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Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2029-9990 - ISSN (Online) 2335-2000
Published by Kaunas University of Technology Homepage  [10 journals]
  • Comparing Architects’ Perceptions of the Usefulness of Digital Design
           Environments with their Aspirations for Sustainable Design in Australia

    • Authors: Rongrong Yu, Michael J. Ostwald
      Pages: 5 - 20
      Abstract: This paper uses a combined method – survey and semi-structured interviews – to evaluate the perceived effectiveness of digital design environments for supporting architects’ sustainable design practices. In most contemporary firms, architects’ sustainable design aspirations are reliant on the use digital design tools and associated computational platforms. Past research, however, suggests that a level of uncertainty exists about whether these tools and platforms are sufficient for this purpose. To investigate this issue in an Australian context, architects were invited to take part in an online survey to identify general trends and perceptions, leading to a series of semi-structured interviews, to analyse the issues in detail. The survey results (n = 70) suggest that despite considering sustainable design an important objective in their design practice, participants believe that digital design tools require further development and improvement. Detailed interviews (n = 15) then identified specific factors affecting the usefulness of digital design tools. These results enhance our understanding of Australian architects’ experiences using digital design tools. It also contributes to improving the tools that support sustainable design practices throughout the architectural, engineering and construction industry.
      PubDate: 2021-10-27
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.sace.29.2.28355
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 2 (2021)
  • Challenges on Urban Socio-Spatial Cohesion. The Case of Social Housing
           Complexes in the Regional Administrative area of Piraeus in Greece

    • Authors: Evgenia Tousi
      Pages: 21 - 32
      Abstract: The regional administrative area of Piraeus has long been a suitable case study for analyzing the impact of social housing. The six municipalities that constitute this urban agglomeration have been strongly connected with the Asia Minor Catastrophe of 1922 and the consequent rehabilitation of the refugee population during the 30s. Moreover, after WWII, more social housing complexes had been constructed in the urban area around central Piraeus, representing different architectural types and principles. Today, they host various socio-economic population groups. Economic immigrants and households of elderly people are some of the vulnerable households that reside today in the social housing apartments. One major issue is the poor housing conditions and the low level of preservation associated with high rates of poverty and social exclusion. This paper attempts to depict the contemporary situation in the area by providing thematic cartography with the aim of indicating crucial enclaves in need of urban regeneration.
      PubDate: 2021-10-27
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.sace.29.2.29137
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 2 (2021)
  • Design Strategies for Healing Internal Environments and Workplaces. A
           Theoretical Framework

    • Authors: Ghada M. Younis
      Pages: 33 - 48
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to construct a theoretical framework for designing healing environments by drawing from existing research. The approach of the paper surveys the literature on how elements of the design have been brought to bear on healing. This effort leads to a holistic approach that considers multiple dimensions of healing as both an individual and social process. The findings of the paper are harnesses that knowledge to provide a theoretical framework based on three design strategies: 1) supporting strategies that use specific elements to reinforce physical health, vital life energy, and psychological well-being; 2) balancing strategies that are oriented toward harmonizing those elements; and 3) nourishing strategies that address emotions, spiritual life, and the soul. Originality, in summary, this paper traces efforts to harmonize individual human health with the built environment across time and uses related knowledge to crystallize a new theoretical framework. It is hoped that this survey of the literature may add to holistic and systemic understandings of healing environments.
      PubDate: 2021-10-27
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.sace.29.2.28497
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 2 (2021)
  • Investigation of the Effects of Applying Social Sustainability Components
           on Residential Satisfaction

