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Civil Engineering and Architecture
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2332-1091 - ISSN (Online) 2332-1121
Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [51 journals]
  • Quality of Life Metrics in Terms of Facilities and Urban Reputation: A
           Case Study in the City of Ventanilla, Lima Peru

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2023
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  11  Number  1  Sashenka Tapia Gallarday   and Arturo Valdivia Loro   The availability and access to city facilities are key metrics in the assessment of the quality of life of its inhabitants. In our case study, it became evident that there is a gap between the supply of facilities (education, health, supply, security, culture, recreation, and sports) and the context of urban planning, which must structure a comprehensive and long-term vision through urban plans. This management tool must integrate facilities with housing, transportation, facilities, workplaces, etc. Likewise, it must cover various scales (neighborhoods, districts, municipalities, metropolitan areas, regions) and a multi-stakeholder vision (government authorities, private entrepreneurs, academics, and civil society). The existing gap generates an inequitable territorial distribution of facilities and services, which leads to progressive social segregation in the city and a progressive decrease in the quality of life of its inhabitants. On the other hand, the concept of a city's reputation has two main connotations. On the one hand, it is based on the functional value that a city has for its inhabitants; on the other hand, it echoes the emotional ties between them and the city, according to social roots. This research addresses, from an empirical perspective, the supply of facilities within the city of Ventanilla and its influence on the city's reputation. The analysis was based on metrics of the spatial distribution of facilities and the perception of its inhabitants. The results show that the supply of facilities, within a decontextualized diagnosis of needs and without a long-term vision, through a Master Plan, causes a progressive deterioration of the quality of life. At the same time, quantitative metrics related to the provision of facilities can be a misleading approach to assessing the quality of life in a city. Our research made it clear that it is necessary to include metrics, methodologies, and qualitative analyses so that underlying issues such as accessibility, placemaking, and social cohesion are also assessed. Post -COVID-19 scenario concepts such as "the 15-minute city" and others may provide useful insights in this regard.
      PubDate: Jan 2023
       
  • Assessment of Safe Access to Pedestrian Infrastructure Facilities in the
           City of Almaty, Kazakhstan

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2023
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  11  Number  1  Zhaina Tolegen   Usama Konbr   Sangul Karzhaubayeva   Gaukhar Sadvokasova   Ainash Nauryzbayeva   and Dina Amandykova   Currently, in all large and small cities in Kazakhstan, residential and public buildings are being actively built. It should be noted that the quantitative indicators of the construction of residential facilities prevail. The method applied to building residential facilities at the point and quarter increases the population density in urban areas. Increasing the number of residents requires assessing the levels of comfort for pedestrians at different speeds, the safety of sidewalks, and ensuring the accessibility of infrastructure facilities to people. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the quality of comfortable and safe conditions of pedestrian roads as a part of a district of Almaty. The assessment is based on the study of the presence and quality of elements and objects in the structures of transport roads and pedestrian sidewalks, and the determining level of pedestrian comfort is also applied (PCL). As a result of the study, the most problematic streets, the quality of pedestrian accessibility of extensive infrastructure facilities in each residential sector, and the main shortcomings and proposals for their elimination will be identified. The data obtained because of the study can be used in reconstruction, and urban area spatial planning concepts, allowing people to walk to most daily services and institutions, creating maximum opportunities to walk, reducing dependence on road transport, and contributing to the daily life of the community.
      PubDate: Jan 2023
       
  • Stigmergy Mechanism as a Form of Architectural Space Programming

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2023
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  11  Number  1  Nur Hadiyatun Nabawi   Kristanti Dewi Paramita   and Yandi Andri Yatmo   Coastal regions are areas of high ecological and economic importance. These areas do not exceed 12% of the urban areas in the world, although 45% of the world’s population lives there. Countries build new cities in coastal areas, seeking the scenic value of these areas. However, the great ignorance of the natural and environmental fragility of such areas has led to the development of high-density cities, destroying the natural ecosystems and biodiversity of these areas. Nowadays, most coastal regions are not only suffering from poor unsustainable development among most of their cities but also the high threat of being lying exposed without any defensive means against the high threat of natural and environmental disasters. There is a massive need for a new approach that may mitigate the negative impact of the poor developments, restore the nature of eco defensive systems, and increase the resilience of such cities against natural and environmental threats. The study develops a new approach that can be efficiently integrated through the traditional planning process for coastal communities. The adapted methodology aims to conduct a correlative analytical study among the most effective emerging approaches for the sustainable planning of coastal communities. Such a study reveals the ability of contingency planning to increase the sustainability of such communities. Furthermore, the paper profoundly studied the contingency planning process for coastal communities correlated with the traditional planning process for Egyptian coastal communities and cities. This study innovated a new planning process that can fulfill the development requirements while mitigating their impacts, maintaining/restoring the ecosystems, and increasing the resilience of the Egyptian coastal communities and cities.
      PubDate: Jan 2023
       
  • Using Sustainable Tectonics to Create a Long-lasting Architectural
           Framework with Artistic Dimensions and Expressive Design

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2023
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  11  Number  1  Amira Fawzy Helmy Almaz   and Mai Ahmed Fakhry Farahat   Throughout history, architecture has changed to reflect the increasing expressive capacities of ideas, elements, and structural systems as a result of this development, explains the development of structural systems as a result of the accumulation of construction and architectural experiences, and thus how structural thought transforms from a purely functional perspective. Structural tectonic to generate closed or semi-closed architectural spaces fulfills functional requirements and achieves structural and aesthetic conditions without sacrificing the role of shaping architecture and structural cohesiveness. The goal of the research is to investigate new architectural design methodologies emerging from the combination of tectonic systems and sustainable architecture to better understand tectonic architecture patterns in both traditional and digital forms. Tectonics organizes the analytical criteria for analyzing the constituent layers of architecture's formal structure in both designs and practice. By analyzing the theoretical and practical aspects and developing a clear mechanism to achieve a distinctive expressive sustainable architecture by integrating traditional tectonic factors in traditional sustainable practices and digital tectonic factors in technical sustainability, the study provides a conceptual framework under the theme of Sustainable Tectonics to define the formal structure of sustainable designs, traits, and layers detectable in sustainable architectural design. The study looked at key analytical features that may be utilized to analyze the underlying assumptions systematically. The analytical technique is a research strategy.
      PubDate: Jan 2023
       
  • The Design and Planning of the Inner Peaceful Life Coaching Complex
           Academy

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2023
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  11  Number  1  Aaya Saaty   and Aida Nayer   Individuals who have difficulty making decisions in life can benefit from the help and support of life coaches. Patients or addicts often find life mentors to be wise and smart because they can solve problems appropriately and effectively. Hence, this study aims to propose a design for the construction of a life coaching complex academy mainly for inner peace of individual. This study considered several case studies of rehabilitation center from Netherlands, Malaysia and Israel. The selected case studies are equipped with unique design and facilities. The proposed zones in the project consist of five main zones namely administration, rehabilitation, recreational, residential, and services. A comprehensive site assessment was accomplished to recognize the most suitable location for the project’s site. Several site assessment criteria are used and the preferred site for the project is positioned near to sea and Al Rahma Mosque, at Jeddah Saudi Arabia. The site zoning was designed and executed.
      PubDate: Jan 2023
       
  • The Dilemma between Reducing the Thermal Stress in the Industrial Spaces
           and Ergonomics Arrangement in Low- and Middle-income Countries

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2023
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  11  Number  1  Kareem Eldaly   Asmaa Nasr Eldin   and Lamis Elgizawi   Thermal heat stress is a leading cause of numerous occupational diseases that disturb worker performance and work quality and, in extreme circumstances, can result in death. When employees are exposed to severely hot or cold thermal settings, thermal discomfort is listed as one of the leading reasons for discontent in the job. Given the time individuals spend at work, studies assessing the comfort of the thermal environment are becoming increasingly relevant. However, most industrial spaces in low- and middle-income countries are designed without considering the workers' thermal comfort, which leads to an unmeasured decrease in productivity and many health considerations. This research aims to provide a methodology for developing the indoor thermal comfort of the workers in industrial spaces by optimizing the workers’ ergonomics, activity profiles, and building shell without implementing any mechanical cooling systems, which is not usual in low- and middle-income areas. The methodology is based on building a computer-based model on the Design Builder simulation tool based on current measures of temperature, humidity, wet-bulb temperature, air speed over each window, and indoor surface temperatures. Then, three different scenarios were built to optimize the indoor ergonomics of the factory in the first scenario, and the building shell in the second scenario, the activity profiles of the workers in the third scenario to become correspond with the NOISH criteria of maximum metabolic rate for each WBGT. After that, each scenario's results were associated with the workers' thermal sensation and air temperatures, which correlated the ergonomics of industrial spaces and the thermal comfort of workers there. The results of each scenario simulation were represented by horizontal and vertical sections of the air temperature and Percentage of People's Discomfort (PPD). Each scenario’s results referred to a decrease in the air temperature and PPD; however, all the scenarios combined decreased the PPD to around 50% for most of the measured working stations. The research concluded a methodology of optimizing any industrial space thermal performance without implementing any active ventilation techniques, which is considered the usual form of any industrial space in Egypt and most low and middle-income countries. Therefore, the presented methodology applies to most industrial spaces that face the dilemma of decreased productivity due to indoor thermal heat loads that affect the workers.
      PubDate: Jan 2023
       
  • Bibliometric and Scientometric Review of Architectural Flood Resilience
           for Housing

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2023
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  11  Number  1  Anthony Peter   Roshida Binti Abdul Majid   and Nor Izura Binti Tukiman   The desire for sustainable architectural flood resilience for housing that will lower the number of defects caused by floods prompted an investigation into the stakeholders in the domain. In recent years, the threat of flooding has pulled the attention of both researchers and practitioners. The purpose of the study is: to determine the most important authors, collaboration connections, and countries in academic works in this field, to identify the present mainstream research, and to suggest future research directions. The research's scope reveals a tendency that goes from small to huge, or from the level of individuals and friends to businesses and organisations, then to the level of countries. A systematic literature review (SLR) was done. From Scopus, 155 related bibliographic records were retrieved. Through exclusion and inclusion criteria, bibliometric analysis has been performed, and scientometric analysis has also been applied to strengthen the SLR findings using science mapping visualisation tools. The study provides an easily accessible point of reference for practitioners, policymakers, and research and development (R&D) bodies in the realm of practices. The most important authors, collaboration connections, and countries around the world are known as a result of the study. The study increases public awareness of the present trend in the domain and creates room for future research in less explored areas. The data reported in this review are primarily drawn from developed countries because there is a dearth of research on the field in Africa and other developing countries.
      PubDate: Jan 2023
       
  • The Acoustic Comfort in the House Made of Plastic Waste

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2023
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  11  Number  1  Dhani Mutiari   Nur Rahmawati Syamsiyah   Yayi Arsandrie   Suharyani   Muhammad Ali Rofik   and Saidah Aliyatul Himmah   This research is conducted to test the plastic waste house, a house prototype from a mixture of plastic waste materials and sawdust in terms of acoustics. In the previous studies, we used 20 different percentage compositions for the plastic waste, rice husks, and sawdust added with cement adhesive. The best results were found in 30% plastic waste composition and 70% sawdust with Portland cement adhesive. In this composition, the result obtained is a sound absorption value of 0.468 s [1]. This study continues previous research, which includes analyzing the comfort of a prototype house with the best mix in previous studies. The method used is a sound absorption chorus test using research instruments such as microphones, real-time analyzers, and the INSUL application. This study aimed to determine whether the bricks made with the same mixing ratio have the same value when used in the house model and to determine the absorption value. This study found that the absorption value of the plastic waste bricks used for house prototyping walls has good absorption with a reverberation time of T30=0.468 seconds; the temperature inside the room is 30.8 ℃ with a humidity of 54%, while at the same time the temperature outside is 37℃ with a humidity of 57%.
      PubDate: Jan 2023
       
  • Importance of HVAC System Selection in Reducing the Energy Consumption of
           Building Retrofits–Case Study: Office Building in London

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2023
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  11  Number  1  Baran Tanriverdi   and Gulay Zorer Gedik   The analysis of the holistic life cycle and energy has become more important due to the escalating energy demands in existing office stock. HVAC system retrofits to save energy are an outstanding way when compared to envelope improvements. The study proposes a parametric workflow to analyze and reduce energy, carbon and cost in HVAC retrofits. Based on the workflow, the energy demands of an existing office building were gathered using energy modelling software. The results then were calibrated with the building's energy data. Using the equation-based modelling workflow, HVAC plant side systems were simulated parametrically to calculate energy, carbon and cost. In total, 5184 iterations of 10 interventions were tested. It was found that heating plant type and heat recovery were the prominent savings inputs in the case study. The study presented a comprehensive approach to the HVAC system retrofit of existing buildings, which uses real energy data calibration, verifiable, and parametric methods.
      PubDate: Jan 2023
       
  • The Influence of the Thermal Conduction and Detail Development Process in
           Architecture

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2023
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  11  Number  1  Kire Stavrov   Strahinja Trpevski   and Andrijana Tasheva   During the architectural design process, it is particularly important to emphasize the aspect of the heat flow in buildings. Therefore, by raising the question of the heat flow in buildings, we perform an in-depth examination of the following parameters: climate conditions, material characteristics, and thermal conduction. For the most part, the research will focus on examining the thermal conductivity, and materiality applied in buildings throughout the design process. In other words, this study will demonstrate several key points: (a) analyze the proposed methodology, and challenges within the architectural design process based on the climate context; (b) associate each of the stages with diverse parameters; (c) represent three separate structures situated in different climate zones and, (d) finally, the driving factors affecting the architectural design development process. The research is primarily driven by the idea of bringing together two aspects: the sustainable treatment of the buildings and environmental awareness in architecture. Finally, this study merges two approaches within the design development process: technical and environmental. Therefore, the main focus of this study is placed on the technical and technological aspects of the detail in architecture. Based on these two approaches, three architectural design proposals are demonstrated.
      PubDate: Jan 2023
       
  • Conceptual Framework for Urban Development Dynamics Dealing with
           Geo-Environmental Coastal Hazards (On the Northern Coast of the Nile Delta
           in Egypt)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2023
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  11  Number  1  Anhar Awad Elnagar   Randa Galal Ali   Mustafa Monir Mahmoud   and Heba Nabil Kabil   The Geo-Environmental Coastal Hazards (GECH) causing serious damages in many areas around the world, are among the most important hazards due to its numerous effects. The coastal areas are important attractions for populations and activities. These areas are characterized with the phenomenon of sea-level rise that varies in its rate of change at large spatial and temporal scales, so it is difficult to be predicted locally [1]. As a result, the climate changes’ hazards affect the future of urban development processes in coastal areas. Based on the foregoing, the main question of the research is whether the potential effects of hazards have been taken into account while planning the coastal areas in Egypt and their integration into the development approaches or not. Hence, the research emphasizes the concept of dynamism and flexibility of coastal planning that may be compatible with these variables, and may be positively reflected on the urban plans of coastal cities. The research methodology tackles studying, analyzing, and evaluating coastal hazards and their implications on the Egyptian development. The analytical framework discusses the international case studies dealing with hazards from a developmental point of view, to formulate a proposed dynamic framework for developing the Egyptian coastal areas, which are exposed to coastal hazards, taking into account the temporal dimension and expected geo-environmental hazards, which vary according to the Sea Level Rise (SLR) scenarios. This framework is applied in the most dangerous low areas, such as the Egyptian Delta coast, reaching the gap of lacking dynamics and flexible procedures dealing with the changeable coastal geo-environmental hazards over different time periods.
      PubDate: Jan 2023
       
  • Regression Analysis for the Bond Strength of Steel Fibre Self-compacting
           Concrete Based on the Experimental Studies

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2023
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  11  Number  1  S. Vijaya Kumar   B. Dean Kumar   and B. L. P. Swami   This article describes experimental research of the interfacial adhesion of triple blended steel fibred self-compacting concrete (TBSFSCC) and it varies depending on the percentage of steel fiber. In self-compacting concrete, mineral admixtures such as condensed silica fume and fly ash are utilized as supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). Condensed silica fume can replace 10 percent of the cement and fly ash can replace 20 percent of the cement to fulfill ACI's SCC guidelines. The embedment length of a steel bar with a diameter of 12mm was chosen to be 100mm in all the standard specimens. Fe-415 steel rod is used in this research. The pull-out test in the universal testing machine is used to evaluate the bond strength of this triple blended Self-Compacting Concrete (TBSCC). Ordinary steel fibers are then added to the concrete volume at various percentages, such as 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8. The bond strength, slip, and the method of failure of each rebar were all noted in the test results. The comparison of these results clearly shows that the percentage of steel fiber contributes to the TBSCC bond strength, and conclusions are generated.
      PubDate: Jan 2023
       
  • Durability Properties of Rigid Pavement Quality Concrete Containing Ground
           Granulated Slag

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2023
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  11  Number  1  Chandra Sekhar Malla   and Mukunda Rao D.   Based on the cost and durable characteristics, ground granulated slag was chosen. Pollution in the environment can also be reduced by limiting the entry of carbon dioxide and other harmful gases into the atmosphere. The current work is mainly associated with evolution of changes in compressive strength and weight loss in 4 different mixes of M20 grade concretes namely conventional concrete (CC), concrete replaced by 1% polypropylene fiber by weight of cement (CC+1%PPF), total replacement of cement by slag along with (KOH and K2SiO3) solution (AASC) and total replacement of cement by slag along with (KOH and K2SiO3) solution with 1% polypropylene fiber (AASC+1%PPF). 14M KOH and K2SiO3 are considered to project AASC blends. Starter examination has investigated blends with various soluble base activator modulus at variable potassium oxide measurements. Higher qualities are obtained with a 5 percent oxide content and 1.25 MR. An expansion in potassium oxide measurements past 5% lessens strength boundaries. The effect of 0.3% and 1% of H2SO4 and MgSO4 on the above concrete mixes (cubes) were immersed in solutions for 14, 28, 56, and 91 days and their behaviours are examined. Based on the results obtained, alkali-activated slag concrete with 1% polypropylene fiber is found to achieve high strength and low weight loss.
      PubDate: Jan 2023
       
  • Compendium of Dimensions for Evaluating Publicness of Public Spaces

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2023
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  11  Number  1  Simranpreet Kaur   and Pankaj Chhabra   A classic case of privatization of use and not of ownership, privatized public space is a newly defined dimension that falls in the range far from purely private or purely public. These newly found dimensions need a measuring tool to describe the publicity of that space before designating the usage. This research paper has been extracted from the larger study on privatized public spaces addressing the questions on defining characteristics of good public space, and some measurable parameters to evaluate these public spaces. The paper focuses on creating a compendium of parameters from the already defined literature on public spaces, publicness and publicity, which can be used to explore publicness of such spaces and their associated dynamics. These parameters are sought to thread the dimensions that will further help in determining a measurable set of variables to analyze the public spaces empirically and analytically. A discussion on various models developed by authors till date has been made a part to this paper. The scenarios have transformed in 21st century with the advent of digital socialization and urbanization of spaces. Urban public spaces in India represent a clear contradiction of consistency and change. The paper concludes with a set of parameters extracted from the study and appropriated for the changing public spaces in India.
      PubDate: Jan 2023
       
  • Identification of Relationship between the Quality and Uses of Public
           Parks in India

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2023
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  11  Number  1  Aniruddha Jogdande   and Abir Bandyopadhyay   The study aims to identify the relationship between the quality and the uses of public parks in India. It has been observed from the literature that the quality of the park is generally evaluated based on some 'factors' that, in turn, define the 'use' of the park. In this study, a mixed-method approach is adopted for evaluating the relationship between the quality of parks and their uses. Statistically, Pearson's Correlation Analysis determines such a relationship. The finding of the study identifies that some of the identified factors are "design factors" of the parks, and the rest are mostly contextual, like extraneous, characteristics of surrounding areas and management factors. The study concludes that the use of park is not only dependent on design factors and their quality but also depends on the quality of the extraneous factors, characteristics of surrounding areas and management policies of the parks. These four factors create an image of the park and generate legibility for its specific use. Park designers and planners must focus on the design factors which give legibility for its specific use, considering the characteristics of the surrounding areas and management policies of the park. They should also understand the users' needs while designing and planning the parks. The study would be helpful for park designers and planners to improve the utility of the park.
      PubDate: Jan 2023
       
  • French Planner Henri Prost's Istanbul Master Plans, His Housing Planning
           Ideas and Methods as an Architect-urbanist

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2023
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  11  Number  1  Hülya Coskun   The scope of the French architect-urbanist Henri Prost’s Istanbul planning and his doctrinal approach have been researched and discussed in each period, but the housing issue in his studies remained unknown. The presented research was expected to contribute to the literature as it is the first research to examine the housing issue in Prost plans and re-examine old planning methods recently comeback on the agenda like E. Howard. The research examined H. Prost’s Istanbul Master plans, in the first half of the 20th century, in the context of housing and his main identity as an architect. Also, French planning theories and his ideological l’école (school’s) thinking resource Le Musée-Sociale (Social Museum) a think-tank, legislator and executory institution and its predecessor-influencer is Frédérick Le Play. The social-based old ideologies were transformed via French architect-urbanist H. Prost in the Early Republican period in Türkiye, and they played an important role in the modernization and development of Istanbul. Although the housing problem was not included in the Governmental policies of that period, H. Prost planned some housing areas and housing models with his own initiative. Thus, the research methodology based on a paradigm change centered on the H. Prost's architect identity in lower-architectural scale instead of upper urban-scale research methods adopted by previous research. A taxonomy is prepared with the anachronic approach to reveal the housing models and typologies for various regions of Istanbul. It was found that H. Prost, empirical data, taxonomy and typologies, housing production supported the main assumption in the research.
      PubDate: Jan 2023
       
  • Performance of Concrete Building Structure Exposed to Localized Fire

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2023
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  11  Number  1  Suryawan Murtiadi   and Akmaluddin Akmaluddin   Concrete structures have a favorable position in the building industry with regard to their performance of fire resistance. The understanding of their behavior is essential for reliable analysis and design. This paper is mainly concerned with concrete building performance subjected to localized fire arrangement. Special attention has been given to the finite element model of a seven-story concrete building representing a typical commercial office building designed to European Standard. Very large displacements happened on horizontal direction of the floor slabs due to thermal expansions. The large displacement induced lateral movement of the floor slabs and created additional moments to external columns. Design engineers should ensure that the external columns have ability to accommodate lateral displacements during fire. Although, the thin external columns of the model can withstand these movements due to beneficial effect of membrane action developed to the floor slabs. Present analysis indicates that the performance of the whole structure is substantially different from the single isolated structural member behavior during fire. Although the current design procedures are conservative, design engineers have to consider the detrimental and beneficial effects of lateral slabs' thermal expansion in complete structure.
      PubDate: Jan 2023
       
  • On the Review of Utilization of Sandblasting Waste in Concrete: Cracks
           Propagation and Sem Results

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2023
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  11  Number  1  Qomariah   and Taufiq Rochman   These days, significant quantities of waste sand from sandblasting are being created, which in turn pollutes the environment. Utilizing sandblasting to remove accumulated biological matter and other dirt from concrete, steel, and wood components is an effective method. The purpose of the experimental laboratory is to investigate the exploitation of sandblasting waste in terms of mortar strength, concrete strength, absorption, and the mix's capacity to operate. Sand blasting produced by sand is widely available, hence the utilization of this waste as sand in concrete was investigated, using zero, 30%, and 40% substitution of normal sand and using aggregate grading in accordance with SNI-03-2834-2000. Using a 15x30 cm cylindrical test object with a treatment age of 7, 14, and 28 days ago, tests were conducted on the qualities of fresh concrete consisting of concrete viscosity values and hard concrete properties, namely specific gravity and compressive strength obtained by using waste sand. With 30% sandblasting sand replacement, specific gravity increases, corresponding to the prior test object's weight. From 7 to 14 days, specific gravity increased by 5.6%, and keep increased as 8.16% between 14 and 28 days. Specific gravity increases compared to concrete without waste sand (0% increasing) at 7 days, 4.43% at 14 days, and 10.87% at 28 days respectively, indicating that employing sandblasting waste increases cement binding. Therefore, it conforms to the compressive strength that increased by 10.09% from 14 days to 28 days. However, it decreased by 13.6% from 7 days to 14 days.
      PubDate: Jan 2023
       
  • Differences of Rural Residential Quarters in North and South China

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2023
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  11  Number  1  Zhao Jian Ying   and Gan Tong   China is a large country with an extensive north-south span, resulting in huge differences in geography and climate, folks and customs, and regional economic developments. These differences have further brought forth some unique characteristic cultures and architectural styles in the north and the south of China. Nowadays, most rural residential quarters are innovative renovations based on the original old buildings, so rural residential quarters generally have a close regenerative relationship with the local traditional buildings, rural residential quarters represent and inherit the traditional architectural spirit and culture of the regions. Consequently, the architectural styles and spatial compositions of rural residential quarters in the north and the south of China show relevant differences in accordance with regional architectural traditions. Excellent rural residential quarters design can not only promote local culture, but also provide a strong guarantee for the local economy and employment. From the perspective of professional point of view, studying the differences between the North and the South of the rural residential quarters will enable relevant practitioners to have an in-depth understanding of both the advantages and disadvantages in the architectural designs of rural residential quarters in the north and the south of China. The paper hoped to provide possible enlightenments for the developmental designs of China’s rural residential quarters that are supposed to combine traditional culture with modern architectural designs for inheritance and innovation. In terms of policy significance, promoting the development and integration of rural residential quarters can not only attract tourists, but also enable the locals who work abroad to work in their hometowns. Although rural residential quarters are small, they are one of the driving forces for the development of China's rural revitalization strategy. Meanwhile, the study of the differences and integration of rural residential quarters of north and south rural residential quarters has long-term and comprehensive planning significance for the supply-side reform of the rural economy and the integration and exchange of architectural culture between the north and the south. Enter the 21st century, the fast pace of modern life makes people yearn more and more for the traditional rural life. In this background, China’s rural residential quarter industry has entered a rapid development stage, which, however, brought some industry problems, such as serious homogenization and lack of characteristic innovation. In order to help to solve the relevant problems and possibly provide some corresponding theoretical bases , this paper, by way of comparative analysis, tried to explore in depth into the major architectural differences of and their possible causes for rural residential quarters between the north and the south of China from the aspects of construction wall, external building component, building space and courtyard, site selection and facing orientation, internal decoration and furniture, theme orientation, and regional culture so that people who yearn for traditional rural life can have a deeper insight into the rural residential quarters in the north and the south of China. The development of rural residential quarters can not only promote the local culture, but also develop the local economy and increase the local employment.
      PubDate: Jan 2023
       
  • Evaluation of Working Posture of Construction Workers: A Case Study on
           Wall Construction Using Lightweight Bricks

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2023
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  11  Number  1  Henny Pratiwi Adi   Floris C. Boogaard   Edwin Schaap   and Jati Utomo Dwi Hatmoko   Workers are an important factor in the implementation of a construction project. Applying ergonomic postures for workers in the projects is necessary to minimize the risk of work accidents and the risk of experiencing musculoskeletal disorders (MsDs). The use of lightweight brick for wall construction is relatively new and is in great demand by construction industries in Indonesia. During wall construction, workers do repetitive activities such as bending, kneeling, holding tools, or tilting the body. These activities potentially increase the risk of injury and musculoskeletal disorders. This study aims to assess the work posture of workers on the wall construction using lightweight brick and to analyze the high-risk activities. The wall construction work assessment included five stages of activities, (1) material transfer, (2) practical columns making and installation, (3) lightweight brick adhesive dough-making process, (4) lightweight bricks laying, and (5) lightweight brick plaster. The Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) method was used to evaluate the working posture. This method was developed to investigate the risk of abnormalities that workers will potentially experience. Based on the RULA employee assessment worksheet, the research results showed that 69% of workers have a high-risk level of work posture and 31% have low-risk levels of work posture. There are three activities with a high-risk level, namely, material transfer, lightweight brick laying, and lightweight brick plaster. At the same time, practical column making and installation work and lightweight brick adhesive dough-making processes are at a low-risk level. According to the RULA risk level, action is required to investigate and immediately improve activities with a high-risk level. If workers continue to work with the same posture, they will be at risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders related to the neck, trunk, and wrists in the near future. Correcting the worker’s posture can be done by improving work position, process, and workplace layout.
      PubDate: Jan 2023
       
  • Digitize the Architectural Heritage in Egypt to Overcome the Repercussions
           of COVID-19

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2023
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  11  Number  1  R. Yossef   M. R. Abdallah   and W. A. Nour   The world has faced a lot of unprecedented economic and social repercussions in its modern history. For instance, the spread of many diseases such as Covid-19, wars, and climate change. That led to stagnation in many sectors of development. As a result of these events, the governments tended to mitigate the impact of these repercussions by exploiting new technological tools and techniques, such as extended reality, digital marketing, and website development. In fact, the Covid-19 pandemic has affected the tourism sector around the world in the last 3 years. And whereas Egypt owns a third of the world's monuments, which represent the architectural legacies spread over large and multiple areas. From this point of view, this study discusses how to combine these monuments in an integrated project through digitizing architectural heritage on a website that works with modern technology techniques, especially extended reality technology to promote the tourism sector in Egypt, hence increasing the national income. On the other hand, this study also aimed to formulate a hypothetical vision of how to preserve, document, develop and invest in all archaeological buildings at the lowest possible cost, help to immerse yourself in it either completely or partially, query, and identify its elements and components textually, audibly, visually, and sensually. To achieve the study objectives, four steps were undertaken. First, the selection of a case study and virtual documentation of architectural heritage; second, a practical experiment was implemented using the extended reality technology; third, a questionnaire was conducted for the users of the experiment; and fourth, an evaluation by statistical analysis was implemented. From these four steps, a map of Egypt for architectural heritage was carried out. This map not only helps to revitalize the tourism sector but also enhances electronic documentation, and the restoration, and rehabilitation process of the monuments. Hence, preserving the cultural heritage of Egypt.
      PubDate: Jan 2023
       
  • Science Mapping of Porous Asphalt Pavement and Open Graded Friction Course
           (OGFC)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2023
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  11  Number  1  S. Mayuni   S. P. R. Wardani   and B. H. Setiadji   The use of porous asphalt pavement has been started since the 1960s in Europe and continues to be developed in several countries for the purpose of improving road users' safety. In 2003, the National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA) introduced a porous asphalt mixture under the name Open Graded Friction Course (OGFC), as a new generation of flexible pavement with a characteristic high pore content. Because the application of porous asphalt pavement with open gradation is growing rapidly, it is important to track and map the progress of studies in this regard. This paper aims to map the development of literature related to porous asphalt pavement and open graded friction course (OGFC) from 1974 to 2022. The literature was obtained from the Google Scholar database, and the analysis was carried out with the help of VOSviewers using a science mapping approach. The results of this study are quite important because they not only provide a map of existing research developments but can also serve as a reference for researchers who have an interest in developing porous asphalt pavement and open graded friction course (OGFC) studies in the future.
      PubDate: Jan 2023
       
  • Operational Assessment of Speed Control Measures on Capacity of Urban
           Roads in Metropolitan Area of Barranquilla, Colombia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2023
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  11  Number  1  Otto Mora   Miguel Figueroa   Diego Borrero   Javier Abello   Adriana Mattos-Rodriguez   Tulio Naranjo   and Cristian Urrego   With the aim to reduce accident rates and assist in pedestrian traffic, in the city of Barranquilla (Colombia), electronic devices for speed control (speed cameras) have been installed on roads of high vehicular flow with difficulty in pedestrian transit. Traffic Calming Measures are described in the literature as a set of measures to regulate traffic on roads, ensure mobility, and reduce accidents. This article focuses its study on the impact of Traffic Calming Measures through electronic devices on urban or inner cities roads (capacity and operating speed on them). This study centers in the evaluation of the operational impact of speed cameras and the data of vehicular speed and flow collected through them in four main roads of the city, with the purpose of estimating models that establish relationships of speed-flow, and analyzing the impact of these Traffic Calming Measures on the vehicular capacity of urban roads. In the estimation of road capacity, a Greenshields model was applied, with which via speed–density and flow-density relationships, we aim to determine how operational transit is affected by the use of speed cameras. Conclusions show that operational transit is affected by diminishing road capacity between 7 to 41 percent and these Traffic Calming measures are ineffective to ease pedestrian traffic as is expected.
      PubDate: Jan 2023
       
  • Manufacture of Geopolymer Artificial Aggregates by Pelletization and
           Crushing Processes

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2023
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  11  Number  1  Bimo Brata Adhitya   Anis Saggaff   Saloma   and Hanafiah   Aggregates are an important ingredient of concrete. They are of two types: coarse aggregates and fine aggregates. The supply of natural aggregates on Earth is declining with technological advancement, hence, alternatives to natural aggregates are needed. Artificial aggregates have been manufactured using a coal burning waste, i.e. fly ash. On mixing fly ash with an alkaline activator, the mixture reacts and hardens. Aggregates are manufactured either by mixing materials using a granulator pan or by crushing materials using a stone crusher. The optimal manufacturing method was determined by comparing physical properties, such as bulk specific gravity, water absorption, and aggregate hardness, of the aggregates manufactured using these two methods with those of natural coarse aggregates. The average bulk specific gravity was 1.776 and 1.857 for the aggregates produced by the pelletization and crushing processes, respectively, and 2.957 for the natural aggregates. The average water absorption values were 11.62% and 8.37% for the aggregates produced by the pelletization and crushing processes, respectively, and 4.17% for the natural aggregates. The average aggregate hardness values, determined using the Los Angeles abrasion test, were 27.33% and 25.98% for aggregates produced by the pelletization and crushing processes, respectively, and 24.05% for the natural aggregates.
      PubDate: Jan 2023
       
  • Redesigning the Post Covid-19 City: Management of Spaces and of Healthcare
           System, Distribution of Necessary Services and of Entertainment Spaces

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2023
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  11  Number  1  Khaled Al Omari   and Salma Egho   During the epidemiological situation that the world is experiencing from time to time, it has become difficult for cities to adapt to the new epidemiological situation each time. The methodology used in the distribution of public facilities and services in cities has been proved insufficient to meet life needs during epidemic emergencies and changes in environmental and life conditions. This study aims to develop an improved plan in terms of sustainable urban planning applicable to all cities in the world including Jordan taking into account the current life model. The study will be able to be applied to deal with any future epidemics. This study addresses the southern Jordanian city of Aqaba, as a strategically important city, being the only port in the country, by re-planning Aqaba to adapt to any possible epidemic. This study refers to the concepts, ideas and suggestions of many urban architects and planners in the world. A suggested proposal has been concluded of a new urban model consisting of a series of design ideas that form an ideal city in the epidemic and beyond. This new urban model will ensure the well-being of the citizens and will also be able to adapt quickly to existing and pre-planned areas, to be equipped with facilities specifically designed to meet the needs of each region, ensuring a good standard of living even during emergency periods.
      PubDate: Jan 2023
       
  • A Spatio-Economic Logit Model for Aerotropolis Region of Metropolitan
           Cairo International Airport, Egypt

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5A  Mohamed Samir Ragab   Randa Galal Hussein   Walid Nabil Bayoumi   and Tarek Abou El Seoud   The role of gateways, particularly the main international airports, has changed dramatically, from just being a passenger transit to an anchor and catalyst in the metropolitan economic development system and economic globalization competitiveness. The mutual interaction between international airports and the metropolitan region has resulted in the development of new urban forms and new economic approaches such as Aerotropolis. Aerotropolis is a new spatial economic approach defined as the special airport economic zone. The airport plays the role of the new urban core, metropolis, connecting all local business centers with the global to constitute a global metropolitan frontier (new metropolis or new international metropolitan core city). Therefore, Aerotropolis has become an indicator of country globalization and urban development. The research attempts to apply the international Aerotropolis approach in the Egyptian environment for the Cairo International Airport (CIA) case study in the context of the Greater Cairo Metropolitan Region (GCR), based on the projection of the concepts, factors, and key indicators of the Aerotropolis approach on the case of Cairo region. The research methodology was based on the integration of geoinformatics and statistical techniques for the development of a spatio-economic model for Aerotropolis region determination. The development of the proposed model was based on the statistical technique of the different logit model types, k-means cluster analysis. During the model establishment, the research used geoinformatics techniques of spatial analysis tools, network analysis, and weighted overlay to accomplish the research objective of Aerotropolis region generation. The research ends up with the determination of CIA Aerotropolis Region boundaries, identifying the key factors responsible for shaping this Aerotropolis, followed by recommending some policy notes to complete the missing requirements for establishing a proper Aerotropolis in GCR and its CIA capable to lure more FDI (Foreign Direct Investment), particularly in terms of the quality of employment, missing land uses, urban activities and services, and urban fabric.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Development of a Methodological Framework for Measuring Energy Performance
           of Urban Patterns in New Egyptian Communities (Toward Achieving
           Sustainable Urban Regeneration)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5A  Kholoud Y. Z. Farahat   Mohamed Shehata   and Tarek Abou El Seoud   The concept of Sustainable Urban Regeneration/Retrofitting (SUR) is considered a promising approach for addressing most of the current environmental issues. Developed countries have shown a growing interest in achieving SUR in consistence with raising the efficiency of urban performance. Since the energy sector greatly impacts urban development, it is necessary to adapt new approaches & frameworks (FW) to activate Energy Efficiency (EE) in planning a new, not just Egyptian settlement. Enhancing Energy Performance of Urban Patterns (EPUP) is achieved by: (i) controlling energy consumption of urban patterns; & (ii) pursuing energy self-sufficiency. Egypt still confronts major challenges in how to manage growing consumption rates in a way that is not commensurate with the rates of growth of local production. Practical case studies confirmed the failure in applying the principles of EE in most urban pattern of new cities. Therefore, the research problem is formulated as: the current urban planning methodology in Egypt fails to consider EPUP. Consequently, this research aimed to develop a comprehensive Methodological Framework for Energy Performance Measures (MFEPM) of spatial urban patterns of new Egyptian communities. The MFEPM was developed based on the analysis of relevant Literature & comparative analysis of SUR case studies & tools, resulting in a set of indicators (checklist) to measure & minimize EE of the main urban systems forming the diverse urban patterns. Next, the suitability of the checklist for the Egyptian context was improved based on national strategies & guidelines, and through questionnaires with local stakeholders. Then, the MFEPM was tested on urban pattern samples from new Egyptian cities through an extensive qualitative analysis with GIS tools. Finally, the MFEPM will be integrated into the strategic urban planning methodology adopted by the researcher. The MFEPM assists decision makers to apply the concept of contingency planning through developing more efficient interventions to cope with the dynamic urban context.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Management Strategies of Existing Urban Areas Development under Egypt's
           Vision 2030: Between State Policies and the Rights of Existing Residents

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5A  Ahmed Muhammed Elsadek Wahaballa   Morad Abdelkader Abdelmohsen   and Muhammed Ibrahim Gabr   This research aims to propose guidelines for managing existing urban areas development to address the opposite reactions emerging from existing residents toward the government policies for achieving the objectives of Egypt's Vision 2030, by highlighting the development projects implemented in the Greater Cairo, namely the areas at the destination of infrastructure projects and the degraded urban areas through a case study of the existing urban areas within King Salman's axis in Giza. The methodology for the study is based on an inductive approach with two major axes. First, theoretical study that contains identifying general concepts of Egypt's Vision 2030, the rights of existing residents and the Egyptian's policies of existing urban area development. Second, analytical approach that contains analyzing data using quantitative statistical methods also assesses the results by using SWOT analysis to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that may impede the sustainable development objectives of existing urban areas. Finally, the paper found that the state policies of existing urban areas development projects don't serve the social sustainability, and there is a gap between the theoretical and applied concepts of Vision 2030, which relates to human, urban and economic requirements. The results show the importance of activating community participation, development initiatives and taking into account the right of existing residents to make decisions about the development of their areas.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Opportunity to a Place: How Street Network Structure Affects the
           Acquisition of Riverfront Spaces at Minia City

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5A  Hussam. E. M. Magdy   and Abullah Al-Attar   Urban form is defined as the physical characteristics that make built-up areas, including the shape, size, density, and configuration of settlements. Many researchers defined urban forms by the morphological attributes of urban areas at all scales, from localized to broader scales. Generally speaking, the street network is the most significant attribute in understanding urban morphology, as it affects and determines the urban form: shape, size, hierarchy, ...etc. The researchers assume that the street network structure, its connectivity, depth, and permeability, also, influence the opportunity of using the riverfront spaces "Urban Space Acquisition". This phenomenon usually leads to emerging changes in public space formation. This paper tries to understand the influence of street network characteristics on the formation of riverfront spaces by testing street network accessibility, permeability, and modes of mobility at the widest and/or longest riverfront space in Egypt, at Minia City. The research methodology depended on surveying the uses and activities over the riverfront space and understanding their relationship with the riverfront-spaces' depth, including links, nodes and access points. It reads the whole riverfront space as a series of spaces/segments, each of which has its own configuration of urban space acquisition. The preliminary street network analysis indicates that there is a considerable relationship between the mentioned factors, by which the city's urban morphology can be understood.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • The Resilience of Egyptian Cities against Health Crises 'Egyptian Pandemic
           City Tool'

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5A  Engy Ramadan Mostafa   Hesham Mohamed El-Barmelgy   and Kariman Ahmed Shawky   The world today, recovering from a pandemic crisis, has witnessed a complete change in everyday challenges and routines. Following the COVID-19 crisis, the world was forced to face the challenge of preserving human life. Today, city planners and urban designers have to establish cities that can mitigate the impact of health problems; in other words, the city's urban product must be more resilient against health problems. The condition of completely shutting down urban areas and transforming them into infirmities has led to great economic and social crises. Economically, the world has lost at least 3.7 trillion dollars, equivalent to 4.4% of the Global Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The present paper aims at developing a tool that has the ability to measure the resilience of the Egyptian urban settlements against pandemic crises; thus, helping planners and urban designers to establish and promote pandemic cities. Based on profound theoretical and analytical studies, the concept of pandemic cities was studied and analyzed composing a list of indicators that illustrate the ability of existing urban settlements to face pandemic crises. Then, based on the findings of an empirical study that targeted Egyptian experts, the most relevant indicators were identified. Using relative importance index (RII), the relative weights of indicators were calculated and utilized as a tool that can measure the resilience of Egyptian urban settlements against pandemic crises.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • A GIS Vulnerability Assessment Tool to Support Strategic Planning of
           Cities Facing Flash Floods - Case Study of Nuweiba City - Egypt

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5A  Safaa A. Ghoneim   Maha M. Elsayed   and Hossam Sami Amer   As a part of climate change; flash floods are rapidly increasing and becoming more severe, challenging more and more cities around the world. According to the recent facts published by the UN and the WHO, their risk increases particularly in low- and mid-income countries, where it exceeds the ability of communities to cope with it. This sheds the light on the importance of the community's pre-impact conditions, which determine its vulnerability to floods. This research develops a vulnerability assessment tool and its associated methodology as an effective tool to be integrated into the strategic planning of existing cities facing flash floods. It is an indicators-based GIS tool to Assess Physical and Social vulnerability. Nuweiba city on the gulf of Aqaba-Egypt was chosen as a case study. However, it is located in an arid zone, and suffers from frequent and severe flash floods. It could be considered the effluent of Wadi Watir's main watershed (3509 km2). A GIS model has been developed to apply the Physical part of the developed assessment tool. So, Detailed data on the city's urban structure, DEM and satellite images were integrated and processed to extract the evaluated layer for each vulnerability indicator. Then, a weighted overlay of these indicators was applied to produce the final vulnerability map. The results showed a high level of applicability for the developed model, however, the vulnerability map was compared to the available strategic plan for the city. Accordingly, several changes to the plan were recommended to achieve a more sustainable future for the city.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Landscape Design as a Tool to Meet Children's Needs in Residual Urban
           Spaces

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5A  Shereen Farouk Abou Dagher   Mohammad Refaat   and Rania El Messeidy   Residual spaces are defined as a category of open spaces that exist in our urban context but are rarely considered by urban designers. They have other terminologies, such as leftovers, loose spaces, lost spaces, neglected spaces, and neglected urban land. However, residual spaces can be used to serve in community problem-solving such as children's needs in outdoor spaces. Using landscape design as a tool, residual spaces in an urban context can be used to consider children's activities and their different needs. In this sense, this paper highlights the main aspects of the two main factors of the study, which are the landscape design elements and components of residual spaces and the different types of child needs. This research explores the relationship between these two main factors and their components to define the most suitable landscape design elements that can respond to the different children's needs in outdoor spaces. To achieve this goal, the research proposes a matrix based on a literature review and analysis of two case studies, one international and another local, that combine the two main factors of the study, which are the landscape design elements and components of residual spaces, and several types of child needs. It also proposes an inferred matrix that comes from the main matrix, which will provide a tool that helps the landscape designers evaluate the projects oriented to the child and contribute with the main matrix to design better and more responsive outdoor spaces for children in the future.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Computer Based Smart Urban Upgrading Model (SUUM)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5A  Soaad Bashandy   Hesham EL-Barmelgy   Tarek Abou El Seoud   and Asmaa Sallam   Existing urban areas in Egypt suffer from environmental, economic and social issues. The smart city concept is an approach that improves urban performance and helps to manage urban areas in different sectors to gain social economic and environmental benefits and improve the quality of life. Most governments around the world adopt the concepts of smartness as a main objective in creating new cities and communities. Studies covering the requirements for applying the concept of smartness in future planning have been well addressed. However, the idea of the ability of existing urban areas to apply the requirements of smartness has received less attention leading to a research gap area. The paper aims to address the issue of applying the concept of smartness within the context of existing urban areas. Based on a profound theoretical study, a model is inducted. The proposed Smart Urban Upgrading Model (SUUM) is able to measure the ability of the existing urban areas to promote and implement the requirements of smartness. In other words, the model is to act as a manual for integrating the concept of smartness into existing urban areas. Finally, aiming to test the ability of the innovated model (SUUM) to address the Egyptian context, an online questionnaire with Egyptian experts is conducted online via Google forms and findings are analyzed using SPSS.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • A Methodology for Evaluating Housing Programs in Egypt

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5A  Mohamed Badr   and Mohamed Shehata   The recent period has witnessed significant theoretical developments in the area of evaluation, with its various types and tools, as well as approaches used in its implementation, which are used in various fields, particularly in urban planning. Although there has been a breakthrough achieved in the use of these tools globally and internationally, there is no way to apply them to Egyptian urban patterns in general and the housing sector in particular. This research paper aims at proposing a methodology for evaluating housing programs in Egypt, focusing on low-income housing programs prioritized by the state. This methodology is designed in stages based on studying global applications in evaluating low-income housing programs and concluding the most important steps and tools used in this regard, as well as the appropriate evaluation approach for each case; economic, social, environmental or technological to reach a theoretical methodology for evaluating housing programs that are appropriate to the Egyptian case. Then this methodology is reviewed and checked by experts and specialists, as well as by a group of administrative authorities in the State concerned with the application of housing programs in Egypt, through interviews therewith to consult them and ask for their views on the preliminary methodology in order to take them into account in the creation of the final methodology.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Gated Community Walkability Design Efficiency Model

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5A  Nouran Abdallah Saadawy   and Sahar Ismail Abdel Hady   It has been crystal clear that Gated Communities became one of the most noticeable urbanization features that have recently spread massively in the Egyptian Real Estate Market with the expansion of Greater Cairo. The Gated Communities phenomenon became noticeable in Egypt due to several motives such as developing sustainable and healthy communities. They must promote walkability as their mobility network because walkability is an essential tool in implanting Sustainable Healthy Gated Communities. Walkability has always been correlated with human health and well-being, and the walking behavior is massively influenced by the gated community's urban design. A low rate of walkability affects human health, well-being, and quality of life. Since Gated Communities in Egypt don't promote walkability, due to the lack of specialized sustainable urban design principles and patterns for it. This study aims to: define and clarify the sustainable urban design principles and patterns specialized for Gated Communities to promote walkability. GCWDEM is a model to be inducted that bears the ability to measure the design efficiency of gated communities' walkability principles. This innovated model will have the ability to be integrated within the design process as a proactive approach, or to be applied to the existing projects as a reactive approach.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • A Framework for National Urban Policy-Making Evaluation Methodology:
           Challenges of Natural Resources Sustainability in Egypt

