A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

        1 2 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

  Subjects -> ARCHITECTURE (Total: 219 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 264 Journals sorted alphabetically
A&P Continuidad     Open Access  
A+BE : Architecture and the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
ABE Journal : Architecture Beyond Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Academia : Architecture and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Actas de Arquitectura Religiosa Contemporánea     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiances     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Ángulo Recto. Revista de estudios sobre la ciudad como espacio plural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apuntes : Revista de Estudios sobre Patrimonio Cultural - Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ArcHistoR     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Architectural Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Architectural Engineering and Design Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Architectural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Architectural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Architectural Research in Finland     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Architectural Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Architectural Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Architectural Theory Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Architecture and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Architecture and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Architecture and Urban Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Architecture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ArDIn. Arte, Diseño e Ingeniería     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arena Journal of Architectural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ARQ     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
arq: Architectural Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Arqueología de la Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ARQUISUR     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquitectura Más (Arquitectura +)     Open Access  
Arquitectura y Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arquiteturarevista     Open Access  
Ars Longa : Cuadernos de arte     Open Access  
Artifact : Journal of Design Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
AURUM : Mühendislik Sistemleri ve Mimarlık Dergisi = Aurum Journal of Engineering Systems and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian Planner     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bauregelliste A, Bauregelliste B Und Liste C     Hybrid Journal  
Boletín Académico. Revista de investigación y arquitectura contemporánea     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
BUILT : International Journal of Building, Urban, Interior and Landscape Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin KNOB     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Charrette     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cities & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
City, Territory and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
CLARA : Classical Art and Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Construction Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Construindo     Open Access  
Continuité     Full-text available via subscription  
Creative Space     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuaderno de Notas     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Proyectos Arquitectónicos     Open Access  
Cultural Heritage and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
De Res Architettura     Open Access  
DEARQ - Revista de Arquitectura / Journal of Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Der Architekt     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Design Ecologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Dibt Mitteilungen (Formerly-Mitteilungen Deut Inst Fuer Bautechnik)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
disP - The Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
EGA Expresión Gráfica Arquitectónica     Open Access  
Eikonocity. Storia e Iconografia delle Città e dei Siti Europei - History and Iconography of European Cities and Sites     Open Access  
Elkawnie : Journal of Islamic Science and Technology     Open Access  
EN BLANCO : Revista de Arquitectura     Full-text available via subscription  
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Enquiry / The ARCC Journal of Architectural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Environment and Planning B : Urban Analytics and City Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Environmental Science and Sustainable Development : International Journal Of Environmental Science & Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Environnement Urbain / Urban Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Épités - Épitészettudomány     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ESTOA Revista de la Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanismo     Open Access  
Estructuras     Open Access  
Estudios del Hábitat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
étapes: international     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Eurasian Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Planning Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Fabrications: The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and New Zealand     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Firenze Architettura     Open Access  
Footprint : Delft Architecture Theory Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
FORMakademisk - forskningstidsskrift for design og designdidaktikk     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Sustainable Cities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers of Architectural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Future Cities and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Gazi University Journal of Science Part B : Art, Humanities, Design and Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Grey Room     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
GRID - Architecture, Planning and Design Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
HBRC Journal     Open Access  
Herança : Revista de História, Património e Cultura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Home Cultures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Housing and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access  
Informes de la Construcción     Open Access  
interFACES     Open Access  
Interiors : Design, Architecture and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Architecture and Infrastructure Planning     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Human Capital in Urban Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Islamic Architecture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Landscape Planning and Architecture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Student Project Reporting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of the Built Environment and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Japan Architectural Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Joelho : Journal of Architectural Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Architectural / Planning Research and Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Architectural and Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Architectural Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Architectural Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Architecture and Urbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Journal of architecture&ENVIRONMENT     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Architecture, Art & Humanistic Science     Open Access  
Journal of Architecture, Design and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Delta Urbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Environmental Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Facade Design and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Landscape Architecture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Medieval Latin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Persianate Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Public Space     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Society for the Study of Architecture in Canada / Le Journal de la Société pour l'étude de l'architecture au Canada     Open Access  
Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Urban Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Jurnal Arsitektur KOMPOSISI     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access  
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Les Cahiers de la recherche architecturale urbaine et paysagère     Open Access  
Limaq     Open Access  
Liño     Open Access  
Livraisons d’Histoire de l’Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Loggia, Arquitectura & Restauración     Open Access  
MediaTropes     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Modernism/modernity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Módulo Arquitectura - CUC     Open Access  
Mokslas – Lietuvos ateitis / Science – Future of Lithuania     Open Access  
Montreal Architectural Review     Open Access  
Nature : National Academic Journal of Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nepalese Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
OASE Journal for Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Oculum Ensaios     Open Access  
On the w@terfront. Public Art. Urban Design. Civic Participation. Urban Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Opus Incertum     Open Access  
Oz : the Journal of the College of Architecture, Planning &Design at Kansas State University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Paisagem e Ambiente     Open Access  
Palimpsesto     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Panambí. Revista de Investigaciones Artísticas     Open Access  
Paranoá : cadernos de arquitetura e urbanismo     Open Access  
PARC Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Construção     Open Access  
Patrimoines du Sud     Open Access  
Pensum     Open Access  
Periodica Polytechnica Architecture     Open Access  
Places Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Polis     Open Access  
Porta Aurea     Open Access  
Pós. Revista do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Arquitetura e Urbanismo da FAUUSP     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Procesos Urbanos     Open Access  
project baikal : Journal of architecture, design and urbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ra : Revista de Arquitectura     Full-text available via subscription  
Re. Revista de Edificación     Open Access  
REUDAR : European Journal of Roman Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Amazônia Moderna     Open Access  
Revista Arquitecturas del Sur     Open Access  
Revista AUS     Open Access  
Revista de Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Arquitectura     Open Access  
Revista de Arquitectura e Ingenieria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Design, Tecnologia e Sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Investigación     Open Access  
Revista de Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Geometria Gráfica     Open Access  
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access  
Revista INVI     Open Access  
Revista Márgenes Espacio Arte y Sociedad     Open Access  
RevistArquis     Open Access  
Ri-Vista : Ricerche per la progettazione del paesaggio     Open Access  
Risco : Revista de Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Urbanismo     Open Access  
Riset Arsitektur     Open Access  
Room One Thousand     Open Access  
Sens public     Open Access  
Sinektika : Jurnal Arsitektur     Open Access  
Smart Cities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
South East European Journal of Architecture and Design     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Space Ontology International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Spool     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Tafter Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
TECHNE - Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technology|Architecture + Design     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Civil Engineering and Architecture
Number of Followers: 31  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2332-1091 - ISSN (Online) 2332-1121
Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [50 journals]
  • Proposal to Establish Refugees Therapy Center