    • Authors: Mohammadhossein Azizibabani, Mohammadreza Bemanian, Mansour Yeganeh
      Pages: 49 - 61
      Abstract: Today, decades after the emergence of the concept of sustainable development, the long-term positive effects of achieving sustainable development goals in all environmental, economic, and social dimensions on the quality of human life are undeniable. The purpose of this research is to explain the mechanism of effects of applying the social sustainability components on the level of residential satisfaction in the scale of residential complexes. The research uses a mixed (quantitative and qualitative) methodology in terms of the nature of the data and the research method is descriptive-analytical (causal and comparative). The conceptual model of the research, which includes the relationships between the variables of perceived quality of social sustainability components, residential desires associated with these components, perceived quality of housing architecture, and residential satisfaction, has been proposed based on the study of theoretical foundations through logical reasoning method. This model has been tested through obtained data from a questionnaire in a field study conducted in the Baghe Behesht residential complex in the Saadatabad neighborhood of Tehran. According to the results, the application of the components of social sustainability has a significant effect on residential satisfaction by improving the quality of housing architecture, and in conditions of qualitative deficiency in social sustainability components, residential desires associated with these components will reduce the perceived quality and the level of residential satisfaction.
      PubDate: 2021-10-27
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.sace.29.2.29217
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 2 (2021)
  • Energy and Aesthetic Upgrading Interventions: Assessing Urban Block
           Renovation Scenarios

    • Authors: Dimitra Tsirigoti, Dimitrios Zenginis, Dimitrios Bikas
      Pages: 62 - 82
      Abstract: The target towards carbon neutral cities emerges as a new way to mitigate the environmental pollution and the indisputable climate change, but it can also be the chance for the overall improvement of the quality of life by promoting the upgrading of the often low aesthetic quality of the urban environments. The objective of the research is to investigate renovation strategies at the city scale that will not only reduce the energy demand, but they will also promote the improvement of the city’s aesthetics. Two different typologies of urban block forms of the Greek city are examined, and four scenarios of renovation interventions are analysed according to energy and aesthetic criteria. The heating and cooling load demand is calculated through simulations for the four renovation scenarios which include:
      The improvement of the thermal insulation of the building’s shells.
      The use of phase change materials.
      The construction of green roofs.
      The integration of passive solar and shading systems. The findings of the research prove that the energy interventions at the urban block scale can define the degree of efficiency in the energy performance level without compromising aesthetics, as the added value resulting from higher aesthetics is a basic criterion for the overall improvement of the quality of life.
      PubDate: 2021-10-27
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.sace.29.2.29176
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 2 (2021)
  • Past and Future Trends on the Effects of Occupant Behaviour on Building
           Energy Consumption

    • Authors: Mahsa Torabi, Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad
      Pages: 83 - 101
      Abstract: In recent decades, the need for an accurate evaluation of energy use in buildings has become increasingly growing due to the rise in environmental awareness and political pressure around the world. The estimation of energy consumption is, therefore, a crucial criterion during building early-stage design. This paper investigates the recent trends and achievements in modelling occupant behaviour in energy simulation studies and aims to highlight achievements and research gaps in the domain. This study presents a state-of-the-art theoretical review of the research background through published papers in leading journals within this research domain. The main goals of this study lay in the two layers of determining recent research trends and crucial findings in the subject of occupants' behaviour and energy consumption, and more importantly, to identify research gaps for future studies. This research review highlights several areas for future research including studying behaviour in different countries considering various climate, cultures and comfort preferences affecting energy-driven behaviour and conducting similar studies in different building typologies and occupancies. Moreover, based on the reviewed article, it is clear that evaluating occupant behaviour as an independent variable on a larger scale energy analysis in urban studies needs to be addressed in future studies. The authors found a lack of comprehensive approaches to comfort and considering all forms of comfort while studying behaviour and consumption in recent studies. It is recommended that further investigation of behaviour and total energy consumption regarding occupant real comfort conditions be conducted.
      PubDate: 2021-10-27
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.sace.29.2.28576
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 2 (2021)
  • Improvement of the Psychological Lighting Effect Assessment in the
           Environmental Building Rating Systems

