation software has made a significant contribution to this advancement. Voronoi shells, based on their irregular nature, are one of the most advanced facades that are being used in modern building facades. In this paper, the main focus is on the behavior of these facades against incident light from the sun. The method presented in this research is based on Ladybug Tool’s plug-in capabilities. Using the analysis of weather information and the desired geometry, direct rays as a vector in each time step is prepared, and the amount of direct sunbeam hours by considering the contexts (Facade) calculated. To estimate the comprehensive method, the same workflow evaluated winter (P2) and summer (P1) solstice as a cross-sectional study (Max & Min solar altitude). The results indicate that the type of geometry Voronoi and the thickness of the facade frame have a great effect on the direction of the rays inwards and also the type of geometry should be controlled at latitudes appropriate to the solar altitude; because of the geometric intricacies of the Voronoi facade have a great deal to do with the solar altitude.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.sace.31.2.30800
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
  • The impacts of demographic transition on embodied energy consumption and
           typology of residential buildings: the case study of Tehran’s Region 5

    • Authors: Narjes Teymoori , Mahta Mirmoghtadaee
      Pages: 125 - 137
      Abstract: Changes in the structural characteristics of the population, such as age structure, household size, and number of households indicate shifts in the population age structure, moving from the younger towards the older populations and result in the reduction of household size. Former extended families have turned into a nuclear and even one-person household. Shifts in household status, both household composition, and household size lead to the formation of a new housing typology. It can affect the type, number, and floor area of ​​residential units as well as the amount of embodied energy used in the wet zones (kitchen, bathroom, and toilet), which are fixed, inflexible and costly areas of a residential unit. This study attempts to investigate the effect of demographic transition on the housing typology and embodied energy consumption of wet zones. The research is based on a case study: first, the changes in the population characteristics were examined by referring to the data published by the statistics Center of Iran. Then a field survey of residential buildings was started, to identify the number of floors, and the number of residential units. Then interviews with 15 developers have be conducted to investigate the significant changes in the housing typology and the common plan of the area. The common plan of residential units was then examined to assess the floor areas of wet zones and to compare their ratios to dry zones. In the next step, the amount of materials and embodied energy in each wet zone were calculated. The analysis of the reports by the statistics Center of Iran on the case study showed an age transition from the younger to the older, a decrease in the household size, and a change in the housing typology in the case study. The interview with developers and field survey on 831 land plots indicated three periods of changes in the housing typology in the case study between 1987 and 2018. During each period, in each plot of land, more residential units with fewer floor areas were built and the amount of embodied energy used by the wet zones increased.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.sace.31.2.31194
      Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 2 (2022)
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