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3A  Lena Negm   and Aida Nayer   Refugees are people who are forced to leave their countries due to various circumstances. However, these groups of people need help to overcome their hardship, which has taken a toll on their physical and mental state of life. As a result, a proper environment is needed for refugees to recover and lead a normal life. Hence, this work presents a proposal on developing a refugee therapy center. This work has examined two case studies in relation to rehabilitation center. Thus based on the analyzed case studies, the estimated area required for the refugee center is 15000 m2. In addition, this center is comprised of four zones, which are clinical zone, cultural and educational zone, social zone and administration zone. In this work, the proposed site for development was attained through site evaluation analysis. Accordingly, the proposed site is located in Amman, Jordan. The development of this center is expected to enhance the living quality of refugees and to change the current global idea of refugees and to provide them with the basic necessities to lead a normal life.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Design and Planning to Develop a Trauma Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3A  Lina Abdullah Alamodi   Tarek Abdulsalam   and Ahmed Refaat   Hospitals are an important aspect of a community where the user is seeking the assistance and use of medical facilities to ensure their well-being. Moreover, the role of the hospital is very critical when it comes to facilitating emergency situations. The government of Saudi Arabia has introduced a vision for 2030, which aims to achieve a well-developed nation status and seeks to establish a world-class medical facility for emergency situations. In order to support the government's initiative, this paper proposes the development of an emergency trauma hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In this work, 4 case studies were analyzed to comprehend the design requirement for the proposed hospital. Based on the case studies, for the proposed hospital, the total estimated area is 9228 m2. In addition, the hospital consists of a few zones, which are main entrance, inpatient ward department, outpatient ward department, emergency department, operation theatre, radiology, pharmacy, intensive care unit, physiotherapy, occupational and psychological therapy, laboratory department, and support facilities. The hospital will be developed at the proposed development area at Al Marwa District in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The hospital is designed with modern features and is expected to meet the vision 2030 requirement.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Jeddah Cultural and Social Hub Architectural Design Proposal

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3A  Tamara Bajaber   and Mohammed M.F. Mohammed   Jeddah Cultural Hub is a place to represent the modern and the traditional culture of Jeddah by establishing museums, galleries, and open spaces to the activities that are related to the culture and art. Therefore, it will include an open library and a center for literary arts. The targeted stakeholders are youth, families and expats. Also it is a place to enhance the social interaction. The goal of the project is to introduce the cultural value of Jeddah, to enhance the communication, and to let the people get more socialized. The suggested space program for the project is made of galleries and exhibition halls, library, arts and culture center, recreational zone internal, recreational zone external, administration, auditorium, and services. The site is chosen based on the site evaluation criteria, which is located on Kurnaysh road, Alshatea district, in front of Alnawras roundabout. In general, this project creates a cultural hub at a lively area in Jeddah, which promotes the importance of Jeddah culture and create social hubs through established learning centers that have different art fields such as music and poetry.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Humanizing Being on Mars: A Martian Colony

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3A  Manal A. Alamoudi   Rahma Doheim   and Mohammed F.M. Mohammed   Even though planet Mars is considered the most similar to earth, it still differs in some aspects. The gravity is lesser. Its atmosphere, climate and geology are a bit different from Earth. Thus, several robotic missions were conducted on the Mars surface to find the way to make the planet habitable and safe for human. This project aims to design the first human colony on the planet Mars. This would be a new home for humans to live, work and explore. This colony will establish the first humanized research center out of Earth. It will also provide a sustainable habitat for future explorers, by providing living dwellings along with all the other needed facilities for humans to live. The considered space program in this project includes the living quarters, common social zone, health zone working zone, and utilities zone. Several key elements were considered during the project design such as water and oxygen, planting (soil), temperature, radiation, pressure, wind, power (energy source), surface (construction), materials, and psychological aspect. This project will provide a comprehensive study to design a suitable settlement that can support a safe daily human life in an extreme environment location.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Architectural Revolution in Arab Cities under Global Change and the Future
           of Arab Cities