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5A  Raghda Zakariya   Mohammed Shehata   and Hisham Hafez   The national urban policies (NUP) adopted by Egypt during the period from the sixties to the second decade of the 21st century failed to address the challenges of sustainable urban development (SUD), as a result of some orientations affecting the mechanisms of policy-making and planning decisions in Egyptian urban areas. One of the most affected policies is preserving natural resources (land - water), resulting in the loss of many of these resources. The research hence addressed repercussions of this problem on policy-making methodology to deduce its weaknesses and strengths, by adopting a critical analysis method within three stages; overview and analysis of the research problem, then assessed policy-making mechanisms and planning decisions within the framework of evaluation methods deduced from experiences. Finally, it proposed a framework to develop an evaluation methodology that can function as an adaptive tool for development issues and urban governance in Egypt.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Assessing the Identity of Place through Its Measurable Components to
           Achieve Sustainable Development

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5A  Omnia Ali   Yasser Mansour   Abeer Elshater   and Ayman Fareed   Scholarly studies have enriched the definition and theory of place identity since the 1960s. These trends are becoming more prevalent in the urban setting. This is because place identity has become a common theme in many researches and design projects and a thriving theme in policies and regulations to achieve sustainable development. In this respect, it is necessary to review these studies to identify the points of intersection and present updated evidence that incorporates the most relevant approaches. In this context, literature provides a deep understanding of place identity definitions through literature and research articles that discuss many factors and elements that identify place identity. This review divided the data into definitions, types, layers, levels, forms, features, dimensions, principles, and elements. Based on the research objective to present a reliable tool to measure the sense of identity in public places, the study used the descriptive-analytical approach to analyze, compare, and explore the collected information on place identity to present a matrix for evaluating place identity. According to the matrix, identity can be categorized into three axes: environment, people, and interaction; under two primary classifications: tangible and intangible. The findings confirmed a network of elements that were coded and defined. Parcel "elements" are evaluated by grouping them into three groups according to their contribution: positive element contribution, negative contribution, and neutral or non-contributing element. Based on the matrix checklist proposed as part of the evaluation strategy, the outcome indicates the extent of the place's senses of identity. The suggested matrix could be used to compare different places' sense of identity, and accordingly, the places could be developed based on these results.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • An Egyptian Tsunami Contingency Plan

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5A  Shaimaa EL Mowafy   Hesham M. EL-Barmelgy   and Heba Mohamed Ammar   Tsunami is one of the most destructive natural hazards that threatens coastal communities worldwide. Until the famous 2004 tsunami, the phenomenon has rarely been regarded as an essential issue facing coastal communities, following the incident that resulted in over 400 thousand human casualties and left over 750000 homeless people after completely demolishing their homes. The world's consciousness has changed regarding the real threat that tsunami imposes on the existence of coastal communities around the world. The UNESCO's initiated a program, Northeast Atlantic Mediterranean Tsunami Warning System NEAMTWS, to raise all the required mitigation measures to ensure that residents of coastal communities know the kind and degree of threats they are exposed to and how to deal with them. The project identified Egypt's Mediterranean coast as an area of high vulnerability when exposed to tsunami hazards. Although the project was set to achieve its objective by 2011, none of its objectives have been achieved. There is a total ignorance among the local community, authorities, and planners regarding the imposed threat. There is an urgent need for an innovative approach that could mitigate the impact and threats of tsunamis and increase the resilience of coastal communities facing them. The paper aims to innovate a contingency plan for the Egyptian coastal communities as an effective tool for increasing the resilience of coastal communities against tsunamis hazards. A contingency plan is to be proposed based on profound theoretical and analytical analysis of the literature review. Furthermore, based on the findings of an empirical study, the most effective knowledge transfer tool of the proposed plan is to be tested targeting the local community participants. Finally, the paper is to induct an 'Egyptian Tsunami Contingency Plan' (ETCP) that can be applied within the context and limitations of Egyptian coastal communities' conditions.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Interplay of Actors and Dynamics in Urban Development Projects: A French
           Experience on the West Side of Paris

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5A  Maye Yehia   The past decades have seen the emergence of new development strategies as a major concern in Europe. Cities have tried to improve their positions and attract economic activities by establishing strategic visions and by creating urban expansions as economic drivers. In France, it was during the 1980s that rigid technocratic conventional urban planning seemed increasingly discredited. Therefore, a new project-based approach encouraging openness and flexibility began to emerge. This research aims to explain the mechanisms underlying French cities have put forth to guaranty the quality of spatial planning, including the design of public spaces, its landscape and architecture, and to ensure the fulfillment of environmental, economic, aesthetic and social goals. The case of the new eco-district 'Le Trapèze' built on the former sites of Renault factories in Boulogne-Billancourt, at the Paris's gates, demonstrates how policies are implemented to safeguard the coherence of vision and to minimize the degree of uncertainty embedded in long-term complex projects. The City has set up an innovative framework to establish an effective project steering process. The articulation between different actors to achieve the urban mixed-use development project and the tools used for compliance with the applicable norms and regulations are an innovative response to issues of adaptability and sustainability. The methodology of the research combines a critical bibliographical analysis, followed by a synthesis of fieldwork that included interviews with planners and architects and several visits to the sites. The results obtained from this investigation have been grouped in three sections: 'Tools of public-private partnerships', 'Resilience of landscape design' and 'Reproducibility of the experience'.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Constructing a Theoretical Framework of the Urban Transformation Processes
           of the Port City Interface towards Resilient Egyptian Port Cities

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5A  Walid Abaza   Aboul-Fetouh Shalaby   and Maye Yehia   Throughout history, Egyptian port cities had been formed together as an indissoluble twin in function and space. However, over the last century, most Egyptian ports have been transformed into a complex multi-layer entity with a continuous conflict between port and city actors, and hence, they have become increasingly separated from their cities in physical terms. This separation reflects how the port-city interface is shaped and governed. However, the Egyptian port cities did not receive enough studies to identify the urban transformation processes that shape the port-city interface. To help fill this gap, the research develops a conceptual-theoretical framework to understand urban transformation processes of the port-city interface and the forces that shape those transformations. This framework acts as a first step to form an assisting tool to understand and reframe the nature of the Egyptian case and how to move forward. To build this framework, the research critically reviews the normative literature available on urban planning/design, geography, politics, economy, and urban management of port cities worldwide. It follows the recent conceptualizations of the port city interface that focuses on the actors and societal relationships shaping the port city interface, rather than focusing only on its physical boundaries, dealing with the port city interface as a process, not only as a product. Furthermore, the research presents six European case studies as a manifestation of how governance and social integration influence the formation of the port-city interface. The research finds that understanding the port-city relationship through the lens of profiling urban transformation processes worldwide provides physical, governance and societal integration guidelines, that could help understand the Egyptian port-city relationship on one hand and plan/govern the relationship towards a resilient port city on the other.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Towards More Human Cities in Egypt: Human-City Urban Planning Model HCUPM

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5A  Ghada Eldeeb   Mohamed Shehata   and Hisham Hafez   Cities accommodate over 50% of the world's population, a percentage that is expected to increase to 70% by 2050. Despite the indisputable significance of cities for our future, living in some cities has been a challenge; 91% of city residents live in polluted areas and face human casualties resulting from car accidents and health crises. In Egypt, new cities are being built aiming to create healthier environments. However, those cities are not always better places to live due to the lack of the human dimension in their planning. There is hence a great need for an approach that focuses on the ability to revive and restore this dimension in Egyptian cities. Based on a number of theoretical and analytical studies, the paper aims to develop a model that can measure the degree of the humanity of cities, thus, providing planners with a human-city urban planning model (HCUP Model). The model is expected to act as a contingency proactive planning tool for mitigating the negative impacts of our cities on human life and ensuring the integration of the human dimension in the planning process of our future cities. The research methodology includes an analytical examination of the most pressing issues confronting cities today, followed by the definition and principles of human cities, based on the theoretical study and analytical study of the most important global human city experiences, a proposed model for the human city (HCUPM) that can be applied in Egyptian cities will be developed. The model will be audited using a questionnaire for Egyptian experts in the field of urban planning.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Lack of Resilience in the Integrated Coastal Zone Management and the
           Regional Strategic Plans in Egypt's Northwest Coast Region

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5A  Ebtehal Ahmed Abd-Almoity   M. H. Refaat   H. S. Amin   and M. R. Abdel- Rahman   This paper discusses the missing resilience issues between the activities of both the integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) and the regional strategic planning (RSP) approaches when dealing with the coastal region's issues through an applied study on the Northwest Coast region of Egypt overlooking the Mediterranean Sea. The resilience between these two approaches aims to save the effort, time, and money needed for preparing both ICZM initiatives and RSP projects by literature reviews, analyzing the current situation, evaluating the national institutions' tasks, and the comparative study between the methodological frameworks of both approaches in the study area, it was discovered that there were no effective mechanisms among institutions. Moreover, there were some conflicts between the current regulations and laws. In addition, the difference between the coastal units and regional levels caused the differences in the methodological frameworks, although, there are some similarities and variations in their activities. This resilience concept may be helpful for decision-makers, ICZM teamwork, but it has special importance for urban planners to develop the methodological phases and activities of the regional planning approach in a balanced manner, to deal with the devolving requirements and the coastal issues achieving resilience between the activities of the Integrated Coastal Zone Management, Regional Strategic Plans (RSP) and sustainable development in the application of Egypt's North West Coast Region overlooking the Mediterranean Sea.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Spatial Analysis Model for Allocation of High-Rise Building

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5A  Nehal M. Mohamed   Soad Y. Bashandy   Hesham M. El-Barmelgy   and Abdullah F. Al-Attar   The construction of High-Rise Buildings (HRBs) first started in the 19th century, as a sort of vertical urban sustainable development approach trying to minimize the development environmental footprint impact. Although, the debates regarding the HRBs' pros and cons, this era has witnessed a huge boost in the construction of HRB all over the world. HRBs have transformed into an ego situation where countries not only developed ones but also developing ones have been competing against each other to develop the tallest HRB. HRBs have become a branding for the economic strength and innovative development eras of countries. HBRs have been included within new cities and added to the existing urban context, without any consideration to the ability of these areas to accommodate their social, environmental, economic, and visual impacts, especially on their direst urban context. The study aims, based on several theoretical and analytical studies, to study and record in detail the various impacts of HRBs on the urban context allocating them, based on which a computerized spatial analysis model is to be composed (HRBSAModel) using geographic information systems software (GIS) and remote sensing technology. The achieved model is expected to act as a contingency tool to mitigate the negative impacts of the existing HRB on its urban context, and as a proactive tool within the city urban design process for allocating the most sustainable location for future HRBs.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • The Integration of Science and Technology in Creating an Interactive
           Architecture that is Locally Adaptive

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Safaa Aldeen Hussein Ali   and Sara Abdul Aalie Rasheed   Architecture constantly looks for renewal, permanent change, keeping pace with technologies, and employing science in their structures. Therefore, they must respond to the increasing demands to achieve more efficient and sustainable technological development, interacting with scientific technologies and engage them dynamically. It creates smart architecture that uses vital concepts and produces an interactive biological architecture capable of dealing with various factors and adapting to them. The products of architecture have been numerous and represented by simulation of other sciences and the ability to adjust them to produce different architectural forms depends on the tremendous technological techniques that can deal with vital systems and structures and improve their efficiency and independence. As a result, many types of architecture have appeared. All of them depend on two fundamental concepts, the ability to employ renewable science and the possibility of their implementation due to the tremendous development of technology. As a result of the absence of knowledge about this prominent and vital role of science in employing technology locally to serve architecture and create products that possess high dynamism, renewal, and adaptation to local environments, it was necessary to show their impact on creating interactive bio-architecture locally. Therefore, the research goal will be "The role of science and technology in contemporary architecture applications by achieving adaptability to local conditions in general and in Iraq in particular." The research is based on addressing a set of previous studies that explain the importance of science and technology and the essential terms resulting in the creation of interactive architecture, its types, and application locally, and on indicating the extent of progress in the products as a result of the employment of science and technology and its ability to adapt and interact with the local environment.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Numerical Analysis of the Deformation Behavior of Geogrid-Reinforced MSE
           Wall Having FHR and SPT Wall Facing

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Myoung-Soo Won   Christine P. Langcuyan   Jin-Hwan Lim   Seung-Boem Nam   Tae-Gew Ham   and Man-Bok Ha   The mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) wall has been widely used globally for several decades now. The study on MSE wall is continuously growing as well as various innovations on its designs and techniques. The natural complexity of soil behavior makes the study on MSE wall system challenging for researchers. One of the factors that affect the deformation behavior of MSE wall structure is the wall facing system. Hence, this study is undertaken to investigate the deformation behavior of geogrid-reinforced MSE wall, having full height rigid (FHR) and segmental panel-type (SPT) wall facing, using finite element method (FEM) in Plaxis 2D program and small-scale experimental study. Both numerical and experimental models are using discrete geogrids reinforcement with three different reinforcement length ratios of 1H, 0.7H and 0.5H (where H is the wall height). The results from the series of numerical analysis and experimental tests showed that the vertical displacement on top of the MSE wall and the horizontal displacements of the FHR facing were smaller than those of the SPT wall facing, regardless of the reinforcement length. In addition, the reinforcement length has minimal effect on settlement for MSE wall with FHR facing but is more visible for MSE wall with SPT wall facing. The magnitude of the reinforcement effect may not be great in this study because the MSE wall models are only 0.60m high. But it is expected that the higher wall height might induce greater reinforcement length effect.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • The Lost Identity of Jeddah

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Bahia Bardeesi   Dina Muhrji   Ghaidaa Gutub   Haneen Al-Ahdal   and Abdel-Moniem El-Shorbagy   This study aims to explore and discuss the architecture of Saudi Arabia. Taking Jeddah as a case study, by defining the advantages and characteristics of the local architecture and the texture of the old city, it pays full attention to the physical transformations that have been adopted. It occupies a place in the urban planning and architectural form of Jeddah. However, the main objective of this study is to discuss the effect of modernization and westernization on the physical appearance of the city, comparing it with the local old urban fabric and buildings, and finally criticizing the impact of the modern movement in Jeddah in terms of the environmental, cultural and Islamic aspects. All in all, this study considered the most traditional of Jeddah as the main case study and outlined the effect of modernism and westernization in Jeddah, as well as criticized the modern architecture and urban planning in Jeddah.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Proposal to Establish Intercultural Hub and Library in Jeddah, Saudi
           Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Tuqa Aldroubi   and Aida Nayer   The idea of the library has always existed, and early libraries can be traced back to the Mesopotamians, where documents about resources were found, so there are different definitions of the idea of the library. A cultural library is not like any conventional library; it forces the visitor to engage with other cultures, and it provides the means and approaches to make activities involving others of different cultures. As a library, it also provides books from all around the world on different topics like, history, culture, customs, social, food, and even novels, so it mixes traditions in a way to make people cosmopolitan. There are other parts of the library that encourage cosmopolitanism as much as the books. The proposed space program for this project consists of six main zones namely library, education, entertainment, exhibition, administration and services. The site evaluation is performed to identify the most appropriate location for the project, which is located at Al-Naim district, intersection between Prince Sultan Road and Al-Amal Street. The project can hold cultural events in a centre and encourage reading and researching different cultures and establishing international friendships.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Numerical Simulation for Flow over A Broad-Crested Weir Using FLOW-3D
           Program

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Nadheer S. Ayoob   and Alaa M. Hamad   The free water flow over a broad-crested weir with different down- and upstream inclinations was studied numerically using computational fluid dynamics software (FLOW-3D v11.0.4). Weirs of four various upstream and downstream configurations were investigated to determine the effect of weir shape on the produced coefficient of discharge (Cd), upstream energy grade line (H1), and depth-averaged flow velocity using five different flow discharges. The obtained numerical results revealed that FLOW-3D program can be depended to simulate the flow over broad-crested weir adequately, as the differences between the numerical and experimental upstream head (h1) were in the range of 0.0 to 9.6%. Furthermore, reducing upstream slope played an essential role in increasing the discharge coefficient, and reducing the upstream energy grade line (i.e. static pressure above the crest), while downstream inclination showed a negligible influence. Generally, reducing the upstream slope by 50.0 and 70.5% increased discharge coefficient by 9.5 and 13.2%, while decreased the total energy grade line by 4.3 and 8.7%, respectively. According to flow velocity measurement, for the same upstream slope and discharge, the velocity resulted by the weir of inclined upstream and vertical downstream (BRV) was lower than that of the weir of vertical upstream and inclined downstream (VRB) by 28.0%.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • A Demonstrative and Estimated Model of the Values of Built Heritage from a
           Collection of Existing Models

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Fatima Benchenni   Abdelkader Mebrouki   and Juan Monjo-Carrió   The decision to intervene in the architectural heritage must be based on scientific and cultural criteria according to its values. For this, it is necessary to determine what these values are. This research attempts to identify the values and sub-values of the built cultural heritage (its axiology) through the critical analysis of existing suggestions and debates within this subject according to national and international agreements and recommendations with the support of published research since the beginning of the XIXth century. This chronological analysis has helped us to develop a table of values and sub-values evaluated and estimated before any intervention on the built heritage. The results helped finding the criteria while respecting the scientific and cultural evaluation of the work along with the emotions conveyed by stakeholders and users. In this paper, we also emphasize that we can identify, evaluate and classify the values before any intervention on the built heritage. This is significant and important because we think that can affect the type of architectural intervention in any decision-making. This work is intended for the general public and for technicians who intervene in the heritage without sufficient preparation. It can help them to read, to analyze and to understand the meanings of architectural works through the recognition of values that deserve to be preserved or recovered in a perspective of sustainability. All values must be taken as a major decision criterion to be evaluated before any patrimonial intervention, using a table of values; organized, prioritized and categorized into groups of sub-values.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Study on Daylighting Performance in the CFAD Studios at the University of
           Sharjah

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Aref Maksoud   Emad Mushtaha   Laila Chouman   Esraa Al Jawad   Sara A. Samra   Ahmad Sukkar   and Moohammed Wasim Yahia   One of the major concerns for achieving comfortability and sustainability inside studios is lighting quantity and quality. Integrating daylighting without creating glare in building design would reduce the intensive use of artificial lighting. The latitude of the UAE "United Arab Emirates" leads to the high intensity of solar radiation, which requires serious attention to find effective strategies to control daylighting and achieve both visual and thermal comfort. High-quality lighting performance in building design can be achieved by minimizing active artificial lighting needs through correct building design and maximizing the use of available natural passive daylight sources. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the performance and alternatives of integrated daylight into one of the studios at the College of Fine Arts and Design (CFAD) by improving the existing conditions of studios in the CFAD according to standards. A light meter and Autodesk Revit software were used in the study and its related analysis. The Autodesk Revit software has been used to analyze the luminance environment of the existing studio and other cases to reach the best alternative. Six simulation cases, including the current case, were simulated and compared with each other regarding the required amount of Daylight Factor (DF). As a result, case 6 performed best among the rest of the alternatives. Such integration in the educational buildings could be significant and would help decision-makers and architects adjust their buildings and improve indoor lighting. However, further studies on the psychology of users and building energy consumption should be taken forward in the future.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Recycling of Waste Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) into Insulating Wall
           Panels for Building Industry

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Sadia Farooq   Mohammad Arif Kamal   Amna Khalid Qureshi   Farhana Naz   and Maha Tariq   The administration and management of waste is one of the major issues confronting the advanced society and is not fairly constrained to plastics. The squandering or waste generated annually is by and large a claim in Pakistan. Reusing plastic is required to support the environment. The wall panels that are utilized in interiors are made up of Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) which is harmful and there are few chances to diminish the poisons from it. Moreover, they are not perfect insulators and are very expensive. The work aims to utilize plastic squander into wall panels made of reusing Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) which are aesthetically pleasing, economical, easy to maintain and of high quality. The method incorporates case studies and surveys to find out the finest manufacturing and fabricating process. The experiment phased in product specification along with drawings, rendering, prototyping and finally recycling plastic into the final product. The conductivity of the material is raised by using blisters with a silver coating which raised from 5% to 10% and a vacuum is also created between the panels. The compressive strength is tested which is 80.5 MPa. If the product is made on a large scale, it will help in reducing plastic waste.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Guideline for Atlas Flash Floods

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Radwa Bakr   Doaa Amin   and Khaled Gaber   Society is exposed to flash floods even with advanced technologies in flood prediction or works of protection. People are vulnerable to upmost risks in the flash flood prone cities, where their growth to become megacities and economies is being nurtured by urbanization. Severe floods threaten human lives globally, damage property and infrastructure and inflict economic losses on nations. The location of Egypt in arid area makes it vulnerable to sudden storms. Due to the strong expansion, Egypt is witnessing construction sites, along with agricultural lands and industrial exploitation sites, which led to the colonization of the floodplains of valleys. This trend is expected to continue in future, thus this issue needs to be well managed and promptly addressed to reduce the encroachment of active valley deltas. This paper produces a guideline describing the flood risk in the form of the atlas to mitigate flash floods, and it directs decision-makers to engage in the several levels of the national and local organizations involved in managing disasters. It is expected to be beneficial to investors, practitioners and the public. Three key tools have been taken into account in these guidelines to describe the flash flood prone area: all data and information, data processing software (hydrological and hydraulic models), geographic information system (GIS) for graphic representation of maps and spatial analysis. The results produce sequence maps of risk and hazard levels for each Wadi.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Evaluation of the Spatial Relationship for Urban Railway Stations and
           Their Impacts on the Surrounding Urban Environment: A Case Study on the
           New Abu Qir Railway Station in Alexandria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Riham Salah Mohamed   and Nevine Ismail Mahmoud   Transportation and traffic issues in every city are just reflection of bad land-use planning and organization. To alleviate Egypt's severe traffic congestion, development initiatives have recently sprung up, particularly in the fields of transportation and roads. This article discusses the answer to the question, which will have an impact on the surrounding urban environment, especially in the case of replacing the old means of transportation with a modern means of transportation that has different specifications and characteristics that must be available in its surroundings. In addition, the availability of land for urban expansion is dwindling, and there is a growing trend to construct railway stations connecting different regions of the city. As a result, the government is attempting to construct underground structures to preserve space. This article also employs the monitoring and analysis technique. Firstly, investigating the train operating scheme in the city transit lines, considering the classification of railway stations and the volume of passenger traffic, as well as choosing a station layout that boosts the city's infrastructure capacity. Secondly, investigating the peculiarities of railway stations' spatial relationships with their surroundings. Thirdly, adopting the analysis of the new plan for the development of the main railway station in the Abu Qir area in Alexandria as a case study. Finally, making it possible to walk and evaluating the style and flow of passengers according to the new metro operating plan.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Transforming Old Cities into Smart Cities Using Environmental Key
           Performance Indicators to Solve Environmental Problems

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Nora M. Faroun   Asmaa N. El-Badrawy   and Lamis S. El-Gizawi   Recently, smart city has become a tool for linking the sustainability dimensions with information and communication technology to enhance the quality of life. The current research problem lies in the increase in migration rates from the countryside and adjacent villages to the urban cities which may lead to an increase in environmental problems. Hence, the transformation of existing cities into smart cities has become an urgent need requiring immediate action or attention for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and effectively dealing with urban and environmental problems, particularly in developing countries. Therefore, the research adopts the environmental key performance indicators KPI of the smart sustainable cities (SSC) which was identified by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) to examine the performance of the East Mansoura District city as a case study. To achieve the aim of this study, a set of core environmental indicators was adopted to measure and evaluate the current status of the selected case study. Finally, an action plan was proposed to transform East Mansoura District city into a smart sustainable city. This may pave the way for other cities in Egypt and developing countries.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Local Law Enforcement Variables as Moderating Effect on the Behavior of
           Foreign Motorcycle Riders in Tourism Areas in Bali

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Cokorda Putra Wirasutama   Putu Alit Suthanaya   Dewa Made Priyantha Wedagama   and Anak Agung Gde Agung Yana   Foreign motorcyclists are prone to greater risks than the locals in most countries worldwide [1]. Risk parameters identified include lack of knowledge of traffic regulations, inadequate driving skills, different seasons, and general attitudes towards traffic safety reflected in driving behavior [2]. Along with tourism development, the number of foreign motorcyclists also increases. Therefore, safety measures are essential [3]. In this research, by using data collected from 71 foreign motorcyclists as respondents, we study the influence of local road and traffic conditions, human factors, and local law enforcement on the behavior of foreign motorcyclists around tourist areas in Bali. The method used is Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The expected contribution is a model that finds how local law enforcement affects foreign motorcyclists' behavior around tourist areas in Bali, which can significantly reduce the risk of accidents for foreigners. The results are that local law enforcement can act as a moderating effect of human factors on the behavior of foreign motorcyclists with a P-value of 0.008. Foreign motorcyclists' behavior in tourist areas is also directly affected by their behavior in their origin country, with a P-value of 0.035. But local law enforcement cannot act as a moderating effect of local road and traffic conditions on the behavior of foreign motorcyclists with a P-value of 0.441. The research concluded that foreign motorcyclists' behavior in Bali tourist areas is positively influenced by the local law enforcement by authorized officials. It shows that the more stringent enforcement of the law, the better the behavior of foreign motorcyclists. And better conduct of foreign motorcyclists can reduce the number of accidents involving foreigners in the tourist areas in Bali.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Impact Curing Time and Compaction Methods to the Performance of Hot Mix
           Asphalt Asbuton

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  I Dewa Made Alit Karyawan   Ratna Yuniarti   Desi Widianty   Hasyim   and Mudji Wahyudi   Asbuton is rock asphalt located on Buton Island, Indonesia. The contained asphalt is hard and produces very high viscosities, making it very difficult to facilitate uniform coating of aggregates and to bind asphalt mixtures. These challenges in the process of incorporating Asbuton in asphalt mixtures make it less popular than the petroleum asphalt. The current Indonesia standards require Hot Mix Asphalt incorporating Asbuton (HMAA) to be cured for a few days before it is compacted (scenario 1). The curing duration is aimed to allow softening of the natural asphalt contained in Asbuton. This study investigated a new method of conditioning HMAA (scenario 2). The results showed that the volumetric and Marshall characteristics of HMAA were influenced by the curing time and compaction methods. The findings suggest that the curing method proposed in scenario 2 can be omitted; as such it can speed up the asphalting process. This study found that HMAA can be spread and compacted without curing, with a provision made for the road to be closed from traffic for a minimum of eight days after the compaction is complete.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Integrated Built Environment that Meets Human Needs for Thermal Comfort

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Tala Mari   Kabila Faris Hmood   and Jawdat Goussous   This research aims to find principles that achieve an integrated architectural environment in the desert environment that meets human needs and preserves the rights of future generations. Studying and analyzing the successful solutions and treatments provided by the traditional architectural environment in a desert environment and in a hot, dry climate help achieve this aim. Nowadays, we find a growing research interest in sustainability. This research paper concentrated on the relationship of the desert environment with the built environment to achieve an integrated environment to meet human needs, ration energy consumption and preserve the identity of the architecture. This research studies traditional architecture in a desert environment to identify appropriate solutions to the climatic environment and its ability to harmonize and respond to its climatic environment, with its high capacity to respond to human needs in these communities. The research adopted the analytical descriptive approach in its study of the relationship of the desert climatic environment with the built architectural environment. The Climate Consultant software is used for this research to recommend various design strategies suitable for each climate. The three central climates analyzed in this study are coastal desert areas, moderate desert areas, and hot, dry desert environments. In conclusion, this research found that in the past, the traditional environment has provided and continues to provide effective climatic solutions.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • An Approach to Prioritize Urban Conservation Heritage Areas According to
           Social Indicators

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Abeer Mamdouh Taha   Hisham Amr Bahgat   and Ahmed Mostafa Abdel Ghafaar   Conservation of heritage areas is one of the popular topics in many contemporary studies. Historic Cairo is teeming with historical monuments and landmarks that bear witness to an abundance of historical wealth evolved, not only as the historic capital of the Islamic world but as an exquisite, stunning amalgamation of ancient human ingenuity, regardless of Cairo's international and regional historical importance. It is subjected to extreme deterioration due to the rapid change in culture and social patterns. The heritage area conservation plans lack setting top priorities for the highly deteriorated areas that require accelerated preservation intervention, as well as severely overlooking the social aspects of tradition and customs that must be strategically ingrained in the reservation and urban conservation projects. The study assumed that one of the pillars of the reservation and urban regeneration projects was the social aspects. In addition, it aims to develop a methodology for prioritizing reservation and urban conservation areas as per social aspects. The study's findings revealed the significance of ingraining the social aspects into the reservation and urban conservation projects fabric. Furthermore, by setting a prioritizing methodology that ranks the reservation and urban conservation areas according to reservation criteria, the study result was validated against thorough surveys for the targeted conservation areas. In future conservation studies, it is recommended to integrate all (economic, environmental, and political) aspects and assign weighted criteria against each area with adherence to the system. The results should be incorporated into an integrated system that is statistically ranked to prioritize the preservation and urban conservation of the heritage areas.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Understanding the Fort and its Built Heritage in Pavagada of Tumakuru
           District in Karnataka

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Vivek C. G.   and Sagar T. S.   Many forts of South India are known for their art-historical aspects rather than their planning and architectural aspects [1]. The prevailing detailed survey reports available date back to 1802 when East India Company carried out a detailed documentation of the forts acquired by Tipu Sultan for establishing a defense base [1][2][3]. The inefficiency of the forts to hold a successful defense was neglected and hence turned functionally obsolete [1]. These deserted forts which possess various architectural and planning strategies worth conserving are cast aside due to lack of awareness. The current study presents one such fort located in Pavagada town which is explored along with documentation of the fort and its built heritage. Pavagada fort is one among the post-vijayanagara forts which came into prominence during the Nayaka rulers of Karnataka [2][3]. The fortified settlement possesses various structures built around the hill which hosts a settlement for its citizens and a royal citadel on the hill top [3]. Due to the negligence of the authorities and public, many heritage structures have vanished, and existing ones are undergoing deterioration. Hence, there is a strong need for documenting and conserving the fort and its built heritage. The current paper focuses on exploring the various historic built structures on the fort. Using GIS and visual assessment tools, the paper lists out the structures of the fort in their order of priority for conservation. The paper highlights the salient architectural features and values of the built structures on the fort emphasizing the need for conserving the fort and its built heritage.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Experimental Evaluation of the Cyclic Behaviour of Scaled (1:3) Reinforced
           Concrete Frames

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Bilal M. Yasin   and Jafar A. Al thawabteh   This paper presents laboratory test results for two-column one-bay reinforced concrete (R/C) bare frames with or without masonry infills for 1:3 scale prototypes when the top beam is subjected to horizontal cyclic loading using 50kN axial load per column. It is well documented that infills affect the dynamic characteristics of building structures. At the same time, their uncertain behaviors have also been recorded. Many parameters, such as the infill materials, reinforcing of infills, connection to the surrounding frame by means of surrounded joint contact, local techniques, and others affect structural system behavior. The masonry infills increase the overall horizontal lateral strength and stiffness and partially structural strength; hence, proper use can positively affect the general seismic behavior. Masonry infill benefits were tested using several specimens: one virgin bare frame, one virgin bare frame with masonry infills, and one virgin frame with masonry infills and reinforced cement plaster. In this experimental series, the aim was to investigate and study the following parameters concerning the general problem of the frames and masonry infills under the influence of cyclic horizontal loading: the frame type, the masonry infill type and, the strength of mortars and coating used to construct the brick walls. The obtained results align with the results of similar studies in Greece. All results address the influence of the infills concerning stiffness, strength, and energy dissipation of the infilled R/C frames, which are significant parameters that should not be neglected.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Concrete with Manufactured Sand and the Effects on the Property of
           Durability

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Anup Krushnarao Chitkeshwar   and P. L. Naktode   The concrete is the material generally used in the construction industry. The natural aggregates are the essential materials used in the concrete, but it is observed that there is a shortage of these materials. Therefore, the cost of the material and eventually the construction cost go on increasing across the globe. The manufactured sand i.e. m-sand is a material which can replace the natural fine aggregates if used in proper proportion. Also, the m-sand can be produced in a good amount so that the construction cost is also not affected. In the present work, manufactured sand concrete is studied for the durability properties. Other materials like zinc oxide are also used in the concrete by weight of the cement. The partial replacement of river sand by m-sand is carried out in the percentage varying from 25% to 100%. The tests for the durability which involve water permeability test, acid attack test, sea water test and sulphate attack test have been carried out for the concrete. When the river sand is replaced by m-sand with 50% then the results for the durability obtained hold good results.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Analysis of Adding GGBS and Fly Ash in Self Compacting Geo - Polymer
           Concrete for Structures

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Thavasumony D   and Nalanth N   In the olden days, some eco-friendly and easily accessible materials such as mud, lime, and egg mixer were used in the building constructions. However, these materials are not sufficient to construct huge and more buildings. For this, the researchers preferred the cement as the main binding material used in the concrete mixture. The cement manufacturing companies are releasing more CO2 during cement production, which leads to the environmental pollution in the earth. To overcome the problem of the ecological system, this work proposed the Self Compacting Geo- Polymer Concrete – SCGPC, which is not a normal cement concrete. The SCGPC is used to fill cavities easily and rapidly without any compaction. The industrial wastes like fly ash, GGBS - Ground Granulated Blast - furnace Slag, metakaolin kaolinite, clay, iron ore, silica fume and limestone can be used as the substitute materials for cement. This work mainly concentrates on the effects of two specific mechanical properties such as split tensile and compressive strength of SCGPC by adding fly ash and GGBS. These factors were evaluated with the Alkaline Activator Solution (AAS) to fly ash and GGBS ratio, the ratio of Na2SiO3 solution to the NaOH solution, the dosage of superplasticizer, rest period and temperature degree. The proposed SCGPC (8M, 10M and 12M) has analyzed both split tensile and compressive strength in three sets (7, 28 and 56 days). At last, the analyzed results were compared with conventional concrete. Based on the comparison, while the increase of curing temperature, both mechanical properties of SCGPC have reduced.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • The Adaptation to Sonic Territoriality: A Domestic Space Case Study

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Ivana Agnes Sompie   Coriesta Dian Sulistiani   and Tampanatu P. F. Sompie   Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, apart from accommodating daily activities, the domestic space also needs to accommodate additional activities, such as studying and working from home, with a longer intensity of time. These activities produce sound and are also influenced by other sounds in the domestic space which then forms the domestic soundscape, thus triggering the sonic territoriality of each occupant to adapt according to their needs for sound. By using the theory of adaptation strategy, as well as the theory of territoriality regarding the mechanism of territorial control and the elements of space, this study aims to identify the adaptation strategies that are being carried out in the domestic space when certain sounds enter the territory that is being occupied. A case study with a qualitative method was conducted in a domestic space with residents who are active for a long time at home, using field observation and interview as the data collection techniques. From the observations, a mapping of the space, activities, and sounds of each occupant of the house was made. Based on the results of the case study, it was found that the adaptation strategies carried out in order to adapt according to their sonic territoriality are: adjustment, in the form of arranging the spatial components and shifting positions and orientations inside a territory, and withdrawal, in the form of moving from one room to another. These adaptations involve elements of space, which are mainly fixed and semifixed features, as well as territorial mechanisms: personalization and defense.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Safety Factors Investigation Based on FEM and LEM Approach in Toll Road
           Embankment Slope

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Siti Nurlita Fitri   and Fitria Wahyuni   The Pejagan-Pemalang toll road which is a Section II project was designed at different embankment heights on soft soil subgrade. The process involved investigating the slope stability of these embankments through the determination of the safety factor. This can be achieved using different methods such as the limit equilibrium method (LEM) and the finite element method (FEM) which are considered the standard approaches. However, the presentation of different numerous results for the safety factors (SF) in landslide calculations usually makes it difficult for the engineer to understand some uncertain conditions. Therefore, this study aims to determine the safety factors using LEM and FEM approaches at different conditions. The soil subgrade used was in SPT and three models of the properties were obtained. Moreover, a Geo-Studio program with Slope-W analysis was applied using the Morgenstern-Price for the LEM and PLAXIS for the FEM. The height was varied at 2 to 8m with the slope H: V at 1:1, 1:1.5, and 1:2. The simulation was conducted at three different levels of groundwater. The results showed that the height, embankment geometry, and groundwater levels were affected in the SF analysis using the two methods. It was also discovered in all categories that higher embankments had smaller SF while the higher angle of slope produced a higher SF. Furthermore, the properties of the soft soil were observed to have influenced the SF result as indicated by the narrow difference in the correlation between the embankment height and SF. The results of the LEM and FEM were also compared and the observations were explained. The findings of this study are expected to serve as a guide for engineers, especially those in road toll projects, to determine the optimum model needed to predict slope failure in embankments for toll roads.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Smart Biophilic Framework to Improve Productivity of Existing Office
           Buildings in Egypt

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Ranad Bahaa Afify   Mohamed Medhat Dorra   Dalia Aboubakr   and Indjy Mohamed Shawket   We spend most of our lives indoors. For the majority of us, the time is spent at work, often in buildings that were not designed to facilitate well-being or any natural elements. Yet we prefer to be around fresh air, greenery and natural elements. Architects have improved the places we live and work, but they have paid little attention to physiological needs. ''Smart Biophilic design'' could be a tool for a more relaxed workplace, where nature is brought into the environment either physically or digitally, to relieve stress and improve an individual's well-being by bringing the outside in. Consequently, this study proposes a framework for developing the existing office buildings in Egypt into smart biophilic ones. Such a development will serve the society by improving productivity of employees which will lead to more financial revenues to companies as well as an improvement to the economy of the country. The study used a quantitative method to develop the framework, by applying a questionnaire to arrange the smart biophilic systems/materials according to specific criteria, then analyzing the questionnaire results to reach an action plan of arranged smart biophilic systems/materials as inputs to formulate existing workplaces framework. The results demonstrated a positive correlation between the physical environmental factors and productivity. Hence, this study recommends smart biophilic developments to the existing office buildings in Egypt to maintain healthy, highly efficient, and cost-saving productive buildings.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Aspect Ratio and Relative Beam-Slab Stiffness Effects on the Long-term
           Deflection of Flat Plates and Beam Supported One-Way Slabs

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Karwan Khalid Ismael   and Sarkawt Asaad Hasan   This study investigates the ACI 318-19 two-way slab provisions for the long-term deflection control in flat plate slabs with an aspect ratio ranging between 1 to 3 at different panel locations (interior, edge, and corner) with a large span of 5.0 m, 7.5 m, and 10.0 m. Further, the study examines the effects of the relative beam-slab stiffness of the beams provided at the two long sides of flat plat slabs of aspect ratio greater than two using ACI318-19 recommended one-way slab thickness. The paper uses the Finite Element SAFE software to calculate the long-term deflection (LTD) by using nonlinear analysis (long-term cracked analysis) that considers concrete creep and shrinkage of two-way slabs and one-way slabs for different beam-slab stiffnesses and aspect ratios. The aspect ratio of a flat plate slab had a considerable effect on the LTD, where for slab panels of the same long span length and variable aspect ratio, as the aspect ratio gets smaller (square slab), the LTD increases, a behavior that ACI318-19 two-way slab deflection control procedures overlook. So, the deflection under the beams is within the ACI318-19 long-term deflection limits for different panel locations (interior, interior, exterior, and exterior edge). In addition, this part has been conducted to recommend a minimum relative beam-slab stiffness for the supporting beams.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Lateral Behavior of Slab-Column Connection with Pyramid Shaped Drop Panel

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Ahmed I.   Hilal H.   and Mohamed Husain   Both experimental and finite element analysis (FEA) were used to study the interior slab-column connections made with pyramid-shaped drop panels subjected to vertical and horizontal loads. The dimensions of the models at "¼" linear scale for laboratory testing and FE Analysis (FEA) are derived from the rules for the dimensions of column drops, given a prototype "9.60m" grid and a slab thickness of "320mm". Lab specimens were tested with the drops (flat slab, rectangular, and pyramid-shaped) facing up, with loading (vertical down, and horizontal in the grid direction) applied by jacks towards the top of a central projecting "150mm" square column. One flat slab ("80mm" thick, no drop) tested to failure under vertical load (80kN) provided values for setting variables used in the FEA. The remaining "5" specimens were tested to failure by increasing the horizontal load to the column. The pyramid-shaped drop model, with equal thickness to the rectangular drop model at the column faces (drops of "40mm" and "30mm"), exhibits similar maximum force resistance to the rectangular drop models. However, these resistances were achieved in the pyramid drops at higher maximum deflections being measured downwards at the column centerline one half of the slab thickness. A parametric study was conducted by FEA at constant load, in vertical steps (10KN, 25KN, 55KN), calculating the deflections under increasing horizontal load. Calculations were made with the following definitions: Energy absorption is represented by the area under the deflection vs horizontal load curf; ductility is the ratio of deflection at maximum to deflection at yield, and the stiffness is the slope of the deflection load diagrams in the elastic zone. The pyramid-shaped drop model exhibited improved energy absorption, ductility, stiffness and overstrength compared to the rectangular drop models of the same column face thickness.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • The Durability of Lightweight Geopolymer Concrete (LGC) on Chloride
           Resistance

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Saloma   Arie Putra Usman   Hanafiah   and Cindy Violita Ramadhanty   Lightweight geopolymer concrete is an innovative concrete from a combination of environmental-friendly geopolymer concrete and lightweight concrete which has a density of less than 2,400 kg/m3. This concrete does not use Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) but uses type F fly ash which has the same main composition as OPC namely silica and aluminum. Reducing the use of OPC aims to reduce the production of CO2 gas emissions which are the main contributors to global warming. This study aims to provide the information needed to develop lightweight geopolymer concrete to reduce carbon emissions and create environmental-friendly concrete materials. The constituent materials of lightweight geopolymer concrete include type F fly ash as precursors, Na2SiO3 and NaOH 14 M as activators, fine aggregates in the form of sand as concrete fillers, superplasticizers, and foam. The use of foam helps in reducing the density of lightweight geopolymer concrete. The ratio used in this study is 1:2 for activators and precursors, 1:2 for precursors and fine aggregates, 2.5:1 for Na2SiO3 and 14 M NaOH, and 1:40 for foam agents and water with a percentage of foam that is 50% of test object volume. The amount of plasticizer used is 3% of the weight of the precursor. Treatment of the lightweight geopolymer concrete using an oven with a temperature of 60°C for 24 hours and then the specimen coated with plastic wrap for 28 days to achieve maximum compressive strength. Curing for 28 days, the specimen has a compressive strength of 27.9 MPa with a specific gravity of 1,702.5 kg/m3. This research focuses on the durability of lightweight geopolymer concrete using 5% HCl acid solution under different conditions, which are left at room temperature, fully immersed in 5% HCl acid solution, and cyclic conditions. Tests were carried out on days 28 and 56 with observations of changes in compressive strength, density, visual conditions, Scanning Electron Microscope, and XRD. The results showed that acid solutions' long duration and soaking conditions, especially hydrochloric acid, affect lightweight geopolymer concrete.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Geopolymer Designed with Pumice Stone from Ecuador

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Alexis Andrade   Tito Castillo   Marcel Paredes   Ester Gimenez   and Víctor García   The present investigation focuses on the creation of a geopolymer, using pumice stone from Ecuador as a precursor material. The chemical composition of the pumice and the alkaline activation of the geopolymer with NaOH and Na2SiO3 were validated through a multi-criteria analysis that was used to identify the best mine among the ones located in Cotopaxi, Chimborazo, and Tungurahua states. Through laboratory tests, it was obtained that the best pumice stone had the presence of aluminum oxide and silicon in its composition, as well as amorphous particles, with a size of 40 to 50µm. The percentage of aluminum that was found in the mines of Cotopaxi, Imbabura, and Tungurahua states was 0.60%, 0.68%, and 1.50% respectively. In the fineness modulus tests, it stands out that more than 80% passes the 75µm sieve. In regards to the activation of the geopolymer, the average resistance of the deposits was Cotopaxi 22.60 MPa, Imbabura 23.03 MPa, and Tungurahua 23.03 MPa. In the geopolymer concrete, the average resistance values of each of the deposits were: Cotopaxi 4.21 MPa, Imbabura 8.05 MPa, and Tungurahua 8.67 MPa. The multicriteria analysis showed that the best option to create geopolymer concrete comes from the mine located in Tungurahua. It should be noted that the increase in NaOH concentration, maintaining the ratio of 2.4 in geopolymer cubes between Na2SiO3/NaOH as an activating solution, induces an increase in compressive strength. The concrete made from the Tungurahua mine, made up of 50% geopolymer and 50% aggregates. It is the one that showed the best properties with a compressive strength of 16.16 MPa, cured in an oven for 24 hours and at a temperature of 80°C. The design of geopolymer concrete that replaces the use of portland cement is the first step to reduce the pollution produced by hydraulic cement.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Critical Uncertainty Factors Impacting Building Construction Projects in
           India

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Luke Judson   and Virendra Kumar Paul   Known Uncertainty (KnU) factors are known to the project stakeholder as knowledge, but their occurrence and cost impact are uncertain in a given construction project. The determination of these factors is subjective at the planning stage. This can be achieved by analysing several projects in a given typology and characterising their occurrence. This paper presents the most critical and important (KnU) factors through extensive literature study, expert judgment, and secondary data. The (KnU) factors were ranked based on literature appearance in selected journals, and the top 30 (KnU) factors were selected for expert judgment to find the top 10 (KnU) factors in the Indian context. Further, secondary data was collected from published records of the Comptroller of Audit General (CAG) of India to find the (KnU) factors in building construction projects that faced cost overruns. The top (KnU) factors from literature, expert judgement and secondary data have been compared and catogorised. Based on the analysis, the (KnU) factors are categorised as the most critical and important. The most critical (KnU) factors are changes initiated by the stakeholder, material price fluctuation, and slow decision making. Based on secondary data, the recommendations for the top 5 (KnU) factors are developed.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Architecture of Air Transport Medicine Facilities

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Iryna Bulakh   Nina Semyroz   Svitlana Kysil   Tetiana Bulhakova   Nataliia Mezhenna   Vadym Abyzov   Svitlana Zymina   and Viktoriia Bulakh   The article is devoted to the study of the organization of air medicine and the architectural design of helipads in hospitals located in an urban environment. Also, the article has an attempt to draw public attention to the inevitable development of air medical aviation as a new and promising type of emergency medical transport in dense urban areas, which, in the processes of urbanization, will be aggravated by blocking the possibility of automobile movement in the city. The purpose of the article is to analyze the main problems and difficulties that accompany the design and operation of medical helipads in an urban environment, as well as to propose and systematize the main features and parameters that must be considered when designing helipads in hospitals. Methodology: the study consists of a systematic, and comprehensive analysis of the problems of architectural design of hospital helipads. The study used the analysis of literary, normative, informational sources, graphic-analytical methods, photographs and field research. The research methodology consists of a set of methods of practical, theoretical, empirical, retrospective and factor analysis. Conclusions: when designing a heliport in a hospital, it is essential to provide the shortest and safest route for a patient to the intensive care unit or operating room. Helipads for medical use are best located directly on the hospital grounds (on the roof of a hospital building or outbuilding, on the ground). It is also necessary to take into account the presence of a network of public heliports, which will create the possibility of landing and takeoff of medical helicopters in different parts of the urban space.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Capacity Analysis of Reinforced Concrete vs. Composite Column on a 7 Floor
           Building

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Erno Widayanto   Indra Nurtjahjaningtyas   and Dan Sulfiatun Faizeh   Designing columns with reinforced concrete material is often used in building construction so that reinforced concrete has several advantages. It is the availability of material, but requires a large dimension in holding high capacity. To reduce the dimensions of the column structure, a composite structure can be designed. In this study, an analysis will be carried out to determine the difference in dimensions that can be provided by reinforced concrete columns and composite columns holding an equivalent nominal capacity. This analysis was carried out in a case study of the planning of a 7-story lecture building. The initial design of the column applied is a reinforced concrete column which will then be redesigned with a composite structure using a WF steel profile. Based on the results of the research analysis, it shows that in holding the nominal capacity equivalent, the dimensions of the composite column used are smaller than the reinforced concrete column. In addition, the volume requirement of the material is also lower. This indicates that the composite column is good enough to be applied in building planning. In terms of price, all sizes of composite of profile WF columns are relatively more expensive than ordinary reinforced concrete columns.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Strengthening AL-Kadhimin Tilted Minaret by Using a System of Micro-piles

