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Space Ontology International Journal
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2345-6450 - ISSN (Online) 2423-7299
Published by Islamic Azad University Homepage  [18 journals]
  • The effect of external and internal shading devices on energy consumption
           and co2 emissions of residential buildings in temperate climate

    • Abstract: The use of shading devices to reduce energy consumption can be considered one of the more common methods, but its efficiency and impact on reducing carbon emissions have been less considered. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the energy consumption and efficiency of internal and external shading devices that are currently widely used in residential buildings and consequently their effect on reducing carbon emissions. To investigate this, a typical residential building in Gorgan was modeled. The base of this, two types of interior shading of curtains and roller shades and two external shades overhangs and mat roller shade were examined. In this research, a model with 20 shading device modes was simulated. The modeling and the energy simulations were performed by Design-Builder (Version According to the base-design geometry of the building appropriate shading options were proposed for the south façade and windows were double-glazed (DG). The output data showed that a white curtain with a medium-density openness factor of 3% has the highest efficiency in reducing energy consumption. However, purpose shading could save the annual energy consumption of the building by 4.3% compared to the base case, thus potentially saving up to 9.74 kg of CO2/m2 in the hottest months of the year and 2.45 kg of CO2/m2 annually. While most researchers looking for sophisticated technologies, some simple methods such as the use of proper shadings can play a significant role in reducing carbon emissions and environmental sustainability.
  • Identification Catalytic Projects of Development Based on Social Capital
           in Surrounding Areas of Imam Reza Holy Shrine (Case Study :Noghan
           Neighborhood in Mashhad)

    • Abstract: The historical texture of the city reflects the identity of the city and has hidden values within it which need to be identified and used to restore the context. These values can be named as social capital to preserve the old textures. Urban catalyst project is suggested as one of the late approaches in the process of urban regeneration. This use elements and values in the Current Situation to define stimulants for changes in the Context. Urban catalyst involving number of projects that lead to the development and its effect on further progression. The main purpose of this research is to build a robust and participatory society based on the relationship between social capital and urban catalyst project. In fact this goal focuses on social and public aspects beside physical and economic ones. For examining relationships between social capital and development catalyst project, Noghan Religious District in Mashhad, one of the oldest settlements adjacent to the Razavi shrine, has been evaluated. As a result, Combined research method has been used. The relationship between these two variables have been surveyed through field research and questionnaire distribution in society which includes people and experts and the structural equation method(SEM) used to examine the relationship between variables. According to the findings, the potentials of society in the form of social capital can provide ground for the development catalyst project in the texture. Therefore, development catalyst project has a significant correlation with social capital to improve the context.
  • A Comparative Study on the Landscape Memorability of two Urban Public
           Spaces emphasizing tourism Naghsh-e-Jahan and Shahrdari Squares

    • Abstract: Urban public spaces have a very important role in our cities. Especially, considering the presence of tourists in that spaces, they also have a revenue-generating role in addition to the role of identity for a community so the need to pay attention to them, is clear. Each urban space has a different and unique effect on people according to its elements and characteristics, which is mainly a mental matter. In fact, it can be said that the memorable components of urban space vary in different examples. In this study, the main purpose is to investigate the memorable urban public space components on the minds of the tourists. In this regard, urban public space components were studied in three categories: physical, non-physical and activity indicators. Regarding the issue of memorability, the research method is mixed in nature and in terms of purpose, it is a combination of survey and field studies. Two case studies of Naghsh-e-Jahan Square in Isfahan and Shahrdari square in Rasht are analyzed and compared. The findings indicate that in general, the Shahrdari square, with a small difference, is more memorable than the Naghsh-e-Jahan square. Pearson correlation test results showed that a significant relationship is between the memorability of the totality of landscape components and total tourist attraction. Prioritization of the public space landscape components in terms of their memorability in the two squares is different, however, based on the aggregation of findings and their commons in both squares, it can be noted that buildings and retail activities are the most memorable in the tourists’ minds. Other factors, such as sensory stimuli including scents, sounds, and the presence of water, as well as social interactions, are next in terms of memorability. َ positive and significant relationship was not observed between the richness of the landscape and its memorability.
  • Rethinking the power of place in the age of virtual social media