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3A  Alanood Alqurashi   Alshaymaa Abu Tabel   Meera Alhalabi   Mohjah M. Bahaj   and Abdel-Moniem El-Shorbagy   Lately, modern modification in the social and economic conditions all over the Middle East has become more essential. The region is inhabited with the transition from the ancient societies and economies to a well-developed modern region that is still in motion to seek its stability in which architectural and economical points of view are taken into consideration. In the nature of master planned communities or town planning, many modern planning and operating had been done. Nonetheless, the developments of the Arabs cities have caused many issues to surface which are related to the town designers and planners who were accounted for designing and developing these cities without the effective and efficient concept of culture, constraints, and region. Their shortfall had led to major mistakes which were conducted in the process of planning and developing of most Arab Cities. Thus, this paper collected the information from articles and addressed the Arabs cities in the past; entail the origin and development of ancient cities, urban planning, ancient architecture innovation and lastly ancient skyscraper. This study also discussed the Arab Cities after the industrial revolution and technology. Moreover, this study covered the modern cities and technology, as well as the impact and adaptation towards climate change. Finally, a case study from Saudi Arabia is used to identify the architectural revolution under global change. By 2030, the economic advancement and rise of the educated young generation is expected to gradually shift towards modern architecture and change the whole face of Saudi Arabia as a country.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Conceptual Design and Development of the Kid's Kingdom in Jeddah, Saudi
           Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3A  Reem K. Hussain   and Ahmed M. Refaat   Kids and children are the core of a community in terms of its future development. Thus, it is very significant to provide the best possible environment for the kids to develop their growth intellectually, physically and mentally. The government of Saudi Arabia intends to attain a well-developed nation status through its vision 2030, and it has placed the focus on kids development. Hence, this paper suggests the development of kid's kingdom in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in order to achieve the goal set by the vision 2030. A case study method is used to gather information to come up with development plans. This study examined 4 case studies related to the kid's center. From the case studies analyzed, it is found that the proposed children's kingdom will require only a few areas, such as education, entertainment, administration and open space. The total estimated area for the kid's kingdom is 8762m2. The selected development site for the kid's kingdom is located at Alshatee district on the northern side of Jeddah. The design concept of children's kingdom is to provide children with a space to imagine a new world, attract their attention, and let them freely express their feelings, learn in new ways, and build their own kingdom. The kid's kingdom is expected to facilitate the development of the younger generation of Saudi Arabia and achieve its vision 2030 as a developed nation.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Identify Visual Component Inspection for Design Non-Destructive Pitch Roof
           Checklist

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Mohamad Haszirul Mohd Hashim   Azlan Shah Ali   Farid Wajdi Akashah   and Nurul Izza Abdul Ghani   Inspection is the basis of building structure to obtain assessment information. Assessment is used to get evidence and study the current condition of structure. This is because any structural failure can endanger the safety and health of building occupants. Through inspection, important information can be provided for consistent budget planning. The purpose of this paper is to identify the list of components and subcomponents for pitched roof system to inspection maintenance. The list of components has been reviewed by 3 stakeholder experts consisting of architects and engineers in Malaysia for consideration of the real component in the pitched roof design. The research confirmed the importance of the entire identified component pitch roof based on the 30 experts in roof fabrication. This paper serves to promote awareness among the various building inspections about the list of pitched roof components to identify components quickly. This inspection checklist has been validated by the expert to get feedback on the development. This checklist is aiming to design standard inspection for pitched roof and to reduce bias comparison inspection between various inspectors and provide effective service to building owner.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • A Pothole Detection Using VGG16

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Siti Nurulain Mohd Rum   and Niventhiraan Rajaratinam   A pothole is a flaw that can be discovered on the road surface and it is one of a major contribution to the road accident. The impact of a vehicle on a potholed road is not just making the ride uncomfortable. It can damage the vehicle's suspension system as well as the wheel of the vehicle, resulting in costly repair. Therefore, a regular road maintenance activity and assessment are very important to ensure that it is safe to be used. However, due to the limited number of expensive inspection vehicles, the inspection is performed manually. In this study, we present a mobile pothole detection system, namely HOLETRACKER using VGG16, a deep learning model architecture. The built model is trained using a collection of images taken from Kaggle and Internet in a variety of settings. The experiment used 739 numbers of training images and 144 numbers of testing images. The experimental result achieved the accuracy level rate at 90%. This paper also presents the development of two versions of the HOLETRACKER system, the mobile and web application that can be used by the public users and authorities. With the HOLETRACKER system, people can make a complaint of potholes via their mobile phone at anytime and anywhere. The validation checking of the potholed and location tracking through the GPS are the two main features provided by the system that will be performed before the information reaches the authorities for immediate action. The system is a cost-effective solution as an alternative to the manual pothole inspection management in facilitating the authorities as a measure to reduce accidents caused by potholes.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Comparative Study on Dynamic Response of Buildings with Floating Columns