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Haider M. H.   In this study, a strengthening system to control a tilt of about 80cm from vertical axis in the northeast minaret of AL- Kadhimin shrine that is located in the city of Baghdad, Iraq is proposed. The shrine consists of four minarets with two domes inside a big courtyard. Due to uncontrolled dewatering process inside the shrine, the four minarets have tilted in different angles, but the most severe tilt occurred in the northeast minaret. The dewatering well that operated near the minaret is causing water table level to decrease and effective stresses of the soil to increase. This results in a differential settlement of the minaret foundation. In order to protect the minaret's foundation from potential lateral loads, a group micro-piles have been proposed around the minaret. A Three-dimensional numerical analysis is used to analyze this problem by using PLAXIS 3D model. Different diameters, depths, angles of inclination were used to simulate the performance of single-row and double-row micro pile systems. The simulation results showed that the proposed micro pile system is an effective solution in resisting lateral loads and controlling the tilt that occurred in the minaret.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Using Landscape Qualities to Enhance Walkability in Two Types of Egyptian
           Urban Communities

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Dina Salem   Sara I. Khalifa   and Sara Tarek   Cities are becoming automobile-oriented, driving is chosen for mobility over walking, and planning walkable cities is now a necessity, not a luxury, for people's health and the environment. Considerable research supports that natural settings and quality urban landscapes can promote more walking and encourage physical activity in general. The main objective of the presented study is to determine urban landscape qualities and features that can enhance the walking experience in two different types of urban communities in Greater Cairo Region, the inner-city areas and the new urban communities (suburbs). For this purpose, the paper starts with defining walkability, walkable communities, and their characteristics and benefits, and then discusses the factors that influence travel behaviour in Cairo, focusing on those related to urban landscape qualities. Then the study follows a quantitative approach using a public survey to investigate factors that can encourage or discourage walking in inner-city areas and suburbs and the landscape qualities and features that can influence these factors. Survey results showed that urban landscape qualities that can provide a good walking environment could be categorized under three main categories: safety, comfort, and level of interest. Exploratory factor analysis results showed that these factors can be also categorized as basic and enhancement factors. Safety is mainly influenced by separation from traffic and adequate night lighting. While thermal comfort is the most influential factor in achieving pedestrian comfort, the richness of landscape elements and using special themes and local plants and materials strongly influence people's interest and their choice of specific routes over others. The study points out that the areas that achieve proximity of residential units to daily needed services have a higher potential for interventions to promote walking for all trip purposes. While in areas like suburbs where there are vast areas between uses, landscape qualities can only promote walking for leisure or physical activity but not a choice as an everyday travel behaviour.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Effect of Expanded Polystyrene Foam Aggregate on Strength and Shrinkage
           Characteristics of Foamed Concrete

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Hawaa A. Obaid   and Ameer A. Hilal   A study has been undertaken to assess some characteristics of foamed concrete, with a given density of 1200 kg/m3, made with expanded polystyrene foam aggregate (EPS). In addition, EPS particles were thermally treated to produce modified expanded polystyrene foam aggregate (MEPS). Thermally treating approach was applied as an effective method to enhance strength of expanded polystyrene foam particles leading to enhance the properties of produced concrete. To investigate the effect of foam presence, normal concrete mix was designed and compared with foamed concrete mix produced with the same mortar content. Properties such as compressive strength, tensile strength and drying shrinkage were assessed. It was found that adding recycled expanded polystyrene foam (EPS) as aggregates helped in slightly enhancing both the strength and shrinkage of foamed concrete. However, thermally treated of EPS to produce MEPS particles resulted in increasing the compressive and tensile strengths by about 68% and 79%, respectively; and reducing the shrinkage by about 52% of that of conventional foamed concrete mix, without EPS. In addition, adding polystyrene aggregates in both states (EPS and MEPS) slightly reduced the spread diameter.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Assessment of Seismic Loss in Surakarta School Buildings

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Yusep Muslih Purwana   Garup Lambang Goro   Siti Nurlita Fitri   Bambang Setiawan   and Reki Arbianto   Surakarta is a relatively small yet is categorized as a densely populated city. There are a lot of types of public buildings, such as hospitals, supermarkets, government infrastructures, and school buildings. The city has more than 1100 school buildings threatened by many potential earthquakes. The possibility of an earthquake hitting Surakarta may be fatal and cause significant losses of buildings. However, studies on seismic hazard of the city are still very rare and need more attention. This paper presents a recent study on the seismic loss assessment of school building in Surakarta. The survey has been conducted by a team to visit, check, record and document all the required information to obtain exposure, combined with the information from google map application, while the seismic hazard analysis was carried out using the event-based stochastic method. An open-source application, OpenQuake, was utilized to assess the seismic loss and the results were presented here. The elaborated analysis is presented concluding that the exposure and vulnerability of school buildings are very important factors to determine a risk of loss. It indicates that the wooden school building contributes a highest risk of loss, whereas the confined masonry ones give a lowest risk. Among the whole sub districts in Surakarta, it is assessed that Laweyan suffers the biggest seismic loss of 2.36 million USD due to 500 years return period earthquake and 5.39 million USD due to 2500 years return period earthquake. These results of this study are valuable information for government in order to overcome disaster mitigation policy of Surakarta.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Thinking Directions of Added Masses to Historic Buildings at the Twentieth
           Century Architecture

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Mahenda Said Elsayed   Mohamed Atef Abou Ashour   and Yasmine Sabry Hegazi   Buildings may last on civilisations, evolve and change, but their reuse emphasises continuity. The building can retain the mention of the previous function and value. It has a memory of its former purpose rooted in its very structure. As long as new additions were likely to design in the same styles as their historic neighbours, the word "fit" was rarely a problem. However, since the emergence of modernist architecture in the United States in the 1950s, a style that defined itself in terms of opposing traditional styles and assumptions about design has been an essential part of the preservation mission of taming the ambitions of modernist architects. So the problem of the research lies in the lack of a basis for the philosophy of additions, as the additions are made randomly, which makes them incompatible with the old building in terms of its size, shape, and philosophy. Hence, the main objective of the research is to create a framework for the design philosophy of external additions to heritage buildings and to design a model guide for architects during the decision-making process to evaluate these projects for their reuse in Egypt. This goal will only be achieved after achieving some secondary goals: highlight the importance of these additions to heritage buildings. Study the old building regarding its philosophy, size, and materials used to design an addition commensurate with it. Find out how the additions integrate with the heritage buildings and how they will fit the new function by respecting each other. The research methodology relied on studying the philosophy of designing heritage buildings and external additions, as well as studying intellectual trends in architecture in the first half of the twentieth century through designing and submitting a questionnaire to take people's views on the philosophy of designing these buildings and their intellectual trends, and connecting it through social networks and interviews.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Niuweu Bowen Architecture Style toward City Visual Quality

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Hilma Tamiami Fachrudin   and Imam Faisal Pane   This study conducts to explore and identify the development journey of Niuweu Bowen architecture in Medan. This architecture developed in the Netherlands is in line with the development of Modern Architecture in Europe. Its evolution is inseparable from the Industrial Revolution that hit European countries at that time. With patterns and forms that are no longer the same as the architecture of the previous period (Renaissance Architecture), this architecture has spread to various corners of the world. Indonesia, which became a Dutch colony, also felt this influence entering the architectural formations in Indonesia. The most prominent derivative is a part of the building that elevate likes a tower but is not too high from the main building. This study aims to identify the forms and characteristics of this architecture in Medan city which can add to the visual quality of the city. The study location is in Medan city, especially where there are relics of the Dutch colonial buildings. The method used is descriptive qualitative and quantitative to describe and examine the facts contained in the field and analyze them with the theories used. The results obtained are that the architecture has the same essence as Modern Architecture but is different from the play of forms and building facades. Windows, ornament, decoration, and towers have a correlation with visual quality. The presence of buildings in the Niuweu Bouwen style can add to the visual quality of the city through the facade of the building appears.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • A Framework for Systematic Assessment of Human Error in Construction Sites
           – A Sustainable Approach

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Subbiah Ajith   Veerasimman Arumugaprabu   and Mariusz Szóstak   The construction industry is one of the most accident-susceptible sectors of the national economy and is characterized by a high rate of accidentality. The Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) is a generic method to identify human error. This technique uses generic task types and error producing conditions to calculate the probable human error. It is known that unsafe acts in the activity will also lead to unplanned events. Therefore, in this research, in addition to the existing factors, the probability of unsafe acts is also integrated. From the results, it is known that excavation (0.957), reinforcement erection for footing & column (0.631) and crane operation (0.269) are the tasks with a higher probability of human error. This can be minimized by frequent safety trainings to the workers and providing suitable personnel protective equipment (PPE) by the management. This proposed method may be applicable for all the workplaces, as it has a generic method to quantify human error with the task and error producing conditions. Knowledge of the circumstances of accidents will enable the formulation or modification of the labour law to be properly formulated, as well as the appropriate orientation of preventive measures and trainings in the field of occupational safety. All participants in the investment process: workers, construction site managers and supervisors, should be the recipients of these activities, who are also exposed to hazards and may suffer from accidents while performing their activities at a construction site. Parameters and the probable human error described by the authors allow for a comprehensive assessment of hazards and the probability of accident occurrences.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • The Impact of Residential Gated Compounds on Quality of Life in Egypt

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Aya Said Muawad   Rania Rushdy Moussa   and Marianne Nabil Guirguis   Over the last twenty years, gated communities have been growing rapidly in Egypt to present a better living standard to their residents. Accordingly, a lot of Egyptians moved to gated communities to improve their Quality of Life through upgrading their human need satisfaction level. The rapid development of gated residential communities combined with some problems, and gated communities are not preferable to some residents because they are far away from downtown and from most famous neighborhoods in Egypt. Research showed that living in the suburbs has direct and indirect effects on human psychological behavior. It affects people's leisure in addition to the clear classification that has been introduced among the Egyptians according to their address. Nevertheless, gated communities could participate in enhancing residents' security, understanding, spirituality and other human needs. This paper aims at investigating the impact of living in gated communities on middle class residents' Quality of Life by illustrating positive and negative impacts on both residents and non-residents of gated communities in a comparative method. This is achieved through a qualitative methodology that clarifies how Quality of Life for gated community residents has been improved.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Exo Case-Study and Prototype of the Dynamic Responsive Architectural
           System: The Key Attributes of Systemic Integration and Design – Part I

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  5  Dragana Ćirić   As a part of the series of studies that have investigated different aspects of the Exo project and its arguments for the format and technical solution of the computed architecture-instrument, this paper focuses on main attributes and criteria that qualify this kind of architectural design for the categories of dynamic and kinetic responsive architectural systems, inquiring spatial and technological integration and design they claim. The concepts of these systems, theoretically presumed and practically tested in this project, have been contextualized within the wider field of research in this area (including relevant literature, comparative and referential examples), activating hereby interdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary potentials for resolving critical issues of the desired and analyzed architectural format. By converging sentience (remote and close-up sensing), electronic integration, algorithmic (software) command-and-control and automation, smart or intelligent performance, kinetics, performativity, adaptability, responsiveness, and interaction in relation to the variable (dynamic) input parameters, Exo claims the status of the representative example of the argued and investigated system design. Since the first stage of the experiment (the proof of a concept) has left the full application of targeted attributes partly unresolved, their detailed analysis and critical observation will be provided and presented so as to refine and more precisely direct further prototyping and project development. In parallel, the particularity of this case will be led towards the universal set of principles within the aim of its wider application in different design situations.
      PubDate: Sep 2022
       
  • Urbanization, Pubs and the Quality of Low Density Residential
           Neighbourhoods in Benin City, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Kingsley Okechukwu Dimuna   Monoyoren Emmanuel Omatsone   Abumere Akhanolu   Lucky Osavuogbe Edokpolo   and Regina Omondiale   One of the most challenging phenomena confronting urban design professionals is the increasing rate of urbanization in the world especially in the developing countries. The impact of urbanization has been both positive and negative on the built environment. Evidence of the impact of urbanization process could be seen in the location of pubs within residential neighbourhoods in Benin City. This study assesses this development in terms of the physical, social, and environmental development of the study area. The study relied on quantitative and qualitative data collected from 23 pubs through administration of structured questionnaires, observations and interviews in the research area. Data were analysed using the structured equation modelling (SEM) and content analysis techniques respectively. The Path analysis shows that urbanization has a positive impact on pubs and this relationship is significant at 5%. The result implies that the increases in the number of pubs in the study area have been facilitated by the magnitude of urbanization. However, the path analysis from Pubs on residential satisfaction reflected a negative coefficient which suggests that, the effect of pubs on residential neighbourhoods is negative and this is significant at 5%. The study concludes that indiscriminate location of pubs within low density residential neighbourhoods has negative effect on easement. Recommendations that may enhance sustainable living built environment are suggested.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • The Use and Challenges of Virtual Reality in Architecture

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Leenah Fakahani   Sara Aljehani   Rahaf Baghdadi   and Abdel-Moniem El-Shorbagy   Technology has changed so much over the years and it has contributed a lot to the advancement of the many aspects of the industry as well as people's daily life. Architecture is not spared from this change and has benefited a lot from the development of this technology. With this, it is no secret that one aspect of technology that has changed the world is virtual reality. This study outlines the application of virtual reality in various sectors such as industrial, architecture design, science and technology, education as well as entertainment. There is a great potential of virtual reality in the future, especially in two different aspects namely technological and social. The importance of virtual reality in architecture is relying on the advancement of technologies, applications and processes. The use of virtual reality in architecture can be classified into several categories, namely landscape, building, interior, and exterior. Moreover, this study also elucidates the challenges of virtual reality in architecture and education. All in all, the virtual reality in architectural highlights the multiple advantages of multiple applications, and overcomes the defining challenges which may lead to the successful realization of virtual reality in architecture.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • The Development of Senior Clubs

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Safaa Fahad Alradade   Ahmed M. Refaat   and Aida Nayer   The Senior Club serves as a space for seniors, connecting with the community and promoting healthy aging through a variety of resources to help them stay active and independent. Therefore, this study proposes a plan for the development of senior clubs, which is a center for social and therapeutic activities for older adults at specific times of the day. The project design for this research is based on two case studies, the social housing for the elderly in Alcácer do Sal and the Guangxi elderly center. The project design in this study includes several important areas, such as public areas, educational areas, administrative areas, support service areas, fitness areas and residential areas. The proposed project site for the project is located in the Obhur Al-Shamaliyah district, as the site has significant advantages in terms of shape and scale, topography, accessibility and visual quality. Lastly, this project aims to provide a good environment for the elderly to connect with others, especially to learn new knowledge, and to believe that they can live long and disease-free.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • Formal Aesthetics of the Facades of Historical Public Buildings (Dutch
           East Indies Architecture in Malang)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Noviani Suryasari   Antariksa   Lisa Dwi Wulandari   and Herry Santosa   The building is a form of design work that must have visual quality through the expression of the facade. The visual quality of the building facade is one of the important concerns of the designer, motivated by certain aesthetic concepts, manifested through the arrangement of visual elements and expressed in the formal character of the building. Formal aesthetics as part of the overall aesthetic scope in addition to sensory and symbolic aesthetics is important to show how much visual quality of a building is expressed through its facade. This study aims to find out how the formal aesthetics of six selected heritage public buildings with Dutch East Indies architecture in Malang City through the analysis of the quality of the visual elements of the building facade. The relevance of the quality of this element lies in its importance in the preservation of a heritage building in maintaining certain aesthetic values through hierarchical visual qualification of elements. The method used was a descriptive qualitative analysis based on the paradigmatic syntagmatic relationship that exists in the arrangement of the visual elements of the building facade. The results of this study indicate that authenticity, representation, and inclusiveness determine the level of importance of visual elements in building facade designs that contain certain formal aesthetics. Authentic, representative, and inclusive elements in the facade design of a historic public building with Dutch East Indies architecture in Malang City greatly determine the sustainability of visual quality in its context as a heritage building. The difference in the importance of the three elements determines how much tolerance for changes can be made to significant visual elements. The recognition of the authentic, representative, and inclusive elements of a heritage building aims to provide direction for architectural preservation efforts to the right strategy.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • Compatibility of Ether-Based Poly-Carboxylate Superplasticizer with
           Mineral Admixtures Blended with OPC

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Dheeresh Kumar Nayak   Abhilash P P   Rahul Singh   Rajesh Kumar   and Veerendra Kumar   The marsh cone test is a defined procedure to determine the quantitative fluidity of cement with mineral admixtures along with the saturation dosage and the efficiency of the superplasticizer (SP). In the present study, three mineral admixtures, micro-silica (MS), fly ash (FA), and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) were used as cement replacement. Poly-carboxylate ether-based superplasticizer was used as a chemical admixture. Blends of cement and mineral admixtures with water/binder (w/b) ratios ranging from 0.40 to 0.60 at every interval of 0.05 were examined against the different dosages for SP. All the binder mixes reached a saturation dosage for SP, after which there is no change in the fluidity of the mix. The obtained dosage is considered the maximum amount of SP added to the concrete with the respective binder type. The replacement percentage of cement with mineral admixture also affected the fluidity of the binder mix. A decrease in the fluidity of binder mix was observed on increasing the amount of mineral admixture in it. At a higher w/b ratio, a significantly less SP dosage is required to attain saturation point and vice-versa. Based on the experimental investigation, it is concluded that the efficiency of SP depends on its dosage, the w/b ratio, the type and amount of mineral admixture.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • The Effect of Directing Architectural Spaces towards Astronomy on Living
           Organisms: An Experimental Study on Chlorella Vulgaris Algae

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  N. M. Mahmoud   H. H. Azmi   O. Fatehe   and M. S. EL-Sawy   It has been noted that ancient civilizations, like the Ancient Greeks, Babylonians, and the Ancient Egyptians, were interested in directing buildings towards astronomy. This directive represents a mystery that the modern architect could not understand, which rompted the research to deal with this problem experimentally to prove whether or not there was an effect of architectural spaces oriented towards astronomy on living organisms. Accordingly, this experiment was implemented on microorganisms such as algae of the type (Chlorella Vulgaris) by designing spaces and then directing them towards astronomy at times with unique characteristics being chosen and directed to it, and placing algae in them to study the changes that occurred in them as a result of placing them in those spaces. The experiment concluded that there was a clear relevance between directed spaces according to astronomical parameters and the well-being of living organisms. The search objective was to reach an answer to the research question, is there any importance to the effect of directing architectural spaces toward astronomy or not on living organisms' And why' The research results showed the importance of orientation towards astronomy, as it was in all previous civilizations, and the absence of this importance at present. The choice of building construction time and the guidance of the astronomer enhance the required purpose of the building and increase its efficiency and the efficiency of its users. The Scientific addition to research showed that the main value of the research is proving the effect of directing architectural spaces towards astronomy on living organism using an experimental study on microorganisms, it was found that there is an important effect of space that is oriented to astronomy on living organisms to raise its efficiency and the efficiency of its users.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • Towards an Integrated Model for Locating Transportation Hubs Depending on
           Urban Indicators

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Sara Essam Ali   Mohammed Anwar Zayed   and Ayman Mohammed Mostafa   Transportation hubs are major urban nodes and they play a unique role in enhancing cities' infrastructures. However, analyzing the process of selecting transportation hubs' Locations and relevant methodologies reveals a significant lack of including urban criteria and indicators in planning and application. The adopted factors and criteria of selection are limited to requirements of mobility and transportation, without having a clear description/measuring indicators of significant urban criteria. This paper aims to integrate urban criteria in selecting the best places for transportation hubs. First, this is accomplished by identifying such comprehensive criteria for location selection. In identifying criteria, the research methodology relied on various layers, include: inferring relationships between transportation development and modern urban trends, analysis of different approaches developed in planning transportation hubs, spotting differences in literature in transportation and urbanism disciplines concerning selecting points of transportation hubs, and finally, through analysis of global trials in the Location selection process and inferring common points. Six groups of comprehensive criteria were developed; under these groups fall some main and sub-criteria. Measurement indicators were found for each criterion and reference points for each indicator on a 1-5 Likert Scale. Then, Results were presented to 36 academic experts in transportation and urban planning, to ensure the quality, of each group of criteria separately. In general, the results were largely positive. 26.3% of the experts agree that criteria are excellent, 52.6% say they are very good, and 21.1% think they are good. Meanwhile, 100% agree that criteria are applicable to any city, and 93% find the measurement indicators sufficient. Finally, using Saati's hierarchical analysis, the relative weights of the proposed criteria were found depending on expert views via a series of paired comparisons. In conclusion, the results introduced by this model can be used for assessing each transportation hub nominated location. Thus, the research gap in the practical methodology adopted was filled. This would help planners spot all factors influencing location determination and assess their total urban impacts. Hence, sound decisions can be made, considering the urban surroundings, current and future development, and achieving maximum desired benefit from transportation hubs at all levels, supporting layout decisions.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • Exo Case-Study and Prototype of the Dynamic Responsive Architectural
           

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Dragana Ćirić   As a part of the series of studies that have investigated different aspects of the Exo project and its arguments for the format and technical solution of the computed architecture-instrument, this paper focuses on main attributes and criteria that qualify this kind of architectural design for the categories of dynamic and kinetic responsive architectural systems, inquiring spatial and technological integration and design they claim. The concepts of these systems, theoretically presumed and practically tested in this project, have been contextualized within the wider field of research in this area (including relevant literature, comparative and referential examples), activating hereby interdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary potentials for resolving critical issues of the desired and analyzed architectural format. By converging sentience (remote and close-up sensing), electronic integration, algorithmic (software) command-and-control and automation, smart or intelligent performance, kinetics, performativity, adaptability, responsiveness, and interaction in relation to the variable (dynamic) input parameters, Exo claims the status of the representative example of the argued and investigated system design. Since the first stage of the experiment (the proof of a concept) has left the full application of targeted attributes partly unresolved, their detailed analysis and critical observation will be provided and presented so as to refine and more precisely direct further prototyping and project development. In parallel, the particularity of this case will be led towards the universal set of principles within the aim of its wider application in different design situations.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • Confinement State of Reinforced Concrete Columns Made with Recycled
           Aggregates

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Bashar Alomari   Rabab Allouzi   and Amer Alkloub   Recycled aggregates are one of the options that can be used to form the concrete because they can be considered as environmental-friendly. Using of high replacement ratio of recycled aggregates decreases the compressive strength of the concrete and weakens the rest mechanical properties. This study intended to investigate the effect of the confinement on Reinforced concrete (RC) columns that are made with recycled aggregates since it raises the compressive strength of concrete and improves the behavior of RC columns. This study is analytical and conducted based on the available data in literature of 34 columns that were tested experimentally under axial load only by other researchers, containing various ratios of recycled aggregates. The collected data of axial load capacity are compared with ACI318-19 provisions. It can be used to estimate axial load capacity. Confinement factors are calculated and compared with Mander's formula. It is concluded that Mander's equation can be used after being multiplied by the modification factors derived in this study to better reflect the confinement state. Also, a new formula is derived to estimate the unconfined compressive strength of the concrete based on the used replacement ratio of recycled aggregates.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • Evaluation of the Sustainability Indicator for Road Infrastructure in
           Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  R. Jachrizal Sumabrata   Dadang Iskandar   and Radhitya Abiyoga   The quality of road infrastructure in Indonesia is ranked 64th out of 137 countries studied behind Singapore which was placed 2nd, Malaysia 23rd, Brunei Darussalam 33rd, and Thailand 59th. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to analyze the sustainability indicators for the road infrastructures in the country and also to evaluate the effect of these indicators based on the perceptions of civil servants and contractors. The process involved conducting a literature review to identify the variables and indicators while a survey was used to gauge the perceptions of the respondents. The data obtained were analyzed using the Structural Equation Modeling with a Partial Least Square approach. The results showed the most influential indicator for existing and expected road infrastructures were road lighting with a loading factor of 0.904 and environmental assessment process with 1.000 respectively according to the government employees. Meanwhile, the construction company employees believed it was the environmental assessment process with 1.000 as well as pedestrian access, bicycle route, and public transportation with 1.000 respectively. The usefulness of this research is to produce indicators that can be used by infrastructure managers to improve their performance by seeking the development and maintenance of the right infrastructure so that it can be used according to the needs of the user.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • Inter-Island Freshwater Pipeline Installation Technology with TJ-19 Method

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Tri Suyono   Agustinus Purna Irawan   Wati Asriningsih Pranoto   and Ahmad Fudholi   The supply of fresh water for people who live on small islands but do not have a fresh water source is often a problem, especially regarding the selection of technology and raw water sources. So far, many people on the island who do not have a source of fresh water have to take water from a nearby island, or use rainwater during the rainy season. The use of technology that requires electrical energy and fuel will make the price of water expensive, so we need a fresh water supply technology that is easy to maintain and cheap in operational costs so that it can be done with local human resources and facilities. Pipe installation technology which is often used in gas and oil pipelines as well as electric cables requires special vessels which of course must be imported from other places, which will certainly have consequences for installation costs. If using this technology for installing fresh water pipes for domestic consumption purposes that are not business-oriented on a large scale, it is not suitable, so it is necessary to innovate so that pipe installation can be carried out at a lower cost which can also be installed by residents of the island, so that it will be easier for operation, maintenance and repair. The installation of an inter-island freshwater subsea pipeline using the TJ-19 method is very suitable because it does not require a special vessel and also does not require other sophisticated equipment, the installation can be carried out with a modified boat so that it can be used to install pipes more easily. The installation technique is to stretch the pipe in front of the boat for 100 m and at the end of the pipe, it is tied with a rope and given an anchor weight of 1,200 kg to maintain the coordinates of the pipe installation. Pipe installation is recommended when the maximum sea current speed is 0.8 m/s and the maximum wave height is 1 meter, so that the process of lowering the pipe can be carried out at the planned point.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • Structural Experimental Design of a High-Altitude Provisional Dwelling
           Built with Timber

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Christian Asmat   Cecilia Jimenez   Teresa Montoya   and Silvana Loayza   This article refers to the conception, design, experimentation and optimization of a timber structure for the construction of a temporary dwelling for the high altitude Andean region of southern Peru. The objective was to design a modular structure, which can be easily assembled and disassembled, adapted to the characteristics of the soil at 4800 meters above sea level, and able to hold insulation panels made of natural fibers - totora. A critical part of this structure was the design of the foundation, due to the hard soil of this region. The structural design of the module had particularities because it is a temporary and non-conventional dwelling. A seismic spectrum design for temporary dwelling was elaborated, with a return period of 50 years and 10% of exceedance probability. A maximum velocity of 130 km/h was considered for the wind design, with maximum resultant pressure and suction of 665Pa and 500Pa, respectively. I-shaped composite wall studs were used for increasing resistance to lateral loads and holding the "totora" insulation panels. This is part of the research project "Design and validation of a constructive technology of provisional housing for the high-altitude Andean region of southern Peru".
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • A Customized Indicator-Based Tool to Assess Resiliency of Egyptian Coastal
           Cities: Case Study of Red Sea Cities

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Safaa A. Ghoneim   and Walid A. Abdellatif   The increasing severity of climate changes and environmental risks led to the paradigm shift in urban planning towards increasing the resilience of cities. However, coastal cities are on the frontline facing these risks and challenges. The local context in developing countries is adding more pressure on city resilience. In Egypt, the Red Sea cities are increasingly exposed to flash floods, and storms under the uncertainties of environmental risks. They have special local environmental, social, cultural, and economic characteristics. This research aims to develop a customized community resiliency assessment tool, which considers the local context of Egyptian coastal cities. The literature shows that more than 30 tools and frameworks to assess resilience have been developed. However, this paper argues that indicator-based tools of assessment should be tailored to reflect the local context. From here, available tools from different perspectives and their associated indicators were reviewed and filtered according to the Egyptian context and national data drivers. Then the special environmental, social, cultural, and economic features of the study area "Red Sea" were highlighted as a reference to the next step of indicator selection. The appropriate criteria were developed and tested using data of Red Sea cities (i.e. Ras-Gharib, Hurghada, Safaga, El-Qusair, Marsa-Alam, Halaib and Shalateen). The case studies application and assessments included analyses of environmental parameters, and statistical analyses of social, and economic parameters. It showed high applicability and produced a resilience index of the coastal cities of the red sea region.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • Dynamic Model-Based Risk Manageability in the Modular Construction of
           High-Rise Residential Buildings to Improve Project time Performance

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Dinal Aulia   and Albert Eddy Husin   Modular construction has been applied in low-rise buildings over the past three decades, but its application in high-rise buildings is still less than 1% worldwide. Thus, the need for high-rise residential buildings applying modular construction in Indonesia becomes very important. The unavailability of design guidelines disrupts the life cycle of modular construction projects. This study aims to analyze the factors which affect the risk manageability of on-time performance in modular construction residential high-rise building projects, then analyze risk manageability modeling using dynamic systems for on-time performance, then analyze the results of the simulations and modeling scenarios of risk manageability using dynamic systems to improve time performance. The research variables were obtained based on the results of a literature study seeking the opinions of experts qualified in this field. The methods used were cause flow diagram models which were then developed into stock-flow diagrams with input formulation and validation, thereafter simulations and scenarios were carried out and reviewed for time overrun. The research results showed 15 factors of risk manageability that affect on-time performance in the modular construction of residential high-rise buildings. Without any mitigation of the risks, the highest time overrun of 12.79 days was incurred due to drawing approval, then design standardization of 12.79 days, and supply chain 12.78 days. The results of scenario #3 showed an optimistic alternative with a 53.55% improvement whereby project delays decreased from 126 days/25.25% to 59.17 days/11.8%, delivering a time overrun of
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • Investigating the Impact of Staircases Rotation on the Evacuation
           Efficiency

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Usama Konbr   and Ehab Maher   Most people use stairs during emergencies and evacuations. Therefore, this study addressed the impact of staircase rotation to minimize physical effort and evacuation time, hypothesizing that staircase rotation affects the evacuation speed and the safety of the occupants. This study consisted of two stages. In the first stage, a questionnaire was delivered to architects, with two key questions about the preferred direction in daily use and the other regarding evacuation cases. The second stage involved field experiments on two different staircases in the rotational direction, which were applied to 53 participants to measure the efficiency of the staircases in four cases (slow descent, slow ascent, fast descent and fast ascent). The counter-clockwise staircase during the field experiments showed better results and was more efficient. The heart pulse rate (pulse/min) in the clockwise case showed a clear increase compared to the counter-clockwise case by 12.89% for slow descending, 6.91% for fast descending, 21.51% for slow ascending, and 18.27% for fast ascending. Therefore, the theoretical and practical results of the study validated the hypothesis on the impact of the staircase rotation on user comfort and evacuation speed. Moreover, it was concluded that counter-clockwise staircases provided faster evacuation with less physical effort.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • Study on Coarse Recycled Concrete Aggregate

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Rahul Singh   Dheeresh Kumar Nayak   Rajesh Kumar   and Veerendra Kumar   The use of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) is one of the best solutions to mitigate the problem of ecological instability created by concrete waste. RCA has less crushing strength, impact resistance, specific gravity, and more water absorption capacity than the natural aggregate (NA). To overcome the compromised properties of RCA, a comprehensive study supported by the experimental investigation is required. This paper prescribes a methodology based on experimental investigation for the use of coarse-RCA (C-RCA) of size (4.75-20mm) as 100% replacement of coarse-NA in fresh concrete. A "remodified two-stage mixing approach (R-TSMA)" supported by a physical treatment method is proposed here to increase the bond strength between RCA and new mortar. Micro-structure of RCA-C has been studied via optical microscope as well as Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Effect of parent concrete quality is influential only at early curing age (7 and 14 days), but after 28 days of curing its influence reduced, such that RCA-C sample showed 5% higher compressive strength and about 4% higher in flexural strength than NA-C. At 90 days of curing, all RCA samples showed higher compressive and flexural strength than NA-C. Similarly, carbonation curing enhanced the strength of RCA-C by higher margin than NA-C.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • The Effect of Level Crossing on the Railroad Line Capacity

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Budi Rahardjo   Indrasurya B. Mochtar   and Hera Widyastuti   Changing the railway line from single track to double track will increase the railway line capacity, which means there is an additional number of train trips. Even though it has become a double track, the train trip still passes through a level crossing. If the number of train trips increases, it will result in more frequent level crossing gates being closed, or it can also result in more extended gate closing times. When the level crossing gate is closed, there will be a road traffic conflict; the traffic will stop and form a queue. The more often the level crossing gate is closed, the more road traffic conflicts will increase. By using the Indonesian method for calculating the railway line capacity, the change from single track to double track will increase the railway line capacity by 2.35 times. However, this calculation has not considered the existence of a level crossing, so this study aims to determine the amount of the railway line capacity that can be achieved, which is influenced by the level crossing without significantly increasing road traffic conflicts. The research method was carried out by taking data on train trips and road traffic at the level crossing that exists today, which is still a single line, then simulating the conditions when it has turned into a double track. Simulations are carried out by adding the number of train trips according to the double track capacity. Simulation results showed that at the level crossing, the factor affecting the increase in the railway capacity line is the headway time between the closing of the level crossing gate. For headway time values below or equal with 2.5 minutes, the line capacity increases by 1.5 times the single-line capacity. As for the headway time value above 2.5 minutes, the line capacity increases to 2.35 times the capacity of the single line. From this research, it can be concluded that the level crossing affects increasing the capacity of the railway line. To achieve maximum railroad capacity, the headway time between closing the level crossing gate must be more significant than 2.5 minutes.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • Groundwater Level Assessment in an Alluvial Aquifer Using Neural Networks

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Shiwanshu Shekhar   Medha Jha   Manvendra Singh Chauhan   Pranav Kumar   and Santosh Kumar   Groundwater is an important source of water worldwide due to its wide availability and generally good quality. Earlier groundwater was easily accessible to meet various domestic demands, but recently, it is vulnerable depletion in many areas due to over exploitation and mismanagement of groundwater resources. This study used the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model to forecast groundwater (GW) level near Varanasi. ANN is a way to develop a prediction model based on the human brain's functions. This research provides a flawless prediction using the LM (Levenberg-Marquardt) and GDX training algorithms (Adaptive Learning rate with back Propagation). Data from eight wells, annual precipitation, the maximum and minimum temperatures, and relative humidity are all accepted as inputs, while the output is expected groundwater levels. The R (regression coefficient) and RMSE (root mean square error) values were used to measure model competency and precision. The observed R and RMSE values for the majority of the wells were heading towards unity using the LM technique. This LM technique is effective when we have a limited amount of data, and it is believed that this strategy will produce a precise result for a large amount of data. When there is a data constraint, the LM approach is found to be appropriate for determining any forecast of water fluctuations. This technique produces accurate results when the river location is used as an input in the artificial neural network (ANN).
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • History of Chiang Mai City Prison: Transition of Prison Styles by the
           Siamese Influences under the Western Colonial Powers

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Piyadech Arkarapotiwong   and Sumavalee Chindapol   In the period of traditional Lanna in 19th century, Chiang Mai was a major city in Lanna region and was a vassal state of Siam. Under traditional custom, a vassal state only sent a tribute to the supreme power which was Bangkok and had a full rightfulness to govern their own territories. However, in the second half of the reign of King Rama V, there was the establishing of new governance system which tried to centralize the country. Consequently, there were many centralization policies enacted in the country. The modern prison of Chiang Mai City was constructed under the Siamese centralization policy. The transition of such style greatly impacted the concepts of punishments under the correctional system in the country. This research aimed to study the development of prisons from the customary system to the modern one in terms of physical changes, utilizations and relevant concepts. The research conducted by using empirical study in the actual site, gathering information from relevance documents and interviews, the conclusion of this research came from comparing both sources. It found out that Siam and Chiang Mai had developed some correction methods related with architecture. The impacts of administrative reforms on the architectural styles took part in corrections in terms of both punishment and confinement. Apart from the obtained results to achieve the study purposes, it was found that modern prisons in Bangkok and Chiang Mai represented different signs regarding their construction and existence. The modern prisons in Bangkok indicated an attempt to create equality in parallel with the Western nations during the colonial era. Meanwhile, the modern prison in Chiang Mai signified its surrender to the Siamese powers influencing Lanna since it imitated the architectural style from Siam.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • The Absence of Social Expenses and Social Profits in Housing Projects in
           Jordan

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Saqer M. Sqour   This paper discusses the ignored social costs and profits in cooperative housing schemes. These projects focus on monetary costs and benefits. These projects ignore the social side, which is an important part that housing projects must consider. This study is necessary because of the importance of housing projects, and their contributions to the problems and solutions to the problem of different societies. Housing projects also play a significant role in supporting the construction industry nationwide. The importance of the study lies in the fact that cooperative housing projects often ignore the social costs of housing. Therefore, the aim of this study is to shed light on social expenses and profits in cooperative housing projects, and to make suggestions for improvement. Literature is reviewed on the available research work that has previously been done on housing schemes in Jordan. However, the focus of this study is on examining the housing schemes conducted by the Jordanian Engineers Association. The review takes care of the different opinions of architects and thinkers on the issue of housing in Jordan as well as a case study to help address the problem. The cooperative housing schemes in the Jordanian Engineers Association aim to grant a plot of land each to members of the association to enable them to build their own independent homes. Further, the study helps to understand the neglected social expenses and social profits, and to revive those benefits in housing projects, because these projects depend on the financial side while ignoring the social part of these projects. The study ends by recommending more government power in planning and designing private cooperative housing schemes, because government's role is necessary to support and monitor these projects to ensure the existence of social benefits in them.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • Effect of Axle Overloading on Pavement Structural Behaviour with Improved
           Clayey Subgrade Using PET Fibres

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Arijit Kumar Banerji   Pijush Topdar   and Aloke Datta   Clayey subgrade soils are considered to have a lower bearing capacity, which may develop early pavement failure due to diverse axle loading. To avoid such failure issues, these soils must be treated prior to the beginning of the construction work. In the recent past, soil stabilization with plastic waste has become popular to reduce waste and improve soil behaviour. The current study aimed to use polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste bottles to improve clayey subgrade soil for pavement construction. The PET fibre content varied between 1% and 5% by weight of the dry soil to investigate its influence on compaction, California bearing ratio (CBR), unconfined compressive strength (UCS), and tri-axial shear strength. The modified soil matrix with PET was further stabilized using Terrasil (0.1%) in order to improve the strength properties of the treated soil with ageing. Overall, the influence of the addition of the PET fibre on the structural behaviour of flexible pavement under diverse axle loading conditions was evaluated using Finite Element (FE) techniques. The pavement model is computationally implemented in ANSYS to study pavement structural behaviour in terms of surface deflection, vertical stress and strain on the subgrade layer, maximum shear strain in the bituminous layer, and tensile strain at the base of the bituminous layer under standard loading and overloading by 1.25 and 1.5 times. The test results indicated that the addition of PET fibres in subgrade soil significantly increases the CBR, UCS, and internal friction angle and decreases the compaction characteristics. The use of PET fibres in subgrade stabilization can result in a significant reduction in pavement thickness. FE analysis results compare pavement rutting performance and show that overloading reduces rutting life.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • Utilization of Concrete Waste as the Substitute for Coarse Aggregates in
           Asphalt Mixtures

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Senja Rum Harnaeni   Falikhatul Hijra   Diva Almara Benina   Budi Utomo   Sri Sunarjono   Agus Riyanto   Muhammad Abdurrohim   Afizah Ayob   and Nik Zainab Nik Azizan   This paper aims to determine the Marshall properties of Asphalt Concrete-Wearing Course (AC-WC) and Hot Rolled Sheet-Wearing Course (HRS-WC) with the utilization of concrete waste and also to determine the percentage of concrete waste added into AC-WC and HRS-WC as the substitute for coarse aggregates. During the manufacture of asphalt mixtures, coarse aggregates, and fine aggregates are required in large quantities. To reduce fresh aggregates in the manufacture of asphalt mixtures for road pavement, concrete waste has become an alternative. This study used 60/70 penetration asphalt, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and concrete waste of 0%, 20%, and 40%. The test was conducted using Marshall test tool, which consisted of two stages of testing. The first stage, Marshall test, was performed to determine the optimum bitumen content of asphalt mixture with a concrete waste variation of 0%, 20%, and 40%. The second stage of Marshall test was conducted to determine the Marshall properties (stability, flow, Marshall Quotient, VMA, VFWA, and VIM) by performing in the asphalt mixture with concrete waste variations of 0%, 20%, and 40%. The results showed that as a performance indicator of asphalt mixtures that acted as the variation addition in concrete waste in AC-WC and HRS-WC asphalt mixtures, Marshall properties decreased in Stability values, Marshall Quotient and VFWA, whereas the values of Flow, VIM, and VMA experienced an increase. The utilization of concrete waste up to 20% as the substitute for coarse aggregate was acceptable for respective AC-WC and HRS-WC asphalt mixture. The maximum acceptable variation of concrete waste was 35% for AC-WC asphalt mixture and 29% for HRS-WC asphalt mixture.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • Evaluation of the Aesthetic Quality of an Industrial Building after
           Renovation

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Raushan Amangeldikyzy   Aiman Assylbekova   Talgat Jumagaliyev   Mariya Derbissova   Ardak Nigmetova   Saltanat Myrzahmetova   and Zhanerke Imanbayeva   Industrial buildings occupy large areas and are one of the main city-forming elements of the urban environment. In recent decades, the renovation of industrial buildings has become a special and widespread creative direction for designers. The aesthetic features of the industrial facilities renovation process are of great interest not only for designers but also for users of buildings and citizens. The results obtained by evaluating the aesthetic aspects of the renovation of a large industrial building in Kazakhstan are presented in this article: the Almaty Cotton Mill (ACM). Three large buildings of the former industrial site have been converted into a commercial facility. The study is based on an assessment of new use from the point of view of users and citizens. The study's methodology is based on conducting a sociological survey to analyze the aesthetic qualities of the interiors and exteriors of ACM buildings. Interior spaces were analyzed using the Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) method. The exterior assessment will be based on the theory of visual perception of the city according to the method of K. Lynch. The result of the study is the final concept of a sociological survey and recommendations for improving the aesthetic characteristics of the interiors and exteriors in "Armada" and "Grand Park" buildings.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • Digital Architecture between Genetic Mutations and Xefirotarch's Design

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Rania Raouf Sedky   and Georges Awadalla   The digital revolution and globalization have sorted out the philosophy of what is now known as digital forms, which has been spread widely in various fields. There are many interpretations about the definition of digital architecture, but we can say that it is a different type of architecture as a result of digital techniques and architectural approaches that produce a form that achieves functionality. In this research, we try to present the theoretical features of the impact of the digital and technological revolution on the field of architectural formation between Genetic Mutations and Xefirotarch's Design. Therefore, we will liberate from the spatial determinants, which the technological revolution does not care about, and discuss the relationship between architecture and the technological revolution, and analyze influences that currently affect and will affect more in the future on the formation trends. Xeforotarch design obsession is a micro technique that appreciates the perversity of elegant shape, a taste that has been learned from the films and is designed for architecture. The problem of the research on the possibility of using the Xefirotarch's design approach as a tool and strategy for Xefirotarch's Vision of future sustainability was studied while studying its applications in the areas of design and architecture. However, there is an evident knowledge deficiency in this field at the academic or professional level, especially our modern local community.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • The Study of Ecological Site Plan of Toba Batak Traditional Housing

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Nelson M. Siahaan   Samsul Bahri   and Nicolaus Simamora   This study explores sources related to the Toba Batak vernacular architecture, particularly the concept of an ecological site plan for housing sourced from its indigenous knowledge. By analyzing numerous pieces of literature and Sait Nihuta as a specific site, this study describes an ecological site plan derived from the Toba Batak architecture which focuses on two main aspects: site planning, building form and orientation. Considering these unique aspects, the site planning tradition in a form that follows the characteristics of vernacular architecture can be applied as a basis for infilling design solutions of the most common types of site plan occurring in Toba urban areas. Using a qualitative approach, this study provides an in-depth knowledge of the ecological site plan through stages of description, elemental analysis; function, space and form, and interpretation of all three simultaneously. The intrinsic value of this observation is to define the process of adjustment of Toba Batak vernacular dwelling as an ecological site plan model for the purpose of infilling urban development in Toba Regency.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • Bottleneck Effect Caused by Motorcyclist Presence in the Traffic Flow on
           Kerten Signalized Intersection

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Nurul Hidayati   Rajaonarivelo Ranto Harimanana   Sri Sunarjono   and Helmi Dhia Al Ghalib   The number of motorcycles in Surakarta has been increasing dramatically since several years ago. This condition was engendering several phenomena such as bottleneck and congestion including around an intersection. This research aims to determine the repercussions of motorcycles from the viewpoint of the traffic flow, timing signal, and the driver's behavior. The traffic flow was analyzed based on the Indonesian Highway Capacity Manual, the bottleneck analysis was determined using the Yuan model, and the behavior analysis was based on descriptive statistics. The traffic flow data consisted of secondary data sourced by a Local Government and primary data from a field survey at Kerten Intersection. Behavior data were obtained from questionnaires using Google Forms and the field survey reached 300 participants. The result of the research shows that from the traffic flow and driver's behaviors point of view motorcycles are causing bottleneck and traffic congestion. It is because when motorcycle volume is added to the flow the bottleneck often exceeds 1, and the motorcycle's behavior and habits are affecting the driving's way of other riders and drivers. This research is expected to be a source of information as well as a basis for comparison for further research for authors and other researchers. This shall provide a viable data source with viability and advantages for those interested in the same subject of research.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • The Study of the Ancient Philosophy of "Aboge" in the Embodiment of a
           Space (Case: Cirebon City, Indonesia)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Ina Helena Agustina   Irland Fardani   Riswandha Risang Aji   and Mochamad Ghiffary   Cirebon, in the Indonesian province of West Java, is a culturally and historically significant city. The past's culture is still alive and well today. One of these is the Aboge concept of space embodiment, which is still alive and well today. The goal of this study is to describe the Aboge philosophy in the creation of a space, such as a house. The research is carried out by collecting data through field surveys. Interview activities with respondents were carried out in a snowball manner. Field observations were used to record empirical phenomena. The analytical approach employs a qualitative descriptive data collection method, followed by synthesis and conclusions. The findings demonstrate that aboge is an old philosophy that regards humans as integral members of the universe. This old aboge ideology has grown among the Cirebon people as an intangible heritage. Its evolution is passed down from generation to generation through folklore, or "getok tular," as it is known. The findings of the study indicate that the location of a house is necessary to attain harmony with its owners' energy. These findings can be utilized as evidence for the preservation of Cirebon's intangible heritage.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • The Pattern of Public Space on Barrang Lompo Island as High-Dense
           Environment in Makassar-Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Abdul Mufti Radja   Afifah Harisah   and Mohammad Mochsen Sir   One of the problems in dense environments such as Barrang Lompo Island is the lack of public space that islanders use for various activities. Due to the lack of public space, they use the space around them as a gathering place. The purpose of this study is to know the pattern of public space in Barrang Lompo Island and the factors that shape this pattern. The island is located at Makassar in Indonesia and is one of the islands in the Spermonde archipelago group. It has an area of 0.49 km2 and 4,793 inhabitants, of which 2,442 are male and 2,351 are female. To answer the research questions, qualitative research methods are used by observing the activities of the islanders in public spaces. The result of the research is that the public spaces on Barrang Lompo Island are scattered around the house, such as in the street, aisle, street corner, courtyard, under the houses on stilts (Siring), courtyard, square, around the cemetery, seashore and pier. The bale bale is the most important urban furniture as a meeting place in the public space. The proximity of houses to each other, the gatherings known as Tudang Sipulung and the dense environment are factors in the pattern of public space. This study provides benefits to local authorities in Barrang Lompo Island as a guide for public space planning. For example, comfortable bale bales or benches should be placed as gathering places in many places, especially along the street, so that the local wisdom of gathering can be maintained.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • Strength and Durability Studies on Steel Fiber Reinforced Ternary Blended
           Concrete Containing Nano Silica and Zeolite

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  A. Swetha   Suguna K.   and Raghunath P. N.   An experimental study conducted to evaluate the hardened and durability characteristics of ternary blended concrete containing Nano-Silica and Zeolite along with steel fibers to act as micro- reinforcement has been presented in this paper. Nano-Silica and Zeolite were included in different dosages and the optimum combination of the above two materials (Nano-Silica -1% and Zeolite- 10%) has been obtained through trails from the viewpoint of workability and strength. Steel fibers have been added in varying volume fractions of 0.5%, 1.0% & 1.5%. Tests have been performed on cubes, cylinders, and prism specimens to evaluate the impact of steel fibers on various hardened and durability parameters of the ternary blended concrete. The test results clearly exhibit that inclusion of steel fibers significantly influences the material characteristics of the ternary blended concrete which includes compressive strength, indirect tensile strength, flexural strength, elasticity modulus, water absorption, Sorptivity and porosity. Nano silica and zeolite supplied the voids in the micron size of cement particle and formed a denser concrete which enhanced the improvement of the concrete. Based on the results obtained, the optimum compressive, splitting tensile, flexural strengths and modulus of elasticity of ternary blended concrete with micro reinforcement were obtained by 24.95%, 21.16%, 23.56% and 13.72%, respectively. The results suggested that cementitious materials, including ternary blended concrete with micro reinforcement, were the most influential factors on the mechanical properties.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • Application of Artificial Neural Network to Predict the Properties of
           Permeable Concrete