    • Abstract: In the past years, the use of cyberspace has increased day by day to the point that today, people create personality, gain experience and create memories in these spaces. This has created an emerging phenomenon of virtual space. This should be accepted that nowadays, cyberspace has become a virtual reality. A reality which has created cyberspace accessible as a new experience and opportunity. By using documentary and library methods and with an analytical look, this article seeks to describe the power of place in the form of a sense of place in the virtual age by examining different theoretical perspectives on space and cyberspace. The present article, while does not consider the advent of the digital age and the increasing expansion of cyberspace users as a threat to the sense of place,  by using the content analysis method, analyzes the effect of cyberspace on identity and sense of place and provides a codified framework for the power of place in the virtual age. The results show that in the present age, virtual media has a direct effect on the sense of place. And despite the similarities between the components of sense of place in real places and virtual spaces, there are also differences; including indirect but powerful interactions and experiences, removal of temporal / spatial constraints, immersion instead of physical presence, and free and limitless communication in virtual media.
  • The influence of culture in the body of traditional courtyards of Hamedan
           based on data theory"

    • Abstract: Having a shelter has been of The utmost importance to humans. Humans Have been developing all kinds of residential buildings to protect themselves, one of them is courtyard houses. When examining the form of a house. One of the critical reasons for prioritizing the study of indigenous buildings is the belief that social and cultural factors greatly contribute to the form of a house. In this article, the content analysis method with the help of data foundation theory, open, axial, and selective coding methods have been used. The strategy of this article in the analysis and judging stage is both quantitative and qualitative method. In order to investigate the reasons for the formation of the central courtyard from the perspective of culture in the city of Hamedan, the impact of the entrance and the central space of houses and their halls have been studied in general. Based on the results, the Iranian architectural methods and the cultural elements in the indigenous architecture are considered to have played a decisive role in the formation of the of architectural model of the Qajar and Pahlavi period. In these houses, an attempt has been made to separate private and public spaces through designing the open space of the yard as a coordinator between the outside and inside space in order to maintain the identity of the other spaces and to prevent any disruption in using them.
  • The evolution of urban spaces in the shadow of globalization with emphasis
           on socio-cultural dimensions

    • Abstract: In recent decades, the concept of "globalization" has changed the political-economic and socio-cultural structure all around the world. This concept has caused the actions and developments of a point in the world to affect other parts of the world. The emergence of this new concept gradually created new spaces and great changes in human attitudes toward space. Globalization, which was initially used and accepted at a slow pace, seems to has had a profound effect on urban public spaces in recent years due to the growth of technology and the practical change in the concepts of time and place. During these years, the frequent and rapid display of urban spaces around the world, which has been provided due to the global era and its communication facilities, has caused fundamental differences in the design of new public spaces and on the other hand, in presence and use of these spaces. Because it has directly affected the culture of societies. In the meantime, the effect or effectiveness of different countries is different and requires contemplation and thinking. The purpose of this study is to identify the important factors influencing the evolution of urban spaces during globalization. This article uses an analytical method to present a proposed model to improve the planning and design of public spaces in the global era.
  • Architectural concepts and ideas in the designs and buildings of Andre
           Godard in Iran

    • Abstract: The subject of this research is the study of the architectural features used in the architectural designs of Andre Godard. The importance of this issue is that it seems that the variety of concepts and ideas of Godard's designs is not yet sufficiently known and he is best known for some of his famous projects, such as the Museum of Ancient Iran. The purpose of this research is to recognize and study architectural concepts and ideas in Andre Godard architectural designs in Iran. The research question is what were the sources of inspiration and architectural references of Andre Godard for designing architectural spaces in Iran' The theoretical foundations of the research are based on the idea that attention to history and archeology has been important since the Renaissance, especially from the eighteenth century onwards in Europe, and from the beginning of the contemporary century in Iran and it is reflected in some architectural designs, content analysis research method has been used to examine each of Godard's architectural works and descriptive-analytical and comparative research methods have been used to compare them with Iranian buildings. The results of the research show that in the first place, after a period of research in Iran, Godard was acquainted with many different concepts and ideas in Iranian architecture and tried to use Iranian patterns in cultural projects, but in designing the campus of the University of Tehran and the building of the Faculty of Medicine, which was considered a new space in Iran and had no previous examples in Iran, he used European neoclassical architectural patterns.
  • Linking urban marginality and socio-ecological systems in informal
           settlements upgrading: A literature review and future directions