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Manjunatha B. B.   Chaithra M.   and Avinash A. R.   High-rise buildings are essential for providing the necessary space for both residence and offices due to the lack of large areas in an urban setting. However, these multi-storey buildings are prone to lateral loads such as earthquake loads due to their large mass. Often, columns of such multi-storey buildings are truncated at some level either due to some obstructions or some architectural restrictions. Such columns that do not directly rest on the foundation are called floating columns. The floating columns are generally considered harmful, especially for buildings constructed in seismically active areas. Their existence creates a discontinuity in the path to transfer the load resulting in an inadequate structure performance. Hence, this study focuses on reducing the risk factor due to seismic effects by strengthening buildings with floating columns using the shear walls, bracings, and masonry infills. A typical building with floating columns located at two different seismic zones was considered for the study. This building was strengthened by considering various approaches such as diagonal bracings, shear walls and infill walls. The equivalent static method is used in the study to carry out the seismic analysis. The results indicate that using any strengthening methods mentioned above can significantly reduce storey displacements. However, providing a shear wall is found to be more effective in reducing the storey displacements in both the directions of earthquake forces when compared with other methods. Though infills and bracings can reduce storey drifts, it was also found that at lower storey levels, there is a considerable increase in the storey drifts when bracings and infill walls are considered. This is mainly attributed to the presence of the open first storey. However, the storey drift values reduce at the higher levels.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Bus Stations in Annaba between Mobility and Attractiveness

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Nacima Chikh Hacini   Travel and transportation are seen as a necessity for our society and an essential component of social, economic and environmental development. In order to control the use of cars, especially in the city centre, urban planners and researchers are currently considering the question of the interaction between the public transport station, the train station and the city. Supported by the development and improvement of public transport networks, their importance is vital to reduce the ecological footprint of cities. To this end, the city of Annaba (located in the northern-east of Algeria) was chosen to study the relationship between service areas around public transport stations in the city centre. The development and growth of Annaba's agglomeration has had a major impact on travel levels and volumes. Field results state that the urban public transport station "Souidani Boudjemaa", which provides the link between the city centre and the outskirts, is certainly an asset thanks to its location in the heart of the city, but it does not meet the requirements of a bus station infrastructure. This work will take into account the observation supported by questionnaire surveys and supplemented by the analysis of planning tools, whether in the field of town planning or that of transport.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • RSM-Based Optimized Compressive Strength of Mix Design Concrete Aggregates
           of Clamshell, Iron Sand, and Epoxy Resin

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Sugito   Sofia W. Alisjahbana   and Hery Riyanto   The need for environmentally friendly concrete that has above average compressive strength continues to be pursued to meet the infrastructure needs of humans. The availability of materials derived from organic waste such as clamshells is thought to be used as an aggregate from concrete which is more environmentally friendly when combined with previously known inorganic materials. The purpose of this study was to optimize the compressive strength of concrete-filled with clamshell powder (CSP), iron sand, and epoxy resin. An optimization approach based on response surface methodology (RSM) was used in this study. Iron sand used is 10% (w/w). The CSP used is in the range of 1 to 4% (w/w). The epoxy resin used is in the range of 10.5 to 14.40% (w/w). The temperature and time of curing were carried out in 301 to 333 K and 4 hours, respectively. The age of concrete is measured in the range of 1 to 28 days. The cylindrical molded concrete has a diameter and height of 100 mm and 200 mm, respectively. All samples were measured for compressive strength using the UTM RTF-1350 (capacity of 250 kN). The concrete composition with epoxy resin (11.93%, w/w) to the standard concrete aggregate mixture produced the highest compressive strength (71.49 MPa). However, the addition of CSP as a filler in concrete has provided a compressive strength (31.18 MPa) above concrete by the Indonesian National Standard (SNI). The combination of CSP and epoxy resin under high-temperature curing conditions is possible to increase the compressive strength of concrete to 45.65 MPa.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Investigating Informal Paratransit Stops Formation in Existing Urbanism: A
           Case Study in Greater Cairo, Egypt

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Mariam Shaker   Ingy El-Baramelgy   and Dalia Aboubakr   Formal stops aroused the interest of many researchers. Many of these studies focused on calculating the walking distance to transit station. However, only few researches studied paratransit stops. The current study focuses on the phenomena of informal paratransit stops in Greater Cairo. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the parameters causing the formation of informal paratransit stops in existing urbanism. Investigating these parameters helps to build a knowledge base for this phenomenon and support future researches which could help in solving the problem of the formation of informal paratransit stop. The review of related literature leads to propose five main parameters affecting the formation of informal paratransit stops (quality of life, mobility and quality of public transit, transit station, built environment, and transit user). The researchers choose Dokki district in Giza as an example for studying paratransit stops in Egypt. The study then uses qualitative and quantitative methods to validate the proposed parameters. The methods include specialist questionnaire, user's questionnaire and field survey. Research results confirmed the importance of all the parameters especially, mobility and quality of public transit, and the importance of sub-parameters such as (land use – number of served routes – accessibility – reliability – etc.) on the informal formation of paratransit stops in existing urbanism.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Cost Planning Standards on Design and Build Contract Systems for Stadium
           Building Construction in Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Anggoro Putro   Yusuf Latief   Afrizal Nursin   and Budi Susilo Soepandji   The study aims to determine and develop the following, (1) the components of standard and non-standard costs, as well as miscellaneous expenses related to financial accuracy, (2) the percentage standard of the works component, (3) the technical specification, (4) the range of costs per meter square and seat, and (5) the connection model between cost planning and accuracy through Indonesian design and build contract, to diminish the potential disputes among related stakeholders. The methods used included analytical, validity, reliability, and descriptive-analytical tests, through four steps of data collection, namely (1) pilot survey, (2) questionnaire, (3) expert validation, and (4) final expert validation. Furthermore, the data analysis was conducted using SPSS and SEM-PLS software, with the result showing that, (1) the components of standard and non-standard costs, as well as miscellaneous expenses were determined by the literature study and the validation of experts. These were also used as the identification sources of cost planning standard, (2) the percentage of the works' component was derived from the previous stadium construction projects and the utilized literature review, (3) the technical specification in the cost planning process differed with the needs of each stadium classification, (4) the cost/m2 and cost/seat were used as the reference of the project owner to determine the estimation of each stadium classification, and (5) the standard cost and the miscellaneous expenses were positively related to the budget accuracy. Meanwhile, the non-standard costs had a negative effect on this accuracy. Based on this study, several implications were observed towards the global audience, as the guide to enhance the cost accuracy in the stadium's planning process through the design and build contract.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Seismic Fragility Assessment for Steel Buildings with Different
           Performance Levels