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Hatem H. Almasaeid   and Donia G. Salman   The structure of permeable concrete has been the primary reason for its use in construction. Permeable concrete is composed of water, cement, aggregate, and little- to no-fines resulting in the presence of a significant number of voids. This makes permeable concrete an ideal solution to water accumulation issues as it acts as a drainage system. This study employs a feedforward backpropagation artificial neural network model that combines experimental laboratory data from previous studies with appropriate network architectures and training techniques. The purpose of the analysis is to develop a reliable functional relationship, based on water-cement ratio, aggregate-cement ratio, and density parameters, with which to estimate the compressive strength, porosity, and water permeability of permeable concrete. Multiple linear regression correlations are also established to predict and correlate these inputs and outputs. The two derived methods are then compared and discussed. The results reveal that ANN is better to anticipate the permeable concrete properties than regression analysis.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • Stigmergy Mechanism as a Form of Architectural Space Programming

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Nur Hadiyatun Nabawi   Kristanti Dewi Paramita   and Yandi Andri Yatmo   This paper explores the understanding of architectural spaces driven by the knowledge that animals communicate by modifying the environment, in which they live. The way that animals communicate by modifying the environment forms an interaction, which is referred to as stigmergy, a mediated form of animal interaction. The paper elaborates on the process of stigmergy, in which animal colonies communicate with their living environment and leave different kinds of spatial traces. The paper argues that the stigmergy process can be potentially used as the basis of architectural programming. This writing explores multiple scenarios of the process of stigmergy in several insect colonies, highlighting the mechanism of stigmergy that is driven by three main components of stigmergy, namely Agent, Medium, and Traces. The writing focuses on how in stigmergy the agent interacts within a particular medium and creates traces in spaces. Findings on such mechanism of interaction are utilized to inform architectural programming that is based on the interaction between humans, animals, and the environment as integrated ecological systems. The development of the programming using the stigmergy method appropriates the social mechanisms of insects, in composing the spatial development of architecture, producing architectural systems for soil fertilization and revitalization of the environment.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • Characteristics of Masonry Prepared with KM Soil as Fine Aggregate in
           Cement Mortar and Concrete Block

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Pramukh Ganapathy C.   G. Sarangapani   and H. S. Prasanna   Manufactured Sand (M Sand) has become a viable alternative for the river sand in the construction industry as a potential fine aggregate. The M Sand poses environmental implications as it is produced by crushing natural resources like stones. The extensive use of M Sand may also lead to a reduction in availability due to the depletion of natural rocks in the days to come. Hence, this study attempts to assess the feasibility of utilizing the clayey soil containing Kaolinite – Montmorillonite (KM) as a predominant clay mineral, as a replacement to the Manufactured sand in the preparation of cement mortar and cement block that are used in masonry construction. In the case of concrete block masonry units, the M Sand is replaced by 25%, 50%, and 100% with KM Soil, and an attempt is also made to produce the mortars by completely replacing the M Sand with KM soil. Further, the properties of the concrete blocks and mortars prepared with KM soil are assessed and compared with the ones prepared with M Sand. Also, the performance of the stack bonded masonry prisms like compressive strength and bond strength in shear is assessed for the various masonry prism prepared with combinations of the Concrete block masonry units and mortars. The results indicate that the stack bonded masonry prism assemblies with KM soil both in cement mortar and concrete block have performed moderately well in compressive strength and shear bond strength in comparison with the one prepared with M Sand.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • From Regional to Local Level: An Integrated Planning Framework for Cities
           Facing Tsunami Risk – Alexandria Case, Egypt

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Muhammad A. Seddeek   and Maha M. Elsayed   The northern coast of the Mediterranean Sea is considered the most seismically active region in the world where a tsunami can occur at any moment. Alexandria is one of the biggest and most populated cities on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea and it is threatened by the tsunami. By reviewing most of the planning studies that targeted the future of Alexandria and its region, the paper finds the missing piece of an integrated planning framework that needs to be applied. The deductive method is used to infer the missing parts in the different studies to produce an integrated planning framework which consists of three phases illustrating timing response named as during, before, and after the disaster. The seven processes representing the three phases can be defined as vulnerability, assessment, planning, coping, mitigation, response, and recovery; the previous process detailed into eight stages which are named background research, communication, risk determination, command, forecasting, prediction, emergency relief and rehabilitation. The interview technique is used to get the suggestions and the feedback from urban planning experts to improve the framework. The proposed framework will be sustained and increase awareness at the institutional level about the coastal communities at risk and put forward suggestions on how to withstand natural phenomena like tsunamis and mitigate their destructive effects.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • Fresh and Hardened Properties of Ternary Blended Fast Setting Early
           Strength Fibre Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  6  Pavan Kumar Diddi   Pushpendra K Sharma   Amit Srivastava   Sri Rama Chand Madduru   and E. Sreenivas Reddy   Cement, used for engineering the concrete structures has become the most demanded construction material, the production of which consumes enormous quantity of raw materials and thereby emits approximately 7% of greenhouse gas emissions into the environment. Determinations are being made to use, as much quantity as possible, the supplementary cementitious materials (SCM), like ground granulated blast furnace slags (GGBFS), flyash (FA), metakaolin (MK), silica fume (SF), rice husk ash (RHA), etc., which are industrial by-products and hold pozzolanic properties, and are capable to be used as a part replacement of ordinary portland cement (OPC). The consumption of OPC has significantly increased all over the world due to construction of infrastructure facilities on massive scales. Also for the aged infrastructure, constructed decades before, necessities maintenance and repairs thereby further increase the demand of OPC and thus cause higher impact on the environment. Researches all over the world are trying experimentations in finding out suitable combinations of various proportions of potential materials like finer SCMs viz. FA, GGBFS etc. and ultrafine SCMs like SF, MK, RHA etc. which are being investigated along with different types of fibres to produce fibre reinforced self-compacting concrete for use in fast track constructions and repair works. In this study on ternary blended SCC and FSCC (fibre reinforced SCC), concrete mixes were established with OPC ranging from 64% to 74%, combinations of proportions of MK (as ultrafine SCM), as a part replacement of OPC, varying from 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%; Fly ash (as fine SCM) fixed at 25%, without fibre and with 1% of Alkali resistant (AR) fibre. The established concrete mixes were set a target to achieve maximum final setting time of 10 hours, 1 day compressive strength of 25 N/mm2 and flexural strength of 2.5 N/mm2 besides meeting SCC characteristics of slump flow of 550mm-650 mm (SF1), V Funnel flow 9-25 Seconds (V2 class) for use in fast track concrete construction and repair of infrastructure facilities.
      PubDate: Nov 2022
       
  • The Impact of Indoor, Outdoor and Urban Architecture on Human Psychology

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3A  Sahar Alharbi   and Hind Basaad   The connection and exchange between the architectural plan and human brain psychology are noteworthy. However, they still persist largely unnoticed or overlooked both within and outside the architectural design field. Thus, this paper presents a discussion on the relationship between architecture and psychology from indoor to outdoor and urban level. The paper begins with a brief discussion on the architecture psychology and indoor spaces. Next, the paper proceeds to discuss the psychology of building's exterior. The paper then presents a discussion on psychology and the design of city buildings. Thus, based on the discussion, the paper has found that the connection between architecture and psychology is not only noteworthy; it is related in two directions. From one point of view, the effective structure of architecture appears to have clear mental and physiological effects. On the other hand, in terms of psychology, human experience on the architecture design, and the capacity of neurological frameworks, all assume a remarkable role in determining a person's psychological outcome.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • The Beauty of Slums

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3A  Alia Abdulmalik   Eradah Kanori   and Rawan Marei   A huge amount of the world's population resides in the slums around the globe, and this number will increase to three trillion in the near future, which will lead to the finding of cities within cities. These settlements are the result of the gap between demand and the legal and formal supply in the housing market, as well as the enormous differences between the economic status of the city's population and the overcrowding of these cities. Thus, this paper has presented a brief overview on the condition of slums within the cities. The research method used in this study is the review method, in which data are collected and analyzed from previously published articles. The aim of this study was to explore and uncover all aspects of slum life from the point of view of its existence, the different types and its social and architectural aspects, in addition to examining its evolution. The different types of slums are optimistic slums with escalator groups (A), optimistic slums with non-escalator groups (B), miserable slums with escalator groups (C) and poor with non-escalator groups (D). Meanwhile, the social and architectural aspects of slums cover the urban development cycle. Furthermore, this paper has also discussed regarding the future of slum life, its hidden beauty, and tried to change people's perspective on this unique way of life.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • The Architecture of Colonialism

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3A  Fauziya Isa   Hamsa Al-Aggad   Lujain Al-Quthami   and Nouf Wazna   Colonialism has had a major impact on civilizations around the world. British colonialism and French colonialism have spread their influence throughout the world, and have become one of the world's major powers. In addition, these powers have influenced many countries in terms of culture, education, art, architecture and urban planning. The influences continued, however, even after independence. Thus, this paper presents an overview on the architecture of colonialism. This paper has explored the effects of colonialism on the architecture point of view among the nations, which were colonized, by the French and the British. This paper has looked into the history of colonization whereby the traces of French and British colonization were presented. Likewise, the architecture aspects of the French and the British on the colonized countries were also discussed. Thus, it is concluded that the countries, which were colonized, by the French and the British have adapted the architecture aspects of the colonizer.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Healing Architecture

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3A  Menatalla Ghazaly   Deema Badokhon   Naelah Alyamani   and Sarah Alnumani   The healing environment is one of the indispensable things for humans. It could be fulfilled through different means; one of them is in the hands of an architect. Healing through design has existed for a very long time, but now it is developed with new techniques. This paper discusses this topic in terms of spiritual, psychological and physiological health recovery for people because it is so important for a person to live in balance and mind safety. The aim of this study is to examine the diversity of aspects, in which the healing could be reached through. It also focuses on the essential design strategies for architects and other specialties. This study includes the healing elements of buildings, healing in the urban-scale and healing through biophilic design. The healing elements of architecture describe the integration of light and color, circulation and spatial organization, form and building system, building envelope and the application of healing architecture in medical buildings. The urban-scale healing will cover circulation and open areas, followed by outdoor spaces and healing gardens. At the same time, healing through biophilic design will include biophilic effect rules, biophilic design strategies, design considerations and design culture of biophilic versus biophobia. All in all, the main objective of this study is to develop a set of design recommendations, by which designers can design healing environments.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Fantastic Architecture in Cinema

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3A  Ghaliya Zaneb M. Aziz   Suzan I. Nadeem   and Mathar B. Munshi   Movies represent society's dream, which is to tell a story; characters interact with each other to create this story, their mere presence on screen creating space. Thus, filmmakers become architects in their effort to communicate these spaces, whether they are interior or urban, to enhance and add to their story telling. They are not constrained by the limits of the architect nor, especially in the case of Sci-fi and Fantasy movies, even by the constraints of reality, imagining and creating architecture from a wholly different perspective: a story perspective. The characters interact with their hypothetical spaces and this shows what they require of the architecture to convey their story. Thus, the hypothetical spaces represent people's aspirations and their deepest fears for architecture. Part of an architect's job is making dreams a reality. However, in the architectural industry, design is accomplished in a step-by-step process that has undergone little change since its establishment. While this makes the job easier, it also leads to recycling, putting limits on architects' imaginations. This research analyzed an array of fantasy and sci-fi movies from an architectural point of view and explored the inspirations behind them. Patterns were found in the arrangement of spaces and the urban characteristics in the films. Then, the themes and messages behind the architecture were explored. Findings indicate how the cinematic architectural designs have played off of real life architecture and inspired one another since the creation of moving pictures. From a practical lens, these findings reignite architects' imaginations, proposing new tools to achieve the fulfillment of society's dreams.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • End of Utopia: Dystopian Architecture

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3A  Sara Al Zahrani   Reaal Babonji   and Heba Alhalabi   In the field of architecture, in the modern corners of life, new technologies and science have been used for the futuristic society to create a perfect community where they can improve the quality of life and to achieve "brave new world" for everyone in next generations. The architects had always dreamed of building a better world using utopian approaches. As a consequence, the architecture's dimension of utopian especially during the nineteenth century, turned upside down to expose a surprisingly regular capacity to introduce the form of dystopian. In an effort to start thinking of ways out of the current impasse, this research aims to examine the roots of architecture's dystopian transition, the human and global warming effects and the contemporary failure development in architecture. As a result of these phenomena, resilience architecture has been discussed as a suggested solution. The objective of this paper is to challenge the built environment to achieve different solutions to the 21st century problems that were caused by architectural movements with a possibly utopian agenda while it is actually turned into the opposite: a dystopian wasteland.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Potential of Adapting Smart Cultural Model related to Contemporary Art:
           The Case of Jeddah Open-Air Sculpture Museum

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3A  Sema Refae   Jeddah city has a great relationship with art and sculptures since 1973 after the economy booming as an outcome from the oil industry. Since then, Jeddah has been branded as a "City of Art" where famous international artists display their sculptures around the squares and streets. Municipalities and private authorities manage the maintenance of these artifacts due to the environmental and weather conditions. After four years of implementing a massive project and creating an open space, the cultural park museum now displays 20 sculptures. The objective of this paper was to find and investigate a smart global practice in museum, parks and find potentials of adapting smart cultural vision towards Jeddah open park Sculpture Museum as an intelligent platform. Searching for the optimum solution will add value to the social and public communities by communicating and sharing a smart social platform, especially in the open sculptural museum in Jeddah and uplifting the social and cultural impacts.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Design Plan for Children's Library and Edutainment Center

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3A  Basma Mustafa Al Hamed   The children's library is a vibrant and attractive place designed to stimulate developing ideas. It provides children with educational, entertaining and cultural resources, including a large number of picture books, story books, non-fiction books and multimedia materials in multiple languages. Users can relax and read together in the outdoor children's garden, because it is a center of entertaining. The main purpose of the children's library is to increase literacy, share knowledge and obtain books, and then lend these books to the community for education and entertainment. It also allows children to share the book together instead of everyone having to buy their own copy. The main areas of the proposed project include the Discovery Center, the library, the administrative area, the skill area and the entertainment area. The site evaluation criteria considered include site capacity, accessibility, noise level, security and safety, visibility, location and environment, public facilities, shape/proportion, and future development plans. Therefore, the site of the project is located in the Al Nahda district of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. All in all, the project developed facilities and environments, and created opportunities to learn skills and spread culture.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Design and Planning of Retirement Knowledge Exchange Center

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3A  Nora Saleh Al Merdas   The pensioners' center is generally defined as a center designed specifically for the gathering of retirees from various fields, providing services for them, including places to spend their leisure time in a pleasant way, workshops, consulting and public services. The center aims to improve the culture, awareness and knowledge of the affairs of retirees, their status and abilities, and the importance of respecting and maintaining their rights. This study proposed four main zones for the project, namely administration, entertainment, cultural, and services. The site evaluation was conducted and the most appropriate site is located on King Abdulaziz road, one of the major streets in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In addition to this, the center also promoted their responsibilities, corrected the stereotypes of retirees and emphasized the importance of their past achievements and their expectations of the present and the future. Their contributions may be inexhaustible experience that can be used for future development.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Doors Looking Back and Looking Forward

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3A  Ahad Ibrahim   Raghad Aljuhani   and Abdel-Moniem El-Shorbagy   Door is a simple rectangular opening in a wall that could be a way to the start or the end of any journey. As human, they feel the space through walking around cities and architectural creation, yet there are certain elements which direct their movement and discussions. Doors are everywhere in buildings, rooms, vehicles and aircrafts. They are used to block or allow access and act as a barrier between an internal space and the external world. This paper aims to define the hidden meaning of doors and what doors mean to the human; is it just a rectangular hole or more than that' Moreover, the objectives of this research are to highlight the factors of a door, reasons behind shaping the doors, and analysis the characteristics of doors in Saudi Arabia. A number of themes identified appeared to influence people perception about doors, the used materials in constructing a door, superstitions and door image.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Aviation Hub and Expo Development Design Plan

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3A  Raneem Hossam Faidah   Ahmed M. Reffat   and Aida Nayer   The Aviation Hub and Expo, in addition to the School of Aircraft Engineering, is a timetable that can preview the history of aircraft to date, and develop or plan air navigation technologies or foundations, and develop the air transport industry to ensure its safety, security, and growth. This study collects different types of information and studies about Aviation Expo around the world and in Saudi Arabia. In specific, this study investigates case studies and analysis, identifies project components for zoning, provides space program as well as determines the appropriate project location based on the site evaluation criteria. This project is under the category of education and entertainment building. The proposed zoning plan includes the main lobby, administrative areas, education areas, museum and gallery areas, Skydome cinema and service areas. Based on the site assessment, the proposed location for the project is in the Obhur Al-Shamaliyah area of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Aviation museums vary in size from housing just one or two aircraft to hundreds. They may be owned by national, regional or local governments or be privately owned. A lot of aviation galleries focus on military or civil flight, or on aircraft history of a particular period, for example, pioneers flight or the succeeding golden age among the World War I and II, or a specific sort of aircraft.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Proposal to Establish Refugees Therapy Center

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3A  Lena Negm   and Aida Nayer   Refugees are people who are forced to leave their countries due to various circumstances. However, these groups of people need help to overcome their hardship, which has taken a toll on their physical and mental state of life. As a result, a proper environment is needed for refugees to recover and lead a normal life. Hence, this work presents a proposal on developing a refugee therapy center. This work has examined two case studies in relation to rehabilitation center. Thus based on the analyzed case studies, the estimated area required for the refugee center is 15000 m2. In addition, this center is comprised of four zones, which are clinical zone, cultural and educational zone, social zone and administration zone. In this work, the proposed site for development was attained through site evaluation analysis. Accordingly, the proposed site is located in Amman, Jordan. The development of this center is expected to enhance the living quality of refugees and to change the current global idea of refugees and to provide them with the basic necessities to lead a normal life.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Design and Planning to Develop a Trauma Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3A  Lina Abdullah Alamodi   Tarek Abdulsalam   and Ahmed Refaat   Hospitals are an important aspect of a community where the user is seeking the assistance and use of medical facilities to ensure their well-being. Moreover, the role of the hospital is very critical when it comes to facilitating emergency situations. The government of Saudi Arabia has introduced a vision for 2030, which aims to achieve a well-developed nation status and seeks to establish a world-class medical facility for emergency situations. In order to support the government's initiative, this paper proposes the development of an emergency trauma hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In this work, 4 case studies were analyzed to comprehend the design requirement for the proposed hospital. Based on the case studies, for the proposed hospital, the total estimated area is 9228 m2. In addition, the hospital consists of a few zones, which are main entrance, inpatient ward department, outpatient ward department, emergency department, operation theatre, radiology, pharmacy, intensive care unit, physiotherapy, occupational and psychological therapy, laboratory department, and support facilities. The hospital will be developed at the proposed development area at Al Marwa District in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The hospital is designed with modern features and is expected to meet the vision 2030 requirement.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Jeddah Cultural and Social Hub Architectural Design Proposal

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3A  Tamara Bajaber   and Mohammed M.F. Mohammed   Jeddah Cultural Hub is a place to represent the modern and the traditional culture of Jeddah by establishing museums, galleries, and open spaces to the activities that are related to the culture and art. Therefore, it will include an open library and a center for literary arts. The targeted stakeholders are youth, families and expats. Also it is a place to enhance the social interaction. The goal of the project is to introduce the cultural value of Jeddah, to enhance the communication, and to let the people get more socialized. The suggested space program for the project is made of galleries and exhibition halls, library, arts and culture center, recreational zone internal, recreational zone external, administration, auditorium, and services. The site is chosen based on the site evaluation criteria, which is located on Kurnaysh road, Alshatea district, in front of Alnawras roundabout. In general, this project creates a cultural hub at a lively area in Jeddah, which promotes the importance of Jeddah culture and create social hubs through established learning centers that have different art fields such as music and poetry.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Humanizing Being on Mars: A Martian Colony

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3A  Manal A. Alamoudi   Rahma Doheim   and Mohammed F.M. Mohammed   Even though planet Mars is considered the most similar to earth, it still differs in some aspects. The gravity is lesser. Its atmosphere, climate and geology are a bit different from Earth. Thus, several robotic missions were conducted on the Mars surface to find the way to make the planet habitable and safe for human. This project aims to design the first human colony on the planet Mars. This would be a new home for humans to live, work and explore. This colony will establish the first humanized research center out of Earth. It will also provide a sustainable habitat for future explorers, by providing living dwellings along with all the other needed facilities for humans to live. The considered space program in this project includes the living quarters, common social zone, health zone working zone, and utilities zone. Several key elements were considered during the project design such as water and oxygen, planting (soil), temperature, radiation, pressure, wind, power (energy source), surface (construction), materials, and psychological aspect. This project will provide a comprehensive study to design a suitable settlement that can support a safe daily human life in an extreme environment location.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Architectural Revolution in Arab Cities under Global Change and the Future
           of Arab Cities

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3A  Alanood Alqurashi   Alshaymaa Abu Tabel   Meera Alhalabi   Mohjah M. Bahaj   and Abdel-Moniem El-Shorbagy   Lately, modern modification in the social and economic conditions all over the Middle East has become more essential. The region is inhabited with the transition from the ancient societies and economies to a well-developed modern region that is still in motion to seek its stability in which architectural and economical points of view are taken into consideration. In the nature of master planned communities or town planning, many modern planning and operating had been done. Nonetheless, the developments of the Arabs cities have caused many issues to surface which are related to the town designers and planners who were accounted for designing and developing these cities without the effective and efficient concept of culture, constraints, and region. Their shortfall had led to major mistakes which were conducted in the process of planning and developing of most Arab Cities. Thus, this paper collected the information from articles and addressed the Arabs cities in the past; entail the origin and development of ancient cities, urban planning, ancient architecture innovation and lastly ancient skyscraper. This study also discussed the Arab Cities after the industrial revolution and technology. Moreover, this study covered the modern cities and technology, as well as the impact and adaptation towards climate change. Finally, a case study from Saudi Arabia is used to identify the architectural revolution under global change. By 2030, the economic advancement and rise of the educated young generation is expected to gradually shift towards modern architecture and change the whole face of Saudi Arabia as a country.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Conceptual Design and Development of the Kid's Kingdom in Jeddah, Saudi
           Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3A  Reem K. Hussain   and Ahmed M. Refaat   Kids and children are the core of a community in terms of its future development. Thus, it is very significant to provide the best possible environment for the kids to develop their growth intellectually, physically and mentally. The government of Saudi Arabia intends to attain a well-developed nation status through its vision 2030, and it has placed the focus on kids development. Hence, this paper suggests the development of kid's kingdom in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in order to achieve the goal set by the vision 2030. A case study method is used to gather information to come up with development plans. This study examined 4 case studies related to the kid's center. From the case studies analyzed, it is found that the proposed children's kingdom will require only a few areas, such as education, entertainment, administration and open space. The total estimated area for the kid's kingdom is 8762m2. The selected development site for the kid's kingdom is located at Alshatee district on the northern side of Jeddah. The design concept of children's kingdom is to provide children with a space to imagine a new world, attract their attention, and let them freely express their feelings, learn in new ways, and build their own kingdom. The kid's kingdom is expected to facilitate the development of the younger generation of Saudi Arabia and achieve its vision 2030 as a developed nation.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Identify Visual Component Inspection for Design Non-Destructive Pitch Roof
           Checklist

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Mohamad Haszirul Mohd Hashim   Azlan Shah Ali   Farid Wajdi Akashah   and Nurul Izza Abdul Ghani   Inspection is the basis of building structure to obtain assessment information. Assessment is used to get evidence and study the current condition of structure. This is because any structural failure can endanger the safety and health of building occupants. Through inspection, important information can be provided for consistent budget planning. The purpose of this paper is to identify the list of components and subcomponents for pitched roof system to inspection maintenance. The list of components has been reviewed by 3 stakeholder experts consisting of architects and engineers in Malaysia for consideration of the real component in the pitched roof design. The research confirmed the importance of the entire identified component pitch roof based on the 30 experts in roof fabrication. This paper serves to promote awareness among the various building inspections about the list of pitched roof components to identify components quickly. This inspection checklist has been validated by the expert to get feedback on the development. This checklist is aiming to design standard inspection for pitched roof and to reduce bias comparison inspection between various inspectors and provide effective service to building owner.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • A Pothole Detection Using VGG16

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Siti Nurulain Mohd Rum   and Niventhiraan Rajaratinam   A pothole is a flaw that can be discovered on the road surface and it is one of a major contribution to the road accident. The impact of a vehicle on a potholed road is not just making the ride uncomfortable. It can damage the vehicle's suspension system as well as the wheel of the vehicle, resulting in costly repair. Therefore, a regular road maintenance activity and assessment are very important to ensure that it is safe to be used. However, due to the limited number of expensive inspection vehicles, the inspection is performed manually. In this study, we present a mobile pothole detection system, namely HOLETRACKER using VGG16, a deep learning model architecture. The built model is trained using a collection of images taken from Kaggle and Internet in a variety of settings. The experiment used 739 numbers of training images and 144 numbers of testing images. The experimental result achieved the accuracy level rate at 90%. This paper also presents the development of two versions of the HOLETRACKER system, the mobile and web application that can be used by the public users and authorities. With the HOLETRACKER system, people can make a complaint of potholes via their mobile phone at anytime and anywhere. The validation checking of the potholed and location tracking through the GPS are the two main features provided by the system that will be performed before the information reaches the authorities for immediate action. The system is a cost-effective solution as an alternative to the manual pothole inspection management in facilitating the authorities as a measure to reduce accidents caused by potholes.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Comparative Study on Dynamic Response of Buildings with Floating Columns

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Manjunatha B. B.   Chaithra M.   and Avinash A. R.   High-rise buildings are essential for providing the necessary space for both residence and offices due to the lack of large areas in an urban setting. However, these multi-storey buildings are prone to lateral loads such as earthquake loads due to their large mass. Often, columns of such multi-storey buildings are truncated at some level either due to some obstructions or some architectural restrictions. Such columns that do not directly rest on the foundation are called floating columns. The floating columns are generally considered harmful, especially for buildings constructed in seismically active areas. Their existence creates a discontinuity in the path to transfer the load resulting in an inadequate structure performance. Hence, this study focuses on reducing the risk factor due to seismic effects by strengthening buildings with floating columns using the shear walls, bracings, and masonry infills. A typical building with floating columns located at two different seismic zones was considered for the study. This building was strengthened by considering various approaches such as diagonal bracings, shear walls and infill walls. The equivalent static method is used in the study to carry out the seismic analysis. The results indicate that using any strengthening methods mentioned above can significantly reduce storey displacements. However, providing a shear wall is found to be more effective in reducing the storey displacements in both the directions of earthquake forces when compared with other methods. Though infills and bracings can reduce storey drifts, it was also found that at lower storey levels, there is a considerable increase in the storey drifts when bracings and infill walls are considered. This is mainly attributed to the presence of the open first storey. However, the storey drift values reduce at the higher levels.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Bus Stations in Annaba between Mobility and Attractiveness

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Nacima Chikh Hacini   Travel and transportation are seen as a necessity for our society and an essential component of social, economic and environmental development. In order to control the use of cars, especially in the city centre, urban planners and researchers are currently considering the question of the interaction between the public transport station, the train station and the city. Supported by the development and improvement of public transport networks, their importance is vital to reduce the ecological footprint of cities. To this end, the city of Annaba (located in the northern-east of Algeria) was chosen to study the relationship between service areas around public transport stations in the city centre. The development and growth of Annaba's agglomeration has had a major impact on travel levels and volumes. Field results state that the urban public transport station "Souidani Boudjemaa", which provides the link between the city centre and the outskirts, is certainly an asset thanks to its location in the heart of the city, but it does not meet the requirements of a bus station infrastructure. This work will take into account the observation supported by questionnaire surveys and supplemented by the analysis of planning tools, whether in the field of town planning or that of transport.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • RSM-Based Optimized Compressive Strength of Mix Design Concrete Aggregates
           of Clamshell, Iron Sand, and Epoxy Resin

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Sugito   Sofia W. Alisjahbana   and Hery Riyanto   The need for environmentally friendly concrete that has above average compressive strength continues to be pursued to meet the infrastructure needs of humans. The availability of materials derived from organic waste such as clamshells is thought to be used as an aggregate from concrete which is more environmentally friendly when combined with previously known inorganic materials. The purpose of this study was to optimize the compressive strength of concrete-filled with clamshell powder (CSP), iron sand, and epoxy resin. An optimization approach based on response surface methodology (RSM) was used in this study. Iron sand used is 10% (w/w). The CSP used is in the range of 1 to 4% (w/w). The epoxy resin used is in the range of 10.5 to 14.40% (w/w). The temperature and time of curing were carried out in 301 to 333 K and 4 hours, respectively. The age of concrete is measured in the range of 1 to 28 days. The cylindrical molded concrete has a diameter and height of 100 mm and 200 mm, respectively. All samples were measured for compressive strength using the UTM RTF-1350 (capacity of 250 kN). The concrete composition with epoxy resin (11.93%, w/w) to the standard concrete aggregate mixture produced the highest compressive strength (71.49 MPa). However, the addition of CSP as a filler in concrete has provided a compressive strength (31.18 MPa) above concrete by the Indonesian National Standard (SNI). The combination of CSP and epoxy resin under high-temperature curing conditions is possible to increase the compressive strength of concrete to 45.65 MPa.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Investigating Informal Paratransit Stops Formation in Existing Urbanism: A
           Case Study in Greater Cairo, Egypt

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Mariam Shaker   Ingy El-Baramelgy   and Dalia Aboubakr   Formal stops aroused the interest of many researchers. Many of these studies focused on calculating the walking distance to transit station. However, only few researches studied paratransit stops. The current study focuses on the phenomena of informal paratransit stops in Greater Cairo. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the parameters causing the formation of informal paratransit stops in existing urbanism. Investigating these parameters helps to build a knowledge base for this phenomenon and support future researches which could help in solving the problem of the formation of informal paratransit stop. The review of related literature leads to propose five main parameters affecting the formation of informal paratransit stops (quality of life, mobility and quality of public transit, transit station, built environment, and transit user). The researchers choose Dokki district in Giza as an example for studying paratransit stops in Egypt. The study then uses qualitative and quantitative methods to validate the proposed parameters. The methods include specialist questionnaire, user's questionnaire and field survey. Research results confirmed the importance of all the parameters especially, mobility and quality of public transit, and the importance of sub-parameters such as (land use – number of served routes – accessibility – reliability – etc.) on the informal formation of paratransit stops in existing urbanism.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Cost Planning Standards on Design and Build Contract Systems for Stadium
           Building Construction in Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Anggoro Putro   Yusuf Latief   Afrizal Nursin   and Budi Susilo Soepandji   The study aims to determine and develop the following, (1) the components of standard and non-standard costs, as well as miscellaneous expenses related to financial accuracy, (2) the percentage standard of the works component, (3) the technical specification, (4) the range of costs per meter square and seat, and (5) the connection model between cost planning and accuracy through Indonesian design and build contract, to diminish the potential disputes among related stakeholders. The methods used included analytical, validity, reliability, and descriptive-analytical tests, through four steps of data collection, namely (1) pilot survey, (2) questionnaire, (3) expert validation, and (4) final expert validation. Furthermore, the data analysis was conducted using SPSS and SEM-PLS software, with the result showing that, (1) the components of standard and non-standard costs, as well as miscellaneous expenses were determined by the literature study and the validation of experts. These were also used as the identification sources of cost planning standard, (2) the percentage of the works' component was derived from the previous stadium construction projects and the utilized literature review, (3) the technical specification in the cost planning process differed with the needs of each stadium classification, (4) the cost/m2 and cost/seat were used as the reference of the project owner to determine the estimation of each stadium classification, and (5) the standard cost and the miscellaneous expenses were positively related to the budget accuracy. Meanwhile, the non-standard costs had a negative effect on this accuracy. Based on this study, several implications were observed towards the global audience, as the guide to enhance the cost accuracy in the stadium's planning process through the design and build contract.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Seismic Fragility Assessment for Steel Buildings with Different
           Performance Levels

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Gopinath Chakkarapani   Prahlad Prasad   and Arvind Kumar Lal Srivastava   The probability of failure associated with drift criterion exceeding certain performance levels for the intensity of earthquake record ground motions has been necessitated for the development of fragility curves in the recent past as a better performance check tool. In the recent past, the reappraisal of fragility curves formation due to incremental dynamic analysis has been possible because of modeling and simulation of structures under varying earthquake ground motions. The content of this paper is the formation of fragility curves using drift as the output of steel building frames under varying earthquake ground motions. The fragility curves were developed through nonlinear time-history analysis assessments of selected ground vibrations with varying magnitudes, distances from the source, and site circumstances. The entire process given in this paper can be utilized to develop probabilistic fragility curves for structural buildings of various layouts. As an illustration, fragility curves for two steel building structures for various performance levels: Collapse prevention (CP), Life Safety (LS), Immediate occupancy IO), & operational performance (OP), were developed using Ram Perform 3D, using a set of 20 earthquake ground motions. The fragility curves formed using drift for different performance levels reveal a robust damage index for evaluating building structures under the high level of seismic hazards.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Identifying and Assessing Uses of Public Parks: A Systematic Literature
           Review

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Aniruddha Jogdande   and Abir Bandyopadhyay   This research aims to identify the various ways public parks are used, which are assessed using multiple tools and methods used in extant literature. In this endeavor, a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) of research papers published in the last two decades was conducted. Public parks are mainly used for recreational, social, physical, economic, and ecological purposes. It is observed that various researchers have assessed the recreational, physical, and social uses of parks through direct observations surveys, and mixed-methods approaches. Further, the researchers have assessed the economic and ecological uses by studying the changes in the city dwellers' quality of life, and their surrounding environment. Interestingly, both the ecological and economical uses of parks seem to have an indirect impact on the users, while recreational, social, and physical uses have a direct impact. The findings also suggest that observations, surveys and mixed methods were indeed the appropriate ways to assess the parks' usage. The goal is to find an appropriate research direction and strategy for the assessment of uses of parks that may help the city planners/ policy makers to optimize the park uses.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Effect of Wind Loads on Low-Rise Pitched and Circular Arch Roof
           Structures: A Comparative Study based on Numerical Simulation

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Aditya Kumar Jha   Amartya Sinha   and Ritu Raj   Through numerical simulations based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), this study examines the effect of wind load operating on a pitched roof and a circular arch roof of an identical plan area of a storage structure with one wall opening. Many numerical simulations have been performed by other researchers for other types of roofs to understand the behavior of wind flow associated with them. Also, the wind standards of multiple countries have provided the Coefficients of Pressures for standard building shapes. However, there is lack of similar work for structures having one wall opening. Ansys CFX fluid flow software has been used to carry out the simulations using a standard k-ε turbulence model. The simulations have been carried out for 7 wind incidence angles at an interval of 30ᵒ. Pressure, Force, Moment, Drag and Lift Coefficients generated on the roofs were compared. It was found that, although variation in these coefficients w.r.t the wind incidence angles are similar for both the roofs types, the sharp-edged rooftop of the pitched roof contributes to higher magnitudes of these coefficients as compared to the smooth arch roof. Mathematical modules between the face average of pressure coefficients and the wind incidence angles were established in a polynomial form which could be used to find the face average of pressure coefficients and corresponding pressures and forces for arbitrary wind incidence angles.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Study of the Effect of Climatic Factors on Indirect Tensile Strength of
           Asphalt Mixtures Modified with a Mixture of /Polymer-Sulfur/

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Ahmad Sameer Alsaleh   The asphalt paver must fulfill a set of basic requirements, from a sufficient bearing capacity for the expected loads, stability and good resistance to deformations resulting from the passage of large loads at high temperatures, and also securing an impermeable surface that achieves adequate and good drainage of water. Hence, it is necessary to search for permanently and continuously improved materials that are resistant to the influence of factors affecting the flexible paving in its upper layers, consisting of bituminous composites. Polymer-modified bitumen has been used to improve the performance of bituminous paving. I have designed asphalt mixtures using asphalt cement without modification, polymer-modified asphalt cement (polyethylene), and asphalt cement modified with a mixture of (polymer-sulfur). Next, I performed lab experiments simulating the effect of investment, weather and climatic factors during operation and investment (conditioning test). It is concluded that the change in the value of indirect tensile Strength for the Asphalt samples formed using an asphalt cement which modified with a mixture of /polymer-sulfur/ was (4%) of its value after the conditioning test, and as for Asphalt samples formed using an asphalt cement which is modified with polyethylene (PE), the value was (14%) after the conditioning test cement which is modified with polyethylene (PE) the value was (14%) after the conditioning test.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Education Reform, Colonization, and Unification of Thailand: The Turning
           Point of Educational Buildings in Lanna

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Piyadech Arkarapotiwong   During the education reform period, Siam had changed Lanna under the former's policy to create a nation-state. Education reform was used as an instrument for unifying a new country. The new education policy had affected the perception of Lanna architecture, since traditional Lanna buildings did not fit with modern education function, which was more complex than the traditional one. Research showed that the educational buildings of Lanna changed through its unification with Siam and that Lanna's adoption of the western model from Siam was due to the pressures of the colonization period. For some, Western architecture created a more civilized atmosphere in Lanna as well as in Siam. After the Siamese coup d'état (1932), the typical school buildings had been gradually developed to meet "Thainess" policies. Therefore, the buildings' appearance was changed again with the introduction of a new policy from the government in Bangkok. This research shows that policies implemented by the Siam transformed traditional buildings. As a result of these policies, Lanna buildings began to have less local character, especially educational buildings.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Assessing Spillway Modifications by Detached Eddy Simulation Turbulence
           Model

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Rusul Latteef Naji   Hesham Mahmoud El-Badry   and Ahmed Ezzat Abdel-Rahman   Spillway associated with flip bucket structure is a famous way to evacuate the floods at dams and dissipate the flood destructive energy in order to protect the dam structure. Several spillways suffered from damages where most affected zones were located downstream the flip bucket along the flow path towards the plunge pool. Poor geometrical design is a very important main reason of the damages occurring at the downstream of the spillway. It mainly occurred when the water jet failed to achieve safe impingement location. This study proposes solutions to damages that occurred in an existing dam. These proposed solutions were tested through numerical investigations of the existing and modified spillway configuration. This investigation was originated with the aspiration of decreasing the damage of real Spillway. From the literature, previous experimental results of spillway modelling were extracted and analyzed. The results were replicated numerically by ANSYS FLUENT software. The experimental results were contrasted against the simulated results. The contrast reflected that DES results are reasonably applicable. Confident with its results, it was applied to real spillway (Base case) and results were obtained. Firstly, the existing conditions were simulated to ensure that the model mimic the existing conditions accurately. Secondly, several modifications to the existing conditions were introduced to the model and then simulated to define the most applicable solution. Detached eddy simulation is used for accurately simulation of the flow physical model. The criteria of the modification properties are developed in the way of avoiding the existing erosion problem.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Composite Spirals as Confinement
           Reinforcement for Concrete under Axial Compression

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Antonis Michael   Christos Ntamotsidis   and Demetris Nicolaides   The use of fiber composites in structural strengthening applications has been implemented for many years. Among others, this type of material has been employed as means to confine concrete and achieve superior material behavior. Confinement can be achieved either by wrapping the concrete with FRP fabrics or by embedding FRP stirrups or spiral (helical) reinforcement in concrete. Although FRP spirals have been used as reinforcement in concrete members, this was primarily in the form of FRP bars used as shear reinforcement in RC members under flexure. Some studies have been conducted using FRP spiral strips that were bonded on the outside face of cylindrical specimens and their confinement effect on concrete under axial compression was evaluated. This study deals with the experimental testing of concrete cylindrical specimens that utilize embedded carbon FRP (CFRP) composite spiral reinforcement, a unique application with limited investigation as to its effect on concrete confinement. Standard (300 mm x 150 mm) concrete cylinders were cast both with and without the embedded CFRP spiral. The cylinders were tested in axial compression to determine the effect of the CFRP spiral on their strength and ultimate deformation. This study contributes to the field of concrete confinement and in an area that is not well investigated especially when the FRP spiral is embedded into concrete. Experimental results indicate very significant improvements in ultimate strength and strain with more the enhancement reaching 116% for the strength and 147% for the strain. Comparing energy absorption capacity of the CFRP spirally confined concrete with the unconfined concrete, the improvement is even higher and reaches 320%. Therefore, the use of embedded CFRP spiral to confine concrete is effective and provides significant confinement and enhances concrete properties.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Analysis of Knock-Down Weir Model Shear Stability against Wall Rudeness
           based on Soil Type Variation

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Asnun Parwanti   Slamet Imam Wahyudi   and Moh Faiqun Ni’am   An increase in seawater that experiences high tides can cause tidal flooding. Tidal flooding in the Semarang area requires quick and precise handling, so an emergency dam is needed to deal with seawater overflow or tidal flooding. This study discusses the Knock-Down weir as a practical emergency weir. This study also aims to test the shear stability of the Knock-Down weir model against wall roughness based on variations in soil types, namely: masonry, gravel, sand, and clay. The Knock-Down weirs can be arranged vertically, horizontally, and as needed. The method used is descriptive qualitative. There are four forms of Knock-Down weir arrangement and the safest against wall roughness in various types of soil is prioritized. They are (1) L shape filled with sand + water, (2) Form I filled with sand + water, (3) Form I filled with water, and (4) Shape L filled with water. The results of the research on the safest Knock-Down weirs on shear stability are (1) L shape filled with sand + water, at a height of 1m weirs, shear stability against masonry (3,13), shear stability of gravel (2.09), shear stability to sand (1.67), shear stability against clay (1.25).
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • To Study the Factors Causing Traffic Problems in India with Specific
           Reference to Pune City: A Conceptual Framework

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Rashmi Mahajan   and Darshan Mahajan   Due to consistent development, economic as well as infrastructural, and a lot of lucrative opportunities in the cities, the need for transportation has become very essential. India being a developing country where the population is on the rise, there is a serious traffic issue. The problem of traffic congestion is being faced by most metro cities. In a metro city like Pune, where a lot people converge to every day for their livelihood and for a better standard of living, the traffic problems are even bigger. Hence, it is imperative to study the traffic and transport infrastructure to find out the various causes so as to identify the probable solutions to have a better planned, designed and cost effective road transportation system. This paper attempts to analyze the various causes of the traffic congestion so that suitable improvements can be made to overcome these problems, thereby providing solutions for effective transportation and infrastructural management through the city. The methodology used was a survey of literature and observation and the researcher has tried to identify the factors causing the traffic congestion. The factors identified are categorized in three broad areas namely; people problems, infrastructural problems and implementation and management problems. The researcher has also established relationships between the factors of the three broad categories and how one factor influences the other factors negatively, thereby aggravating the overall Traffic Congestion. Since there is interrelationship among the factors, right policies from the Govt., better planning and implementations on the ground and over all better discipline by the citizens can improve the state of affairs leading to a better traffic and infrastructure management.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Experimental Bond Behaviour of Glued-In Rod Connection for Mengkulang
           Glulam under Pull-Out Loading

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Tengku Anita Raja Hussin   Rohana Hassan   Ali Awaludin   Muhd Norhasri Muhd Sidek   Nor Hayati Abdul Hamid   and Mohd Sapuan Salit   Mechanical joint and adhesive joint are the two most common types of timber connections. In the case of timber construction, bonded-in rods offer a long-term, aesthetically acceptable alternative to some of the more conventional steel moment connections. Bonded-in rod connections in timber need many desirable attributes inefficiency, manufacture, performance, aesthetics and cost. This paper presents pull-out experimental testing for glued-in rod made of Mengkulang (tarrietia javanica) glulam joints. Hundred and seven (107) specimens were prepared, each with a single glued-in rod parallel and perpendicular to the grain. The steel treaded rod with a diameter of 12 mm, 16 mm and 20 mm with three numbers of adhesive (Sikadur-30) thicknesses of 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm were used in this experiment. The pull-out tests observations were on the effects of adhesive thickness, parallel and perpendicular grain directions and modes of failure of the specimens. The result obtained that 4 mm adhesive thickness was the strongest and parallel specimens showed better results than the perpendicular specimens. The pull-out failure modes are affected by the selected factors, i.e. the adhesive thickness, rod diameter and grain directions. Most of the specimens show failures in the timber besides the adhesive to timber interface.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Humanizing Unfriendly Buildings and Spaces by Architectural Thought (Case
           Study: Houses from Jordan)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Saqer Sqour   Abdelmajeed Rjoub   Rami Alshawabkeh   Safa Al Husban   M.A.SH. Al-Taani   and Ahlam Eshruq Labin   Western architectural thought ruled and formed architectural practice throughout the last century. It introduced theories that reflected the inconsistencies of human lives and resulted in numerous complications in the built environment. This paper aims to present a view of the fundamentals of Muslim architectural theory, the basics that can control theory and practice in architecture. Thus, it recommends and examines a set of principles that rise from the Muslim thought; these principles highlight the need of fulfilling human needs by architects and designers. This research assumes the following assumptions: 1. Recreating buildings calls for re-forming human life. 2. The unity of social and built environment gives environmental relaxation. 3. Values gained from Islamic principles bring up general rules that can organize practice in architecture. Further, foundations extracted from these fundamentals can regulate architectural work worldwide. Based on humanity in the Muslim thought, this paper aims to develop a new theory to govern the present-day architecture. It concentrates on human parts in architecture. Further, its implementation side explains how buildings fulfill human needs. The research examines twelve human needs taken from Muslim fundamentals. However, the existence of these needs shows how close buildings are to humans. To achieve that goal, this research studied those needs in three Jordanian local houses. Two Jordanian architects designed those houses: Architect Ayman Zuaiter designed Al Tabbaa Villa and Family House and architect Bilal Hammad designed Dajani Villa.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Architectural and Compositional Concepts of Environmentally Safe Urban
           Arrangement

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Zhaina Zhanaikyzy Tolegen   Galym Abdykaimovich Issabayev   Ardak Kenesovna Yussupova   Gulshat Buharbaevna Murzalina   and Dina Abilmazhinovna Amandykova   The architectural and composition concepts of the environment arrangement play an important role in environmentally safe urban formation. In the modern era, there are some actual environmental problems in many of world's great metropolises. The aim of the study is to identify the existing environmental problems on the example of the city of Almaty and to make conceptual proposals for solving these problems. The article deals with the problems of architectural and compositional methods of solving environmental problems associated with the natural and climatic features of the urban environment. Also, the problems of insolation of residential houses and yard spaces that have appeared as a result of new high-altitude facilities construction close existing buildings are considered. In the study of this problem, the experimental method of the architectural and composition solutions study is proposed. As a result of the study, design models and theoretical concepts are proposed for the reconstruction of existing urban spaces, taking into account environmental safety and natural and climatic features that form the identity of the urban environment. The key conclusion of the study is the expansion of conceptual methods of conducting research activities in educational programs in the training of architects and designers. The main goal of conceptual methods should be: mindset formation and professional training of designers from the standpoint of moderators of human behavior in space. The mindset and professional education of designers is a driving force in solving problems related to improving the quality of life of people in an urban environment.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Durability Study of Nano Influenced Metakaolin Concrete to Acid Attack

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Pushpalatha R Gadag   Vaishali G Ghorpade   and H. Sudarsana Rao   The two most important attributes of concrete are strength and durability. The concrete durability crisis has attracted and compelled engineers to focus on concrete performance. Considerable research and attention go into creating reinforced concrete buildings, which face challenging surroundings and are intended to last for a prolonged period of time with minimal maintenance. To accomplish this requirement, one material that has attracted a lot of attention is Nano material combined with SCM's. The researchers looked at partial cement replacement with Metakaolin levels of 10, 20, and 30% and Nano Silica levels of 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 percent by weight of cement in this study. W/B ratios of 0.3, 0.35, and 0.4 were used with A/B ratio of 1.75. Cubes were cast for different mix proportions and immersed in 5% concentrated HCl, H2SO4, and MgSO4 solutions for 30, 60, and 90 days. The residual compressive strength obtained after 30, 60, and 90 days of immersion in different acid solutions were compared to controlled concrete. According to ongoing research, concrete prepared with a combination of 10% Metakaolin and 3% Nano silica is the best for achieving the highest durability properties in concrete and improving its performance.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Determination of PCE Based on Motorcycle Behavior at Signalized
           Intersections in Denpasar, Bali