    • Authors: Amal Shamseldin
      Pages: 102 - 120
      Abstract: Green Architecture is not only about the way of controlling the resources consumption within sustainable limits, but it also emphasizes the positive effect on the different human requirements including his physiological sides. People spend a lot of time indoors under artificial lighting that usually lacks the dynamism and biological effect of daylight. Dynamic lighting, as an application of circadian lighting, has been used and studied in several buildings' functions with different scenarios to achieve better human performance and wellbeing. This article shed a light on the importance and the way of including the circadian lighting effects within the globally-concerned Environmental Building Rating Systems (EBRSs); to advance more steps towards the Green Architecture goals when assessing buildings. Then, it proposed the use of qualitative metrics such as a linked Kano model questionnaire to the EBRSs besides their quantitative metrics; to ensure the proper lighting characteristics and the achievement of the users’ desired satisfaction and wellbeing by more accurate and creditable results. Then, case studies were used to prove the importance of using the proposed qualitative metric within the EBRSs.
      PubDate: 2021-10-27
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.sace.29.2.28475
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 2 (2021)
  • Critical Factors Affecting the Success of Construction Projects in Oman

    • Authors: Rami J.A. Hamad, Bassam A. Tayeh , Hamdan A. Al Aisri
      Pages: 121 - 138
      Abstract: Construction in Oman is an important sector that contributes greatly to the country’s economic growth. Recently, the construction projects in Oman have been delayed which has led to delays in the projects’ completion and sometimes to their failure. This study aims to examine the critical factors affecting the success of construction projects in Oman. The extent to which factors related to project parties affect this success was assessed. A quantitative approach based on systematic literature review and questionnaire survey technique was used. The factors were identified and classified into six main categories, namely, time; finance; project designing, planning and scheduling; quality; project progress and development; and environment and nature. The factors are also classified as client-, consultant-, contractor- and external-related factors. This study was conducted by distributing questionnaires to people who experienced working in the public and private construction sectors in Oman. Relative importance index method was used for analysis. Results show that quality is the most important amongst the six investigated categories, followed by time; finance; project progress and development; project designing, planning and scheduling; and environment and nature. The client-related factors have the highest impact on the success of construction projects in Oman, followed by consultant-, contractor- and external environment-related factors. The selection of a low bid, rather than accurate and reliable bids, and the quality and experience of the project team and labour are the most significant factors affecting the success of construction projects in Oman. The contractors’ administrative corruption, indiscipline and dishonesty and the frequent equipment breakdowns are the two least important factors affecting the success of construction projects. The government should encourage clients to improve their procurement strategies and force the construction companies to implement innovative approaches to project delivery.
      PubDate: 2021-10-27
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.sace.29.2.29269
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 2 (2021)
  • A Case Study of Thermal Comfort in a Temporary Shelter

    • Authors: Jurgis Zemitis, Anatolijs Borodinecs, Raimonds Bogdanovics, Aleksandrs Geikins
      Pages: 139 - 149
      Abstract: In Latvia to perform COVID-19 tests as well as for temporary shelters in case of a local disease outbreak the persons were located in special tents. Such practice was not only performed locally but also in other countries like the USA, UK, Russia, etc. The wide usage of tents was possible as the outbreak happened during the warm period of the year. At the same time, the indoor climate of tents can be quite unbearable during the warm summer days. Also, the situation was not getting better as fast as the prognosis, and the crisis was still ongoing during the winter period. Therefore, to test the thermal comfort of such temporary shelter’s measurements were performed. The thermal comfort was measured in a tent from 27th May to 28th September 2020. The data was logged with three different measuring devices inside of the shelter as well as outside air parameters like temperature and solar radiation was logged. The results show the rapidly changing indoor temperature which reaches 40°C during the daytime and falls to 10°C at night. The data of the globe thermometer to analyze the influence of radiation from tent canvas was also studied and showed that there is no noticeable heat radiation from external walls. The PMV measurements showed that the thermal comfort is very low as the PMV values were outside the range of -1 to 1 for 57% of the time. The influence of the precipitation was also noted, and the results showed that the adiabatic cooling effect is very variable but in general does not noticeably change the indoor temperature, the average temperature decrease was only 1 °C, but for a specific case it reached 10°C.
      PubDate: 2021-10-27
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.sace.29.2.29240
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 2 (2021)
  • Towards Passive Design Strategies for Improving Thermal Comfort
           Performance in a Naturally Ventilated Residence