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Gopinath Chakkarapani   Prahlad Prasad   and Arvind Kumar Lal Srivastava   The probability of failure associated with drift criterion exceeding certain performance levels for the intensity of earthquake record ground motions has been necessitated for the development of fragility curves in the recent past as a better performance check tool. In the recent past, the reappraisal of fragility curves formation due to incremental dynamic analysis has been possible because of modeling and simulation of structures under varying earthquake ground motions. The content of this paper is the formation of fragility curves using drift as the output of steel building frames under varying earthquake ground motions. The fragility curves were developed through nonlinear time-history analysis assessments of selected ground vibrations with varying magnitudes, distances from the source, and site circumstances. The entire process given in this paper can be utilized to develop probabilistic fragility curves for structural buildings of various layouts. As an illustration, fragility curves for two steel building structures for various performance levels: Collapse prevention (CP), Life Safety (LS), Immediate occupancy IO), & operational performance (OP), were developed using Ram Perform 3D, using a set of 20 earthquake ground motions. The fragility curves formed using drift for different performance levels reveal a robust damage index for evaluating building structures under the high level of seismic hazards.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Identifying and Assessing Uses of Public Parks: A Systematic Literature
           Review

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Aniruddha Jogdande   and Abir Bandyopadhyay   This research aims to identify the various ways public parks are used, which are assessed using multiple tools and methods used in extant literature. In this endeavor, a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) of research papers published in the last two decades was conducted. Public parks are mainly used for recreational, social, physical, economic, and ecological purposes. It is observed that various researchers have assessed the recreational, physical, and social uses of parks through direct observations surveys, and mixed-methods approaches. Further, the researchers have assessed the economic and ecological uses by studying the changes in the city dwellers' quality of life, and their surrounding environment. Interestingly, both the ecological and economical uses of parks seem to have an indirect impact on the users, while recreational, social, and physical uses have a direct impact. The findings also suggest that observations, surveys and mixed methods were indeed the appropriate ways to assess the parks' usage. The goal is to find an appropriate research direction and strategy for the assessment of uses of parks that may help the city planners/ policy makers to optimize the park uses.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Effect of Wind Loads on Low-Rise Pitched and Circular Arch Roof
           Structures: A Comparative Study based on Numerical Simulation

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Aditya Kumar Jha   Amartya Sinha   and Ritu Raj   Through numerical simulations based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), this study examines the effect of wind load operating on a pitched roof and a circular arch roof of an identical plan area of a storage structure with one wall opening. Many numerical simulations have been performed by other researchers for other types of roofs to understand the behavior of wind flow associated with them. Also, the wind standards of multiple countries have provided the Coefficients of Pressures for standard building shapes. However, there is lack of similar work for structures having one wall opening. Ansys CFX fluid flow software has been used to carry out the simulations using a standard k-ε turbulence model. The simulations have been carried out for 7 wind incidence angles at an interval of 30ᵒ. Pressure, Force, Moment, Drag and Lift Coefficients generated on the roofs were compared. It was found that, although variation in these coefficients w.r.t the wind incidence angles are similar for both the roofs types, the sharp-edged rooftop of the pitched roof contributes to higher magnitudes of these coefficients as compared to the smooth arch roof. Mathematical modules between the face average of pressure coefficients and the wind incidence angles were established in a polynomial form which could be used to find the face average of pressure coefficients and corresponding pressures and forces for arbitrary wind incidence angles.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Study of the Effect of Climatic Factors on Indirect Tensile Strength of
           Asphalt Mixtures Modified with a Mixture of /Polymer-Sulfur/

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Ahmad Sameer Alsaleh   The asphalt paver must fulfill a set of basic requirements, from a sufficient bearing capacity for the expected loads, stability and good resistance to deformations resulting from the passage of large loads at high temperatures, and also securing an impermeable surface that achieves adequate and good drainage of water. Hence, it is necessary to search for permanently and continuously improved materials that are resistant to the influence of factors affecting the flexible paving in its upper layers, consisting of bituminous composites. Polymer-modified bitumen has been used to improve the performance of bituminous paving. I have designed asphalt mixtures using asphalt cement without modification, polymer-modified asphalt cement (polyethylene), and asphalt cement modified with a mixture of (polymer-sulfur). Next, I performed lab experiments simulating the effect of investment, weather and climatic factors during operation and investment (conditioning test). It is concluded that the change in the value of indirect tensile Strength for the Asphalt samples formed using an asphalt cement which modified with a mixture of /polymer-sulfur/ was (4%) of its value after the conditioning test, and as for Asphalt samples formed using an asphalt cement which is modified with polyethylene (PE), the value was (14%) after the conditioning test cement which is modified with polyethylene (PE) the value was (14%) after the conditioning test.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Education Reform, Colonization, and Unification of Thailand: The Turning
           Point of Educational Buildings in Lanna