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  I M Kariyana   P A Suthanaya   D M P Wedagama   I M A Ariawan   and T H Pamungkas   A very high proportion of motorcycles affect the saturated flow and motorcycle behavior in synergy stores in developing countries such as Indonesia. The Indonesian Highway Capacity Manual (IHCM) and previous research have not adopted motorcycle behavior to determine the efficiency of passenger cars in synergy. This study aims to assess PCE based on the behavior of motorcycles in synergy with and without Exclusive Stopping Space for Motorcycles (ESSM). The synergy reservoir's location was a junction with a high motorcycle volume, low side obstacles, and traffic characteristics at an approach width of 3 meters, 5 meters, and 7 meters in Denpasar City. The survey method divides the lane virtually, the size of a motorcycle to determine the headway in the field. At the same time, the saturated flow was analyzed using the discharge headway method of both normal distributed data and log normal. Linear regression analysis was used to determine PCE based on motorcycle behavior on synergy junctions both with ESSM and without ESSM. Based on motorcycle behavior, the highest PCE value is obtained beside flow behavior (0.1-1.2) and the lowest in front behavior of the stop line (0.06-0.8). In determining PCE, it is recommended to adopt the motorcycle's behavior.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Structural Performance of Different Forms of Corrugated Plate Shear Walls
           under Dynamic Loading

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Yazan Adnan Alatoum   and Mazen Ali Musmar   Steel plate shear wall systems are currently utilized in resisting seismic loading in multistory buildings within seismic prone regions. They consist of infill plates that are bounded by a surrounding frame. Nonlinear push over and cyclic analyses were carried out to study different forms and configurations of horizontal trapezoidal corrugated steel plate shear walls, namely singly corrugated, doubly corrugated as well as perforated corrugated steel plate shear walls. A finite element model was developed for a horizontal trapezoidal corrugated steel single plate shear wall (OPSW) using Abaqus software. It was validated. Thereafter, while maintaining the original overall properties, a parametric study was carried out to investigate the effect of changing plate thickness, plate width/height ratio, deeper corrugations, providing double plates, as well as perforations on the seismic behavior of steel plate shear walls. The paper aims at achieving a better understanding of the main parameters that control the optimum performance of the horizontal trapezoidal corrugated steel shear walls. Few studies have discussed this matter, so the current study comes to fill the gap. It is concluded that double horizontal trapezoidal corrugated plate shear walls (DPSW) are very efficient shear wall systems. They experience stable hysteretic cyclic loops. They have higher shear stiffness, higher buckling load, and higher ultimate strength as well as higher residual strength than OPSW. They also experience higher ductility and more energy dissipation compared to OPSW. Perforations were found to reduce the contribution of the corrugated plate shear wall in resisting the seismic forces, as well as the subsequent reduction of the wall strength and stiffness.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Enhanced Heuristic Method for Scheduling and Leveling Using Heuristic
           Indices

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Osama Adnan Nasrallah   and Rami A. Maher   This paper presents an enhanced heuristic method based on five major heuristic indices used in project scheduling and leveling. Many researchers used some of these indices in project management, but few researchers combined multiple indices and used them in scheduling and leveling. The main purpose of this work is to find which of the five indices is the most important in leveling resources using the proposed method where the five heuristic indices were used together, and the method was applied using MATLAB software. The five heuristic indices are: Resource moment about the x-axis (), Resource moment on the y-axis (), Rate of Resource usage (), Resource Improvement Coefficient (RIC), and the Maximum Value of the used resource (). Moreover, every index has weight, which is referred to as importance weight. The method was tested on two projects. One of them is a hypothetical project consisting of 24 activities, and the other is an actual project where every index had an extremely bigger weight compared with the others. Also, a parameter () which refers to a partial value of the total float for the noncritical activities was used to enhance the heuristic method. It is found that the best () which gave the best possible resource histogram in the first project was =1.0 and =0.87 for the second. Also, it is found that the resource improvement coefficient () is the most important for the first project, while for the second project the Rate of Resource usage () was more important and gave better results. However, changing the value of () gave different results that are not related to a fixed relationship in terms of its increase or decrease. Finally, choosing the most important index depends on the nature of the project and its resources.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Reducing Buildings Operating Economics by Selecting the Optimal Nano
           Insulation Thickness in External Walls: Two Case Studies in Germany and
           USA

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Asmaa Mohammed Ali   Akram Farouk   and Mohamed Ezzeldin   As is well known, the cost of insulation riser linearly with thickness, obtaining the optimal thickness would result in a reduction in energy costs, lowering the building life cycle costs. Therefore, this study offers an excellent road map on the determination of the most economical nano-insulation material and its thickness. This study was applied in two existing buildings case studies located in Germany and the USA by using different nano insulation materials. Firstly, validate the degree-day approach by comparing actual and estimated energy consumption, then select the optimum thickness of used nano insulation, after that select the optimal nano insulation type and its thickness. Finally, calculate the payback periods. Results show that the nano insulation optimum point for the Seitzstraße building is 0.006 m of used nano insulation (VIP). The optimal nano insulation is expanded polystyrene with graphite with a thickness of 0.12 m. The Pentagon building is 0.007 m of used nano insulation (Aerogel Blankets), and the optimal nano insulation is expanded polystyrene with graphite with the thickness of 0.065 m. Furthermore, the optimal insulation and its thickness were estimated in the condition of considering the effects of space savings by comparing nano insulation materials to traditional insulation materials (PUR) and accounting for the expenses of renting the saved spaces.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Shake Table Test of Scaled Masonry Structure Using Rubber Tire Crumbs
           Mortar

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Restu Faizah   Henricus Priyosulistyo   and Akhmad Aminullah   The existence of masonry walls in structures is very useful in increasing the structure's resistance to lateral loads. The role of the walls is more important in providing adequate stiffness and damping than in resisting axial forces. The use of rubber tire crumbs (RTC) mortar on masonry walls is to increase the ductility and damping capacity of the wall. This study examines the application of RTC mortar on masonry walls, in particular for increasing the damping ratio of the wall. This study aims to determine the optimum RTC content in mortar by observing its dynamic properties using the shake table test. The specimens were 4 scaled models with mortar containing 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% RTC. The prototype is a 3D half-brick wall 2.5 m high and a 2.5 x 2.5 m2 plane, with a scale of 2 to provide a miniature model. There are 2 types of loads, namely sinusoidal loads and Yogya earthquake loads. The sinusoidal load has an amplitude of 0.1g with a frequency range between 4 Hz and 20 Hz, while the Yogya earthquake load has an amplitude between 0.1 g and 0.9 g. The results showed that the use of RTC mortar on the masonry wall structures can increase the damping capacity of the walls and reduce the drift ratio. This study recommends that the optimum RTC content is 30% of the sand volume.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Campus: University or a Modern Urban Structure'

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  V Goloshubin   and V Pavlova   Modern cities face a range of problems, such as the need to redevelop inefficiently used former industrial territories, traffic congestion in cities, air, water and soil pollution and the disappearance of cities' last remaining natural areas. These issues require rethinking methods for the redevelopment and renovation of city districts. The campus model for the formation of sustainable territorial units in a city is set to replace conventional zoning (residential area, industrial area, city centre, recreational area). In campus structures, like in university campuses, everything is grouped together: residential and recreational facilities, schools and workplaces. Meanwhile, the environment, with elements of an individually-branded design code, is an area for likeminded people (residents of the campus) to interact. New social and economic models, as well as new global ideas, contribute to the appearance of new campus city blocks and micro- and macro-structures that are comparable to smart cities – the showcases of contemporary intellectual communities. In such urban areas, nature also plays a different role: it ceases to be a passive background, a means of featureless landscaping based on standard principles. The present research offers a description, analysis and classification of campus urban structures, based on the preliminary study of historical types of landscape organization in university campuses. Based on comparative historical analysis and experimental modeling, it distinguishes five types of the architectural and landscape organization of campuses: the enclosed model, the communicative model, the podium model, the nature-oriented model and the nature-equivalent model. In nature-equivalent campuses, nature becomes the main participant in the environment. Such urban structures become natural elements themselves, as they become parts of the ecosystem: environmentally safe, sustainable and self-regulating components of the natural and anthropogenic global landscape. The material laid out in the present research is of practical importance for students of architecture and campus designers.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Mitigating the Traffic Congestion in the Urban Area Using the Integration
           of System Dynamics and Genetic Algorithm Approaches

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Norhaslinda Zainal Abidin   Khairah Nazurah Karim   Rosshairy Abd Rahman   and Azatuliffah Alwi   Urban traffic congestion has worsened in many countries today. This problem is getting worse for most urban areas globally, including Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia's capital city. It is predicted that the demand for mobility will increase tremendously as the city grows at a faster rate in terms of population, infrastructure, and economic activities in the next ten years. This paper aims to develop an integration of system dynamics (SD) with genetic algorithm (GA) approaches known as SD-GA model aiming to optimise the congestion index and mode share of transportation values in the year 2030 in Malaysia. The developed SD-GA model results show that the best level of congestion index is 0.41367 while the percentage of mode share is 78.41% in 2030. From all the tested travel demand variables, bus fare subsidies and bus route expansion rate emerged as the two highest increment percentages in achieving the best minimal value of mode share and congestion index. From the managerial perspective, this research contributes to the transportation industry by suggesting strategies to mitigate the high congestion index and optimise mode share in Kuala Lumpur.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Seismic Microzonation and Liquefaction Potential Study by Using
           Microtremor Result Data in and Around Sipora Island, Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Rusnardi Rahmat Putra   Novriadi   Iskandar G   Muvi Yandra   and Totoh Andayono   Geographically, the Mentawai Islands are located between two earthquake sources, and either of them could trigger a tsunami. In the eastern part of the Mentawai Islands, one earthquake source is the fault line along Sumatra. Mentawai Island had experienced some great earthquakes; the latest earthquake occurred in 2010 and produced a liquefaction event distributed along Sipora Island. This research proposes a seismic microzonation and liquefaction potential based on mictotermor observation results. We performed 53 microtremor single observations, and the observation sites were distributed across all districts with a population in Sipora Island, including north Sipora and south Sipora. The results show that the predominant period for mainland Tua Pejat in north Sipora and the whole of the south of Sipora Island (regions 1 and 3) have a large predominant period value>1 (long period), which indicates that the soil characteristic is soft soil. This result has correspondence with liquefaction potential Kg>5 while for the rock condition in region two the predominant period is less than 1s. These results provide crucial information for making seismic microzonation maps based on predominant period of soil and liquefaction potential map based on microtremor single observation, improving current hazard maps, and designing disaster prevention countermeasures in the north and south of Sipora Island, Indonesia.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • The Integrity of the Artistic Image of the City Based on Symbolization
           (the Case of Modern Architecture of Dnipro, Ukraine)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Irina Bulakh   Tetyana Kashchenko   Maryna Harbar   Valentyna Praslova   Yuliia Riabets   and Viktor Divak   This article is a continuation of the study on the problems of forming an artistic image of the urban environment. The article proposes the author's original concept of constructing an artistic image based on symbolization, which is based on the fundamental works of famous philosophers. The purpose of the article is to determine the general provisions and principles of symbolization as the basis for the formation of a holistic artistic image of the urban environment, which has the potential for the philosophical content of architecture and allows you to design modern architecture, taking into account the historical context and heritage. Methodology: the study consists of a systematic, integrated and comprehensive analysis of the artistic image and symbolization of architecture and urban planning. The study used the analysis of literature, regulatory, information sources, graphic-analytical methods, photographs, and field research. The theoretical basis for the study was the works of outstanding philosophers and art historians (Plato, Plotinus, Aristotle, Hegel, Areopagite, Kant, Schelling, Goethe, etc.). The research was influenced by the symbolic trend in the visual arts, which was developed by Aurier, Gauguin, Moreau, Redon, Malevich, Kandinsky, etc. The views of the Symbolist poets were investigated (Mallarme, Rimbaud, Ivanov, Blok, Mandelstam, etc.). Studies of artistic imagery and symbolization in the theory of urban planning and architecture have been carried out in the works of Alberti, Ledoux, Bull, Lynch, Venturi, Jenks, Tange, Alexander, etc. The main components of the symbolization processes (analogy, scheme, allegory, symbol) are stated and characterized, as well as the principles of symbolization (communication, transformation, commutation, and metamorphism). All the proposed principles of symbolization are illustrated by the example of the formation of a holistic artistic image of the urban environment in Dnipro, one of the largest cities in Ukraine. The modern architecture of the city was studied and analyzed from the point of view of the use of symbolization in the creation of large urban ensembles. Conclusions: the proposed principles for creating an architectural and artistic image of the urban environment have a hierarchical essence of their generality, as well as the continuity of construction in relation to the general processes of architectural and urban symbolization. Their application will allow the architect to form new design solutions, which, on the one hand, are aimed at preserving culture, heritage, and history, but at the same time allow generating something new - the architecture of the future.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Effect of Push-Pull Factors on Change in Behavior of Students' Shuttle by
           Using Motorcycle Case Study: Gianyar - Bali

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  I Made Rai Ridartha   Putu Alit Suthanaya   Dewa Made Priyantha Wedagama   and Ngakan Ketut Acwin Dwijendra   Transportation problems are caused by many factors. In addition to factors directly related to the transportation itself, such as traffic density, the availability of adequate public transportation, it is also influenced by other factors outside of transportation. The phenomenon of student shuttle activities using motorbikes is one of the causes of transportation problems. This phenomenon appears in almost all of Indonesia, including in Gianyar Regency. The frequency of these activities is influenced, among others, by the time schedule for teaching and learning at school (half day school) and the behavior and habits of the community in traffic. The habit of picking up students by motorcycle is getting stronger along with the low quality of public transportation services. Data collected from 14 junior high schools in Gianyar district showed that almost 48% of students were picked up by their parents using motorbikes. Meanwhile, 17.80% of students ride their own motorbikes for school activities. The consequences of these problems include congestion and the possibility of experiencing traffic accidents, inefficient use of time and costs and air pollution. On the other hand, the Gianyar Regency government has operated free student transportation #AMAN to serve students in 43 junior high schools, although its operations have not covered the entire region. The purpose of this study was to find how do push and pull strategies affect student's shuttle activities using motorbikes' The study was conducted in 14 junior high schools with 400 respondents from parents of students. The analytical method used is SEM-AMOS. The result of this study is that there is a fairly strong influence of the pull strategy on the willingness to move using student transportation. Meanwhile, the pull strategy has a less strong influence on behavioral changes in the use of motorcycle for student's shuttle activities.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Construction Operations Practices and Operations Research Tool Application
           in a Hypothetical Construction Project

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Jimmy Adora Nebrida   and Ronald Orale   This study aimed to assess the construction operations practices of three contractors; apply the construction operations practices for each company to a hypothetical construction project; and use an operation research tool in the hypothetical construction project. The results showed that the majority of contractors have similar organizational delivery systems with functional departments such as business development, finance, human resources, and construction operations, and they fall into the PCAB group. According to respondents, efficiency in resource use, avoidance of non-conformance works, elimination of wastes or non-value-added activities, value engineering, bulk order discounts, listing of different suppliers, double shifting of work scheme, prioritizing activities suitable for weather conditions, delegating work packages to subcontractors, resequencing the project schedule, application of value engineering are all important factors in optimizing project costs. The study concludes that operations research methods are important in project management, particularly in terms of reducing construction costs and increasing project profit. The findings indicated how the operations research tool, in conjunction with the QM for Windows application, made determining project schedule priorities to manage large and complicated project operations appear simple.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Basalt Fibre Reinforced Polymer for Strengthening of Self-Compacting
           Concrete Compression Member

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  P. P. Prasoon   and M. S. Ravi Kumar   The innovative findings that exploiting Identity reinforced concrete (RC) compression members can be stiffened with basalt fibre reinforced polymer (BFRP) textiles are shown in this research paper. It illustrates how to use BFRP to stiffen RC members. BFRP fabrics are less cost-effective, have a higher fracture strain, and are more durable than other fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) materials. Self-compacts are a new type of concrete, which can be able to place without the use of vibration. If the reinforcement is congested, it can flow freely under its own gravity, thoroughly filling the formwork and maximising compaction. Materials such as to increase the load capacity of decreased concrete as a reinforcing agent for columnar, basalt fiber-reinforced polymer (BFRP) is employed. The test matrix is strengthened by using BFRP fabrics. The column gets tested with increasing layers of BFRP fabrics. The increasing of two to nine layers of BFRP fabrics was used. It shows a significant strength increase in the maximum load bearing capacity, shear capacity, and ductility of concrete column. Ultimate load bearing capacity has been found to have increased by 92%. This technique of restoring and strengthening existing RC structures in place saves money and helps the environment of countries seeking to repair and maintain old infrastructure.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Community Response to Thermal and Its Influence to Outdoor Use

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Idawarni Asmal   Baharuddin Hamzah   and Happy Ratna   Karamak in North Galesong is a fishing village located adjacent to Makassar Strait. Temperatures can reach more than 40℃; as well as in the house units, temperatures can reach up to 37℃ during the day in the dry season. From the thermal comfort aspect, it is then far from comfort to do activities. It has an impact on changes in the occupant's attitude in choosing the activity space. The research objectives are to find the differences between indoor and outdoor temperatures that affect community response to the transfer of their activities from indoor to outdoor during the daytime with the aim of finding a comfortable activity atmosphere so that activities can be more optimal. The method used was to conduct thermal measurements on the macro and micro scale, including temperature, humidity by the HTC-2 to measure temperature and humidity, while for wind speed using an anemometer. Macro scale climate measurements were carried out in outdoor and micro-scales in indoor of the stage house units. Data collection was carried out simultaneously in the rooms in the sample house. The measurement results were presented in the table. The analysis was used in a comparison between outdoor and indoor climates. Measurements also take off people's perceptions of indoor-outdoor thermal as supporting data measured by the tool. The study has given information about the coastal climate effects on microclimate conditions (residential units) so that it became hot during the day. This study also provided insights for planners and policymakers going forward in response to heated conditions. The microclimate made the residents move the activity space to outdoor that was more comfortable and able to support their activities.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Groundwater Level Forecasting Using Multiple Linear Regression and
           Artificial Neural Network Approaches

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Putu Doddy Heka Ardana   I Wayan Redana   Mawiti Infantri Yekti   and I Nengah Simpen   Accurate and reliable groundwater level prediction is a critical component in water resources management. This paper developed two methods to predict forty-six months of groundwater level fluctuation. The approaches of Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) were compared for predicting groundwater levels. MLR and ANN approaches were performed at two monitoring wells, Ubung and Ngurah Rai, in the Denpasar region of Bali, Indonesia, considering all significant inputs of hydrometeorological time series data: barometric pressure, evaporation, temperature, wind, bright sunshine, rainfall, and groundwater level. The model's performance was assessed statistically and graphically. The ANN-predicted groundwater levels agreed better with the observed groundwater levels than the MLR-predicted groundwater levels at all sites. The results show the ANN performs better than MLR in terms of statistical errors, notably mean square error (MSE) value of 0.6325; root mean square error (RMSE) value of 0.7953; mean absolute error (MAE) value of 0.6122 based on the MLR in the Ubung monitoring well, while ANN models got an MSE value of 0.143; RMSE value of 0.379, and MAE value of 0.311. For the Ngurah Rai monitoring well, the MSE value is of 1.3406, RMSE value of 1.1579, and MAE value of 0.9152 for MLR, while ANN models obtained MSE value of 0.0483, RMSE value of 0.2198, and MAE value of 0.1266.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Observations from Ground Improvement Using Vacuum Consolidation Method

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Nishkarsha Koirala   Suttisak Soralump   and Sartsin Phakdimek   In the modern world of Civil Engineering, challenges arise during the various phases of construction, starting from the project development phase to the completion of the project. One of the main factors to be considered before commencing any infrastructure project is the foundation of where it is to be built. Without a strong foundation, it's not possible to proceed further to subsequent stages and in some cases, significant improvements may be required before starting the construction process. Although there are several different available methods for soil improvement in Civil Engineering, preloading using vacuum pressure with prefabricated vertical drains (Vacuum Consolidation Method) is one of the commonly applied techniques. Nowadays, it is widely used in countries having soft soil settlement problems. This paper presents the observations made from a soil improvement project using VCM including the site conditions and methodologies adopted during the process. The field data related to parameters such as pore pressure, settlement and shear strength improvement in natural soft clay have been presented and discussed. The degree of consolidation in the field has been back-calculated from settlement data and compared with values obtained from the 1-D consolidation equation. Field investigation tests, such as borehole tests and field vane shear tests, were performed before and after the soil improvement and it was found that the soft soil properties can be enhanced using vacuum consolidation without the use of any surcharge loading as well.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Hazard Identification Risk Assessment and Risk Control (HIRARC) for
           Mengkuang Dam Construction

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Chee Fui Wong   Fang Yenn Teo   Anurita Selvarajoo   Ooi Kuan Tan   and See Hung Lau   The construction industry is a main contributor to Malaysia's economy and yet some construction projects are considered being extremely unsafe, unhealthy, and exposing to a lot of hazards and risks to worksites. Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control (HIRARC) is a process commonly used to determine and evaluate both existing and potential hazards on a worksite and an effective control action plan used to reduce the identified hazards. HIRARC risk management is a fundamental to the business operation, planning and management. This study investigates the implementation of the HIRARC Risk Management Plan and Risk Registered Matrix for the construction project of the Mengkuang Dam in Malaysia, which involved the scopes of raising and extension of the existing dam. Construction of the dam upgrading and expansion was subjected to severe risks factors such as potential impact to the existing dam, project schedule delay, exceeding the project budget and contractual dispute. The Risk Register Matrix based on HIRARC was initiated for this project and was also implemented during the construction of the dam. The risk management plan framework and process involved in the risk identification, risk assessment, risk control, and mitigating measures are discussed for further assessments of risk control and action plans. The findings have shown that the construction project risk in term of the relative risks can be reduced by implementing an effective control action plan to mitigate the risks significantly. The HIRARC risk management that applied in this study can also be adopted in other dam construction projects to provide an effective safety management system and reduce the project relative hazard risks.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Pedagogy for Design Ideation in Architecture through Authoritative
           Elements

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Sunalini Esther Devadas   and Sheeba Chander   The pedagogy for Theory of Architecture in many Schools of Architecture is primarily oriented towards lecture-centric classes, even in cases of engaging the student with exploratory physical models and supplementary hands-on activities. There is a clear demarcation between the realm of theory classes and the design studio. The main onus of theory classes in architecture is to support and facilitate the design process in the design studio. In reality, this is seldom true. This research aims at pedagogy that familiarizes learners with the process of design with a specific focus on design ideation, thereby bridging the knowledge transfer gap between lecture halls and design studios. This article explores a pedagogical model that layers the crucial elements that lend authenticity to design, derived from an exercise for students of architecture, executed over a webinar. The authoritative elements explored have been acquired from architectural theories. The subsequent model can be used effectively in courses at universities pertaining to Theories in / of Architecture. Consequently, this model will pragmatically support and complement the design process in the design studio of a practicing architect as well. The objectives of the study are to investigate exploratory pedagogical models in architectural education in order to improve theoretical and creative cognition as well explore concepts and ideas in taught modules that will ease the burden of seeking them out in design studios.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • A Biomimetic Approach as a Sustainably Architectural Design in Designing
           Resort Hotels: A Study Case in the Tourism Beach of Tanjung Karang,
           Regency of Donggala, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Irdinal Arief   and Harifuddin Thahir   The Province of Central Sulawesi has an interestingly attractive potency of tourism beaches for tourists, such as white-sand beach, sunset spots, tropical beach forest, and the beauty of an underwater landscape, mainly coral reefs located in Tanjung Karang, the Regency of Donggala. The typographic preservation of this tourism destination is mostly still well-maintained, but some abandoned areas are also found due to tourists or inhabitants exploitation. It can be seen from buildings layout exceeding the beach border, garbage stacking in the coastal area up to the sea, careless clear-water consumption, and unmanaged and uncontrolled waste management system. Based on these circumstances, a strategy to maintain existing natural preservation is highly required by the utilization of environmentally friendly energy. The sustainable strategy integrates hotel resort areas with its surroundings, viewed from biomimetic architecture, and contains climate, biology, architecture, and technology, collectively. The research, then, discusses how to respond to the natural condition of Tanjung Karang beach, by considering its surroundings in terms of adaptation to nature and evolution [1], and also utilizes regional climate-supported energy, optimally, such as the solar energy and heat, wind, and surroundings-sourced water. Further, the adaptation of a coastal-traditional architecture was also performed by duplicating (mimetic), a transformation was relevantly conducted. In this research, a biomimetic approach was not comprehensively done, but it was limited to a simple simulation process, consisting of site management, site analysis via environment interaction, the concept of the hotel resorts design considering traditional principles such as building style, the mass form of buildings, and a schematic and simulated management of partly renewable energy.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Compressive Strength Evaluation of Concrete with Palm Tree Ash

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Saleh M. Alogla   and Ahmed I. Almusayrie   Concrete industry produces high carbon dioxide emissions that are harmful to the environment. As cement is the primary artificial component of concrete, most of the past studies focused on reducing the cement content in concrete manufacturing. To enhance the sustainability of concrete production, generally, cement is partially replaced with waste materials with similar characteristics such as silica fume and fly ash. One of the sources of such waste materials in date-producing countries is palm trees since each palm tree produces approximately 23 kg of waste annually. Currently, very limited use of palm tree waste exists in the concrete industry; specifically, palm tree leaves ash (PTA). This study is intending to evaluate the potential of adding PTA to concrete as a cement replacement by evaluating the compressive strength of PTA concrete. Several concrete cylindrical specimens were cast with variable percentages of added PTA. Three dosages of PTA (5%, 10%, and 15%) were added to the concrete as a substitute for cement by weight. The palm tree ash added to concrete was collected from burned palm tree branches and filtered based on its fineness. Assessment of the compressive strength of PTA-based concrete was performed at ages of 7, 28, and 56 days. The results of evaluating the compressive strength of the specimens showed that the concrete mixed with only 5% PTA possesses around 12% higher compressive strength than that without PTA. Further, increasing the dosage of added PTA to concrete yielded unfavorable results in terms of increasing the compressive strength. The addition of more than 10% of PTA to concrete as a replacement for cement triggered a significant reduction in compressive strength of the concrete. The findings of this study encourage partial replacement of cement with PTA in concrete up to 5% to reduce concrete carbon footprint and enhance sustainability of concrete manufacturing process with maintaining desired mechanical properties.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Numerical Model Validation for Mengkulang Glulam Timber Bolt Withdrawal
           Capacity

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Mohd Nizam Shakimon   Rohana Hassan   Mohamed Ali Hassan   Nor Jihan Abd Malek   Norshariza Mohamad Bhkari   and Mohd Sapuan Salit   The adequacy of timber joints determines how much load it can sustain, commonly called load-carrying capacity. European Yield Model (EYM), also known as Johansen yield theory, has been widely adopted in the design of timber joints for predicting load-carrying capacity. In EC5, the pulling out capacity is known as the 'rope effect' and becomes one parameter that governs the load-carrying capacity in a dowel-type timber connection. Due to the high cost of preparing the timber specimen, computer modelling always becomes the alternative in measuring the load-carrying capacity for timber connections. However, the computer modelling results need to be validated with the experimental laboratory test before being extended to different sizes and materials of fasteners. This study presents a finite element method (FEM) for numerical modelling and analysis to validate the experimental performance of timber's 12mm, 16mm, and 20mm bolt withdrawal capacity. This method adopted Abaqus 6.14.4 software package to create four (4) FEM models consisting of a bolt inserted into a glulam timber block at a different insertion depth, parallel and perpendicular to the timber grain direction. The axially inserted bolt was subjected to a pull-out force while the glulam timber block was held in position. The mild steel bolt and tropical Mengkulang glulam timber blocks were used. The validation showed an acceptable agreement between the FEM and the experimental results.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Quantification of Particulate Emission from Construction Activities Using
           Discrete-Event Simulation

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Charinee Limsawasd   and Nathee Athigakunagorn   Construction activities generate a significant number of airborne pollutants. Particulate matter (PM) is one of the important emissions arising throughout construction, especially in large-scale projects due to the utilization of heavy-duty equipment. Nevertheless, there is no competent approach that is capable of quantifying PM emissions from construction equipment operations at the pre-planning stage. Therefore, the development of a sufficiently accurate and simple quantification model is pressingly needed as the first step to help construction planners in identifying potential mitigation opportunities toward sustainable construction. This paper introduces a PM emission estimation model in an integrated application with a discrete-event simulation (DES) technique, namely EZStrobe. The model is developed with the aim of improving the current body of knowledge in the aspects of simplicity and practicality to address the restriction of input data availability in the initial phase of construction projects. A case study of a real highway project in Thailand is used to demonstrate the use and performance of the developed model in evaluating the environmental impacts in terms of diesel exhaust emissions. The findings identify critical construction activities and factors potentially affecting the environment. This approach enables construction planners to obtain a holistic, sustainable viewpoint in efficiently managing existing construction resources.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • The Development of Mitigation-Based Infrastructure of Coastal Settlement
           and Fishery-Economic Resilience

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Mimi Arifin   Shirly Wunas   Pratiwi Mushar   Wiwik W. Osman   Gafar Lakatupa   and Jayanti Mandasari   Indonesia is a maritime country where most of the population depends on marine resources, including settlements in Lero. However, geographical conditions are often unsafe. Coastal communities must adapt to the climate, geographical conditions, and prosper with marine resources. So far, the reality is that fishermen's settlements are always identified as slums, undeveloped residents, and difficult to get out of poverty. This research aims to determine the coastal settlements characteristics in Lero, participation level in mitigation, mitigation-based infrastructure development strategies, and fisheries economic resilience. The method used is descriptive qualitative and quantitative. The analysis used includes: spatial, scoring, and IPA analyses. The research results show that the residents of Lero Village must be adaptive to disasters because of their geographical location. Community participation in disaster mitigation is strongly influenced by external factors. Meanwhile, internal factors have no effect. Regarding infrastructure development, there are four priority scale aspects that require handling, namely improving pier facilities, ship repairing facilities for fishermen, management of residential waste systems and waste management of Lero settlements. The development of Lero as a coastal tourism village must be supported by the development of local potential-based community skills to improve the socio-economic sustainability of the surrounding population.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Impact of Safety Factors on Construction Workers' Performance

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Amani M. Al Hadidi   and Osama T. Al Meanazel   This study analyzed the factors of the Occupational Health and Work Safety (OHS) implementation and Risk Management (RM) implementation that affect the performance of site construction workers. It also examined the mediation role of RM between OHS and site construction workers' performance. A quantitative [1] survey method of self-distributing questionnaires was employed using simple random sampling of 600 site construction workers on a site-widening project in Jordan, with a 99% response rate. The results of the questionnaire [1] were used and analyzed for the validity test, reliability, f-test, and t-test for each item of statement. The method of analysis [1] used for testing the hypothesis is Partial Least Square-Structure Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) which utilized AMOS for the descriptive analysis test results. The results of this study show that the Work Safety (WS) variable was the most dominant element as there are 82% of health and safety devices in my workplace. However, in case of any [1] accident on the construction site, there was 81% of the practical result of the Occupational Health variable which was Emergency treatment. The dominant result was Workers [7] for the RM variable assigned for likely hazardous or serious tasks, which was 87% and controlled regularly by the internal audits for testing if they follow the set of procedures and instructions for the safety and health of the workers in my organization. The results of PLS-SEM concluded that the [0] implementation of OHS and RM had a positive and significant effect on the performance of site construction workers. Moreover, the RM plays a partial mediation role between Site Construction Workers' Performance and OHS. [1] The findings show that the application of OHS in the construction projects affects the achievement of the company's work.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • The Role of Apartments Interior Design on Individual Privacy: Residential
           Buildings in Erbil as a Case Study

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Alan M. Qaradaxi   and Hafedh A. Yahya   Privacy refers to the control of how much information about an individual should be allowed into the public domain. Individual privacy in an apartment building refers to the blockage of information within an individual room within the family apartment. Previous studies have given less attention on the privacy of residential apartments which this study focuses on. This research paper aims to explore the role of interior design in providing individual privacy in residential buildings. With time, more demand for apartment buildings is experienced and people are preferring more private places as physical connections become rare. As such, the question of how to maintain individual privacy with the population increase and reduced need for physical connections prompted the study. To assess the interior design privacy of the apartments, an observational case study was applied. Eight residential buildings in Erbil formed the research sample and they were assessed using a Likert scale to obtain average values of each variable. The findings show that interior design elements tend to influence visual and acoustical privacy to a great extent. The choice of the interior design materials has an impact on the overall rating of building on protecting both acoustical and visual privacy. Results show no correlation between visual and acoustical privacy for the individual for the same project. The interior design of Shahan city apartment presents the worst regarding to individual privacy. The study concludes that in order to increase the value of housing unit, it should maintain the individual privacy within the limitations of the societies. It is recommended that privacy achieved by controlling architectural elements of interior design of the apartment should raise its value. It is also recommended that the local and national governments strengthen policies regulating interior designs norms to reduce the lack of individual privacy.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Treatment of Liquefiable Soils by the Ballasted Column Technique: Case of
           Martil River Bridge in the North of Morocco

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Youness Tlidi   Lahcen Bahi   Latifa Ouadif   and Anas Bahi   The seismic activity in northern Morocco is largely due to an intense tectonic activity Plio-Quaternary and current generated by the approach of the two lithospheric plates Africa-Eurasia. Certainly, the liquefaction of soils is a phenomenon that presents a potential risk and a major challenge for the construction of foundations of engineering structures. The objective of this work is the realization of test plates to decide on adequate treatment in a soil liquefiable. For our case during the construction of a double bridge on a liquefiable soil and in a seismic zone, we were confronted with two technical problems, on the one hand the choice of the method of treatment of the soil in place and on the other hand the verification of this improvement by the results of the CPT tests (Cone Penetration Test) carried out before and after the densification of the soil. Many types of liquefaction remediation methods have been developed. However, for our case, the results indicate the effectiveness of the vibrocompaction method in improving the in-place soil compared to the dry method in eliminating the risk of soil liquefaction. It should be noted that the wet columns were lowered to 22m/TN, and the dry columns were stopped at varying depths between 2 and 14m/TN, and the results of the CPT (Cone Penetration Test) confirm the effectiveness of vibrocompaction and that the bridge foundations are protected against the phenomenon of soil liquefaction.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • The Spatial Experience of Visually Impaired and Blind: An Approach to
           Understanding the Importance of Multisensory Perception

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Dina Bakir   Yasser Mansour   Shaimaa Kamel   Yasser Moustafa   and Marwa H. Khalil   Design has long focused on the visual sense, with the neglect of other human senses. Currently, there is a growing body of literature that presents how perception is actually multi-sensory in nature. The visually impaired and blind rely on their other senses which make them appreciate other spatial qualities. The aim of the study is to understand how they experience and perceive the built environment through their compensatory senses. More specifically, the study intends to determine the spatial qualities that can enrich the multisensory experience in the built environment. A phenomenological research approach is adopted. The study relies on two different types of narratives. First, the autobiography of Taha Hussein "The Days" as a past experience of a blind person was selected. Second, in-depth semi-structured interviews and guided tours with visually impaired and blind informants were conducted. Instead of looking at what they are limited to, the study identifies their sensory capabilities that were enhanced by the surrounding environments. Through the exploration of such capabilities, the paper extracts multi-sensorial spatial qualities that cater for such capabilities. The paper identifies specific physical characteristics that were perceived by the visually impaired and blind informants regarding the surrounding spatial envelope. Findings of this study also show that sensory perception of physical characteristics acted as a dominant theme helping in cognitive processes such as constructing mental imagery, cognitive maps, and operating in the built environment. The findings of the study were discussed in light of previous research and literature. Such findings are expected to provide relevant insights for a multisensory design approach that engages all the senses, and helps designers provide users with richer experiences.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • The In-Formed Glitch and Its Tools for Generating Digital Architectural
           Form

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Yusur Raed Mohsen   and Basim Hasan Hashim   After the development of technology and the technological participation into the world of architectural design instead of the traditional methods that designers used to create shapes, the trend began to use the computers and architectural design software programs instead. This leads to a flaw in the architectural design rather than limiting it to the artistic side to generate architectural forms characterized by aesthetics and uniqueness. The glitch reveals a new opportunity and a spark of creative energy indicating that something new is about to be created. Therefore, the research problems are lack of knowledge in the in-formed glitch and the tools that are invested by architects to generate the architectural forms. The aim of the research is to find the tools that generate digital architectural forms through the in-formed glitch, as well as, study the two types of glitch (given and in-formed) and the glitch in architecture design. The practical application on some projects shows that one of the most important glitch tools designers relied on to reach architectural forms with unique aesthetic shapes that are characterized by dominance, transparency and balance. It expresses the aesthetic aspects in unexpected way that makes the recipient feel shocked when he sees the output for the first time, then multiple interpretations explaining the beauty in the eyes of the beholder depending on his cultural background.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • The Effect of Flow Velocity on Bridge Pillar Concrete Wings Using iRIC
           Software Nays2HD 3.0.

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Nenny   Fenti Daud S.   Sukmasari Antaria   and Hamzah Al Imran   This experimental study discusses flow velocity around concrete wings for the reduction of scouring on bridge pillars. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the flow velocity around the bridge piers before and after the concrete flange curtain by using iRIC (International River Interface Cooperative) software Nays2HD 3.0. A soil channel model with trapezoidal cross-section, cylindrical pillar and concrete wing curtain model was used in this study. The observation objects were flow discharge (Q), flow velocity (v), flow depth (h), and scour depth elevation (ds) in each time interval. Furthermore, the simulation results showed that the lowest and the highest flow velocity were 0.000 m/s and 0.998 m/s, respectively. The flow velocity that occurred around the bridge piers and concrete wings was relatively small due to the changing direction of flow after the concrete wings. Meanwhile, the scour that occurred around the bridge pillars was relatively small due to the presence of concrete wings in front of the pillars. Based on the validation results between the analysis of the iRIC software, Nays2DH 3.0 and a physical model at the output velocity (ms-1), there was an insignificant difference of 4.61%.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Restructuring Information Management in Building Design and Construction
           Using BIM as a Platform

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Petrit Pasha   and Mohd Tajuddin Bin Mohd Rasdi   The purpose of this research is to restructure information management in the building design and construction process by using the BIM management platform. BIM has appeared in the scene of the architecture and construction chain by addressing multidisciplinary inefficiencies, incapabilities, disorganizations, and delays that have been rooted in the structure of architecture and building chain for over decades. However, the German architecture and construction chains are experiencing huge difficulties in accepting, endorsing, and understanding the BIM benefits, because there is no clear guidance and best practices in BIM implementation that comes as a reliable example. This research aims to present, explain, and analyze the differences between projects that have been designed and built in the traditional way and those which have utilized assets of the BIM management software. The investigation is based on two case studies - one project managed in the traditional non-BIM manner and the other one utilizing BIM as the main platform. The results reveal clearly that the BIM-involved project achieves higher accuracy, better design quality, effective team collaboration, and satisfying cost and time-efficiency compared to the traditional design and build project. Nevertheless, the results also reveal that the BIM software is underused or misused among the teams involved in the building chain.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Modelling of Cracked Concrete and Identification of Design Parameters
           Using Static Non-linear Analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Shifana Fatima Kaafil Rehumaan   Disaster mitigation in developing countries calls for use of locally available composite materials and technology for faster implementation. The behavior of concrete with composites at vulnerable locations is considerably improved in non-linear form. The focus of the study is to provide design inputs for rehabilitation of damaged beam using locally available composite materials based on nonlinear static analysis. The study models are the tensile zone of a beam structure using finite elements and pre-assigned crack widths and crack depth. By non-linear material analysis, the stiffness variation is found out, approximated in a bilinear form then given as an input to get stiffness and displacement of the models before and after modulus of rupture for concrete. The model developed in this paper involves a lot of uncertainties and thereby fuzzy logic has been used to handle these uncertainties. The percentage increase in stiffness and percentage reduction in displacement for undamaged, damaged concrete model and concrete rehabilitated with composite are found using fuzzy logic then compared with the results obtained from finite elements analysis. The method developed in this paper is validated with an example, showing the percentage increase via load carrying capacity of the beam and the different types of repairs and rehabilitation. The equations developed in this paper are recommended for design implementation of cracked, uncracked and damaged specimens using locally made different composites.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • State-of-Art-Review: Latest Advancements in Seismic Isolation of
           Structures

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Syed Emad Uddin Ahmad   Khalid Moin   and Rehan Ahmad Khan   Seismic isolation is effected by providing an interface between the foundations of the building and superstructure which may consist of stories above the ground level by inserting devices. Those are meant to reduce the effect of ground motions generated by an earthquake or/ and wind load. In this process, the period of the whole structure including base isolators is elongated so that ground waves containing large energy contents in the horizontal components of the earthquake may be deflected conveniently. An updated state-of-art review of isolation techniques and the design of isolated buildings is presented in this paper. The research findings in the comprehensive form are extracted out of the large volume of research papers published during the last five decades, where only some limited quality papers are selected for the preparation of this manuscript. The review generally covered papers on the analysis and design of structures with base isolation. Review is not confined to buildings with friction pendulum isolators only, but also includes the study of structural response to some other types of base isolators and dampers to seismic attacks.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Risk Assessment of Railway Switch and Crossing Failures: Case Study of an
           Urban Rail Transit in Thailand

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Ratthaphong Meesit   Patraphorn Phornthepkasemsant   Rojjanast Rattanawan   and Thitinan Ruamsab   Railways are becoming the main transportation mode in Thailand. Thus, maintaining the optimal service level to passengers is one of the significant issues that need to be addressed. This makes the way to manage railway assets extremely important, especially with the essential assets on a railway network such as switches and crossings (S&C). This study presents how the risk of switch and crossing failures could be assessed and managed. The process of the risk management is based on ISO 31000, and the method used to analyse the risk is the Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA). In detail, the switches and crossings on the Airport Rail Link city line (ARL), Thailand, are considered as a case study. The interview data from six experts, engineers and technicians who are responsible for the maintenance of S&C were used to determine the risk of each S&C component. The results show that the point machines, check and wing rails are the most critical components of S&C in the case study, and the least critical components are heel blocks, slide chairs and closure rails. Based on these findings, it is suggested that the current S&C maintenance program of the ARL may need to be improved. The priority of the inspection and maintenance activities of each S&C component could be adjusted according to the risk evaluation results presented in this study.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • The Application of Building Information Modelling Method for Carbon
           Emission Analysis: A Case Study of Housing in Peat Lands

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Rudi Waluyo   Subrata Aditama K. A. Uda   Rizki Fajrianur Akbar   and Muhammad Irsyad   The construction sector is the largest contributor to carbon emission, especially from housing development activities, which has been on high demand due to the continuous increase in the population. This study aims to analyze the amount of carbon emission produced from house building materials on peat soil, using the Building Information Modeling method. The construction of houses on peat land is different from that of hard soil, because it requires to strengthen the foundation and to minimize the load on the superstructure of the building which was performed by choosing the type of material that is suitable for the location, and is also environmentally friendly. The carbon emission was calculated using a quantitative approach, where the volume of the material used was multiplied by its emission coefficient. The volume of material was obtained using the Building Information Modeling method, while the emission coefficients were acquired by utilizing the inventory data from ICE University of Bath and several literature studies. The results showed that the types of materials that produced the largest emissions were cement, mild steel, and wood, which had 14,051.90 KgCO2eq/house, 9,565.89 KgCO2eq/house, and 7,865.75 KgCO2eq/house, carbon value respectively. After redesigning the building and replacing light steel with wood, the emission reduction was 5.01% from a total of 42,523.33 KgCO2eq/house or 2,109 KgCO2eq/house with a saving of Rp. 154,397.04 or 10.87/house. Based on data from Central Bureau of Statistics of the City of Palangka Raya, the number of houses built in Palangka Raya City reached 918 units with an average building area of 45 - 70 m2, it is estimated to save Rp. 141,397,482.72 or $ 9,978.66. It shows the importance of environmentally friendly innovations in designs and the selection of low-emission materials, which has a positive impact on finance and climate sustainability. This finding is expected to provide insights for the government in the implementation of housing construction policies that prioritize environmental factors which reduce the level of carbon produced during the construction process and its operation.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • The Role of Construction Technology Techniques in Improving the
           Performance of Contemporary Housing Complexes, Bismayah City in Iraq: A
           Case Study

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Safaaaldeen Hussein Ali   and Marwa Mohammed Kassid AL-Zaid   Building methods have advanced because of technological development. So-called contemporary construction technology techniques have made construction processes faster, less expensive, and better performing, especially in the case of low-cost contemporary housing projects in Iraq, where these techniques have been developed by planning engineering solutions that fill the housing need in Iraq. This research aims to improve the formal, functional, and environmental requirements through contemporary construction technology techniques in housing complexes in Iraq. Solving the problem necessitated the adoption of a multistage analytical and descriptive approach. The first stage was to extract and create a theoretical framework for the subject. In the second stage, we applied it to the Bismayah housing project in Iraq to determine the most important terms approved in it. Finally, we analyze and discuss the results of the practical study.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Investigating Architectural Patterns of Indian Traditional Hindu Temples
           through Visual Analysis Framework

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Aditya Kumar Singh   Vinay Mohan Das   Yogesh Kumar Garg   and Mohammad Arif Kamal   The Architectural image of Indian traditional temples has been fascinating the scholars since their discovery, maybe due to their mystic sensorial experience. Historians, archaeologists, artists, anthropologists, astrologists, numerologists, and exclusively architects have been exploring the mysticism either linking myths or textural tenets. The sea change has been witnessed in the architectural language of temples since the beginning of their existence to date. Since the late medieval period, this language has been deciphered in majorly Sanskrit and manifested with due authenticity. It is the colonial period wherein the various scholarships have initiated attempts to decode the mysticism of architectural language through translations & visual transformations. Through a close review of the past researches, the paper has discerned the various constructs and approaches through which scholars have conceptualized and interpreted the architecture of Indian traditional temples. It has focused on contemporary visual frameworks for analysis of Indian traditional temples employed by scholars and the outcomes of the same. The comparatives between the building & text put forth by scholarships were often found constructed on shaky grounds while the visual interpretations had revealed either faltered dimensional transformations or implausible geometrical propensities.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Ergonomics in the Contemporary Balinese Building: the Integration between
           Architectural and Structural Aspects

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  I Nyoman Sutarja   and I Dewa Gede Agung Diasana Putra   Ergonomic requirements in a building must be reliable. They must meet the safety, health, comfort and convenience requirements specified in the building rules, including the ergonomic safety requirements in a traditional Balinese building. Traditionally, the Balinese utilized their body size to gauge their building's size. However, changes in technology and people's lifestyles have already influenced building techniques. To what extent are ergonomic aspects still used in novel Balinese architecture and building structures' This article examined recent buildings in Bali, integrating architecture, construction, advanced technology and traditional building components. This article analyzed the proper building design and structural system that addresses the ergonomics of the house, the indigenous knowledge of the people, and the advancement of technologies through fieldwork, literature study, interviews and structural analysis using SAP 2000. This study discovered that, traditionally, Balinese people utilized their bodies to determine the scale of their buildings, both in terms of space and structural components. As living standards and technology improved, they have begun to forsake the usage of body parts in measuring buildings. Nowadays, buildings have been designed using meter basis measurement, removing the ability to identify the building's owner using the owner's body as the basic standard for measurement. They also abandoned conventional structural techniques in favor of reinforced concrete systems, especially for non-religious buildings, because reinforced concrete frame structures supported by brick walls are more secure than wooden frame structures. However, the integration during the planning process between architecture and structural design process has still been performed.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • A Pilot Site Approach for Built Heritage Diagnosis: The Preservation and
           Conservation of Egongot Ethnic Minority