    • Authors: Kritika Rana
      Pages: 150 - 174
      Abstract: Passive design integrates a wide range of climate-based strategies to increase occupant thermal comfort and minimise the need for mechanical systems for heating and cooling. The aim of this study was to improve the thermal comfort performance in a naturally ventilated residence through the identification and evaluation of the best set of passive design strategies. A two-storey residence located in Washington, United States with a temperate climate was selected as the case study residence. A reference simulation model was developed by replicating only the orientation and massing of the case study residence, while certain assumptions were made for other building characteristics. Thermal comfort performance analysis was conducted in the DesignBuilder software. A set of design strategies were introduced as interventions followed by simulation runs to efficiently track progress. From the reference simulation model to the final intervention model, a 50% reduction in the annual discomfort hours was anticipated in the five selected zones of the residence. Following the integration of four major interventions, the target discomfort hours were met in three zones—library, bedroom 1 and bedroom 2, with 53.03%, 60.42% and 58.94% reduction in discomfort hours, respectively. The two remaining zones—living and lounge also had a notable improvement with a reduction of 43.93% and 45.99%, respectively. The successful design strategies included—incorporation of triple glazed, low-emissivity and argon filled openings with wooden frames; integration of overhangs in south-facing windows, minor reduction of openings in the east and west façade, and addition of blinds for window shading; and use of an energy code standard construction for the building components and further addition of insulation in the building envelope. The most effective intervention was the customisation of the window operation schedule based on seasonal air temperature differences to optimise natural ventilation. This study demonstrated that occupant thermal comfort can be significantly improved throughout the year with the appropriate use of passive heating and cooling strategies, thereby reducing energy consumption and the environmental impact of buildings.
      PubDate: 2021-10-27
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.sace.29.2.29256
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 2 (2021)
  • A study of Indoor Environment of Large Glazed Office Building in Semi Arid

    • Authors: Mounira Badeche, Yasmina Bouchahm
      Pages: 175 - 188
      Abstract: In recent years the rate of buildings with large glazed facades is rapidly increasing, particularly in office buildings. Where, the creation of a suitable thermal and visual comfort is a significant factor affecting productivity. The use of large glazed facades without adapted shading measure generates thermal and visual discomfort, wich ranges from uncomfortable environment conditions to serious health effects. Specialized work and literature about performance evaluation of large glazed office buildings in relation to their environment are lacking in semi arid climates, characterized by significant intensity of solar radiations in the summer period of the year. This study investigates the impact of large glazing areas on thermal and visual comfort in a sample of naturally ventilated office building located in the semi arid climate of Algeria (36°, 17 N and 7°, 23’ E). A Post Occupancy Evaluation technique (POE), being a mainstream activity in the process of building operation phase is used for this purpose. The main objective is to stress practitioners, specifically architects, to take conscious decisions in an early phase of design process. The study clearly highlighted discomfort in the studied office building. It included unacceptable temperature arising from glazed facade; overheating due to excessive solar gains; insufficient ventilation and poor daylighting. The results indicate that such large fenestration system is not recommended in summer time. However, a judicious choice of the glazing size and type by simulation tools must balance lighting and thermal needs.
      PubDate: 2021-10-27
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.sace.29.2.28008
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 2 (2021)
  • The Role of Layout in Improving Building Thermal Performance in Bangkok

    • Authors: Thanun Srithongchai
      Pages: 189 - 204
      Abstract: Selecting a building layout is a fundamental task in the early stage of the architectural design process. High thermal mass buildings with well-insulated envelopes are a common solution for colder climates; however, thinner wall construction and lower mass in most tropical architecture means that a well-designed building layout with good consideration of contextual factors is essential to enhance passive cooling and to decrease heat gain by solar radiation. Building layout factors of perimeter and wall surface area are pivotal in long-term energy utilization. This simulation-based research employs Sketchup, Openstudio, and SPSS to investigate the effect of surface solar radiation on indoor air temperature and sensible cooling energy of 17 geometries with and without a self-shading feature under the identical space volume, floor area, and climatic conditions of Bangkok. The simulation conducted in two phases (with and without an active cooling system) revealed that the lower the F/W ratio is, the lower the DBTindoor-annual and operational cost of the A/C system. The circular plan with the highest F/W ratio (0.47) has the lowest annual wall solar heat gain and DBTindoor-annual (29.43°C), and saves approximately 10% of air cooling energy demand compared to the square design (F/W=0.42). The layouts with S/W ratio less than 2.4 are less effective in lowering the DBTindoor-annual and active cooling energy demand than those with S/W greater than 2.4. It is concluded that the self-shading designs (S/W<2.4) may face challenges due to greater wall surface area and receiving more diffuse solar radiation.
      PubDate: 2021-10-27
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.sace.29.2.29410
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 2 (2021)
  • The Assessment Features of Noise Pollution in the Residential Area of the
           Subjects of the Russian Federation