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Piyadech Arkarapotiwong   During the education reform period, Siam had changed Lanna under the former's policy to create a nation-state. Education reform was used as an instrument for unifying a new country. The new education policy had affected the perception of Lanna architecture, since traditional Lanna buildings did not fit with modern education function, which was more complex than the traditional one. Research showed that the educational buildings of Lanna changed through its unification with Siam and that Lanna's adoption of the western model from Siam was due to the pressures of the colonization period. For some, Western architecture created a more civilized atmosphere in Lanna as well as in Siam. After the Siamese coup d'état (1932), the typical school buildings had been gradually developed to meet "Thainess" policies. Therefore, the buildings' appearance was changed again with the introduction of a new policy from the government in Bangkok. This research shows that policies implemented by the Siam transformed traditional buildings. As a result of these policies, Lanna buildings began to have less local character, especially educational buildings.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Assessing Spillway Modifications by Detached Eddy Simulation Turbulence
           Model

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Rusul Latteef Naji   Hesham Mahmoud El-Badry   and Ahmed Ezzat Abdel-Rahman   Spillway associated with flip bucket structure is a famous way to evacuate the floods at dams and dissipate the flood destructive energy in order to protect the dam structure. Several spillways suffered from damages where most affected zones were located downstream the flip bucket along the flow path towards the plunge pool. Poor geometrical design is a very important main reason of the damages occurring at the downstream of the spillway. It mainly occurred when the water jet failed to achieve safe impingement location. This study proposes solutions to damages that occurred in an existing dam. These proposed solutions were tested through numerical investigations of the existing and modified spillway configuration. This investigation was originated with the aspiration of decreasing the damage of real Spillway. From the literature, previous experimental results of spillway modelling were extracted and analyzed. The results were replicated numerically by ANSYS FLUENT software. The experimental results were contrasted against the simulated results. The contrast reflected that DES results are reasonably applicable. Confident with its results, it was applied to real spillway (Base case) and results were obtained. Firstly, the existing conditions were simulated to ensure that the model mimic the existing conditions accurately. Secondly, several modifications to the existing conditions were introduced to the model and then simulated to define the most applicable solution. Detached eddy simulation is used for accurately simulation of the flow physical model. The criteria of the modification properties are developed in the way of avoiding the existing erosion problem.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Composite Spirals as Confinement
           Reinforcement for Concrete under Axial Compression

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Antonis Michael   Christos Ntamotsidis   and Demetris Nicolaides   The use of fiber composites in structural strengthening applications has been implemented for many years. Among others, this type of material has been employed as means to confine concrete and achieve superior material behavior. Confinement can be achieved either by wrapping the concrete with FRP fabrics or by embedding FRP stirrups or spiral (helical) reinforcement in concrete. Although FRP spirals have been used as reinforcement in concrete members, this was primarily in the form of FRP bars used as shear reinforcement in RC members under flexure. Some studies have been conducted using FRP spiral strips that were bonded on the outside face of cylindrical specimens and their confinement effect on concrete under axial compression was evaluated. This study deals with the experimental testing of concrete cylindrical specimens that utilize embedded carbon FRP (CFRP) composite spiral reinforcement, a unique application with limited investigation as to its effect on concrete confinement. Standard (300 mm x 150 mm) concrete cylinders were cast both with and without the embedded CFRP spiral. The cylinders were tested in axial compression to determine the effect of the CFRP spiral on their strength and ultimate deformation. This study contributes to the field of concrete confinement and in an area that is not well investigated especially when the FRP spiral is embedded into concrete. Experimental results indicate very significant improvements in ultimate strength and strain with more the enhancement reaching 116% for the strength and 147% for the strain. Comparing energy absorption capacity of the CFRP spirally confined concrete with the unconfined concrete, the improvement is even higher and reaches 320%. Therefore, the use of embedded CFRP spiral to confine concrete is effective and provides significant confinement and enhances concrete properties.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Analysis of Knock-Down Weir Model Shear Stability against Wall Rudeness
           based on Soil Type Variation

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Asnun Parwanti   Slamet Imam Wahyudi   and Moh Faiqun Ni’am   An increase in seawater that experiences high tides can cause tidal flooding. Tidal flooding in the Semarang area requires quick and precise handling, so an emergency dam is needed to deal with seawater overflow or tidal flooding. This study discusses the Knock-Down weir as a practical emergency weir. This study also aims to test the shear stability of the Knock-Down weir model against wall roughness based on variations in soil types, namely: masonry, gravel, sand, and clay. The Knock-Down weirs can be arranged vertically, horizontally, and as needed. The method used is descriptive qualitative. There are four forms of Knock-Down weir arrangement and the safest against wall roughness in various types of soil is prioritized. They are (1) L shape filled with sand + water, (2) Form I filled with sand + water, (3) Form I filled with water, and (4) Shape L filled with water. The results of the research on the safest Knock-Down weirs on shear stability are (1) L shape filled with sand + water, at a height of 1m weirs, shear stability against masonry (3,13), shear stability of gravel (2.09), shear stability to sand (1.67), shear stability against clay (1.25).
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • To Study the Factors Causing Traffic Problems in India with Specific
           Reference to Pune City: A Conceptual Framework