    • Abstract: Slums are basically recognized as a multi-causality phenomenon which are rapidly growing worldwide. While the contribution of social and ecological factors is separately well understood, the interplay of interconnected socio-ecological systems in slums, such as urban heat islands, is insufficiently addressed in research. This study identifies the most important socio-ecological research areas which are applicable in analyzing slum settlements by using a narrative literature review method. This type of review was applied to clarify an overview of knowledge regarding the linkage between socio-ecological perspective and informal settlements. Further, it advances the definition and reasons behind slum shaping. The results of this study show that there are particularly three main research areas including: urban sustainability and metabolism, climate change, and ecosystem services for slum analysis in the literature. Exploring the gaps through a slum socio-ecological research framework paves the way for studying further research. We also highlighted the need for analyzing energy efficiency and flows, application of renewable energies, drought dynamics, biodiversity services and urban heat island more than other possible subjects for future directions in slum socio-ecological research.
  • Distinctive Aspects of Vernacular Architecture of Wakhan Valley in
           Afghanistan; Influencing the Crossing Cultures and Adapting to the Harsh

    • Abstract: Many scientific sources agree that indigenous architecture, in terms of shape and function, is best suited to its environment. In this architecture, climatic conditions, access to materials, culture and beliefs of residents play an important role in the formation of the outer wall, the arrangement of ancillary spaces and decorative features. This architecture has a unique feature in the Pamir Mountains of Afghanistan in the face of wildlife, different cultures and harsh climatic conditions. The approach of the two Wakhi and Kyrgyz immigrant communities in the region is quite different in their adherence to traditions. However, in the Wakhan Valley, the transfer of experiences between farmers and herding nomads has created a new kind of architecture that is still introverted. To study the formation of this architecture, descriptive-analytical method has been studied on library resources, maps, statistical data, reports and field images. This study showed that indigenous architecture, in a wise introverted way, is based on both maintaining the internal warmth of the house and socio-cultural relationships. Symbols are influenced by the nature, history and culture of neighboring civilizations and have evolved over time. However, this architecture plays an important role in creating interaction and social stability in this region. Communities in residential, religious and burial buildings have also paid attention to available materials and adaptation to land form. Despite efforts to adapt to very cold climates in both types of homes, buildings and tents, there are limitations to receiving lighting and ventilation.
  • A Pattern for Urban Development Integrated Management System by Urban
           Planning Approach (case study: Bandar Abbas)

    • Abstract: Due to economic growth and demographic expansion in cities, cities face multitude of challenges. With the rising challenges, there is a need for integrated urban management approach to manage public affairs in the cities. This approach will provide a holistic solution to these problems’ cities are facing. The economic growth has created social, environmental and societal changes in the cities. To solve these problems new tools, technology and policies are required to coordinate and integrate environmental, economic, social factors in relation with urban areas to study and manage growth and solve potential problems.The present study is aimed to investigate the current model of integrated urban development management system from the perspective of urban planning in Bandar Abbas in a Descriptive-Analytical Method. The data of this research have been collected from various sources (library, documentary, electronic, various field sources). The sample size is 40, and the sample size is collected from urban planning experts based out of Bandar Abbas and Tehran. Analysis of qualitative results has been performed using the SWOT model. Based on the results, 14 various factors were identified as strengths, 38 factors as weaknesses, 9 factors as opportunities and 20 factors as threats. According to the results, the most important strength is, citizens increasing expectations from municipality to provide services. The important weakness is citizens not having knowledge and duties as a citizen, municipalities and neighboring countries. The most important threat is the influence of ethnic subcultures in the city and cultural conflicts. According to this analysis, the most important priority is to develop and set up good urban management practices and moving towards an integrated approach of urban planning.
  • Daylight performance of toplighting: An overview

    • Abstract: Novel and advanced daylighting strategies and systems can noticeably decrease artificial lighting consumption and considerably improve light quality in the interior environments. In modern architecture, employment of rooflights is prevalent since they transmit daylight into deep plans or spaces lacking facade. Although, the use of this system is more common in temperate and cold climates, because of its severe thermal effects, it can be used in all the climates by innovative design strategies. Proper design of rooflights can significantly reduce energy use of lighting, heating, and cooling. Accordingly, the present study was designed to present an overview of toplighting field surveys conducted between 1984 and 2021. In this review study, analytical methods, efficient design parameters, and their effects on daylight and energy performance of the rooflights were investigated. These parameters include rooflight and indoor environmental conditions. Reviewed studies have utilized various methods such as analytical formulae, computer simulation, and experimental designs to investigate performance of the rooflight. The key point is finding or designing a proper state of toplighting in order to increase energy efficiency of the building while improving visual comfort. Also, studying effective rooflight design parameters presents practical guidelines for future studies.
  • Explaining the evolution of Iranian traditional house spaces based on
           distance measurement method of plan similarity vector