    • Authors: Sergey Gagarin, Olga Gagarina, Alsu Semakina, Guzel Platunova, Irina Rubtsova
      Pages: 205 - 215
      Abstract: The distinctive features of the noise protection legislation at the level of 85 subjects of the Russian Federation are considered. The comparative characteristics of the time parameters “day”, “night” for working days and holidays are given. It is compared with similar indicators of other countries. 46% of subjects considered 7 am as the beginning of the “day” period; 61% considered 22 pm as the beginning of the "night" period. For the first time Russia developed the following time periods separately: “day rest”, “evening”, “weekends and holidays”. The penalty system for violation of the noise legislation is analysed. Irkutsk region has the
      “smallest” fines in Russia and Novosibirsk and Belgorod regions have the “biggest” fines.
      PubDate: 2021-10-27
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.sace.29.2.29012
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 2 (2021)
  • Influence of Different Waste Materials on Resistance of Cement Mortars
           against Carbonation and Chloride Ingress

    • Authors: Nikolaos Chousidis, George Batis
      Pages: 216 - 231
      Abstract: This work is an extensive experimental study on the corrosion behavior of reinforced cementitious mortars containing industrial byproducts and waste materials. In particular, calcareous (C-class) fly ashes, iron mill scale and Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide (E.M.D.) waste were used as additives in mortars production. The abovementioned materials were used without any prior treatment or management and replaced the cement in concrete mixing by 10% wt. of cement weight. For the experimental set-up, reinforced mortars were prepared and exposed to coastal area for 12 months, while some of them were remained in a salt spray cabin for 60 days. The corrosion monitoring was performed by electrochemical and mass loss measurements, while chloride content, porosity, carbonation and mineralogy of mortars were also estimated. The results indicate, that there is a development in durability and chloride penetration resistance of composites comparing with the conventional mortars at late ages. At the same time, it was also observed that their chemical composition and fineness, control the diffusion of CO2 into the pore system and lead to increased carbonation of composite mortars. The challenge of this work is the production of eco-friendly composites with high chloride and carbon dioxide penetration resistance.
      PubDate: 2021-10-27
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.sace.29.2.29208
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 2 (2021)
  • The Effect of Climate Change on Weathering: Evidences from Heritage
           Buildings under Subtropical Conditions

    • Authors: Kyriakos Xystouris, Eleni Apostolidou, Angeliki Kylili, Paris A. Fokaides
      Pages: 232 - 245
      Abstract: The scientific community of building physics has known for decades that weathering has a significant effect on the condition of buildings. Weathering agents such as water, carbon dioxide and oxygen, potentially accelerate the natural deterioration of buildings, leading to undesirable results, especially in cases involving buildings of special cultural importance. Climate change and its effect on weather conditions may potentially accelerate the weathering of buildings.
      The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of climate change on weathering of building materials of heritage buildings under subtropical climatic conditions. As a case study, non-destructive measurements of 10 traditional buildings in Strovolos, an urban centre in Cyprus, were employed.
      To study the deterioration of buildings, non-destructive methods were utilized, namely infrared (IR) thermography. The deterioration was studied for different materials, different orientations, as well as for materials of different ages. Through qualitative and quantitative thermographs, the results demonstrate the significant effect of climate change on the deterioration of building materials.
      PubDate: 2021-10-27
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.sace.29.2.29425
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 2 (2021)
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