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  John Cedierick P. Abarca   Ar. Jocelyn A. Rivera-Lutap   Raydett Kelly C. Ronquillo   and John Dence S. Suizo   In the Philippines, some ethnic minority-built heritages are frequently misunderstood, and most are not given adequate attention in assessing their cultural significance. Consequently, people often lack adequate knowledge in the proper conservation and preservation of remaining cultural treasures. This may further result in the degradation, if not the oblivion, of key Filipino cultural values. It is with the use of the Pilot site procedure that we approached the architectural practice of Heritage conservation as we diagnosed the traditional dwellings of Egongot people of Aurora province in giving light to their traditional architecture as a vital built heritage in the country. The pilot site approach made use of historical documentation and surveys as well as present architectural condition assessment through observation. The first phase of the pilot site is the historic data collection which provided the traditional construction process and the use of vernacular materials. The second phase which is the architectural assessment provided observational information of its current state after the intervention of conservation treatment. The last phase of the pilot site approach which is the diagnosis of conservation treatment, is the consequent analysis of both past and present. These two factors are utilized to formulate a comparative analysis of ‘how it used to be' and ‘how its current state is'. The results showed various manipulations of construction methods and integration of modern building materials that threaten both the identity and structural integrity of the built heritage. As a result, appropriate preservation and maintenance guidelines are formulated to better appreciate the heritage architecture's historic and cultural value.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Off-Site Construction of Concrete Housing in the Andean Region: Advantages
           and Disadvantages

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Tito Castillo   Marcel Paredes   Alexis Andrade   Valeria Arroba   and Joselyn Guerrero   The construction of prefabricated houses is a viable option to solve the problems of housing demand in the Andean region. The prefabricated concrete houses have been built in several countries in the region and will surely be developed in the future. Thinking about their constructability, information is required about this construction system, which is scarcely known by the main people involved in construction: governments, users and builders. The present work seeks to fill the knowledge gap on the production and assembly of prefabricated concrete housing (PFCH), as well as on its advantages and disadvantages. For this purpose, a search for providers of this type of housing was carried out in Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador and Peru. Through an analysis of documentary information and interviews with the managers of the supplier companies, it was established that one of the main aspects in this construction system is the definition of the constituent elements of the house as this defines the need for equipment and hand of work for its assembly. The main advantage is the short execution time, while among the disadvantages is the poor adaptability of the designs. There are conflicting opinions as to whether its cost is an advantage. This research contributes to the constructability of PFCH in the Andean region, facilitating knowledge that can be integrated in the design and in the construction stage in order to improve the performance of the construction process.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Numerical Evaluation of Embedded Smart Irrigation System for Deep-Rooted
           Desert Trees

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Qazi U. Farooq   Muhammad T. Naqash   and Abdelkader T. Ahmed   Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's green initiative program aims to plant ten million trees across the country. The kingdom mostly has a desert climate with constrained water resources. The sand dunes and sheets spread across hundreds of square kilometers in the country. The plantation of trees and saplings in these harsh conditions cannot be achieved without an efficient irrigation system. Native desert trees have deep roots and smart irrigation techniques can be intrinsically applied to irrigate these plants, even in the wild. In this study, a smart irrigation system for deep-rooted trees has been numerically assessed for the sandy desert conditions. The partially saturated, subsurface flow analysis has been done by using FEM modeling. The study results exhibit the possible placement of smart irrigation diffusers along with the depth. The method can be used to irrigate only the target root zone and oblige in water conservation. The field installation of a smart irrigation system in deep strata and its long-term maintenance will be some of the prospective challenges for field engineers.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Sensitivity Analysis in Parameter Calibration of the WEAP Model for
           Integrated Water Resources Management in Unda Watershed

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  I Gusti Agung Putu Eryani   Made Widya Jayantari   and I Kadek Merta Wijaya   WEAP or Water Evaluation and Planning is a model that is used to simulate integrated water resources management. To get a model that is able to represent the real condition, a calibration process is needed. This study aims to determine the optimum parameter value through sensitivity analysis and to determine the parameter value to obtain the optimum model reliability value during the calibration process. Based on the sensitivity analysis process for several calibration parameters of the WEAP model, it is found that some parameters have similar characteristics. Change in Z1, DWC, RRF, RZC value is directly proportional to the RMSE value, the greater the parameter value, the greater the RMSE value obtained. Whereas change in Z2, DC, SWC, PFD value is inversely proportional to the RMSE value, the larger the parameter value, the smaller the RMSE value obtained. After the sensitivity analysis was carried out, the efficiency coefficient of the Nash Sutcliffe model was obtained 0.512 which was satisfactory. The Index of Agreement and the correlation coefficient of calibration also show good results with values of 0.848 and 0.743. From these results, it can be concluded that the WEAP model for the Unda watershed is satisfactory.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Enhancing Walkability in Brick & Mortar Retail Markets: Case Study of
           Chaura Bazar, Ludhiana

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Raminder Kaur   and Mahendra Joshi   Purpose – In success of brick and mortar (B&M) retail markets, pedestrian friendly urban design plays a pivotal role. Variables affecting walkability have significant social, economic and environmental benefits in B&M retail markets. Through qualitative analysis from field and public agency survey, this paper evaluates the walkability index of retail markets in and along, Chaura bazar road, Ludhiana. Design/ methodology/ approach – Safety, Comfort and Convenience are three important pillars for sustainable urban design for pedestrian in B&M retail markets. Multiple methods including Global walking Index (GWI), Pedestrian Environment Data Scan (PEDS) and Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) are available to measure urban environment related to walking in particular region. For analysis of selected market, GWI method was chosen owing to the fact that it is the best worldwide applicable method to perform walkability qualitative analysis. Findings – Irrespective of the fact that pedestrians are the most important users in B&M retail markets, Walkability Index of study area is 27, which is minimal walkable range. Thus, to increase walkability, it is much needed for architects, planners and policy makers to implement actions to improve safety, comfort and convenience of pedestrian in all potential B&M retail markets. Originality – Walkability is one of the important concepts in urban planning and this paper highlights influencing factors to promote walking in B&M retail market. Indeed, in cities like Ludhiana, huge potential in retail industry is available, thus qualitative analysis of B&M retail markets is needed to attain a sustainable urban environment. Under scope, in terms of walkability, existing markets in Chaura bazar, Ludhiana have been analyzed.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Identification and Categorization of Building Defects

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Omar Mostafa Alomari   The problem of building defects is one of the common problems that occur throughout the lifecycle of the building. The construction stakeholders consider it a critical issue that led to costs and time implications of reworks. Mostly, repairing construction defects requires a cost approximately ranging from 2.4% to 3.15% of the total cost of building. Therefore, the current study looks forward to discovering and classifying the common factors contributing to construction defects. To achieve this objective, the researcher adopted a qualitative method to collect and analyze the needed data through deep review of several previous studies that focused on the causes of building defects. Accordingly, this study identified 57 common contributing factors of building defects, which are classified into five groups according to their sources. These groups are Factors related to design, Factors related to construction, Factors related to materials, Factors related to human and External factors. Understanding the contributing factors of the building defects can help construction stakeholders take and develop various strategies to reduce the existence of defects in newly constructed buildings. Positively, the findings of this study could upgrade the management efficiency of the building defects assessment process in the future, which will help to avoid them as much as possible.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Electric Profiling Based Fully Recurrent Deep Neural Learning
           Classification for Groundwater Quality Prediction

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Raghuveer Narsing   and K. Karthikeyan   Groundwater is present under Earth surface within soil pore spaces and rock formation. It is recharged via surface and typically discharged. Water pollution affects the quality of water and troubles human health, economic growth as well as social wealth. The groundwater quality identification is essential to maintain freshwater resources for sustainable development. But, the existing methods failed to improve the groundwater quality and minimize time consumption. To address these problems, an Electric Profiling Ground Water Identification based Fully Recurrent Deep Neural Learning Classification (EPGWI-FRDNLC) Method is designed to achieve efficient quality analytics by higher accuracy and minimum time consumption. In EPGWI-FRDNLC Method, electric profiling process is carried out for ground water identification. After that, a fully recurrent deep neural learning classification process is carried out for ground water quality prediction analytics. Fully recurrent deep neural learning classification process includes more than three layers for performing the ground water quality analysis. In EPGWI-FRDNLC Method Model, a lot of data were measured for input and given to the input layer. After that, input data were given to hidden layer 1. In that layer, softmax regression is used for performing the input parameter analysis like temperature, pH, turbidity, salinity, nitrates and phosphates. Then, the regression coefficient value is transferred to hidden layer 2. Tanimato similarity function is employed for identifying the similarity between the regression coefficient value of training data and threshold value. Tanimato similarity value ranges from 0 to 1 and the results are sent to the output layer. By this way, EPGWI-FRDNLC Method improves the ground water quality prediction analytics. Experimental evaluation of EPGWI-FRDNLC Method was performed with various metrics by an amount of data.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Production of Eco-Friendly Concrete Masonry Units Using Powder Waste Glass

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Roz-Ud-Din Nassar   Danish Saeed   Muhammad Sufyan-Ud-Din   and Shumayal Nassar   This article investigates the use of powder waste glass (PWG) as partial replacement of cement for the production of Concrete Masonry Units (CMU) using a lab experimental program. Initially, an optimum level of partial replacement of cement with PWG was determined in the preliminary experimental tests on mortar mixtures incorporating PWG. Mixtures with 100% cement were also produced for comparison with the PWG modified mixtures. Test results of the main experimental program confirmed the viability of 15 wt.% replacement of cement with fine PWG having median particle size of 18 µm towards production of CMU with enhanced strength and durability attributes. The use of PWG as partial replacement cement benefitted the later-age strength and durability of the resulting cementitious mixture. At 56 and 90 days of ages, the PWG mixture-based CMU achieved about 12% higher strength than that of control CMU. Furthermore, eight-day cumulative water sorption of PWG-based CMU was recorded to be 43% less than that of normal CMU. Similarly, a 10% reduction in the dry density of the hardened CMU produced with PWG was recorded in comparison to that of control CMU produced with 100% cement. The inclusion of PWG as partial replacement of cement was observed to increase the initial and final setting times and slightly reduce the flow characteristic of the resulting cementitious mixtures. The use of PWG for the production of CMU blocks is viewed as an excellent practice for the production of strong, durable, light, economical and eco-friendly masonry construction.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • 3D Modeling and Structural Monitoring of the Puka Pukara Archaeological
           Complex-Peru

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Rolando Mamani-Huaman   Hernan Chavez Rojas   and Mariel P. Ramos Inche   Archaeological buildings are part of our national cultural heritage, have a legacy of historical significance, and are generators of economic benefits, due to tourist movements. Three-dimensional models have become a useful and significant tool for monitoring records, virtual reality, and structural analysis of architectural monuments. Aerial photogrammetry is the most employed method, it provides a complete model of the monument, incorporates a digital camera that can be used manually, placed on a drone, or on top of tripod instruments. Therefore, this method is versatile and can generate complete 3D models at the expense of longer processing times. This study proposes the 3D modeling and structural monitoring of the archaeological complex of Puka Pukara, to characterize the general state of damage of the monument, including inaccessible areas. The data generated from the area acquisition provided a thorough identification of the pathologies in the facades and walls. The results show highly deterministic 3D digital models that are then rigorously analyzed. The structural monitoring showed that the west wall and the east façade of the Puka Pukara enclosure show deterioration, cracks, deformations, and a high risk of decline, so emergency actions are recommended for their stabilization. The paper presented a single case study where a single 3D scanning technique was applied to the archaeological complex of Puka Pukara. The results generated by the methodology allowed complete digitization (exterior and interior) with a high level of detail of the structures, which can only be achieved by using one methodology (photogrammetry).
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Assessment of Energy Efficiency in a School Building with Reference to
           GRIHA-PRAKRITI Rating System

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Apoorva Dubey   and Mohammad Arif Kamal   School is not only a building or an assembly of students and teachers, but also can be defined as a space for children to grow and shape their thoughts. Children spend almost half their working hours of the day at school. The lessons and values learned here at school affect the perception of students in their lives. Surroundings of a person leave a great impact on him. Hence, schools need to be sustainable for better growth of students as well as the environment. On a national level, the GRIHA-PRAKRITI rating system is currently working on this concept. This paper includes a detailed analysis and assessment of Senior Secondary School, Aligarh Muslim University at Aligarh, India, based on seven major criteria under the GRIHA-PRAKRITI rating system by using both qualitative as well as quantitative research methods. All 15 criteria are not analyzed in detail. So, the rating of the building has been calculated out of 25 points. The points came out to be 14 out of 25 and the 2-star rating is achieved. This school building was established in 1987 but still, it came out as a green building. The incorporation of only passive design strategies and creativity can contribute to a green building, hence saving resources and the environment as well.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Quality Assessment of Public Spaces: The Case of Beyazit Square and Its
           Surroundings

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  M. Ebru Erdönmez Dinçer   Süreyya Akyüz   and Buse Açık Etike   Public spaces are one of the main areas of urban life. They can be accessed and used by all individuals and groups in a city, and therefore lay the foundation for a common social life to thrive. The social, economic, cultural, and spatial diversity of a city develops in parallel to the diversity of its public spaces. The existence of an individual within the context of a city and the meaning of the city in an individual's mind are in direct relationship with the activities that take place in its urban spaces. This relationship becomes as strong as the capacity of urban spaces in supporting social life and collective events in both social and physical aspects. Today, the conception of physical urban space is unfortunately rather detached from the societal composition and the social construct of the city as it became a critical commodity in our market economy which leads to the creation of chunks of urban elements without any qualities and in-depth meaning for its users and can often easily become unsafe and unhealthy. The study aims to create a method for the increasingly commodified public spaces to become an element that improves the quality of life of the communities. For this purpose, PCA and CATPCA statistical methods were applied, and subsequently, a parameter set was formed. As a result, a data set that can be used in public space design has been obtained, and new parameters have been created through the method used in the formation of this data set.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Identification and Ranking of Accident Black Spots in Jordan

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Musab Abuaddous   Anas Al-Hares   A M Faten Albtoush   and Ja’Far A. Aldiabat Al-Btoosh   In any country, identifying high-intensity accident hotspots is essential in establishing effective techniques to minimize high-intensity accident sites. Because of Jordan's continual population growth in recent years, vehicle ownership has grown, leading to an increase in accident rates. According to many researches, Jordan suffers from damages caused by traffic accidents. As a result, the current study focuses on finding the black spots in selected Jordanian localities as a first step toward identifying the strategies to minimize traffic accidents in Jordan. To achieve this objective, the researcher started their investigation by collecting the accidents that occurred in Jordan during three years in 30 departments in Amman. The study area includes 30 segments in seven intersections in Amman city. Based on the collected data, the case study traffic sites were ranked based on their safety performance using several methods: accident rates, accident frequency, and accident severity index. The study's findings revealed that the high safety segment in the study area is from al-zamakhshre to interchange al-shfaa. In contrast, the high black spots are found from Jordan University to major streets. Results confirmed that identifying the high black spots segments contributes to reducing expected traffic accidents.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Evaluation of GSMaP and Trmm Monthly Rainfall Satellite Data in Wadi Ahin,
           Sohar Area, Sultante of Oman

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Osama Ragab   This research compares the accuracy of Forecasting Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM)-derived satellite precipitation estimates (SPEs) for Wadi Ahin in Sohar area in Sultanate of Oman with Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM). To do so, GSMaP version 7 and TRMM data sets were evaluated at their regional 0.10 and 0.250 spatial resolution respectively. Both the wet and dry seasons were assessed on a monthly basis for each month. A grid cell with two gauges, one ground and the other GSMAP or TRMM, is calculated with the CC, the %RMSE, and the %B for all the considered datasets. Statistical measurements are provided here in more detail. The monthly analysis takes into account the whole period, dry season, and wet season separately for Mean regional and Mean spatial. Verification of monthly rainfall at a spatial level shows that GSMaP underestimates with a correlation coefficient, 0.704, bias -7.88% and RMSE 117.4%. Verification with the regional level shows that GSMAP performs well with a correlation coefficient of higher than 0.9. On the other hand, analysis of TRMM data sets shows a good verification in the spatial level and low accuracy in the regional level where the selected gauges are far from each other. The results indicate the need for improvement of GSMaP and TRMM estimates by doing some combinations between the datasets before application in this wadi.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Towards a Definition of the Term 'Nature-Equivalent Architecture'

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Vladimir S. Goloshubin   and Vera A. Pavlova   This research aims to characterise and systematise ‘nature-oriented' movements in architecture and seeks to define the proposed term ‘nature-equivalent architecture'. The authors aimed to introduce readers to current global interdisciplinary relations between landscape architecture, environmental crisis and architecture in Russia, the discussion of which is closely aligned with global processes in these spheres. It is necessary to define and separate numerous related definitions of what is known as ‘green' architecture in Russia. For this purpose, the present research provides an overview of the Russian literature on this subject and analyses creative concepts related to nature-equivalent architecture. The research methodology is based on the study and comparison of the world experience and the experience of designing ‘nature-equivalent' architecture within the walls of the Moscow Architectural Institute. The results of this research are applied in design training in the Landscape Architecture department of the Moscow Architectural Institute. The proposed concept of nature-equivalent architecture, at a worldview level, sets an overarching goal for architects, landscape architects, urbanists, ecologists and other specialists: to create a truly ‘natural' city which is a geoequivalent to a natural landscape. Theoretical and historical prerequisites of this theory can be found when comparing numerous terms existing in Russia and evolutionary terms that define related concepts. Nature-equivalent architecture is defined as a theory that integrates numerous synonymous definitions. As its name signifies, it recreates the quality of nature in an architectural environment. A historical and theoretical basis for the development of what the authors call ‘the nature-equivalent' movement in architecture can thus be identified. The research proves that Russian architects perceive landscape architecture as a global creative method.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Integrated Urban Design

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Semenyuk Olga   Slyamkhanova Aida   Yeraly Elmira   Abdrashitova Tatyana   and Butabekova Aida   Currently, the issue of an integrated, interdisciplinary approach in the design of the urban environment is relevant, which is important to be taken into account when training specialists in the field of architecture. The purpose of this study is to introduce into the learning process the theoretical and methodological concept of the integrated organization of the spatial environment of the city, considering modern trends in the design of post-industrial society. The method of integrated design of urban environment model solves the problem of combining theory with practice in the training of architects. This method allows you to put science, arts and aesthetics, as well as the technical knowledge to the process of creative design. Integrated design implies application of fundamental and general knowledge of man, nature and society; and application of the theoretical foundations of urban planning science and landscape design. Integrated design implies selection and application in the creative process of new solutions in the field of construction physics, structures, materials science, planning and economics of design and construction; use of data on sociology, climatology, and environmental protection. This approach reveals the methods of design modeling, based on the peculiarities of the practical activities of the architect and offers effective ways to manage and organize the cognitive and creative activities of students. Updating previous experience when applying the integrated method of urban design helps to transfer the accumulated experience to solve the design problem, and better understand the architecture of the urban environment as a system with all its laws and patterns.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Evaluation of Concrete by Non-destructive Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Method

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Malek Jedidi   Concrete is a material whose properties depend on its initial formulation, its conditions of use, and its change over time depending on its environment and the different types of degradation that it is likely to undergo. Knowledge and monitoring of its various mechanical properties are therefore essential for the maintenance of civil engineering works. All of the concrete assessment methods, whether destructive or non-destructive, can then provide a valuable diagnosis to the operators of the structure. Depending on their precision, they can be used to easily detect an alteration in the characteristics of the materials, locate a damaged area, the extent of the damage, or even precisely quantify the evolution of this damage over time and predict future changes. This paper presents the Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity technique (UPV) which is used by many companies to assess the compressive strength of concrete in situ and which allows measuring the speed and attenuation of elastic waves. The influence of the reinforcements on the ultrasonic pulse velocity has been studied and this is in the case of reinforcement perpendicular and parallel to the direction of propagation. The influence of several factors affecting the UPV, whether related to the properties of concrete or otherwise, was mentioned. Indeed, the porosity, the water/Cement ratio, the micro-cracks, the state of saturation and the temperature of concrete are parameters which strongly influence the values of UPV.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Appraising Inclusivity of Public Place: A Case of Residential
           Neighbourhoods for Jalandhar City

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Amrita Shukla    and Dr. Pankaj Chhabra   India is a nation with a diverse culture, language, tradition, geography, ethnicity, and so forth. It is essential for keeping true happiness in the midst of this diversity. The capacity to balance the multiplicity of society is exceedingly challenging, but it may be handled by building community inclusion. Everyone, regardless of caste, culture, religion system, age, gender, or other factors, enjoys the same level of comfort. Inclusion acknowledges each person's uniqueness and may be publicly embraced by using their civic rights. Every individual's uniqueness can be adhered to by openly exercising their civic rights. The public space is one that is open to everybody. It gives a platform for numerous forms of social connection, regardless of social, economic, cultural, or gender barriers. Public spaces serve as a platform for promoting social inclusion by giving every citizen an equal chance to exercise his/her civic rights. Most Indian cities' per capita public open space ratios do not meet specified national and international requirements. As a result, there is an urgent need to comprehend the issue and issues surrounding public spaces, as well as the qualities for inclusive public space and the construction of an evaluation matrix, in order to devise development plans. The analysis is carried out in three different stages: initially, an exhaustive literature review is carried out in order to determine required characteristics for public places. Secondly, variables are defined based on field measurements and factors that have been discovered. Lastly, a public matrix that is all-inclusive is established. The inclusive public space grid is then tested on three Jalandhar local public spaces. The study's findings will aid in planning and retaining authority to take direct measures for the highlighted criteria that require improvement or control.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • A Sound of Silence Conceptual Design for the Cultural Center for the Deaf
           in Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Asaiyl A. Alolowi   Rahma Doheim   and Aida Nayer   Architecture plays an important role in shaping human lives and their needed human development. Deaf people are an important part of the society who deserve more attention and care. The main purpose of a sound of silence "deaf culture hub" is to accommodate the users and give them the ability of learning and interacting through workshops and educational facilities. This research uses a case study approach to collect design ideas and concepts, then determine and formulate spatial options and identify suitable locations or projects. Also, partitioning and 3D project designs are introduced at the end. The proposed center will be supported by learning and development spaces and social, entertainment and administration spaces. Learning communities are the most effective to represent their culture of deaf where they can find and develop themselves in different kinds of activities. Social and Entertainment space, a place to enter the public, is to help both to interact with each other, gain knowledge, exchange it and share it with the society. In addition to the administration zone, it includes a main part and is connected throughout the building. Also, the project focused on psychological counselling and safety of the deaf and the special needs. Based on the on-site assessment, the proposed location is at Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah Rd, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Moreover, the zoning of the project is arranged according to geographical aspects. Overall, the proposed project presents a conceptual design for a cultural center for the deaf in Saudi Arabia, focusing on three main areas: learning, knowledge and community.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Emergence of New Place Identities through Architecture

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Leena Al-Mohammedy   Njoud Al-Nashmi   Renad Baabdullah   and Abdel-Moniem El-Shorbagy   Place identity has become a significant issue in the last 25 years in urban planning and design. However, identity of a place is a phenomenon that has been present for as long as man used physical and psychological elements to recognize places. Human's identification to a place presupposes that places have a unique character, that is, attributes which distinguish each place from any other. The relation between a human and space is not merely that of being able to orientate himself in his surroundings, but it also has a deeper process of identification, which was described by Norberg-Schulz as "to become ‘friends' with a particular environment". In the twenty first century, the rapid emergence of contemporary played a major key role in the fluctuating of many place identities globally, some of which accepted and absorbed new identities, whereas others valued identities were lost. Typically, the physical environment's contribution to form the unique character of place dominates psychological elements. Thus, this research paper deals with architecture as a main drive for analyzing place identity. Particularly, the research aims at defining clear elements of emerging new identities through discussing the causes, process, and outturns of examples where identities evolved through architecture overtime.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • The Behavior of Interior Beam-Column Joint Models Using Self-Compacting
           Concrete with Variations of Shear Reinforcement Subjected to Cyclic
           Lateral Loads

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Siti Aisyah Nurjannah   Saloma   Yakni Idris   Arie Putra Usman   Ika Juliantina   and Christine Aprilia   The joint of a beam-column is crucial due to the distribution of cyclic lateral loads. Therefore, the joint detail must meet the design requirements of earthquake-resistant structures. Casting work in joint zones where the steel reinforcement spaces are close requires concrete materials that are easy to flow. An alternative to overcome the difficulty is using Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) material. However, the properties of SCC for beam-column joint structures under earthquake loads still need to be studied further. This study aimed to analyze the behavior of the Interior Beam-Column (IBC) joint using SCC with variations of shear reinforcement subjected to cyclic lateral loads. Three types of shear reinforcement were modeled using numerical analysis. Variations of horizontal and diagonal shear reinforcements were compared to determine the best performance. The SCC-S3 IBC joint model with horizontal and diagonal shear reinforcements achieved the highest lateral forces and resisted compressive and tensile stresses in the largest stress contour and better stiffness degradation than other models of SCC IBC joints. The results showed that the SCC-S3 IBC joint with a combination of horizontal and diagonal shear reinforcements showed the best performance.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Implementing Fuzzy-Based Artificial Intelligence Approach for Location of
           Damage in Structures

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  SJS. Hakim   MHW. Ibrahim   M. Mohammadhassani   D. Yeoh   ZM. Jaini   and TNT. Chik   Modal parameters are functions of the physical characteristics of a structure and they are very sensitive to damage. Therefore, any alterations in the physical features can change the vibration parameters of a structure. Modal data such as natural frequencies and mode shapes are easy to acquire from the measurements of structural behavior. One method of structural damage identification is to apply natural frequency. Natural frequencies represent the global behaviors of a structure and are not too sensitive when detecting the damage in structures and cannot offer spatial information about structural changes, and thus, their application is considered as challenging. On the other hand, a mode shape is a vibrational deformation of a system and it represents the relative displacement of all parts of a structure and can provide spatial information as well as give a significant indication of the damage occurring in a structure. In this present research, an intelligent hybrid approach, namely adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), as a fuzzy-based artificial intelligence approach was developed and applied due to its ability to recognize patterns, strong computational features, and capability of locating defects in a scaled girder bridge using direct modal parameters. The experimental analysis and numerical simulations of a steel girder bridge provided mode shape parameter datasets under different positions and sizes of faults in the structure. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of this method and provided acceptable precision even when the input datasets contained errors or were corrupted with a certain level of noise.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Building Information Modelling Industry Centre of Excellence (BIM ICoE)
           for Kolej Kemahiran Tinggi MARA (KKTM), Majlis Amanah Rakyat (MARA)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Ahmad Halmi Faizol Mohamad   Syuhaida Ismail   Mohamad Syazli Fathi   and Noor Irza Mohd Zaki   Building Information Modelling (BIM) is a recent digital technology replacing traditional methods that assist the revolution of the construction industry into a digitised model full of information and an integrated computerised framework. The lack of BIM tertiary education and training in Malaysia leads to the need in developing BIM syllabus and training module for the establishment of BIM education knowledge and capabilities. Therefore, the BIM Industry Centre of Excellence (ICoE) for Kolej Kemahiran Tinggi Majlis Amanah Rakyat (MARA) (KKTM) places an endeavour to be established as the first BIM in Pasir Mas Kelantan. The aim of this paper is to examine the critical success factors (CSFs) of the development and implementation of the BIM ICoE for KKTM. This review paper employed scoping from the other researchers of BIM to the ICoE. The result reveals that the industry must introduce the BIM as soon as possible to encourage rapid improvement in the BIM adoption. Besides that, this BIM ICoE will be beneficial to industry players by enhancing more collaborations with MARA, which is eventually supporting the MARA Technical Vocational Education Training (TVET) strategic planning.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Building Information Modelling (BIM) Performance Metrics Using Analytic
           Hierarchy Process (AHP)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Rolyselra Orbintang Robin   Mohd Yamani Yahya   Azlina Md Yassin   and Haidaliza Masram   An organization must evaluate its internal ability to optimize the benefits of BIM. Hence, it is important to provide a set of numerical weights for each performance metric before starting the evaluation. Hence, this study applies the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique to assign weights for the organizational BIM performance evaluation. The AHP survey was collected using self-completion method and received feedback from twenty (20) respondents. Findings from AHP Survey were analyzed using AHP Excel Template. This analysis has set a weighting value for each metric. As a result of using the AHP technique, the consistency value (CR) of all metrics determined was less than 0.1, which indicates that the experts' decisions were consistent. In addition, the value of consensus also exceeds 50 %, which confirms that the agreement on the value of metric weights among the experts is acceptable. Subsequently, the AHP had successfully assigned the weightage to all BIM performance metrics, with five (5) Main Metrics as the most critical metrics; Policy (37%), Process (17%), Technology (16%), People (15%), and Organization (15%).
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Small Farm Reservoir Suitability Analysis in Tarlac Province, Philippines

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Ermalyn DG. Galo   Small farm reservoir (SFR) suitability analysis is useful in water resources management and development assistance of government and non-government agencies for farmers and farmer-groups. The researcher utilizes the geographic information system to analyze the suitable areas for the construction and management of small water impounding to store and conserve rainwater in rainfed areas. The factors on rainfall, soil texture, slope, land use, irrigation status, groundwater availability and distance from river were considered for the suitability mapping of SFRs. The following factors have their corresponding weights which are derived from using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) procedure. The testing of the model was done by determining the suitability value (S) of each sample SFR. The research findings showed the areas in the province potentially suitable for SFRs of the total land area of Tarlac: 47% are not suitable, 25% are marginally suitable, 13% are moderately suitable and 15% are highly suitable.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Ecotourism Value Defined through the Eco-Lodges Design – A Case
           Study of Kosovo

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  A. Basha Jakupi   V. Veseli   and F. Grajçevci   Kosovo has excellent potential for developing regular four-season nature-based tourism as a form of a more responsive and sustainable relaxation or recreation in a natural environment. However, it lacks a genuine offer of accommodation premises in almost all tourist hotspots, which affects the number of visitors compared to similar destinations in developed countries. A well-thought design approach and interventions are necessary to increase and strengthen tourism in these destinations. It is necessary to create a network of accommodation premises, respectively, the architectural design of eco-lodges prototypes for use by visitors, which in addition to the function would further enrich the landscape, and over time would become the reference and identifying elements of these areas. The research is based on identifying tourism potentials throughout Kosovo to create a viable offer of accommodation based entirely on ecotourism. The aim is to increase visitors' interest and awareness and strengthen ecotourism development. To realize this purpose of research and the theoretical study of the problem, methods and techniques of theoretical and empirical research were used. The analysis of this study revealed the potential of Kosovo's rich natural surroundings which are considered the positioning principle for ecotourism to progress. Ecotourism is about relationships between nature, the local community, and tourists, as the most critical value in planning, designing, and operating. All interventions will adapt to natural environments' preservations and sustainable development, creating higher awareness of visitors and the local community. As a result, this study aims to start the dialogue with something as trivial as the eco-lodge design, which could be seen as a tackling indication of a more significant initiative.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • An Experimental Study on the Unsaturated Soil Parameters Changes due to
           Various Degree of Saturation

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Galih Bhekti Sula Pratama   Roh Santoso Budi Waspodo   and Heriansyah Putra   Landslide is a natural disaster often occurring in Indonesia, associated with the rainy season. The slope failure mechanism is the main challenge in the slope stability analysis due to rainfall. The changing of the soil engineering properties under the effect of water infiltration during the rain should be fixed. In this study, the experimental studies were conducted to evaluate the unsaturated soil parameters changes, i.e., suction, cohesion, and internal friction angle, in various degrees of saturation. The filter paper tests were conducted to evaluate the matric suction of soil and develop the soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) using the Soil Vision software. Fredlund and Xing, Van Genucthen, and Brooks and Corey fit the SWCC: The fitting equation developed by Fredlund and Xing resulted in the highest coefficient of determinant with R2 of 0.91 and 0.97 for well-graded silty sand and silty sand curves, respectively. Thus, it was used to determine the correlation between saturation, cohesion, and matric suction. Shear strength parameters of soil samples were examined using a direct shear test method. The results show that the increase of the saturation degree reduces the soil suction and shear strength parameters. The result of this study is crucial to develop an understanding of the mechanism of slope failure.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Stereotomic and Tectonic Architecture from Structural Point of View: Case
           of a Single 10-Story Perforated Shell Structure

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Ilda Rusi   and Llazar Kumaraku   This paper is part of a research on innovative structural systems techniques in tall buildings and starts from the collaboration between the Department of Scientific Research and the Department of Architecture and Engineering at Polis University. The objective of this paper is to emphasize the structural differences between tectonic and stereotomic architecture by analyzing the different structural behaviors of both languages. The initial hypothesis is that an interaction field can be found where these two languages can be combined to propose a design method for a preliminary design process. The methodology goes through the following steps: the first step, analysis and determination of tectonic and stereotomic modelling approach; the second step, analysis of a single 10 story perforated shell structure by changing the openings ratio from a structural point of view and the third step, interpretation of results stating these two different architectural and structural profiles are intertwined. The instruments used are presented by a multivariate visualization method, an easy-to-use and as a key concept for generating the perforated pattern of the shell structure. They describe a visual and interactive, performance informed tool-using software of Rhino Grasshopper, Karamba 3D plugin, indicating the designer's preferences and concluding with the structural control of the model build. It is expected that the results will introduce a generative design method for architecture grounded on the stereotomic and tectonic modelling approach that can contribute towards the integration of structural rationality into preliminary architectural design process of tall buildings.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Correlation between Engineering Properties of Bangkok Clay and Penetration
           Resistance of Screw Driving Sounding (SDS)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Avidha Shah   and Suttisak Soralump   Adequate knowledge of soil properties is crucial before commencement of any engineering project, for which, in-situ tests are mainly popular in recent days. Many of those field tests are labor intensive, time consuming, costly, bulky and next to impossible to perform in congested areas. In such scenarios, the automated and modified version of Swedish Weight Sounding machine i.e., Screw Driving Sounding (SDS) can prove to be a savior. However, since the SDS machine was unable to explore stiffer and denser soil layers deep below, researchers customized the machine for research and increased the capacity of machine to explore soil profile in deeper depths using a high power SDS machine. This research has attempted to strengthen the prospects of SDS technique, by development of correlation formulae, which can predict various vital clay properties in Bangkok clay directly from SDS parameters. These clay properties are natural moisture content, unit weight, overburden and vertical effective stress. The study is focused on Bangkok subsoil, which is dominantly clay and a high power SDS machine is put into operation. It is observed that the results are highly dependent upon the history of formation of Bangkok clay. In order to represent the accuracy of the developed equations, various statistical parameters have also been used in this research and included in this paper.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Developing A Database of the Architectural Organization Experience in
           Rural Housing in Coastal Villages in Thai Binh Province able to Withstand
           Storms

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Thi Nguyen Dinh   Nguyen Ninh Giang   and Khai Mai Quang   Thai Binh Province currently has 24 coastal villages in two districts, Thai Thuy and Tien Hai, and is one of the places most affected by strong winds and storms in the northern coastal area of Vietnam. On average, there are approximately 2.0 to 2.5 storms each year, with the average rainfall per storm being 150 to 200 mm. The strongest storm occurred at level 14 and had gust levels of 15 to 17. The storm surge caused by this storm was up to 3.5m (in the future, it could be up to 4.9 m), with tidal amplitudes ranging from 1.7 to 2.0m. In order to adapt to storms, people in the coastal villages of Thai Binh Province have used their own experiences in housing organization and construction to withstand strong winds and storms. Therefore, the authors would like to research and build a database on the architectural organization of coastal rural houses that resist strong winds and storms based on Thai Binh citizens' experiences. Three targets need to be achieved: identify the lessons learned from organizing the architecture of rural coastal houses resisting storms, develop a database on the architectural organization of rural coastal housing that can withstand storms, and propose an application solution based on the built database.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Climate Change Mitigation Approach for School Buildings in Palestine: A
           Combination of Energy Efficiency and Energy Production

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Sameh Monna   and Mohammed Itma   The rising energy demand for school's buildings in Palestine is one of the problems facing the energy sector. This paper aims to provide estimation for the potential production of electricity from the installation of PV systems on the roof of schools' buildings, to produce its energy needs and to provide electricity to its surrounding buildings. The most used school building types were selected for the installation of the photovoltaic (PV) system. The produced electricity from the installation of PV systems was estimated using PVSOL software. The energy consumption for the selected type of the schools was simulated using design-builder thermal simulation software. A comparison between energy production and consumption was done for two climatic zones, with different tilt angles and different scenarios for the school's building envelope and indoor systems. The results show that the PV systems on schools' buildings can supply their estimated consumption, and provide a surplus in electricity production. This surplus can be a base for the transition to renewable energy in the residential areas surrounding school buildings. The study concluded that the installation of PV systems should be combined with building envelope thermal improvements or a combination of envelope improvements and heating and cooling systems.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • The Postmodernism's Pluralism – Half a Century of Evolution in
           Anticipation of a New Great Style

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Konstantin Samoilov   Bolat Kuspangaliyev   and Gaukhar Sadvokasova   The current state of World architecture is the result of the transition from strict Functionalism to multi-dark Symbolism. This process took fifty years and has a number of interesting features. The study of the individual stages of the past period allows us to identify the characteristic features of the architecture of each of them. The theoretical studies that appeared in the process of evolution, preliminary designs, and completed buildings vividly reflected the contradictions and consistency of the World Architectural process. Each time the idea that appeared as a contrast to the existing situation gradually adapted, becoming an integral part of the synthetic phenomenon. The chronological approach allows us to emphasize a number of interesting aspects, so the initial sharp denial of the principles of the "Modern Movement" in the 1960s gradually transformed into romantic nostalgia for the rigor of shaping in the 1990s. The protest "permissiveness" of the Formalism of the 1970s and 1980s lost most of its aggressiveness, becoming at the beginning of this century a harmonious process of unobtrusive accentuation of the existing compositional-spatial and historical-cultural features of the construction site. The technical and economic possibilities of the construction realization of the most expressive forms of Deconstructivism fans that appeared in the 2000s gave the world culture several interesting buildings. However, already in the 2010s, the rationality inherent in architecture as a process of forming a space for real life "softened" the emotional-semantic and compositional-plastic sharpness of the interpretation of the author's understanding of "the Design Assignment" received from the Customer. The review conducted in the presented article allows us to conclude that the development of the World architectural process, which has passed through a number of stages over half a century, has developed into an original phenomenon. The results of the analysis have a certain scientific, theoretical and practical significance. They deepen the degree of knowledge of the World Architectural process, detail important aspects of the interaction of various architectural forms in the process of evolution, allow to some extent predicting trends in the further development of architecture.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Seismic Response Analysis of Bongo Bridge Subjected to Multiple Support
           Excitation due to Spatial Variation of Ground Motion

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Jansen L. Mariano   and Gilford B. Estores   The spatial variation of ground motion (SVGM) may cause detrimental effects on extended structures such as bridges. The SVGM is mainly caused by three phenomena: the incoherence effect, wave passage effect, and the local site effect, which leads the structure to undergo multiple support excitation. In most cases, in the Philippines, the conventional response spectrum analysis per DPWH Bridge Seismic Design Specifications (BSDS) 2013 is used to perform seismic analysis of bridges. However, the method assumes that the ground motion is spatially uniform, thus ignoring the potential effect of SVGM. The study focuses on the seismic response analysis of a conventional existing highway bridge in the Philippines subjected to multiple support excitation accounting for the effect of SVGM. The researcher used the Bongo Bridge located in Ilocos Norte, originally designed using the conventional response spectrum. A method for generating a modified response spectrum that accounts for the effect of SVGM based on the fundamental principle of random vibration theory was also presented to provide guidelines for bridge engineers in the Philippines. Three cases were performed where each seismic response of the existing bridge was obtained and evaluated to determine if the application of multiple support excitation due to SVGM will cause a significant effect on the existing bridge. Based on the results, the effect of multiple support excitation to Bongo Bridge amplified the seismic response of some pier columns and de-amplified some. The study also shows that the effect of multiple support excitation decreased the displacement demand significantly on the Bongo Bridge. Since the study is limited to Bongo Bridge and the seismic response can be affected by many factors, the result may vary to other bridges. Therefore, it is still recommended to perform a parametric analysis accounting for multiple support excitation especially if the structure is situated on a varying ground type or bridges with multiple and longer spans, to determine if this phenomenon will cause a significant effect on the bridge.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Computation of Natural Frequencies of Masonry Infilled RC Frames Validated
           with Modal Assurance Criterion

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Achutha Herur Gopalaiah   and Chethan K.   Contribution of infill walls to in-plane structural response of reinforced concrete (RC) frame is an important aspect that many researchers have studied using experimental and numerical methods. This paper presents the modeling of 3D RC unreinforced masonry infill (MI) frames using multiple nodes to one node constraint (MTOCO) with the independent node at the center of gravity of infill with mass and inertial properties of infill. This method of modeling is then compared with other macro and micro modeling methods. A macro model with equivalent diagonal strut using 1D element and two micro models, both with 8-noded brick elements with the interface between infill and RC frame modeled using node to surface tied interface in one and small sliding contact in another. All these four models are solved using a Virtual Performance Solution (VPS) implicit FE solver. Natural frequencies of the structure from these four numerical solutions are then compared with available experimental shake table [25] results. To assess the degree of consistency between the four numerical methods, Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC) [29] is used. The Modal Assurance Criterion is a statistical indicator that is most sensitive to large differences and relatively insensitive to small differences in the mode shapes. This yields a good statistical indicator and a degree of consistency between mode shapes. From a functional point of view, the openings in the infills are a significant parameter to consider because they influence the lateral stiffness and strength. Having established its validity as explained above, this new methodology is then extended to RC frames with openings and partial fillings. A comparison of the results of both micro and macro methods shows a very good correlation.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Investigation of the Construction Industry Stakeholder's Perceptions of
           Work-Health and Safety Risk-Based Scenarios Associated with Risks

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Nor Haslinda Abas   Improving occupational safety and health (OSH) performance in the construction industry is critical, because it reflects the quality of completed projects and, more importantly, the protection of workers' lives. The application of risk management concepts is one initiative for improving OSH performance in the construction industry. Effective risk management necessitates the cooperation and consensus of all stakeholders, but this is difficult to achieve. The goal of this study is to determine the extent, to which construction stakeholders share a common understanding of perceived risks. This was achieved by utilizing four case study scenario surveys which represent the risk exposures or consequences in the crushing of panels and vibration operations. Data was gathered from a sample of twelve construction professionals in Malaysia. Analysis of the data describes the various risk perceptions among construction industry stakeholders. The immediate-type of risk was rated higher than the expected scores, whereas delayed-effect risks like 'vibration' and ‘chemical' were rated lower. The findings obtained suggest that strategic steps to engage stakeholders in the risk management process are needed, and risk perceptions should be taken into account.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Prospects of Metakaolin Admixed Palm Kernel Shell Solid Concrete Masonry
           Block: A Review

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Nova John   R Mercy Shanthi   and D Tensing   Over the last two decades, research on the use of Palm kernel shell (PKS) as a lightweight aggregate has shown that it can be utilised to make structural lightweight concrete. PKS concrete has a lower density than regular concrete, perhaps 20 to 25% lower. This review was presented as part of efforts to make efficient use of locally available materials by looking into the effects of replacing normal coarse aggregates with palm kernel shells on the density and compressive strength of concrete, as well as determining the suitability of palm kernel shell concrete as a structural material. The utilization of alternative binders like Metakaolin (MK) in Palm kernel shell concrete not only reduces the carbon footprint of conventional masonry products but also enhances the various properties associated with these products. In this review, the characteristics and properties of Metakaolin and Palm Kernel shell were discussed based on the literature survey. Also the application studies of metakaolin and Palm kernel shells in concrete mix to improve the compressive and flexural strength were described using the literature survey. The majority of research studies on the usage of palm kernel shells in concrete manufacturing have found that they may be employed in solid concrete masonry blocks for the construction of low-cost housing.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Assessing Reliable Turbulent Model in Simulating Flip Bucket Flow

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  R. L. Naji   H. M. El-Badry   and A. E. Abdel-Rahman   The main aim of the study is to investigate and define the turbulent model to be applied while numerically modeling ogee spillway associated with flip bucket to dissipate the energy. A previous experimental investigation was replicated numerically by ANSYS FLUENT software, where four different methods to model turbulence: standard k-ε model (SKE), realizable k-ε model (RKE), renormalization group k-ε model (RNG) and detached eddy simulation model (either DES-KW or DES-RKE) were applied. Two different previous sets of experimental measurements of two different dams (Case A, Case B) were considered to reinforce the study's decision about a favorable model in simulating the experimental results. This research was initiated to assess their behavior by numerical turbulence models. At first, numerical simulation is carried out to the flip bucket (case A) to determine the model that provides reasonable results and contrasts them against experimental results. In this part of research, the simulations were conducted under three discharges (Q=0.22, 0.13 and 0.07m3). The previous experimental results and previous empirical derived equations were used to compare with the numerical simulation results. For Case A, the results show that RKE precisely described the jet trajectory length, at higher discharge and jet velocity values, while DES specifically designated the jet trajectory length generally but in relatively longer calculation duration. In addition, Case B, the results of the throw length are calculated for each model and compared with the measured length. This comparison showed that DES was the most reliable turbulent model. The outcome of this study agrees with the outcome of Part I study as both studies show that DES method is the most appropriate turbulent models to be used in studying flow over ogee spillway equipped with flip bucket energy dissipater. This simulation is very important in order to investigate the damages occurring at impingement location in other designs.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Comparative Studies of Cement and Alccofine and Their Suitability for
           Concrete

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  BLN Sai Srinath   Chandan Kumar Patnaikuni   and N. Raviteja   Concrete generally consists of a binding medium and aggregate particle. There are three phases in the formation of concrete i.e. aggregates phase, cement paste phase, and the interfacial transition zone (ITZ). Water and aggregates are essential components of concrete's base along with ordinary Portland cement. In order to improve certain desirable characteristics of these raw materials, additives and admixtures may be added. Alccofine is one such additive that can be considered a supplementary cementitious material. Due to the unique physical and chemical properties of the additives, SCM concrete has a more homogeneous microstructure than normal concrete because of its abridged w/c ratio and superplasticizer inclusion. A decrease in the porosity of cement binding paste, as well as an enhanced interface between cement paste and fine and coarse aggregates, was contributed by the addition of additives to concrete mixes to enhance strength and durability. Alccofine and cement are considered for detailed examination and investigated by using EDAX (energy dispersive analysis of X-rays), SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and XRD (X-ray diffraction). The study demonstrated that the presence of major strength inhibiting compounds could be identified by powder XRD, but EDAX was the only method that was able to provide exact information about various elements. In the present investigation, the results of a study exploring the strength characteristics of Alccofine replacing cement at 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% are performed for M60 grade concrete. Tests of compressive strength were performed on specimens. The microstructural analysis was conducted using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The added Alccofine displays strength obtaining properties. Alccofine has been examined at micro levels using various microstructural analyses like scanning electron microscope, EDAX and XRD and compared the same with that of cement.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Treatment by Ballasted Column against the Phenomenon of Liquefaction Soil:
           Case of the Mohamed VI Tower in Morocco

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Youness Tlidi   Lahcen Bahi   Latifa Ouadif   Anas Bahi   and Mustapha Amrani   The proposed experiment allows an exhaustive analysis of the risk of liquefaction of the ground underlying the largest tower being built in Africa in the city of Rabat on a liquefiable soil. The seismicity maps of Morocco show that the Rabat region is in a seismically active zone, pointing out that Morocco is in a collision zone, near the boundary between the two plates of Africa - Eurasia. This article aims to expose all the steps taken to analyze the risk of soil liquefaction on the site by SPT tests on the one hand and to consider the risk of vibration due to the works of ballasted columns on the railway. After having eliminated the risk of liquefaction of the ground by the technique of the ballasted column with the wet track, at a depth of 10 meters, we proceed to a vibratory suitability test to protect the railroad track against the vibrations emitted by the vibrator of the ballasted columns execution machine. The test was carried out with the installation of geophone sensors, with different distances between the sources of vibration induced by the vibrator to achieve ballasted columns. Considering the lithology of the land, by this suitability we have concluded that the distance of 10 meters between the source of vibration and the railway is safe.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Advanced Techniques of Flood Forecasting, Flood Inundation Mapping and
           Flood Prioritization of Panam River Basin

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Monal Patel    and Falguni Parekh   Floods have been quite possibly the most troubling natural disasters in history, causing significant casualties, loss of life, and collateral destruction. Also, we see a shift in the frequency of rainfall every year due to climate change, which exacerbates flooding. Flood forecasting is essential to provide early warning to the people of flood-prone areas, provide enough time for preparedness, and reduce the damage to lives and properties. The flood inundation simulation is critical in presenting potential impending flooding in the study region. Furthermore, flood prioritization plays a key role in better watershed management. Looking at the present scenario, the machine learning methods like neural networks and fuzzy logic contribute profoundly to the headway of flood forecast frameworks giving better execution and financially savvy arrangements. The flood forecasting models can be developed using ANN, ANFIS and fuzzy logic. The comparative study between the developed models can also be carried out by determining different evaluation parameters. For flood forecasting using ANFIS, it is found that the coefficient of correlation values ranges from 0.85 to 0.95. In order to regulate the extent of the flooded area and the depth of the flooded water, HEC-RAS efficiently develops a flood inundation map. Flood inundation maps can be used to know the regions which are more or less vulnerable to flooding hazards.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • A Review of Bioclimatic Housing Performance in Kampung Surabaya Using
           Response Surface Methodology