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Rashmi Mahajan   and Darshan Mahajan   Due to consistent development, economic as well as infrastructural, and a lot of lucrative opportunities in the cities, the need for transportation has become very essential. India being a developing country where the population is on the rise, there is a serious traffic issue. The problem of traffic congestion is being faced by most metro cities. In a metro city like Pune, where a lot people converge to every day for their livelihood and for a better standard of living, the traffic problems are even bigger. Hence, it is imperative to study the traffic and transport infrastructure to find out the various causes so as to identify the probable solutions to have a better planned, designed and cost effective road transportation system. This paper attempts to analyze the various causes of the traffic congestion so that suitable improvements can be made to overcome these problems, thereby providing solutions for effective transportation and infrastructural management through the city. The methodology used was a survey of literature and observation and the researcher has tried to identify the factors causing the traffic congestion. The factors identified are categorized in three broad areas namely; people problems, infrastructural problems and implementation and management problems. The researcher has also established relationships between the factors of the three broad categories and how one factor influences the other factors negatively, thereby aggravating the overall Traffic Congestion. Since there is interrelationship among the factors, right policies from the Govt., better planning and implementations on the ground and over all better discipline by the citizens can improve the state of affairs leading to a better traffic and infrastructure management.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Experimental Bond Behaviour of Glued-In Rod Connection for Mengkulang
           Glulam under Pull-Out Loading

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Tengku Anita Raja Hussin   Rohana Hassan   Ali Awaludin   Muhd Norhasri Muhd Sidek   Nor Hayati Abdul Hamid   and Mohd Sapuan Salit   Mechanical joint and adhesive joint are the two most common types of timber connections. In the case of timber construction, bonded-in rods offer a long-term, aesthetically acceptable alternative to some of the more conventional steel moment connections. Bonded-in rod connections in timber need many desirable attributes inefficiency, manufacture, performance, aesthetics and cost. This paper presents pull-out experimental testing for glued-in rod made of Mengkulang (tarrietia javanica) glulam joints. Hundred and seven (107) specimens were prepared, each with a single glued-in rod parallel and perpendicular to the grain. The steel treaded rod with a diameter of 12 mm, 16 mm and 20 mm with three numbers of adhesive (Sikadur-30) thicknesses of 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm were used in this experiment. The pull-out tests observations were on the effects of adhesive thickness, parallel and perpendicular grain directions and modes of failure of the specimens. The result obtained that 4 mm adhesive thickness was the strongest and parallel specimens showed better results than the perpendicular specimens. The pull-out failure modes are affected by the selected factors, i.e. the adhesive thickness, rod diameter and grain directions. Most of the specimens show failures in the timber besides the adhesive to timber interface.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Humanizing Unfriendly Buildings and Spaces by Architectural Thought (Case
           Study: Houses from Jordan)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Saqer Sqour   Abdelmajeed Rjoub   Rami Alshawabkeh   Safa Al Husban   M.A.SH. Al-Taani   and Ahlam Eshruq Labin   Western architectural thought ruled and formed architectural practice throughout the last century. It introduced theories that reflected the inconsistencies of human lives and resulted in numerous complications in the built environment. This paper aims to present a view of the fundamentals of Muslim architectural theory, the basics that can control theory and practice in architecture. Thus, it recommends and examines a set of principles that rise from the Muslim thought; these principles highlight the need of fulfilling human needs by architects and designers. This research assumes the following assumptions: 1. Recreating buildings calls for re-forming human life. 2. The unity of social and built environment gives environmental relaxation. 3. Values gained from Islamic principles bring up general rules that can organize practice in architecture. Further, foundations extracted from these fundamentals can regulate architectural work worldwide. Based on humanity in the Muslim thought, this paper aims to develop a new theory to govern the present-day architecture. It concentrates on human parts in architecture. Further, its implementation side explains how buildings fulfill human needs. The research examines twelve human needs taken from Muslim fundamentals. However, the existence of these needs shows how close buildings are to humans. To achieve that goal, this research studied those needs in three Jordanian local houses. Two Jordanian architects designed those houses: Architect Ayman Zuaiter designed Al Tabbaa Villa and Family House and architect Bilal Hammad designed Dajani Villa.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Architectural and Compositional Concepts of Environmentally Safe Urban
           Arrangement

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Zhaina Zhanaikyzy Tolegen   Galym Abdykaimovich Issabayev   Ardak Kenesovna Yussupova   Gulshat Buharbaevna Murzalina   and Dina Abilmazhinovna Amandykova   The architectural and composition concepts of the environment arrangement play an important role in environmentally safe urban formation. In the modern era, there are some actual environmental problems in many of world's great metropolises. The aim of the study is to identify the existing environmental problems on the example of the city of Almaty and to make conceptual proposals for solving these problems. The article deals with the problems of architectural and compositional methods of solving environmental problems associated with the natural and climatic features of the urban environment. Also, the problems of insolation of residential houses and yard spaces that have appeared as a result of new high-altitude facilities construction close existing buildings are considered. In the study of this problem, the experimental method of the architectural and composition solutions study is proposed. As a result of the study, design models and theoretical concepts are proposed for the reconstruction of existing urban spaces, taking into account environmental safety and natural and climatic features that form the identity of the urban environment. The key conclusion of the study is the expansion of conceptual methods of conducting research activities in educational programs in the training of architects and designers. The main goal of conceptual methods should be: mindset formation and professional training of designers from the standpoint of moderators of human behavior in space. The mindset and professional education of designers is a driving force in solving problems related to improving the quality of life of people in an urban environment.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Durability Study of Nano Influenced Metakaolin Concrete to Acid Attack