    • Abstract: Analyzing the evolution of architectural plans has long been an issue of interest to all researchers and designers around the world, so how to create and develop traditional architectural spaces has been examined many times by researchers, but most of these studies have limitations in the number of plans or algorithms or data analysis methods. Now the question arises as to what method and tools can be used to create a process to provide a more comprehensive evolution and classification of traditional architectural plans, and therefore the ultimate goal of the research is to investigate and present a new classification, based on simultaneous processing of available data in these plans. But to achieve this goal, a distinct and combined research method has been used that includes quantitative, analytical and historical methods. In fact, the research hypothesis is based on the fact that with the help of image processing algorithms and mathematical formulas and numerical data in the plan, the purpose of the research can be achieved. Finally, the findings of this research show that it is possible to compare a large number of plans simultaneously by distance measurement method and using artificial intelligence and to extract a pattern from common and uncommon space dimensions.
  • The Role of Sense of Belonging to the Architectural Symbolic Elements on
           Promoting Social Participation in Students within Educational Settings

    • Abstract: Nowadays, due to the ever growing number of universities and institutions for higher education in recent years, the social requirements of students have not been adequately addressed; and in many cases, residential buildings, have been converted into higher education institutions regardless of the social demands of students. Therefore, social participation, as one of the fundamental principles of solidarity and social interactions, has largely been neglected, which will have negative consequences such as decreased efficiency and learning among students. This study attempts to investigate the role of sense of belonging to the symbolic architectural elements on promoting the social participation of architecture students within educational settings. Accordingly, it was intended to utilize a combination of syntactical analysis, the empirical observation of student activities on campus, and semi-structured interview to estimate the role of intervening variables such as sense of belonging to the symbolic architectural elements in promoting students' social participation. The findings of this study indicate that in most of the studied cases, the students' sociability level for social participation is in accordance with the integration value of their spatial configuration. However, the conducted field observations revealed that some spaces, despite having a low degree of integration due to the presence of specific symbolic architectural elements, encouraged the formation of attractive crowded student communities. Also, such symbolic architectural elements can have an indirect influence on the students’ social participation within the campus through stimulating their sense of belonging. The implication of this study highlights the importance of on-campus teaching systems.
  • Landscape information modeling with the approach of controlling urban

    • Abstract: Regarding the importance of the landscape as part of the nature and a dynamic and complex ecosystem, urban metabolism has been used in this research as a tool to evaluate and control ecosystem services. Firstly, the indicators of the urban landscape and metabolism were reviewed in the authentic books and articles and then the factors affecting the control of metabolism in the urban landscape were explained. Moreover, since landscape has a multifaceted approach, that required multidimensional planning and management; in order to create a conceptual model that fully would express the relationship between urban landscape metabolism and landscape information modeling, we needed to use a management strategy. In order to meet this challenge, Thompson and Martin management strategy models were used because both aspects of landscape information modeling and urban metabolism control on sustainability path were examined simultaneously in this method; and finally, public preference was measured in order to achieve sustainability and establish a perfect balance at the end of the process.
  • Comparative analysis of geometric forms and numerical calculation of
           fractals in Khayyam’s Mausoleum based on the Islamic architecture’s
           definitions and box-counting method

    • Abstract: The interaction and balance between fractal components, which maintain to function in nature in perfect harmony with the highest efficiency, has been the source of inspiration for architects in different eras. Today, contemporary Iranian architecture needs a comprehensive study and familiarity with world issues, hence the Khayyam’s mausoleum was chosen. the main purpose of this article is to analyze the geometry and numerical calculation of the fractal size of the building and its semantic knowledge in the contemporary building, which leads to finding the architect’s goals of how to design these forms and common concepts with Islamic architecture. After achieving how to use Islamic elements in a contemporary monument, we come to the interrelationship between fractal geometry and architectural design.With the box-counting technique, the fractal dimension was calculated by checking the two-dimensional plates in 4 different scales from the largest to the smallest scale to prove its decimal dimension. Then, information was collected by descriptive-analytic method and after determining the common features between fractal forms with analytical and comparative process, the obtained quantitative data resulted in extracting similar cases from the building. Finally, the relationship between the characteristics of fractal geometry and the architecture of the tomb was proved and the obtained patterns were matched with the concepts of self-similarity, iteration (proportion and symmetry), micro scale and non-integer dimension. The elements used such as tiled ornaments, the Islamic star and Shamsa, domed-shaped roof, regular numerical pattern of geometric shapes with symbolism, unity in diversity, infinity and dynamism are reminiscent of Islamic architectural style. Furthermore, fractal has been used in three methods: conceptual, mathematical and intuitive, and has been manifested in both structural and aesthetic aspects.
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