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Failasuf Herman Hendra   Antariksa   Agung Murti Nugroho   and Amin Setyo Leksono   The existence of old houses as folk's houses in urban villages or kampong in Surabaya City that are still sustainable can be a precedent for today's architecture. Kampung with residential neighborhoods and dense urban village communities with middle to lower socio-economic strata have produced many distinctive architectural styles of houses. Several studies have shown that kampung's housing has high adaptability to urban developments. A comprehensive review of adaptation, one of which is a bioclimatic adaptation, where the performance of the house building is influenced by the relationship of living organisms, climate, and shape of the building. Bioclimatic adaptation as an architectural strategy is based on comfort-based rationale and low energy to create buildings with better thermal performance. Then how does the thermal performance of old houses as cultural products in the kampung contribute to sustainable thermal comfort' For this reason, the development of a response surface methodology is used as a technique to assess building performance in a quantitative bioclimatic context to complement the qualitative description. Data or information about facts in the field of old houses were obtained from observing the physical traces of the building and interviews with the occupants of the house. Analysis with the response surface methodology will show building optimization in achieving thermal comfort with energy efficiency efforts in old houses in Kampung Peneleh, Surabaya City with various levels depending on the architectural style of the building (Javanese House, Indische House, Yankee House, Modern House). The good thermal performance of old houses can be a precedent in the bioclimatic architectural design of houses in dense settlements such as in urban villages.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Investigation of Energy Saving Using Building Information Modeling for
           Building Energy Performance in Office Building

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Heni Fitriani   Muhammadiya Rifki   Mona Foralisa   and Ahmad Muhtarom   With increased demand for energy and the simultaneous awareness of the environmental impact of building construction, there is an urgent need to consider the issue of sustainability in the design phase. This paper investigates the potential of Building Information Modeling (BIM) for building energy performance assessment, especially in Indonesia, and provides a framework and overview of the application of BIM related to building energy assessment. This paper used Revit software integrated with Green Building Studio as a BIM tool to analyze energy performance. The results showed that the best scenario for energy use reduction was shown by the last (8th) scenario by combining all possible options covering a 12/5 operation schedule, high efficiency VAV HVAC type, efficient lighting, efficient plug load, instalment of control equipment daylight and occupants, Triple LoE for window glass and solar panels installation. The use of BIM in energy analysis is very useful to measure the amount of energy consumed at the design stage. The findings can be used as a guideline for the potential of BIM related to energy use analysis.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • A Conceptualisation of Defining and Computing the Street Edge:
           Constitutedness Permeability Intervisibility

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Haider Jasim Essa Al-Saaidy   The micro-level approach to transformations in urban morphology is the current leading area of study. It captures the significant soft grain of the street edge and its function. The pattern (edge-edge interface) is controlled by morphological analyses that are based on two primary urban elements: Plots and blocks. In addition, the street edge represents the link between two realms – the private and public - and defines their interrelationship. Three indicators (constitutedness, permeability and intervisibility) formulate the degree of interaction, whether between street edge ingredients or people and the adjacent edge. The main aims of this paper are to highlight the characteristics of the street edge and to compute and derive an equation for the three indicators. The paper adopts a morphological and analytical method in order to trace the primary purpose of the research with greater concentration on the micro-level scale. A quantitative technique is used to formulate the main equations and significant results are extracted regarding the specific morphological properties of the edge. Thus, the main contribution of this research is the development of knowledge that quantitatively determines the attributes of the street edge.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Tiles from Recycled Plastic Bottle (Pet) Wastes and POFA: Strength
           Properties and Durability

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Omosebi Taiwo O.   and Noor Faisal Abas   Plastic waste management is a global problem that threatens the health of our planet due to its high rate of development and non-biodegradability. Also, palm oil fuel ash (POFA) is a residue produced when waste products including palm oil fiber, palm kernel shells, and palm oil hush are burned. This study investigates the feasibility of making tiles out of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste bottles and POFA (Palm oil fuel ash). This study reports on the mechanical properties, durability, and chemical tolerance of PET-wall tiles. PET waste was used in different amounts with POFA by weight (from 30% to 100%). The physical and mechanical characteristics of the tiles were examined, and it was discovered that, in terms of material density and strength, tiles containing 30% PET, have highest compressive strength of 8.37 N/mm2 while samples made with higher PET content (100%) have the least compressive strength lowest water absorption value (0.12%). All the tiles produced outperformed pure cement and ceramic tiles in terms of durability, and they have a very low water absorption efficiency; the water absorption values were between 1.82% and 0.12% and good chemical tolerance. In conclusion, based on this experimental result, PET waste bottles and POFA can be used to produce long-lasting, good strength, and highly low-water-absorption eco-friendly wall tiles for both residential and commercial applications. This possibility of producing tiles from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste and POFA would not only reduce the cost of construction materials but also serve as a waste diversion to reduce environmental pollution generated by plastic waste.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Minimum Weight Design of Transversely Stiffened Plate Girder Using Genetic
           Algorithm

    • Abstract: Publication date:  July 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  4  Priya A Jacob   R Mercy Shanthi   S Justin   and Daniel C   Fundamental advantage of using transversely stiffened plate girders (TSPG) rather than plane web plate girders is in achieving increased strength and stiffness of the web panel. As these girders are made of steel plates, they can be custom designed to suit consumer's requirements. Weight minimization of TSPG by satisfying strength and serviceability conditions, further enables in achieving higher strength to weight ratios. The utilisation of these girders in the building sector in India is growing, and optimising these girders can lead to more cost-effective and structurally sound designs. No significant research has been carried out in the field of optimization of plate girders based on specifications according to IS 800 (2007): General Construction in Steel - Code of Practice (Bureau of Indian Standards). Therefore, in the present study, the main goal is to develop a formulation for optimum weight design of TSPG using genetic algorithm (GA) with weight minimization as objective function. The breadth of flange (bf), thickness of flange (tf), depth of web (d), thickness of web (tw), breadth of stiffener (bs), thickness of stiffener (ts) and spacing between stiffeners(c) are adopted as the design variables. The optimum girder weight is compared with weight obtained through conventional design using IS 800 (2007). The results demonstrate that conventional design overestimates the girder weight by about 30% on an average and therefore the developed formulation helps in attaining economical girder weight. The viability of the GA formulation is verified by comparing the optimized results with existing experimental and numerical data from literature. Parametric studies are also carried out to understand the behaviour of design variables. Results from these studies show that deeper web reduces flange thickness but requires thicker web in order to ensure ample shear capacity and to prevent shear buckling.
      PubDate: July 2022
       
  • Effects of Vegetation on Urban Heat Island Using Landsat 8 ‎OLI/TIRS
           Imagery in Tropical Urban Climate

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Sri Sutarni Arifin   Baharuddin Hamzah   Rosady Mulyadi   and Abd. Rachman Rasyid   The decrease in the number of vegetated areas has an impact on increasing Land Surface Temperature (LST) which encourages the formation of urban heat islands. A lot of literature discusses the correlation between soil surface temperature and vegetation, but does not consider the geographical aspects and climatological conditions of the tropics located at the equator. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effect of vegetation cover and surface temperature in the research area which will later be used as a reference in recommending the need for green open spaces in urban areas with tropical climates. In this study, a case study was conducted in the city of Goron‎talo using the Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS image interpretation method, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) algorithm, the Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI) algorithm, and land surface temperature measurements using thermal bands 10 and 11. The results showed that areas with high vegetation index had low temperatures while areas with low vegetation index had high temperatures. The effect of wetland area depends on land use conditions at the time of image recording and water bodies have no significant effect on LST.‎
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • The Identification of the Existence of Dispersive Soil on the Soft Soil
           for Dam Filling Material

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Lusmeilia Afriani   and Ryzal Perdana   Dispersive clay soils are highly erodible, even under standing water conditions. Dispersive clay soils are easily eroded both on the surface and in landfills, despite their high plasticity index and ability to be passed by water flows at low velocities. Dispersive soil will cause a variety of problems in dams and water structures, including the potential for seepage patterns in the embankment material, which can trigger piping, compromising the stability of the water structure. Dispersive soils occurring in many parts of the world are easily erodible and deflocculated in water, posing serious problems for stability of the earth and earth-retaining structures. Earth dams constructed on dispersive soils have sustained internal and external soft soil damage. The purpose of the current study was to identify the predetermine of dispersive clay soil as a filling material for the Way Sekampung Dam in Indonesia. Pinhole and Crumb tests were carried out to determine the dispersity of the original soil. This study analysed 17 undisturbed soil samples collected from 17 different locations throughout the study area. The research findings indicate that there is no evidence of dispersive soil distribution in the samples studied. According to the Pinhole and Crumb tests, all soil samples have ND-1 and 1 status, respectively. These findings are supported by laboratory test results which indicate that the soil content with a diameter greater than 0.005 mm is always less than 12% for each sample. In addition, another test revealed that the permeability value of all tested clay samples was not too low (around 10-2 to 10-4), indicating that they did not possess the properties of dispersive clay, which had a very low permeability value (around 10-6 to 10-7). In general, the clay surrounding the dam site is free from dispersive properties and is therefore safe and suitable for use as a dam filling material. Finally, these findings will be beneficial for dam constructions to understand the possibility of dispersive soil causing significant issues that require attention in geotechnical engineering.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Comparison of Different Model Updating Algorithms to Detect Damage in A
           Structural Slab Using Mode Shape Data

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Lyn Dee Goh   Norhisham Bakhary   and Fatin Nadiah Abdul Rahman   Vibration-based damage detection (VBDD) is one of the techniques used in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) for detecting structural damage. VBDD provides more efficient, reliable and economical methods to improve the safety and reduce the cost of maintenance in structural engineering. This paper investigates the performance of model updating (MU) method using different types of algorithms in damage detection. A finite element analysis is performed to obtain dynamic properties of undamaged and damaged slab structure for model updating process using different types of algorithms. Three optimisation functions of different algorithms employed in this study are constrained optimisation, least-square optimisation and multiobjective optimisation. Different damage cases are introduced at different locations with different damaged intensities by reducing the structure's elastic modulus in corresponding segment. The performance of MU is evaluated by Stiffness Reduction Factor (SRF). The comparison of SRF for actual value and predicting value is made to check the applicability of three types of algorithms in damage detection. Mean Square Error (MSE) is applied to evaluate stopping and tolerance criteria effect on result improvement. The results show all three types of algorithms are capable to provide reliable results in damage prediction and an improvement of result has been made when increasing the stopping and tolerance criteria.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Experiment Study of Catalysed Lignocellulosic Biomass Thermoelectric
           Concrete with Active Solution

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Hoong-Pin Lee   Kar-Loke Teow   Wen-Zhang Lee   and Nurharniza Abdul Rahman   Emission of CO2 becomes one of the global challenges and catalyzed lignocellulosic biomass thermoelectric concrete (CBC) is a new source of energy which helps to encounter this challenge. CBC is an advance class of concrete, which has proven to be able to generate voltages throughout thermal change, but several drawbacks were reported such as low voltage and insufficient compressive strength to meet construction industry needs. This study intends to investigate the incorporation of active solution like alkali/acidic solution as activation booster, palm oil fuel ash (POFA) as partial cement replacement and catalyst for charges extraction, under thermal changes. Active solutions used in this study were Sodium Hydroxide, Iron(III) Sulfate, and Copper(II) Sulfate. Specimens with dimension of 50 x 50 x 20mm and 150x150x150mm were prepared and cured accordingly; then tested its conductivity with temperature ranged from 0℃ to 100℃; and uniaxial compressive strength test, respectively. The experiment has proven that incorporation of active solution in CBC mix is able to enhance both voltage supply and compressive strength by average 249.73% and 41.64% (with active solution Fe2(SO4)3), respectively. With a complete circuit, it can be noticed that specimen's voltage density is directly proportional to exposed temperature, from 38.35 V/m2 at 0℃ to 129.67 V/m2 at 100℃. The study has proven that CBC with addition of active solution is able to enhance the matured compressive strength and at the same time, carrying voltage when a complete circuit is applied. With this, the application of CBC in construction industry has been increased to structural application for alternative renewable energy source.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty Index for
           Public Transport

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Nur Farhana Norzelan   Siti Zaharah Ishak   Suria Haron   S. Sarifah Radiah Shariff   and Teh Zaharah Yaacob   The COVID-19 outbreak is a global pandemic that is now widespread across the world. Malaysia government has implemented the Movement Control Order (MCO) or so-called massive restriction in Malaysia. The restriction amongst others includes that the public is advised to stay and work from home. Only the essential services are allowed to operate at capacity within the stipulated Standard Operating Procedures (SOP). Public transport operation is considered as essential services that need to provide people with mobility and access to employment, community resources, medical care, and recreational opportunities in communities. This study aims to identify the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on urban public transport in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The objectives include: to determine the change of ridership trends, to measure the Customer Satisfaction Index (SCI) and Loyalty Index (CLI) in taking consideration of the current COVID-19 SOP provided by public transport operators. The questionnaire survey was distributed via online and received 401 respondents. The results show significant decreases in ridership and new mobility patterns emerge from public transport to private cars. The COVID-19 pandemic also impacted the CSI and CLI value for both public transport services-bus and rail within the urban public transport users. The highlights of public transport users' concern on using the public transport during this pandemic will be discussed.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Assessment of Subgrade Degradation Induced Mud Pumping at Railway Track: A
           Review

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  N. N. Yahaya   A. Ibrahim   J. Ahmad   A. Ahmad   M. I. F. Rozli   and Z. Ramli   Generation of mud pumping is commonly triggered by a combination of three main factors such as excess fines, excess water, and cyclic loading. Excess fines particle is generated from depositing mechanisms (i.e., dust, waste material and ballast breakage) and fluidisation or internal erosion mechanism (i.e., subgrade degradation). Mud pumping phenomenon that is associated with ballast fouling has been widely discussed and is of interest among the railway engineers and researchers. However, subgrade degradation or fluidisation of subgrade layer induced mud pumping mechanism gained less attention from the researchers due to complexity of subgrade soil behavior. Various methods applicable in railway track's subgrade degradation assessment based on destructive and nondestructive test were comprehensively reviewed in this research paper. The assessment on subgrade mud pumping is based on migration of the subgrade fine mechanism including in-situ excavation test, particle size distribution test, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and physical modelling test. This paper summarizes the advantages and weaknesses of various assessment methods of subgrade degradation induced mud pumping and clarifies most effective method for repair and maintenance of railway track.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Corroded Subsea Pipelines Burst Pressure Prediction Utilizing Finite
           Element Data Using ANN

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Mohd Fakri Muda   Mohd Hisbany Mohd Hashim   Mohd Khairul Kamarudin   Mohd Hairil Mohd   and Marzuki Abdul Rahman   The Engineering industry is constantly exploring an effective and fast-solving method for complicated engineering problems. The adaptation of artificial intelligent technology can diminish the time-consuming of conventional analysis methods, especially in offshore engineering. For that reason, this study is pursued to build a prediction model to predict the residual strength of API 5L X42 subsea pipelines. An artificial neural network is used as an analytical medium in developing the prediction model. Three (3) physical shapes of corrosion data with diverse corrosion level are designed as input data based on the corroded subsea pipelines of true 2009 historical inspection data of South China Sea. The output data are obtained from the finite element analysis to produce the burst pressure data. The performance model is evaluated using mean squared error (MSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) which results in 9.13 x 10-5 and 0.005499 respectively for the optimum model. The predicted output shows significant similarity in line with the finite element output for validation purposes. This model is expected to provide quick prediction reliability of subsea pipelines to the engineers and reduce or eliminate massive analysis work.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • The Optimal Artificial Neural Network for Small Datasets on Shear
           Resistance Prediction of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Beam

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  S. F. Senin   R. Rohim   and A. Yusuff   This study presents an approach for the prediction of the shear strength of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) beams using the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) developed based on existing experimental shear resistance results from various researchers. The experimental results database containing 42 sample numbers of SFRC beams (with shear span-to-depth ratio exceeding 2.5) without stirrups, with compressive strength of concrete varying from 24.9 to 68.6 MPa and steel fibers of hooked end type are used to develop an ANN model. The developed ANN model is trained by using 70% and 90% of the data and another 30 to 10% served as the validation data purpose. The shear strengths prediction based on ANN model was found to be in perfect agreement with the experimental values when the optimal neuron number is 2 and by fixing the training set size as 90%. Results showed that this ANN model has strong potential as a feasible design tool for predicting the shear strength of SFRC beams without transverse reinforcement or stirrups within the range of input parameters considered in this study.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Reconstructing the Understanding of the Symbolic Meaning Behind the
           Architecture of Javanese Traditional House

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Riandy Tarigan   Antariksa   and Purnama Salura   The architecture of traditional Javanese houses is full of symbolic meaning because they function as embodiments of the vertical (sacred), internal (private) and horizontal (social) relationships that are expressed in the activities, places, spaces and shapes as well as the meaning behind them. The current understanding of traditional architecture focuses on mere physical formation. The architecture of traditional Javanese houses is currently experiencing development both in terms of activities carried out in them as well as their physical shapes. These changes are caused by the added non-household activities, a shift of views on the part of the house owners and residents which results in the development of symbolic meaning. Understanding of the symbolic meaning behind the architecture of traditional Javanese houses—which separately examines the five aspects above— requires a deconstruction so that one may gain a thorough grasp of new understanding. The methods used are: (1) subjective observation on the activities and furniture arrangements in every room, the placements for the new activities and rooms for movement based on compositional principles. (2) Juxtaposing the structures of symbolical meaning between cosmological architecture of traditional houses with the current architecture of Javanese traditional homes to learn the development of symbolical meaning. (3) Conducting in-depth interviews to learn symbolical meanings according to the residents' views. These interviews are also done to clarify the subjective research done by the researcher. The objective of this research is to obtain a research method that is able to express a deep, holistic understanding of symbolical meaning. The significance of this research is to pose as a stakeholder in formulating policies in relation to the continuity and enrichment of the architecture of traditional houses.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • CFD Study of Flow Characteristics and Pressure Distribution on Re-Entrant
           Wing Faces of L-Shape Buildings

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Arun Kumar   and Ritu Raj   The purpose of this research is to investigate the wind flow pattern and pressure distributions on the re-entrant wing facades of an irregular L-cross sectional shape model over the range of wind incidence angles. Computational simulation with ANSYS (CFX) solver has been used for the study on model of the building of cross-sectional area 300m2 and height 50m at a length scale of 1:100. ANSYS (CFX) is a finite element modelling CFD program of pressure-based solver technology suitable for low Mach No. (Ma) fluid flow. Homogeneous flow of steady wind with gustiness of 5% turbulence in boundary layer of atmosphere is taken for the study. Investigation has been conducted for a range of wind angle of attack from 0° to 180° @ 15° interval. The findings were confirmed by examining similar wind flow on a rectangular model of same cross-sectional area and height under same boundary conditions as applied to L shape model. The results were compared with the values given in various international wind design codes/standards. For a better understanding of the flow characteristics around the L shape model in terms of flow stagnation, flow separation, creation of wakes & vortices and reattachment of flow; illustrations of flow patterns around the model for certain specific wind incidence angles are presented. On the basis of study of surface pressure generated on the model envelope, coefficient of pressure on the re-entrant corner faces has been discussed. The pressure on these wing faces has been found critical between 75° & 180° wind incident angles.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • The Adoption of BIM Technology in the Architectural Consultancy Firms in
           GCC Region

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Mohamed Faisal Al-Kazee   and Racha Ramhamdani   Nowadays, the construction industry market is in rising demand for the adoption of new construction technologies. Building Information Modeling (BIM) is one of the most technologies that are progressively being used for the majority of firms in GCC and worldwide. In this regard, BIM has promising applications for teamwork projects and stakeholders in the construction industry, especially architects. In addition, BIM plays an essential role in supporting them and facilitating the different procedures throughout the building life-cycle. However, our knowledge about architects' adoption of this technology is very limited. For this reason, the main aim of this paper is to identify the progress of architecture firms in BIM adoption and classify the characteristics of firms that have implemented BIM. Furthermore, the research method was mainly structured to cover several types of BIM studies and indicators about the spread of BIM applications in the local construction sector. Moreover, several questionnaires were designed to assess the level of BIM maturity in this region. The paper findings are expected to make all the project stakeholders aware of the current status and required steps towards BIM adoption at different levels in the GCC region. Additionally, the research results will pave the road to foster and enhance the BIM working field and facilitate its implementation by different disciplines within a wide range of architectural consultancy firms.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • A Framework of Critical Success Factors and Success Criteria for
           Structural Works of a Mixed-Use Building Construction Project

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Vien Carlo M. Amora   and Joseph Berlin P. Juanzon   The need to determine the critical success factors (CSFs) and success criteria (SC) would serve as keys to an effective and efficient project delivery and performance to achieve project success. This paper analyzed the CSFs and SC through the application of Pareto Analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process using a validated questionnaire as a basis in developing a framework for structural works of a mixed-use building construction project through the determination of priority CSFs and most recognized SC. Based on the results, the study found twenty-six CSFs associated with structural works of building project delivery using meta-analysis. The top six CSFs were established as the vital few or the 20 percent after performing Pareto Analysis. Utilizing a validated questionnaire, experts evaluated CSFs through the fundamental scale of the Analytic Hierarchy Process which revealed the ranking of most prioritized CSFs such as Teamwork and Communication, Training and Education, Personnel, Project Mission, Top Management Commitment, and Client Focus, respectively. Furthermore, the study determined the five most recognized SC with the highest frequency on existing literature such as Client/Customer Satisfaction, Cost – Budget, Time – Schedule, Quality – Performance, and Other Stakeholder's Satisfaction. With this, a framework has been developed based on priority CSFs and recognized SC that can be used by construction project participants during the structural phase and may serve as a guide to achieve the utmost objective of all construction projects which is success.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Situational Analysis of Identification Graphics and Canopies in Tampico
           Downtown and Pedestrian Effect

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  R. I. Lozano-Castro   J. Gonzalez-Velez   M. T. Sánchez-Medrano   L. A. Brandt-García   C. E. Berumen-Rodríguez   and K. Suarez-Dominguez   Tampico is an important commercial city at Tamaulipas, Mexico, founded in 1810, which has grown to occupy more than 70% of its habitable zone. The old town, for example, has buildings dating from the late nineteenth century to, mid-twentieth century belonging to the time of the Porfiriato (1876-1911) and the oil boom (1911-1938) that were modified in their use with the process of modernization. Currently, this sector is commercially distinguished. Every company that owns a building uses specific iconographic elements for graphics identification to make itself known. The exposed identification graphic is located in a space that can capture the pedestrian viewer's attention until its commercial and competitive identification to acquire the merchandise. In this sense, a study of 10 blocks of neighboring areas in the downtown city was carried out to recognize the current changes in derivatives of distinctive elements and the emerging need to increase the segment assigned in the step pedestrian, even when the inscription or graphic communication in the commercial identification graphics attracts the passing spectator's attention. On the other hand, special care has not been taken to maintain and preserve the architectural character of the historical area, detecting serious pathologies caused in the study due to a short intervention of the facades where the iconographic elements have been arranged.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Pareto Optimal Design of the Tuned Mass Damper

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Ahmed Abed   and Om El Khaiat Moustachi   Strong vibrations due to wind induced loads and earthquakes have undesirable effects on tall buildings and long-span bridges, and can cause discomfort, dizziness and anxiety for their occupants and users. The Single Tuned Mass Damper (STMD) is vibration control device used to mitigate strong motion. This study investigated the STMD from the perspective of multi-objective optimization. The main goal was to identify and characterize the Pareto set of optimal STMD parameters in terms of damping and stiffness. The optimization was performed using a multi-objective optimization algorithm based on gradient descent and successive bisecting of the search domain. and norms of the transfer matrices for structural displacement and acceleration were considered as design objectives. We found that for peak response reduction, irrespective of the excitation type, structural damping and STMD mass ratio, the Pareto set was linear and extended mainly in the direction of frequency ratio, while the damping ratio varied marginally within the set. For RMS displacement and peak acceleration minimization, the Pareto set was composed of two segments. Additionally, in all instances, the Pareto set was found to be bounded by the single-objective optimal STMDs for the considered design objectives. The implications of the findings were discussed and approximations of the Pareto optimal STMD were suggested.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Experiencing Public Parks through Phenomenology: Case of Riffa Walk Park,
           Bahrain

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Sandra Rachel Anil Job   and Islam Hamdi Elghonaimy   Human beings experience the world with a natural attitude, which is often due to everyday habitual experiences. These everyday experiences require being 'in place.' It is known that the visual sense is highly dominant over other senses. By representing virtual images of architecture, which cannot be distinguished from reality, sensorial experience in spaces has been lost and has become meaningless. By introducing sensual bodily experiences in places, one can come across meaningful spatial and bodily experiences inside and outside the built environment. Senses like sight, hearing, touch, and even smell contribute to the spatial experience and pleasure. An approach that emphasizes multi-senses will not alienate people from experiencing a space. This research intends to investigate the bodily experiences within an urban place. Further, the behavioural patterns, noise levels, and issues that persist within the place are observed and recommendations are given for fostering a complete spatial experience within the site.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Evaluation of Mechanical Performance of High Performance Hybrid Fiber
           Reinforced Concrete Containing Micro Silica

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  N Venkata Narasimha Prabath   and Ramadoss P   In the extended use of concrete in military applications, runway pavements and infrastructures, concrete is subjected to heavy impact loads that vary both in velocity and intensity. The addition of fibers in high performance concrete (HPC) can overcome its shortcomings such as brittleness, high shrinkage and less resistance to impact and also improve the ductile behavior and energy absorption capacity. In this study, development on strengthening of HPC using steel and Polypropylene fibers was focused. Moreover, an inclusion of volume fractions of both steel and polypropylene fibers, leads to an increase in the mechanical properties of concrete matrix. The present study represents the adding steel and Polypropylene fibres at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 0.25, 0.5, 1% by volume of concrete, respectively. A concrete mix has been designed to achieve the M60 grade concrete, mixes proportioned for FRC to determine the compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength of high performance hybrid fiber reinforced concrete at 28 days. The experimental results showed that the use of hybrid fibers with 1.5% steel and 1% Polypropylene fiber in HPC concrete has improved the strength of the concrete by 36% and 25.1% HPC with single fibers. The statistical tool was formulated to predict the strength properties of fiber reinforced concrete (i.e., compressive, flexural and split tensile strengths). The response surface method (RSM) was used to analyze the data and develop a regression equation. RSM was able to predict the experimentally tested values within an acceptable range.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Single Pile FEM Modeling: Ultimate Capacity Determination of Bored Piles
           Embedded in Silty-Sands Using Modified Drucker-Prager Cap Model

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Nathaniel E. Rivera   and Gilford B. Estores   Ultimate pile capacity determination is crucial before the structure construction. This essential pile resistance can be accurately predicted and studied using the finite element method. FEM is a numerical method that is anticipated to be indispensable in advances in pile analyses, aiming at pile effectiveness and material efficiency. Pile modeling is attainable using FEM for the stability investigation concerning the geotechnical findings. In addition, several constitutive mathematical models have been available for FEM applications to reasonably simulate soil behavior under pressure. This study conducts numerical modeling of eight bored piles of different diameters and lengths embedded in silty-sand soils. Using the FEM software ABAQUS, pile load-settlement curves are obtained to determine ultimate pile capacity, skin friction resistance, and pile base resistance. The modified Drucker Prager Cap model is used as a constitutive soil model for silty sand soils. In applying the MDPC model, the cap hardening behavior (hardening parameter) is obtained by having the site soils compression and swelling indices determined using the proposed regression equations in the literature. Piles were modeled successfully, and the results positively correlate with the results of the dynamic analysis test conducted in Davao del Norte, Philippines.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Validation of Sustainability Criteria as a Tool for the Evaluation of
           Habitability of Prefabricated Concrete Homes for Andean Areas

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Marcel Paredes   Alexis Andrade   Tito Castillo   Valeria Arroba   Emma Cevallos   and Rafaela Viteri   The incorporation of sustainable projects in the construction field and the use of prefabricated products allow to provide solutions for the real estate industry due to low cost. The goal of this research is to confirm the sustainability criteria of three different certifications such as: BREEAM, LEED and VERDE. Making paired comparisons based on the AHP method relating according to priorities of importance, preference or probability of pairs of the elements, based each time on a represented criteria in the decision hierarchy. According to the calculated values and the results, the AHP process was used to evaluate certification methods. The results of weighting between the three certification methods, determined that LEED adjusts to the reality of the Andean zone of Ecuador. As this area is a fragile place and susceptible to the contamination of water, soil and ecosystems, the innovation presented in this method, when ranking and comparing the weightings, makes it have greater weight compared to the other two analyzed. In this way, it was possible to interpret and develop a table of importance of suitable criteria to be implemented in the Andean zone, having as a result that the most important criterion is water with a percentage of 40.43%.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Crack Pattern Analysis of Plain Concrete Pavement due to Swelling Pressure
           on Expansive Soil

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Arif Afrianto   Ary Setyawan   Bambang Setiawan   and Wibowo   This research was conducted on the Surakarta-Gemolong-Geyer provincial road which is suspected to be built on expansive soil using the ATENA V5 3D software program. ATENA program can be used to simulate crack propagation in concrete and reinforced concrete structures. This study uses quantitative analysis methods, to the analysis of fracture patterns of rigid pavements with transverse reinforcement on expansive soils. Rigid pavement is modeled into 2 types, namely rigid transverse reinforced pavement models due to swelling pressure forces on expansive soils and transverse reinforced rigid pavements without swelling pressure forces on expansive soils. The swelling test on the soil carried out in the laboratory was 37 kPa. The rigid pavement model is subjected to load testing. The load used is the standard load of a medium-sized truck. The repetition of loading used is 30 times. The loading is divided into 3 types, namely: edge, center, and corner loading. The results of the analysis of rigid pavements were compared between rigid pavements due to swelling pressure forces on expansive soils with rigid pavements without swelling pressure forces. The results of the analysis from the ATENA software program show that every loading test on rigid pavement due to swelling pressure forces cracks greater than loading without swelling pressure forces. Edge loading shows that cracks due to swelling pressure are 3.5% higher than those without swelling pressure. Middle loading shows cracks due to swelling pressure which is 8.33% greater. Middle loading shows that cracks due to swelling pressure are 3.56% higher than without swelling pressure. This research can be used as a reference and prediction in identifying cracks that occur so that the government can carry out appropriate design planning and maintenance and rehabilitation of rigid pavements on expansive soils.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Full-Fledged Use of Semi-Basement Space by Building Seismic-Resistance,
           Energy-Efficiency, Microclimate and Preventing Influences of Thermal
           Bridges and Mold Growth

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Erkin Boronbaev   Berikbay Unaspekov   Aigul Abdyldaeva   Elmira Tohlukova   Kamoliddin Holmatov   and Nurbubu Zhyrgalbaeva   The known theory and experience of energy-saving architecture allow solving the article's task and ensuring sufficient insolation, passive solar heating, and occupants contact with nature through semi-basement windows. The goal is a full-fledged use of the semi-basement space achieved for seismically active regions with a moderate, cold, and hot climate by ensuring the normative seismic-resistance, energy-efficiency, and microclimate of the building and preventing influence of thermal bridges and mold growth. The set of recommendations also covers the provision of the required sanitary-hygienic conditions in the semi-basement rooms. The multidisciplinary problem is solved by integrating the methodologies of various fields of science. By means of numerical investigations, it established that the soil adjacent to the semi-basement foundation wall increases the thermal mass and building envelope heat-protection capacity. The isotherms and the intensity of heat fluxes made it possible to eliminate the effect of thermal bridges that interact with the soil and outside air. The expedient thickness and width of the additional layer of thermal insulation of thermal bridge zones in excess of the normative layer of the enclosure's thermal insulation were established. The graphical dependence of the wall's inner corner temperature from this width allows selecting the microclimate level. A multilateral contribution to building improvement is derived from a single-family home example: comfortable microclimate conditions have been created in the semi-basement for placing main rooms there; energy savings for heating this space is 16-20%; saving of monolithic frame and foundation concrete is 10-12% ensuring the higher than normative building seismic-resistance.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Workplace Design Concept Based on Indoor Environmental Quality Analysis to
           Prevent Coronavirus Transmission

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Hilma Tamiami Fachrudin   Khaira Amalia Fachrudin   and Imam Faisal Pane   People spend a lot of time in the workplace, where indoor environmental quality in the room provides the quality of health and comfort. Indoor environmental quality must be supported by a good air system to keep the air in the room healthy and clean. People who work in closed spaces have a greater risk of being exposed to the Covid 19 virus. This research will create a workplace design concept based on an analysis of indoor environmental quality from green building councils in several countries to prevent coronavirus transmission. This research uses qualitative methods with data collection through observation and interviews. The samples were divided into two groups, namely workplace with a centralized air conditioning system and a split air conditioning system. Indoor environmental quality consists of ventilation, air quality, thermal comfort, health protection, and passive design. The results of the analysis show that the workplace with a centralized air conditioning system does not utilize ventilation optimally, maintains air quality using a mechanical air filter that is integrated with the HVAC system, centralized thermal comfort, and has implemented health protection. Workplaces with split air conditioning system maximize ventilation and have indoor air quality management. Occupants can control thermal comfort and implement health protection.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Le Corbusier's Modulor: Anthropometric Myth

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Julio Lorenzo-Palomera   Carlos Fuentes-Pérez   and Yolanda Aranda-Jiménez   Since its two publications, 1948 and 1953, the Modulor has been incorporated as an anthropometric and human proportion reference until today as part of the design process heritage. Therefore, reliable metric information sources are needed, real data-based, useful in the architectural design process. Using documentary research, this critical essay deconstructs Modulor's attributes as a reference to the human scale, as it is based on a fanciful abstract drawing but not on real population stature measurements. Le Corbusier sought to justify the 2.20 meters height fitting to the human scale only considering an arm raised humanoid figure. Anthropometric databases are used from different sources, some French, where wide samplings indicate that height measurements considered by Le Corbusier's advisers, 1.75 and 1.83, do not correspond to population mean stature, 1.60-1.69, when the Modulor was made up. It was considered, in France, from the beginning of the physical anthropology of which anthropometry is a part, 18th century, until the trends of the 20th century. In addition, data from other countries during the 19th and 20th centuries also has through Le Corbusier´s lifespan. Human height is a variable measure, not standard. People can be 2.00 tall (Netherlands, 1996) or small, 1.49 (Guatemala, 1996). Neither the standing nor the seated body width was studied anthropometrically at all. Modulor besides is an excluding metric model in gender and ages. No more databases were analyzed, but those studies offer enough contrast between the abstract (Modulor) and the concrete (real people) height measurements. A large sample design, based on mean measure, is an erroneous criterion because it applies only to a population's small range. That is what Le Corbusier established with the Modulor to be the measure of all things but with fixed standard. Therefore, it is recommended to check other sources to corroborate it. The Modulor is a myth, so it is recommended to stop including it like a database or an anthropometric manual. As a human-scale option, it might be helpful for design learning as an incorrect criteria example.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Towards Developing the Renovation Design Guidelines for Aging Low-Cost
           Residential Buildings in Thailand: A Case Study of 5-Story Baan Eua
           Arthorn Condominium

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Natapong Puangpinyo   and Sulawun Thanjaichon   Nowadays, many developing countries have become aging societies that are effective for dwelling preparation in the future, especially Thailand. Thailand has entered an aging society and becomes a "Super-aged society" (Society or country with population aged 65 and over, more than 20% of the entire population) soon. These have increased the elderly housing projects of both the private and government sector, and most of the high-cost elderly housing projects in Thailand are related to incremental payback opportunities following the business investment plan [2]. The elderly housing projects for the low-cost project of the Thailand government are still not enough to demand because of an interruption in the government process for the new project. The renovation of the existing building for low cost was a simple way to solve the inequality problem of housing in an aging society. Nowadays, Thailand government still has a low-cost housing project which is Baan Eua Arthorn condominium that can be renovating existing building for the elderly. The case study research is Baan Eua Arthorn condominium project spreading all over the country with the same pattern design that can emphasize design renovation guidelines for generalized the low-cost elderly dwelling. This research focuses on the 5-story Baan Eua Arthorn condominium project that has two problems. The first problem is that a public area cannot support emergency assessment in a vertical assistance system. The second problem in the unit resident in the bathroom does not have assistive devices for the elderly and an available area for the elderly caregiver. This study found two solutions. First, equipping a public elevator with four install options can connect to the cluster building. Second, designing area of the resident unit and adding assistive devices of the elderly and for the elderly caregivers can encourage life quality of the elderly.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Impact of Authoritative Elements on Placemaking in Architecture

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Sunalini Esther Devadas   Sheeba Chander   and Kiruthiga K   The understanding in the differentiation between spaces and places is vital in architecture. One deals with the physical dimensions that constitute the physical form and boundary while the other is an edifice that contributes to the narrative of the user and is people-centric. Spaces and Places are not mutually exclusive owing to the fact that any place intrinsically stems from a space. However the components that define each of these phenomena differ in intent during their creation. All spaces employ the use of metrics to generate lines, planes, volumes. Well-designed spaces combine these tangible metrics with creativity and a keen focus on aesthetics that bear positively on the physical manifestation and composition of these forms. Places go beyond creating purely aesthetic spaces and engage the user/s in a dynamic dialogue that helps the user forge an emotional and/or spiritual connect to the place. There are several elements which aid in the creation of such place. Of these, authoritative elements may be considered to lend authenticity to design. This paper tests the hypothesis that authoritative elements are key influencers of Placemaking in Architecture.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Influence of RAP and Waste Plastic on Cracking Resistance of Warm SMA
           Mixes

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Varuna M   Bhavani Prasad G   Anjaneyappa Venkateshappa   and Amarnath M S   Cracking resistance of stone matrix asphalt (SMA) mixes is determined with and without reclaimed asphalt pavement materials (RAP) using coarse aggregates having elongation and flakiness index (EI+FI) of 25 and 35% respectively. The RAP at varying proportions viz 0, 10, 20 and 30% were blended with shredded plastic waste (SWP) at dosages of 4, 8, 12 and 16%. Zycotherm is used as warm mix asphalt (WMA) additive. Volumetric properties were determined at optimum binder content using Marshall mix design. Semicircular bending test was carried out to determine cracking resistance. No significant change in fracture resistance was observed for mixes prepared using aggregates having (EI+FI) of 25 and 35%. The strain energy release rate (Jc) for SMA specimen using VG-30 with varied RAP content of 10, 20 and 30% was found to be 0.55, 0.58 and 0.62 kN-mm respectively. The addition of SWP increased Jc value up to 8% for hot asphalt SMA mixes. Decrease in Jc was observed for above SMA specimens when prepared using WMA additive. It was observed that addition of WMA enables utilization of SWP up to 12% and use of SWP in SMA mix prepared with RAP increases resistance to cracking.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Evaluating the Effect of Adding Sugarcane Bagasse to the Fire Clay Brick's
           Properties

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Amany Micheal   and Rania Rushdy Moussa   Due to the increase in population density, the waste and its by-products produced by industry, housing, and agriculture have increased. Waste accumulation causes several environmental problems and contaminates natural resources such as air, soil, and water. Moreover, it threatens human public health and increases the number of epidemics and medical pandemics. The percentage of organic waste increases daily. Almost 60% of the waste collected from the housing sector is organic waste, in addition to the agricultural wastes that are also considered organic waste. In developing countries, there are no clear waste management systems. The waste is poorly managed, it is either burned or disposed of in waste dumps improperly. On the other hand, mud bricks are considered a substantial wall building material used in developing countries. This experimental research aims to study the properties of new mud brick prototypes by partially replacing 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5% of the mud with sugarcane bagasse (SCB), which is considered an organic waste material, to create eco-friendly bricks. This research will use an experimental, quantitative method to test the efficiency of the bricks after partially replacing mud with SCB. These experiments will test the slump, strength, cracks, absorption, and density with different SCB replacement percentages. The research revealed that the compressive strength of the mud bricks suffers a considerable reduction due to the burring of the fibers.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Siri' na pacce: The Local Wisdom of Coastal Community Settlement Patterns
           and Its Existence amid COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Sri Aliah Ekawati   Mukti Ali   Gafar Lakatupa   La Ode Muhammad Asfan   Stevanny Manga   and Fitha Rachma Sari   The handling of some issues due to the spread of the COVID-19 virus has been carried out in various cities, including the coastal city of Makassar. Efforts to break the chain of spread of the virus have been carried out starting from the recommendation to comply with health protocols to the establishment of regulations that limit people's daily movement. On the other hand, some local wisdom rooted in the lives of coastal residents also experienced a shift in meaning during this pandemic. This study aims to examine the meaning of local wisdom siri' na pacce in people's lives in coastal settlements, its manifestation in life during the COVID-19 pandemic and efforts that can be made as disaster mitigations. Methods of data collection were done by observation, interviews and questionnaires. The data collected was then analyzed by spatial analysis and description. This study found that the siri' value was influenced by bad stigma towards people with COVID-19 so that the meaning shifted in a negative direction. The value of pacce still has a positive form. It can be seen from community cooperation to help patients who are in self-isolation. At the end of the study, recommendations for pandemic disaster mitigation were formulated in coastal settlements, such as determining the location of temporary shelters and evacuation points.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Study of Geopolymer Concrete Beam with Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer
           Rebars – A Review

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  M. Kalaiselvi   and R. Sivagamasundari   Reinforced Concrete (RC) is a widely used composite material in construction. It is composed of concrete with high compressive strength and steel bars and stirrups of high tensile strength placed longitudinally and transversely, complementing each other in overcoming their weaknesses. Corrosion of steel reinforcement and cement sustainability are two main persistent issues creating great difficulty in the entire construction industry across the globe. Sincere efforts were also made to replace ordinary Portland cement with geopolymer cement, and steel reinforcements with fiber reinforcement for more than two decades. Different combinations were tried in using them for beams, slabs, columns, and combinations of the above. Though researchers have shown many leads in the research, no concrete proofs were made about the better combinations and the structural code for common usage. In this paper, available literature were reviewed in detail and summarized. A study was carried out for the intended purpose to identify focus areas for further research, and it is listed.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • The Influence of Side Friction on Speed-Mixed Flow Behavior on Arterial
           Roads in Tourism Area in Bali

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  D. M Priyantha Wedagama   I Wayan Suweda   and N. L. G Astariyani   The arterial roads in tourism areas show a lack of control over activities that occur on the arterial roadsides. This study constructs a speed-flow behavior model to analyze the influence of side friction events under mixed traffic flows on arterial road performances in Bali. This event is dominated by the entry and exit of vehicles from road access points. The study results show that in friction conditions, the speed of the motorcycle is significantly affected by the presence and speed of other motorcycles and light vehicles, but in base conditions, it is significantly affected by the presence and speed of all types of vehicles. Meanwhile, the speed of light vehicles is significantly influenced by the presence and speed of motorcycles and other light vehicles. A further study is required to analyze the influence of motorized vehicles on the selection of heavy vehicle speed on arterial roads. Due to side frictions, a decrease in road capacity (pcu/hour) was found between 14.37% and 26.60% while a decrease in speed was between 13.79% and 76.19%. These show a significant side friction problem on arterial roads in tourism areas. The road control policy, particularly on roadside access is needed for these arterial roads.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • An Investigation into the Causes of Pedestrians' Walking Difficulties in
           Cairo Streets

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Joy Maged   Rania Rushdy Moussa   and Usama Konbr   This paper intends to focus on Cairo streets from the pedestrian-use perspective. It aims to explore and examine the factors that make Cairo streets better places for walking. Moreover, it intends to contribute to the limited qualitative research on walkable streets and pedestrians' walking experience, specifically in Cairo. In addition, it provides a conceptual framework for understanding the walkability of streets and the experience of pedestrians, built on both empirical field study and prevailing theoretical models reviewed in the literature. To closely examine the factors that determine Cairo streets to be walkable and therefore pedestrian-friendly, the research investigates the status of two streets in Cairo as a case study. The case studies section investigated the street characteristics and the local pedestrians' needs and perceptions towards their walking experience in the streets. This study investigated the status of Cairo streets by recording the users' perceptions of different types to understand the causes of this problem. Moreover, to encourage the walking in Cairo streets and promote social activities, the study investigates two major streets in Cairo, "El-Korba and Al-Azhar," using qualitative research methods of participant interviews and observational surveys. Furthermore, it conducted a comparative study to examine the causes and proposals' solutions, down to the study's results.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Assessment of Green Open Space in the Transit-Oriented Development Area in
           Jakarta

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  T Endangsih   B Prayitno   and A Kusumawanto   The Jatinegara Station area has developed as a commercial area causing the surrounding residential areas to develop into dense settlements and have limitations in providing facilities and infrastructure, especially green open spaces. Along with the increasing intensity of commercial activities, this has an impact on changing green open spaces into built-up land. The purpose of this study was to examine the existing condition of green open space in the Jatinegara TOD area and then compare it with the standards set by the local government. The results of this comparison are used to provide input on the design of green open spaces in the research area. This goal is achieved by using a quantitative approach. The analysis of the need for green open space is calculated based on the standard of 30% of the total area. The need for green open space is 20 m2 per person and the Gerarchis method is used to calculate the need for green space based on oxygen demand. The analytical method used in this research is descriptive quantitative analysis. As the first step is to identify the characteristics of green open space, analyze the availability of green open space and its form and typology. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that the availability of green open space affects the environmental quality of the TOD area. The form and typology of green open spaces found in the study area are urban forest green open spaces and sub-district environmental parks. Therefore, the existence of green open spaces needs to be maintained through the development and arrangement of green open spaces by taking into account the types of vegetation that can absorb CO2.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Engineering Properties Investigation of Soft Clay as Potential Subgrade
           Material

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Hamzah Abd Hamid   and Rohaya Alias   Highway pavement design using soft clay soil as a subgrade is always a great challenge and can cause problems such as roadbed instability and soil settlement. To overcome this problem, the knowledge of the subgrade soil characteristic should be studied first because it needs to be considered during the design phase of pavement. This study was conducted to investigate the engineering properties of soft clay that can be used as potential subgrade material. Some soil laboratory tests were performed to establish the engineering properties of the soft clay. From the standard proctor compaction test, the results revealed that the maximum dry density and optimum moisture content are 1.58 Mg/m3 and 20.15 %, respectively. The finding from the soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) test indicates that the SWCC did not present a residual suction. The compression modulus and pre-consolidation pressure obtained from the compacted soil sample for the consolidation test are higher than the undisturbed soil sample. Based on triaxial test results, the effective cohesion acquired from the compacted soil sample is greater than the undisturbed sample. This research provides a reference for the study of soft clay engineering characteristics.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • The Need for a Scientific Research Paradigm Understanding and
           Clarification in Algerian Architecture Departments

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Nabil Kari   and Joan Curós Vilá   This article highlights the problem of scientific research in the field of architecture discipline and takes Algerian universities as a study case. It presents and discusses research paradigm problems in academic architecture research and aims to perform a content analysis of architecture, urbanism, and built environment doctoral theses submitted in different architectural departments. Understanding and correctly applying a research paradigm is of capital importance in any research. It guides the research by controlling its evolution and the relevance and coherence of the research approach. Above all, paradigmatic positioning allows the establishment of research validity and legitimacy. So, this article aims to analyze the main paradigms of research and their respective philosophical principles, to understand the methodological problem of research paradigm identification and its crucial role in scientific research regarding architecture, urbanism, and built environment in Algerian universities. Therefore, several doctoral theses in various specialities in architecture and urbanism were analyzed to determine their research paradigm and whether the ontological, epistemological, and methodological points of view were respected according to the logic of every paradigm. The article stresses the importance of reviewing some traditional models of knowledge that still dominate, in an erratic way, the world of scientific research in the field of architecture and urbanism. The article showed that research paradigms are not identified and clarified, and a big part of the selected theses do not respect research standards in each paradigm philosophy.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Seismic Pushover Analysis of Global Emulative Response of Precast
           Reinforced Concrete Frames with Dextra Groutec Couplers

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Charmaine Kay M. Guanlao   and Gilford B. Estores   The effects of Dextra Groutec couplers on the global performance of precast reinforced concrete frames are investigated by comparing the performance criteria of conventional RC structures to that of the said structures such that precast elements are connected end-to-end using these couplers. As couplers provide continuity of the reinforcement, precast elements that are connected using this mechanism can perform as a unit, and the entire structural system can be considered emulative as long as the structural performance is comparable to that of the conventionally designed cast-in-place. Dextra couplers inherently have lower strain compared to reinforcing rebar, affecting the global performance of a structure if placed within critical regions such as near the beam-column connection. The present study is conducted therefore to perform a comparative study to determine the effect of these couplers on the emulative behavior of the precast frames to the cast-in-place frames by considering the following factors: Coupler location, Dextra Groutec Coupler size and length, and the story height of the frame. Static pushover analysis of 30 models is carried out using the finite element software, Seismostruct. Pushover curves are compared based on the three criteria such as global ultimate displacement, displacement ductility, and energy dissipation. The results revealed that the Dextra Groutec Couplers reduce the capacity of the precast frame according to the three performance criteria. Hybrid configuration, where the bottom part is CIP and the upper part is precast connected by couplers is found to be the most viable option to obtain an emulative response. The longer and bigger Dextra Groutec coupler, S28 also manifested more inferior performance compared to S25. Lastly, the height of the structure is not a strong factor in the emulative response except for the hybrid and coupler placed at D distance away from the joint face configurations.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Peat Stabilization Using Waste Crumb Rubber Tire

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Mazizah Ezdiani Mohamad   Afnan Ahmad   Hafizah Binti Sadon   Muslich Hartadi Sutanto   Mastura Bujang   Azrul Bin Zulwali Kifli   and Syazie Nordzaima Ali Mohamad   Peat is a notoriously problematic soil having high-water content, a large void ratio, and weak engineering properties. Thus, it needs to be treated before utilization to withstand structural stress. On the other hand, the amount of waste tires increases exponentially due to the high demand for vehicles. Therefore, they need to be sustainably recovered and recycled rather than disposed or incinerated. This study aimed to stabilize the peat collected from Sungai Bidut, Sibu with crumb waste tires (CRT). Different percentages (15%, 20%, and 25%) of CRT were used to determine its effect on peat strength improvement. The effectiveness of CRT was assessed using mechanical testing i.e., unconfined compressive strength (UCS). The optimum amount of CRT was also concluded based on the UCS by comparing it with the untreated peat. Finally, the morphological change of peat in depth was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The results revealed that the optimum compressive strength of the peat soil is achieved with the incorporation of 15% CRT. The highest UCS of 99.73 kPa was recorded with the use of 15% CRT and the strength decreases with the increasing use of CRT. The microstructural tests show that peat becomes more compact and humified with depth. Moreover, peat at any depth is mainly composed of carbon (C) and oxygen (O) and the small proportion of Silicon (Si) indicates less amount of clay particles.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Changes in the Intensity of Flat Communal Spaces in the New Normal Era of
           Pandemic COVID-19 (Case Study of Penjaringan Sari Surabaya Flats)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Dyan Agustin   Niniek Anggriani   Sherly de Yong   Ardian Jaya Prasetya   and Farida Pulansari   One of the necessities of apartment dwellers is social interaction, which occurs in communal areas. As a result of the COVID-19 epidemic, there are restrictions on social interaction and a call to remain at home. The COVID-19 epidemic alters the function of social rooms in apartments. This study employs a qualitative descriptive approach, characterizing the pattern using a rationalistic approach and explaining the condition of the item. This study aims to determine the number and impact of changes in the intensity of the communal space in apartment buildings as a space for social contact between inhabitants in the new normal period. Changes in the utilization pattern of community space in flats for formal activities, such as the communal, space in the RW and field halls with RT/RW meeting activities, range from high to low intensity. In the meantime, the level of informal activities in communal spaces such as the lobby, gardens/gazebos, and kiosks tends to grow, as speaking, sitting, and playing become more prevalent. Observations indicate that physical adaptations to this pandemic condition remain minimal, at only 17 percent. This is due to a lack of finance and public information regarding how to alter the building's physical components in response to the epidemic. As a result of the cancellation of many gathering events, such as RT/RW meetings, routine recitations, etc., the non-physical level of the epidemic is relatively high, at approximately 66 percent.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Numerical Modeling of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beam with Notched
           under Three-point Bending Test

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Mudji Irmawan   Bambang Piscesa   Harun Alrasyid   and Priyo Suprobo   This paper presents numerical modeling using the 3D nonlinear finite element method, which utilizes the multi-surface plasticity model. Steel-fiber reinforced concrete's strength, ductility enhancement, and mechanical behavior under tension are implemented inside the tension fracture model. The proposed model differentiated the contribution from concrete and steel fiber that resist the tensile force and later combined as one response of steel fiber reinforced concrete under tension using the superposition method. The contribution of the steel fiber that resists tension in the proposed model can have residual stresses, which correspond to the slip of the fiber embedded inside the concrete while maintaining its load-carrying capacity via the bond-slip friction between the concrete and the steel fiber. The proposed model is implemented inside an in-house 3D-NLFEA package. The model was verified with the available test result in the literature for SFRC with hooked-end and plain straight fiber. A comparison with another numerical result from the literature using ATENA is also presented to demonstrate the numerical model further. Differences in the SFRC mechanical behavior modeling between the 3D-NLFEA and ATENA are discussed thoroughly. From the comparisons, the 3D-NLFEA package with the proposed tension fracture model can reasonably predict the response of SFRC. For modeling the SFRC with plain straight fiber, only an adjustment on the tensile fracture energy for plain concrete is adopted.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • A Proposed Strategy to Evaluate Nanomaterials in Construction to Boost
           Sustainable Architecture

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Usama Konbr   and Hend Mamdouh   Nanotechnology has gradually emerged in various sectors, including architecture. Nanotechnology developed nanomaterials as environmentally friendly and highly efficient construction materials. It behaves differently with enhanced functional properties such as durability, strength, flexibility, lighter weight, self-cleaning capacity, etc. This study investigated the impact of integrating nanotechnology into the construction field from two perspectives: to minimize the environmental impact of buildings based on sustainability principles and to improve the functional efficiency of construction materials. The study aims mainly to propose a strategy for evaluating nanomaterials in construction as sustainable materials through four aspects related to sustainability principles. This was achieved progressively through a methodology that commenced with a theoretical study of the basics of nanotechnology and how it relates to the field of sustainable architecture. Moreover, it described and summarized some prevailing nanomaterials used in construction, such as concrete, glass, coatings, and thermal insulation materials. It also reviewed their functional efficiency in line with sustainability. Furthermore, this study examined some case studies based on the proposed strategy to evaluate the utilized nanomaterials in the case studies. On average, this study's results found that the used nanomaterials in the three case studies achieved 54.3% for sustainable design principles, 83% for Sustainable materials criteria, 60.3% for energy efficiency aspects, and 71.7% for ambient environment efficiency factors. On the other hand, it indicates that using nanomaterials in construction reduces harmful carbon emissions and improves the functionality of building materials to boost sustainable architecture.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Interaction of Architecture with the Culture of Digital Civilization

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Abdulkhalyk Nabiyev   Eskander Baitenov   and Sergey Pomorov   To this moment, several studies have been conducted on the specifics of the use of digital methods in architecture, however, researchers have yet to evaluate the continuously changing digital formation in architecture and the problems arising in the process of its evolution. The main purpose of this article is to identify and analyze topical issues of digital culture in nonlinear formation. Modern problems of digital shaping arising in the context of digital architecture are analyzed. The concepts of architectural theorists in the field of nonlinear architecture development based on the topic under study are presented. Contradictory aspects of modern design related to the limitations of new technologies and the difficulties of their integration into architectural processes are also presented. The issues of the absence of holism in modern architecture are investigated. In this regard, the problem with lack of integral design approach that would combine existing techniques into a common structure has been analyzed. The aspects of changing the perception of the role of the architect and urban space in the digital age are considered. Identification and analysis of the described problems of introducing digital tools into the structure of architectural shaping is an important step in the further development of the architectural discipline. This is necessary for timely identification of existing difficulties in the design and further evolution of shaping methods.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Architecture of Post-Soviet Kazakhstan: Key Stylistic References in Public
           Facilities

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Khalima Khamitovna Truspekova   and Dilyara Safargaliyevna Sharipova   The paper is devoted to the question of stylistic directions in the development of architecture in post-Soviet Kazakhstan. The construction boom that marked the great restructuring of the entire cultural paradigm of the country after the collapse of the Soviet empire is expressed in the stylistic diversity of architecture of the present time. The article notes that at the foundation for the context of the current urbanization of the steppe region lies a reimagining of both Kazakhstan's own cultural heritage and all architectural currents of the 20th and 21st centuries. The study identifies the most popular stylistic references in the artistic and visual architectural solutions in the country's major cities. Particular attention is paid to the balance between neoclassicism, modernism, and postmodernism in the characteristic of the general field of transformations of the urban environment. The role of new technologies in the development of modern architectural plasticity and the overall artistic language of architecture in present-day Kazakhstan is analyzed. It is argued that all its apparent diversity comes as a result of the influence of contemporary global architectural practice.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Investigation of Various Window Orientation in Daylighting Performance in
           Hot-Humid Climate of Subang, Malaysia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Seyedehzahra Mirrahimi   Nik Lukman Nik Ibrahim   Mohammed Hadi Nahi   and Arezoo Shirazi   This paper discusses the effect of window orientation on the quality of daylight in order to obtain optimum visual comfort in a lecture room in Subang-Kuala Lumpur Malaysia. Visual comfort in buildings is a vital factor to be taken into consideration and has become a priority. Research work is required in order to recognize the limitations, prospects, and challenges of orientation based on working times for daylighting strategy. The lecture room is associated with outdoor and indoor parameters including geographical location, outdoor illuminance, type of sky, orientation, room size, window to floor area, the position of window, reflectance from floor, wall and ceiling and glazing transparent. It is estimated that the window to floor area ratio in a typical lecture room is 20 percent. The investigation was carried out via Radiance in IES(Virtual Environment) for estimating the evaluated daylighting. The hourly and monthly daylight hours have simulated four cardinal orientations windows because students spend most of the daytime in the lecture room. The average amount of the outdoor illuminance in various months and selected hours of 10am, 12pm and 3pm are simulated under overcast sky and intermediate sky condition according to the Subang-Kuala Lumpur Malaysia condition. The research found that the amount of daylight reaching strongly depends on the orientation, month and time of the working hours in a lecture room. The findings in the lecture room indicate that under an intermediate sky without sun, the north-facing window can provide the best daylight throughout the year during working hours. Consequently, the paper offers to designers and building engineers as a guideline to use guidelines for determining the best orientation instead of a simulation program based on orientation, month and time.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Constructional Chronotypologies of the Military Structure in the Qasabat
           Al-ḥamrā

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Martín Martín A.   García Nofuentes J. F.   and Martínez Ramos e Iruela R.   The monumental complexes of the Alhambra and the Generalife in the city of Granada (Spain), built by the Nasrid sultans more than six centuries ago, constitute the final phase of Hispano-Muslim art in which Islam reached its greatest splendour and marked personality in the Iberian Peninsula. The attraction and interest that these ensembles have aroused in the sensibility of contemporary man, especially from the 18th century to the present day, hardly find a parallel in the world's historical heritage, and the consequences of this fascination have been considerable both on the architecture itself and on the ornamentation that distinguishes the Alhambresque revival. For this reason, any serious approach to the knowledge of the Alhambra site cannot do without a scientific analysis of its constructive characteristics and its evolution over the centuries, thus dismantling any possible distortion of the historical truth in favour of a false historical romanticism. From the analysis of the constructive chronotypologies that can be recognized in The Spanish Muslim architecture from the beginning of the Islamic domain until the end of the 14th century, constructive characterization patterns are identified regarding the geographical, social, technical and material variables in the field of military architecture present in the Qasabat Al-Ḥamrā (hallmark of the period) and the analyzed contexts. Based on the seriation of functional and material values, and identification of local patterns, an interpretative model of the documented construction systems and materials is proposed, providing an unprecedented typological-constructive analysis of this paradigmatic heritage. Based on these premises and following the itinerary proposed by Vargas in 2013 to manage the different functional, material and technical variables used to identify types and systems, the aim of this work is to elaborate a model which meets formal, stylistic and constructive aspects. Thus, by identifying the constructive systems, techniques and typologies, we present a chronological description and review of the different types existing in the territory, extrapolated to the analyzed local context and supported by updated planimetries of the places of study.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Green Building in Existing Development: A Review of Current Status,
           Challenges, and Implementation Strategy

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  N. Mohd Hanapiah   N. I. Mohd Zaki   M. K. Abu Husain   and N. A. Mukhlas   Green building development is on the rise with more new constructions receiving green building certification locally and globally. Starting with 247 papers in the first cycle searching of greening an existing building, this paper conducts a literature review over 30 relevant publications related to the effort towards greening the existing development from various countries especially in Malaysia, since three specific case studies on implementation of greening existing building were analyzed from this country. Regarding to the review on current development status, there occur several challenges of existing building standards from the regulatory that will slow the target achievement towards a sustainable plan besides the cost implication and project feasibility that resulting in most existing buildings do not embed green building elements. Therefore, retrofitting the existing structure might contribute to a positive, sustainable impact, including cost-saving, living comfortability, and environmental preservation. However, the decision-making on retrofitting action needs detailed analysis. This is especially in identifying expenditure on current building performance, potential cost benefits through lifecycle assessment and cost-benefit analysis. This paper presents three case studies of green retrofitting project in Malaysia and highlights twenty effective strategies towards successful retrofitting for sustainable development. According to the summative analysis of the strategies, the most important element to be addressed in retrofitting action towards a green building is thoroughly assessing the current performance and needs of the development to meet the sustainability impact. It is recommended for future researchers to conduct a survey on the details of the procedure from specific stakeholders with focus on regional-based existing building conditions.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Status of Raw Water Management Sustainability Based on Local Wisdom on
           Rural Water Supply in Bali, Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  I Gusti Ngurah Kerta Arsana   I Gusti Bagus Sila Dharma   Mawiti Infantri Yekti   and I Putu Gustave Suryantara P   The provision of rural drinking water in Bali Province is mostly managed independently by the community. The rural drinking water supply system is sufficient to contribute to community drinking water services. Preservation of raw water sources and the environment through the application of local wisdom Tri Hita Karana greatly determines the sustainability of raw water source management in rural drinking water supply systems in Bali Province. The method of analyzing the sustainability status of raw water management from the social, economic, ecological, technological, and institutional dimensions uses the Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS) method. The sustainability index on the analysis results on the ecological dimension is 63.52%, the economic dimension is 51.82%, the social dimension is 55.59%, the technological dimension is 49.30% and the institutional dimension is 51.20%. The status of sustainability with sufficient categories is found in the ecological, economic, social, and institutional dimensions. The lever factor on the sustainability dimension of raw water management in the rural drinking water supply system in Bali Province is 21 attributes of the lever factor. The leverage factor attribute in each sustainability dimension is very sensitive to the sustainability index value. In the dimension of technology sustainability, there are 5 attributes of lever factors that need to be repaired, refined, and improved, including facilities and infrastructure for rural drinking water supply systems for the sustainability of the technological dimension.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Influences and Impressions of Metro Rail Transit Systems in Urban Spaces:
           A Review

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  R. Hemasree   and C. V. Subramanian   Indian cities have undergone a tremendous urban transformation, particularly in the previous three decades. Urbanization is on the rise, infrastructure is being built quickly, and the social fabric is diversifying, all of which have an impact on the physical environment. It's important to observe that in India, Applied Planning Policies frequently address Urban Transformation brought on by the socioeconomic requirements of the city and aggressive market forces. The quality of a country's transportation infrastructure is one of the most important indicators of its wealth. The main Indian metropolises' economic success has increased as a result of the increased international trade, financial flows, and inter- and intra-city travel. The transportation industry is broad and diversified, but it also confronts its own set of problems that may be solved by using energy-efficient technology and a customer-focused approach. The construction of a Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) project is often anticipated to increase property prices in any given city. Customers, household members, and employees may commute from their homes to their places of employment and to other locations with ease thanks to the MRTS system. It provides the fastest, safest, and most dependable method of commuting. Bengaluru, the capital and largest city of Karnataka, is served by the Bangalore (Namma) Metro, an urban MRTS with two lines and 51 stops. The study on the effects of metro trains on land use, socioeconomic features, and historic structures is thoroughly reviewed in this publication. The evaluation made it clear that additional study is necessary to determine how the effect of metro rails may be "quantified" in ways that are straightforward and approachable. Users must notice a noticeable difference in trip times from the baseline before they will find the system more enticing than alternative public transportation options.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Improving Efficiency of Earthworks in Hydraulic Engineering Construction

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Zhambyl Duisebayev   Anuarbek Aimen   Berikbay Orazaliyev   Umirzhan Kokayev   and Raigul Toxambayeva   The purpose of this article is to determine the degree of increase in productivity and efficiency of an excavator equipped with a bucket with a variable cutting-edge shape. The work of excavators with buckets, in which the shape of traditional and cutting blades has changed, was compared. A quantitative picture of maximizing the productivity of the excavator during the development of various soils was determined. The possibility of adapting the cutting edge itself depending on soil conditions was investigated. In addition, the influence of the adaptation of the cutting edge of the bucket on the technical characteristics and mode of operation, power, and energy parameters of the digging process was determined. The obtained results of determining the technical characteristics of the excavator with a different shape of the cutting edge and the contact component of the excavation resistance were compared with the results of buckets of the usual type. Processing of experimental data made it possible to obtain a regression model that determines the factor of dependence of response functions on transforming factors.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Engineered
           Cementitious Composites

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Modugu Naveen Kumar   Kalvala Abhiram   M. S. Chauhan   and Pusa Saisudha   The hybridization cycle is utilized in this review to increment mechanical properties of Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC). Two kinds of blend extents are utilized in this examination, in blend 1 mono fibre and blend 2 half breed strands. Then the various techniques utilized for oneself recuperating of cementitious materials, for example the utilization of empty strands, microencapsulation, broad specialists and mineral admixtures, microorganisms and shape memory are summed up. Designed Cementitious Composite (ECC) is another sort of concrete-based materials, which has interesting properties contrasted and customary cementitious materials. Further, a rundown about the examination status of self-mending on ECC is given. This paper presents the Compressive and rigidity of Engineered Cementitious Composites or additionally called as bendable cement under adding various sorts of mineral admixtures like (GGBS), and fly debris class F (FA). Specifically examined by adding PVA and PP (polypropylene) strands and conplast 430 high reach water diminishing specialist. It shows that ECC bears extraordinary potential in acknowledging viable self-recuperating because of its exceptional miniature break conduct and tight break width control property joined with its generally high level of cementitious parts and low water-folio proportion. In the wake of leading the different tests on blend extents, it is presumed that, finally the PVA and PP filaments were utilized in blend extents, the uniaxial compressive strength and direct rigidity are giving best outcomes and 1.12% of super plasticizer added to it, then the functionality is likewise expanded by looking at this multitude of two tests, and the ECC giving great outcomes than the traditional cement. The principal subject or point of this task is to give the pliable rigidity to the substantial and to stop the devastating disappointments of the designs.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Implementing the Greenship Existing Building 1.1 to Improve Catholic
           Church Performance (Case Study: St. Antonius Padua Pasuruan, East Java)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Aurelius Andri Wibowo   Maranatha Wijayaningtyas   and Sutanto Hidayat   Caring for, utilizing and preserving cultural heritage buildings located in polluted areas is not a simple matter. There are many things that become the focus of attention, such as commitment and consistency of human resources, various policies/ regulations as conservation guidelines, supporting equipment, maintenance/ renovation methods, recycling/ reuse materials, utilization management, and cost optimization. Evaluating the performance of cultural heritage buildings based on the Greenship Existing Building Version 1.1. becomes valuable input for managers. The next step is to evaluate the green perception and behavior of the Catholics to overcome the problem of disturbing the comfort of worship. Environmental improvement and improving the quality of green perception and behavior are two inseparable things, interrelated and reinforcing each other. Utilizing Greenship parameters and Importance Performance Analysis can produce a form of evaluation that is right on target. The results of the evaluation become recommendations for the implementation of improving building performance and optimizing the cost of preserving the Catholic Church of St. Antonius Padua Pasuruan as a cultural heritage. Research shows that the Church is ranked Silver, with a Church score of 52.99% (62 points) smaller than the total score of 117 points. Efforts to improve church performance based on the potential of Catholics are focused on reforestation, saving electricity consumption and increasing the capacity of church building maintenance personnel.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Effect of Outstanding Flanges on Stress Concentration in Box Beam

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Ishu Sharma   and Gyani Jail Singh   Background of the research: A conventional box-type structure is generally used in constructing the core/shear wall, internal frame, and steel box girders. Tube-in-Tube with single and multiple tubes reduces the shear lag effect and lateral deformation in a tall tubular structure. Purpose: However, the present study focuses on the behavior of a modified form of the conventional box beam, i.e., a box beam with outstanding flanges. Thus, this study analyzes a box beam with outstanding flanges and compares the shear lag effect (Stress concentration) and lateral deformation with a conventional box beam. Methodologies: The minimum potential energy principle is applied to analyze the models and validated with the finite element results. Principal results: The transformation is observed to be reducing the shear lag effect at the web-flange junction and lateral deformations of the beam. In addition, the transformation also controls stress reversal. The modification demonstrated in the present study is stiffer than the conventional box-type structure as a core/shear wall or internal frame. Major conclusions and contributions to the field: This modification may be an integral part of tall tubular buildings producing significantly lowered stress concentration and lateral deformation. The present study is also applicable to strengthening steel box girders. It is possible to extend the bottom plate with the outstanding flange to increase the load-bearing capacity or strengthen the existing steel box girder. Therefore, the transformed box beam can be utilized as an economical alternative in constructing tall tubular buildings and retrofitting the steel box girder bridge. It is convenient and straightforward as there is no need to stiffen any part of the core/shear wall or internal frame. Additionally, there is no need to remove elements from the existing girder or alter its dimensions. Add the remaining flange by welding or bolting it onto the bottom flange to extend it. Limitation of the study and future research: A different assumption of stress function can be used in the flange and web when an orthotropic membrane theory is adapted to analyze the frame tube structure.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Parametric Hypercell Mechanism for Adaptive Building Skin: A Case Study in
           New Administrative Capital, Egypt

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Ahmed Elsamanoudi   Mohamed R. AbdAllah   and Haytham M. Elbadrawy   The majority of the curtain wall (glazed) facades architectural proposals in the Middle East are double-skin facades with static structures such as utilizing the passive control method to respond to routine or normal conditions of weather. Nevertheless, the microclimate around the building changes dynamically and unpredictably. The study discusses, analyzes, and focuses on the role of designing dynamic parametric adaptive patterns in architecture. Therefore, the problem is how to use the methods of active control technology that could support more versatile interactive features to respond to the variance of climate conditions using parametric design software tools such as Rhino/Grasshopper programs that allow variable geometry to design the adaptive dynamic patterns to obtain thermal comfort inside buildings. The main objective of this study is to create a framework that provides a design strategy of a "parametric hyper-cell" that will be done by analyzing its phases: designing theories, patterns types, and system technologies, then will present the process to innovate a prototype design of "parametric hyper cell" as a particularly façades to be applied on the facade of the case study "Epic complex" building in Cairo, Egypt as an example for studying by advanced computer modeling software and simulation tools, such as Grasshopper/ ladybug, honeybee have been used to create and analyze its efficiency for the building skin (envelope), and that will be suitable for Egypt facades.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • The Impact of Furniture Arrangement upon Experiential Learning in
           Architectural Design Studios, with Reference to Cairo, Egypt

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Laila Abdelbaky   Sherif Elfiki   and Hala Barakat   Architectural education is one of the most special and complex disciplines that need specific spatial requirements. Architectural design studio is the backbone of architectural education for that the setting of the studio affects the students' productivity; it should suit the learning process and activities to help the students. Yet, many studios follow the traditional grid setting. The experiential learning cycle developed by Kolb is known to be an effective educational strategy in architecture and consists of four stages which are concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation that balance input and output data through learning activities. In order to fully acquire the requirements of the experiential learning cycle, there are spatial requirements that should be taken into consideration, one of which a seating arrangement is a common factor that can balance the tangible and non-tangible factors. The aim of the study is to test the impact of the four seating arrangements on Kolb's learning activities to figure out the most appropriate arrangement for each activity to realize the highest levels of productivity in the studio. The study was carried out at four universities in Cairo, Egypt (two private-two public). An online survey was completed by 322 participants from 3rd, 4th, and 5th year undergraduate students and staff members. The results were analyzed quantitatively using SPSS software. They suggest that the seating arrangement can be easily changed to suit the users' needs that a centralized/u-shaped arrangement is best for eight activities. The radial arrangement was best for four activities, while clustered arrangement was best for two activities, and a grid arrangement was best for four activities. There are some limitations of this study, as the study was done with the existing physical factors: if there was the possibility to change some of the physical factors, it may have affected some of the results according to the participants' preferences. It is hoped that the findings of the study may help architecture educators and administrators take more appropriate decisions regarding the seating arrangement in architectural design studios, in relation to different learning activities towards realizing more desirable outcomes.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Adobe Constructions in Albania: Future Application of Earth as A
           Conventional Construction Material

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Etleva Dobjani   and Dorina Papa   In primitive societies, houses were built using local materials. In Albania, the highlands often used stone whereas the lowlands and valleys, particularly those close to the coast, were more likely to employ adobe and bricks. In the coastal plain, due to the shortage of stone sources and the ease of accessing mud material nearby, mud bricks were largely used both for urban and rural buildings. Most of the earth architecture in Albania dates back to the Ottoman era. Other structures made of mud bricks were built up to the early 1990s. The majority of them have been demolished, abandoned, and fallen into ruin. Nowadays, traditional adobe building techniques are vanishing, because they are no longer used in modern constructions. Examining the theoretical foundations and structural components of Albania's traditional earthen architecture is the main goal of this study. The classification of earth architecture techniques used in various traditional building typologies is achieved by examining the spatial distribution of housing typologies, the structural components, and construction systems in different geographical locations. This study reports an assessment that is based on extensive in-situ research, including field survey, archival research, comprehensive pictures, recording of various adobe building types in Albania, and a literature review. Based on the collected data and critical assessments, this study intends to offer and document various earthen building typologies in Albania according to their spatial distribution in the plan, volume, construction methods, and material combinations. This knowledge may be subsequently utilized as vital information for new vernacular buildings or temporary structures. It aims to provide specific architectural principles and technical criteria for the use of earth in new structures or restoration of existing historical buildings. This study serves as a starting point for further research with the aim of producing an easy-to-follow guide with plans for earthen buildings, from little dwellings to larger ones, by employing several case studies across Albania. Due to the historical, social, and cultural significance of adobe architecture in Albania as well as its advantages in terms of the economy and environment, revitalizing, restoring, and preserving adobe architecture by improving its construction conditions can be an added value for sustainable future development.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Technical Analysis of Soil Cement as A Construction Material Applied in
           Rural Houses

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Erick Oswaldo Gamboa Tolentino   Newthon Smith Chanca Llihua   Ivan Llactahuaman Rodriguez   Albert Jorddy Valenzuela Inga   Luis Eduardo Esteban Ninahuanca   and Niel Iván Velasquez Montoya   The project reveals the properties of soil cement as a construction material in rural houses. The context of this research was in Pilcomayo district, Huancayo, Peru, due to the high abundance of poor constructions without any security or comfort for the inhabitants of the area. In the experiment, the technical analysis of the soil cement was carried out with doses of 5%, 9%, 13%, 17% and 21% of cement, applying tests of Granulometry, Compaction, Compression and Durability established by the Portland Cement Association. It was found that the soil of the district has an efficient granulometry for the use of soil cement, and also that it has a resistance of 129.42 kg-f/cm2 with 21% cement at 28 days of curing. The lab test results also showed that the cement soil loses just 4.22% in weight with 17% of cement in the durability test, as well as with this same percentage. The soil cement presents a higher maximum compaction density of 2,255 g/cm3. These results propose alternative applications for soil cement according to their resistance, granulometry and durability. According to the Peruvian Technical Standard, the minimum f'c for floor concrete base is 100 kg/cm2, a dosage of 19% cement was proposed for this element, and for brick masonry the minimum f'c is 50kg/cm2, so it was proposed 12% cement to meet this requirement, in addition, the soil cement was proposed as a slope protection with 17% cement since it achieved good results in the durability test.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Correlation of Clay-Bearing Capacity from Drop Hammer Test and Loading
           Test on Small Diameter Piles

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Apriadi Martanata   Maulid M. Iqbal   and Joni Arliansyah   The provision of foundation piles in small diameters to support load capacity is fundamental in enhancing the stability and safety of shallow foundations, retaining walls, and other medium-load structures. The ultimate load (Qult) of piles from soil investigations and CPT testing can be easily analyzed, but the facilities needed to determine this process in the form of test equipment are costly and time-consuming. This process makes it difficult to empirically calculate the ultimate load capacity on installing small diameter piles in the form of Cerucuk wooden piles. Therefore, this research aims to determine the correlation of clay-bearing capacity from drop hammers and loading tests on small diameter piles. This is based on the relationship between static and drop hammer test values on piles with varying diameter, depth, and curing time after piling. The method used in the drop hammer test is an analysis of the EN formula, technically and the calculation is a bit far from the analysis results from other in situ test results, but the use of simple tools in determining the ultimate load makes its reason to use it by correlating the Ultimate Load results from the loading test based on the Davison method. The analysis of the De Beer and Chin method is also shown to see significant results. As a benchmark in testing the Loading test on the pile, the soil investigations results, from analysis of the Meyerhof method and CPT calculations. As a result of the analysis of the relationship between the calculation of permitted bearing capacity pile from the drop hammer test and the loading test, it is displayed in a curve approaching an exponential equation for 3 days of curing time after piling and 30 days of curing time after piling. This research can be used as a reference for planners in determining the bearing capacity of foundation piles on soft soil for medium load structures.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Experimental Investigation of Actively Confined RC Columns Using
           Iron-Based Shape Memory Alloy Spiral Stirrups

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Mahmoud Kamal   Ata El Kareim Shoeib   Mostafa Abd Al Megied   and Ahmed Hassan   Shape memory alloys (SMA) can be employed as prestressing components in the form of bars and strips in new reinforced concrete (RC) members or for reinforcing existing RC constructions because of their shape memory effect. Early research focused on retrofitting concrete components with external SMA spirals, but this technology has not been extensively used in new building. Civil engineering constructions can benefit from the development of a more affordable iron-based shape memory alloy (Fe-SMA). A good form recovery stress (prestress force) and high elastic stiffness describe this Fe-SMA. As an added benefit, it is less expensive in terms of raw materials and easier to manufacture than nickel-titanium alloys (NiTi). Industrial production of Fe-SMA strips has just recently begun. In this research under an axial compression force, three circular columns are tested experimentally. The confinement of reinforcement-type steel strips and (Fe-SMA) spiral stirrups, main reinforced steel bars, as well as numerical simulation using finite elements, are all researched. The (Fe-SMA) spiral stirrups are considered strengthening techniques, internal and external confinement. Axial compressive load, load-displacement curve, and strain-reinforcement bars are all terms used to define the cause of failure. Strengthening by Fe-SMA stirrups external reinforcement maximum gains in compressive strength of around 69.99% for stirrups steel reinforcement columns and 51.64% for Fe-SMA stirrups internal reinforcement.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Unit Weight, Strengths and Thermal Conductivity of Cellular Lightweight
           Fly Ash Geopolymer Mortar Reinforced with Polyvinyl Alcohol

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Sermsak Tiyasangthong   Piyathida Yoosuk   Kitsada Krosoongnern   Bundit Krittacom   Prin Nachaisit   and Cherdsak Suksiripattanapong   Lightweight materials are the most popular building wall construction materials because of their fast installation, high insulation, and low cost. However, these materials use cement as a binder. Cement production releases carbon dioxide emissions resulting in environmental issues. The research investigated the use of fly ash geopolymer and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to enhance the mechanical and thermal properties of cellular lightweight mortar. The effects of PVA concentrations, foam content (Fc), and curing time on properties of the cellular lightweight fly ash geopolymer (CLFAG) mortar reinforced with PVA specimens were evaluated. The results revealed that the PVA concentrations and Fc had an effect on the unit weights of the CLFAG reinforced with PVA specimens. The lowest unit weight of the specimens was 10.10 kN/m3 at a PVA concentration of 20% and Fc of 2%. According to the Thailand industrial standard for C12 and C14 CLC block types, all mixed ingredients met the unit weight and compressive strength requirements. The correlation between unit weight and thermal conductivity of CLFAG reinforced with PVA specimens was represented by a linear function, which was a useful equation for estimating the thermal conductivity of specimens.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Thermal Performance of Bio-Phase Change Materials for Thermal Insulation
           Coefficients in Malaysian Buildings

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Ali Tighnavard Balasbaneh   and Kai Chun Tee   The global building sector has demonstrated a massive increase in energy demand, which is contributed by the rapid economic progress, urbanisation, and improved living standards. Furthermore, a significant portion of this energy is consumed by the space cooling and heating processes through daily activities. In this study, the energy efficiency benefits of bio-phase change materials (BioPCMs) in improving the thermal insulation of Malaysian buildings were investigated. Additionally, the study aims to contribute to the sustainable development objectives. Malaysia has several abandoned palm and plantation oil sources, which can be studied as BioPCMs in the tropical climate environment. Furthermore, a heat flow metre was utilised to measure the thermal conductivity of concrete specimens. Based on the findings, an improved thermal expansion coefficient was determined between palm oil and vegetable oil ester. The palm oil thermal performance measured was 0.0983 W/mK, which was lower than vegetable oil (0.1031 W/mK). Resultantly, palm oil and vegetable oil are efficient BioPCMs in lowering thermal conductivity values and improving energy efficiency in tropical climate buildings. Thus, palm oil has demonstrated its suitability as a sustainable energy source for applications, such as cold storage, space applications, and transportation.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Optimal Lane Closure for Rail Line Construction to Mitigate Urban Traffic
           Impacts

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Thawatchai Phumma   Nathee Athigakunagorn   and Charinee Limsawasd   As a result of lane closures during rail line construction, traffic conditions inevitably deteriorate and cause traffic congestion. This paper proposes a paradigm for identifying optimal lane closures to maximize the average speed (Vavg) in the construction area. The framework begins with creating a simulation model to examine the traffic impact of each lane closure alternative and applies the Box-Behnken design technique to limit the number of possible scenarios. The case study for this research was the six-lane (three lanes in each direction) Road 304 in Bangkok, Thailand. The results confirmed that the partial lane closure alternatives would increase Vavg by at least 5% from having one lane fully closed. The optimal construction spacing in the case study was 1.5 km to obtain the maximum Vavg. However, the optimal lane closure length occurred when its value was close to 0 km, which is impractical. Thus, the paper recommends a lower threshold for the lane closure length of 1.4 km compared to other literature. Furthermore, the longest possible lane closure should be designated for light traffic volumes, whereas a dynamic speed limit should be implemented to alternate the speed limit during peak and off-peak periods for high traffic volumes.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Systematization of Sustainable Urbanized Landscapes for Happiness and
           Quality of Life

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Iryna Bulakh   Kemi Adeyeye   Viktoriia Bulakh   and Zoriana Obynochna   Urbanization today is a global process that "shrinks" and "densifies" urban areas, whilst significantly and chaotically expanding cities. As a result, many problems arise, including the reduction or destruction of green spaces. This study proposes the systematization of urban landscapes at the global, macro, local, and micro levels to improve the sustainable development of urban areas. The article also discusses the impact of the urbanized landscape on the level of happiness and quality of life of urban residents, and the possibility of their participation in the development of greening of urban spaces. The purpose of the article: the research goal is to propose a concept for the systematization of the urbanized landscape, which is based on the vector of sustainable development in order to improve the level of happiness and quality of life of people in the largest cities. The methods of the scientific work: the methods of complex and system analysis, the historical method, cartography, photographic fixation, work with archives, the study of literary data, etc. were used. The main results: the result presents the systematization of urban landscapes as a single system, the identification of the main components of the four levels of this system, and their characteristics in terms of their impact on the level of happiness and quality of life of people. Taking into account the fact that the level of happiness of each individual or community depends on many factors and is a fairly broad concept, in this article, this term is understood as satisfaction with the degree of saturation with natural elements in the environment. At the same time, the quality of life is the ability of a person (or community) to directly contact with nature and its various constituent elements in the urban environment.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Consolidation Assessment of Marine Clay Using Electrokinetic Coupled with
           Constant Load

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Deep Jyoti Singh   Bala Ramudu Paramkusam   and Arun Prasad   In Marine clays, the consolidation phenomenon is a significant issue of concern. For this, an innovative electrokinetic consolidation method was adopted by coupling the conventional consolidation technique with a constant voltage gradient. A series of tests were performed on reconstituted marine clay samples for constant loading intensity of 4kg/cm2 coupled with a constant DC voltage of 2, 4 and 6V. Various parameters such as deformation, void ratio, current, pH, voltage and moisture content were continuously monitored to compare with test results of conventional Incremental loading (IL) and constant loading (CL) techniques. In the case of electrokinetic (EK) coupled loading, with an increase in voltage gradient, the values obtained for voltage and current were also increased to maximum and then decreased afterwards. Microfabric changes were also visible in soils collected at anode and cathode, which were evidenced with the images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) data obtained before and after EK consolidation tests when compared with original marine clay. The constant loading intensity of 4kg/cm2 with a 4V electric gradient resulted in higher compression and better consolidation characteristics than other loading conditions.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Landslide Hazard Assessments of A Potential Earthquake-triggered in
           Central Taiwan Using Newmark's Model with the Stochastic Semi-Empirical
           Technique

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Boi Yee Liao   and Sen Xie   This research aims to evaluate the probability distribution of landslides triggered by a potential earthquake. Based on the evaluations, successive disaster prevention and mitigation can be well-prepared in advance. Deriving the critical acceleration value depends on the geometry and strength of the material on the slope. Thus, the Newmark's displacement of slope can be determined using the critical acceleration and strong motion recording of an earthquake. A threshold value of Newmark's displacement is assumed as 5cm, which means a landslide may occur if Newmark's displacement is greater than it. To identify the feasibility, we synthesize two waveforms of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw 7.6) and one for the 2013 Nantou earthquake (Mw 6.2) to compute the Newmark's displacements at Jiou-Jiou Peaks and Shinyi town in Nantou County, Taiwan by using the stochastic semi-empirical technique. The Newmark's displacements are 9.75 averaged and 6cm respectively, which are coincident with the earthquake-triggered landslides occurring actually. By counting accumulations of Coulomb's stress changes of Nantou earthquakes in 2013 in central Taiwan, we predict the epicenter of a potential earthquake. The regression relation between critical acceleration with Arias intensity of the seismic waveform is employed to calculate Newmark's displacements in the Nontou County. Accompanied by Newmark's displacement, the empirical probabilities of earthquake-induced landslides are derived. Accordingly, there are four populated densely areas with higher Newmark's displacements and probabilities, indicating that high landslide risk is existing potentially in these areas and the corresponding disaster prevention management and mitigation must be carefully regulated.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Evaluation of Walking as Sustainable Transport and Energy Generator - Case
           Study: Barranquilla, Colombia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Adriana Mattos-Rodríguez   Miguel Figueroa   Otto Mora   Javier Carpintero   Leydis Villadiego-Rojas   Andrea Carolina Rodríguez Fernández   Jorge Barreto Jiménez   and Marlon Parada De la Cruz   Pedestrian traffic in public space is associated with a level of service (LOS) that qualitatively describes the operating conditions according to the spaces available in square meters per pedestrian. Daily, people need to travel to their workplaces, schools, and universities, or to carry out any other activity using means of transportation such as walking, bicycle, car, or public transport, among others. In many cases, at least one walkable path is required regardless of the type of transport means selected to make a trip according to its accessibility. This article presents the analysis of piezoelectric power generation on the main street in the city of Barranquilla, Atlántico (Colombia), considering the pedestrian volume and the level of service of the sidewalks, according to the geometry of the road an energy consumption is estimated, then this data is compared with pedestrian accessibility indices (walkability index) of the city, with the aim of defining the functionality and applicability of the measure for the generation of energy from innovative and environmentally friendly sources. The results show that the city requires substantial modifications to make it more walkable, promoting active transportation and the inclusion of piezoelectric power generation strategies is an option to make a public space potentially sustainable.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Mechanical Properties of an Earth Block Compressed with Cementitious
           Material

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Haidee Yulady Jaramillo   Sir Alexci Suárez Castrillón   and July Andrea Gomez Camperos   The main objective of this project is to evaluate the behavior of the soil of the municipality of Ocaña Norte de Santander to manufacture Compressed Earth Blocks (CEB). This project seeks alternative materials that allow self-building for the most vulnerable communities. This research seeks to value and strengthen sustainable construction in the municipality. This allows for minimizing the use of Portland cement, which, due to the high energy consumption and CO2 emissions during the construction of homes, is one of the main causes of the high carbon emissions the construction activity produces. As a result, experimental and quantitative research was developed, in which characterization of the different sector materials was made. Then, the design of mixtures and failure time were determined, and 10×15×30 cm samples were elaborated. Bricks elaborated with the different mixtures and acquired strength higher than 3.0 MPa at 28 days after manufacture, allowing compliance with the Colombian technical standard (NTC-5324) standard. Finally, the bricks obtained met the mechanical characteristics suitable for use as non-structural masonry.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Architectural Monuments in the Urban Structure as A Factor in the City
           Humanization: The Case of Jordan

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Mwfeq Al Haddad   Rami Al Shawabkeh   Svitlana Linda   and Diala Atiyat   The study interprets the concept of "humanization" as a set of certain actions and tools aiming at creating an environment comfortable for residents and tourists to stay in it. One of the most important factors shaping the comfort of the environment is the factor of physical and visual accessibility for both city residents and tourists. Jordan's architectural heritage sites are either integrated into the structure of modern cities or are closely intertwined. Therefore, it is important to understand the meaning of architectural heritage sites integrated into the structure of our cities in addressing the humanization of the city. The theoretical approach is based on the concept of Universal Design where the criteria of the analysis of architectural heritage sites were formulated. It aims to explore how architectural monuments, which are an integral part of the historical heritage sites, affect the humanization of Jordanian cities, and are adapted for disabled people. The methodological basis of the article was a full-scale observation of the architectural heritage sites of Amman and Madaba. The study concluded that architectural monuments are an important factor to stimulate the process of humanization of the city. The need to ensure free physical and visual access to the monument necessitates the adoption of measures by the city authorities, which at the same time improve the environment of the city which are close to the architectural monuments. These measures increase the level of humanization of the city as a whole and promote equal rights and opportunities for disabled people with different ages and social groups.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Flood Modelling due to Dam Failure Using HEC-RAS 2D with GIS Overlay: Case
           Study of Karalloe Dam in South Sulawesi Province Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Riswal Karamma   Sugiarto Badaruddin   Rifaldi Mustamin   and Zubair Saing   A dam is one of the water structures that have many benefits for humans. However, flood disasters caused by dam break may have a very bad impact on human life. This study specifically analyzed the impact of flooding caused by the failure of the Karalloe dam in Bone Regency, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. For the first time, the selected flood discharge used in the dam break analysis was verified using the Creager graph by comparing the calculated discharge from several synthetic unit hydrograph methods (HSS) with the flood discharge measured on the automatic water level recorder (AWLR) at the monitoring point. The impact of flooding due to dam break was simulated using HEC-RAS 2D combined with ArcGIS for mapping. The calculation results of the design flood discharge based on rainfall data using the methods of HSS Nakayasu, HSS ITB I, HSS ITB II, and HSS SCS (HEC-HMS) as well as the calculation of the designed flood discharge based on the discharge data showed that the design flood discharge value which is closest to the measured discharge value and Q1000 Creager was the HSS SCS method. The flood discharge values obtained based on the HSS SCS method for Tr (return period) 2 years, Tr 5 years, Tr 10 years, Tr 20 years, Tr 25 years, Tr 50 years, Tr 100 years, and Tr 1000 years were 322.70 m3/s, 464.10 m3/s, 560.40 m3/s, 658.40 m3/s, 682.70 m3/s, 787.00 m3/s, 885.70 m3/s, and 1202.60 m3/s, respectively. The simulation results showed that 22 villages will be affected by flooding due to the failure of the Karalloe dam and the fastest standby time of the flood is 12 minutes, namely at Lookout Point 7 in Paitana Village. This result suggests that early warning system should be installed at the downstream of the dam and flood disaster mitigation should be adopted and applied to these threatened area.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Investigating the Properties of Foamed Fly Ash and Metakaolin-based
           Geopolymer Concrete

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Awaz S. Nader   Ameer A. Hilal   and Ghadah H. Alwan   A study has been carried out to produce environmentally friendly lightweight concrete by total replacement of cement with fly ash and metakaolin as binder material by adopting the pre-formed foam method. In this research, a geopolymer paste was produced by mixing fly ash or metakaolin with an alkali solution of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide. Five mixes were produced at a density of 1000 kg/m3 as four foamed geopolymer concrete and one conventional foamed concrete made with cement paste as a binding medium. During the laboratory work, many trials were carried out to solve the segregation of the cellular structure from the mortar. From the results, it was noticed that the pore merging is more evident in foamed concrete mixes rather than in foamed geopolymer concrete mixes. In addition, the pore structure of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete is finer than that of metakaolin-based concrete geopolymer. The greater degree of pore merging resulted in forming of larger irregular voids and wider distribution of pore sizes and finally reducing strength. In general, the permeation, mechanical and thermal properties of foamed mixes made with geopolymer pastes are better than those of foamed mix made with cement paste. For a geopolymer paste, using metakaolin and fly ash C in combination helped in achieving the best properties i.e. reduction in water absorption by 34%, increasing strength by 78% and decreasing thermal conductivity by 44%.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • A Biodiversity Conservation Area Using Holistic and Modular Architecture

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Michelle D. Enriquez   and Dominic R. Trinidad   Green architecture and engineering aim to minimize the use of available resources by maintaining and protecting the ecosystem and optimizing its benefits to humans and the ecology. The rich biodiversity of Mindoro Island, Philippines has always been on the pipeline project of the province. However, strategies for maximizing the benefits of a small area imposed challenges and hindered many conservation projects. This study utilized modular architecture, biophilia, and biomimesis as design concepts. The design implemented the use of inverted pyramid-shaped modules supported by pilotis to lessen the interaction of the construction project to the proposed site. Five modules are built accordingly and strategically connected by a modular bridge for accessibility. The body of the Mindoro dwarf buffalo is represented by the container van used as the mainframe of the modules; the legs are represented by the pilotis used as structural columns, and the body-built is represented by the inverted pyramid-shaped single-pile structures. The administration building was also inspired by the sturdy built of Mindoro Dwarf Buffalo (Bubalus mindorensis) and designed to cater the administrative functions and activities, while the proposed shops and commercial areas are designed to boost the local economy.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
  • Utilizing Smart Systems to Enhance the Sustainability of Egyptian
           Administrative Buildings

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  7  Usama Konbr   and Mariam Abdelaal   Smart buildings have grabbed the attention of researchers since the 1980s. Until now, there has been no specific definition for smart buildings, which came from modern technologies and applications that rely on smart systems, significantly affecting the construction industry. Based on the importance of the administrative building sector in Egypt, this study proposed a general framework enumerating smart systems that positively impact this sector at the environmental, social, and economic levels (the three key pillars of sustainability). Various methods were used, including induction, descriptive, analysis, survey, and deduction. It enumerated and analyzed the Egyptian context through three case studies to reveal the gap between their current situation and the one hoped for in its three categories, Smart Security and Safety Systems, Smart Auxiliary Systems, and Smart Entertainment Systems. The findings of this study for the first category showed an average of 47% for security systems and 67% for safety systems. The category of smart auxiliary systems was divided into five sub-categories, showing 39% in climatic control systems, 60% in energy management systems, 100% in HVAC control systems, 50% in lighting control systems, and 56% in water management systems. Finally, the smart entertainment systems category was divided into three sub-categories, showing 42% in Wi-Fi and Internet systems, 44% in video surveillance systems, and 67% in sound and video intercom systems. Therefore, these quantitative findings represent promising results that motivate the Egyptian context to move forward in this direction by using smart systems to improve the sustainability of Egyptian administrative buildings.
      PubDate: Dec 2022
       
 
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