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Pushpalatha R Gadag   Vaishali G Ghorpade   and H. Sudarsana Rao   The two most important attributes of concrete are strength and durability. The concrete durability crisis has attracted and compelled engineers to focus on concrete performance. Considerable research and attention go into creating reinforced concrete buildings, which face challenging surroundings and are intended to last for a prolonged period of time with minimal maintenance. To accomplish this requirement, one material that has attracted a lot of attention is Nano material combined with SCM's. The researchers looked at partial cement replacement with Metakaolin levels of 10, 20, and 30% and Nano Silica levels of 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 percent by weight of cement in this study. W/B ratios of 0.3, 0.35, and 0.4 were used with A/B ratio of 1.75. Cubes were cast for different mix proportions and immersed in 5% concentrated HCl, H2SO4, and MgSO4 solutions for 30, 60, and 90 days. The residual compressive strength obtained after 30, 60, and 90 days of immersion in different acid solutions were compared to controlled concrete. According to ongoing research, concrete prepared with a combination of 10% Metakaolin and 3% Nano silica is the best for achieving the highest durability properties in concrete and improving its performance.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Determination of PCE Based on Motorcycle Behavior at Signalized
           Intersections in Denpasar, Bali

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  I M Kariyana   P A Suthanaya   D M P Wedagama   I M A Ariawan   and T H Pamungkas   A very high proportion of motorcycles affect the saturated flow and motorcycle behavior in synergy stores in developing countries such as Indonesia. The Indonesian Highway Capacity Manual (IHCM) and previous research have not adopted motorcycle behavior to determine the efficiency of passenger cars in synergy. This study aims to assess PCE based on the behavior of motorcycles in synergy with and without Exclusive Stopping Space for Motorcycles (ESSM). The synergy reservoir's location was a junction with a high motorcycle volume, low side obstacles, and traffic characteristics at an approach width of 3 meters, 5 meters, and 7 meters in Denpasar City. The survey method divides the lane virtually, the size of a motorcycle to determine the headway in the field. At the same time, the saturated flow was analyzed using the discharge headway method of both normal distributed data and log normal. Linear regression analysis was used to determine PCE based on motorcycle behavior on synergy junctions both with ESSM and without ESSM. Based on motorcycle behavior, the highest PCE value is obtained beside flow behavior (0.1-1.2) and the lowest in front behavior of the stop line (0.06-0.8). In determining PCE, it is recommended to adopt the motorcycle's behavior.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Structural Performance of Different Forms of Corrugated Plate Shear Walls
           under Dynamic Loading

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Yazan Adnan Alatoum   and Mazen Ali Musmar   Steel plate shear wall systems are currently utilized in resisting seismic loading in multistory buildings within seismic prone regions. They consist of infill plates that are bounded by a surrounding frame. Nonlinear push over and cyclic analyses were carried out to study different forms and configurations of horizontal trapezoidal corrugated steel plate shear walls, namely singly corrugated, doubly corrugated as well as perforated corrugated steel plate shear walls. A finite element model was developed for a horizontal trapezoidal corrugated steel single plate shear wall (OPSW) using Abaqus software. It was validated. Thereafter, while maintaining the original overall properties, a parametric study was carried out to investigate the effect of changing plate thickness, plate width/height ratio, deeper corrugations, providing double plates, as well as perforations on the seismic behavior of steel plate shear walls. The paper aims at achieving a better understanding of the main parameters that control the optimum performance of the horizontal trapezoidal corrugated steel shear walls. Few studies have discussed this matter, so the current study comes to fill the gap. It is concluded that double horizontal trapezoidal corrugated plate shear walls (DPSW) are very efficient shear wall systems. They experience stable hysteretic cyclic loops. They have higher shear stiffness, higher buckling load, and higher ultimate strength as well as higher residual strength than OPSW. They also experience higher ductility and more energy dissipation compared to OPSW. Perforations were found to reduce the contribution of the corrugated plate shear wall in resisting the seismic forces, as well as the subsequent reduction of the wall strength and stiffness.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Enhanced Heuristic Method for Scheduling and Leveling Using Heuristic
           Indices

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Osama Adnan Nasrallah   and Rami A. Maher   This paper presents an enhanced heuristic method based on five major heuristic indices used in project scheduling and leveling. Many researchers used some of these indices in project management, but few researchers combined multiple indices and used them in scheduling and leveling. The main purpose of this work is to find which of the five indices is the most important in leveling resources using the proposed method where the five heuristic indices were used together, and the method was applied using MATLAB software. The five heuristic indices are: Resource moment about the x-axis (), Resource moment on the y-axis (), Rate of Resource usage (), Resource Improvement Coefficient (RIC), and the Maximum Value of the used resource (). Moreover, every index has weight, which is referred to as importance weight. The method was tested on two projects. One of them is a hypothetical project consisting of 24 activities, and the other is an actual project where every index had an extremely bigger weight compared with the others. Also, a parameter () which refers to a partial value of the total float for the noncritical activities was used to enhance the heuristic method. It is found that the best () which gave the best possible resource histogram in the first project was =1.0 and =0.87 for the second. Also, it is found that the resource improvement coefficient () is the most important for the first project, while for the second project the Rate of Resource usage () was more important and gave better results. However, changing the value of () gave different results that are not related to a fixed relationship in terms of its increase or decrease. Finally, choosing the most important index depends on the nature of the project and its resources.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Reducing Buildings Operating Economics by Selecting the Optimal Nano
           Insulation Thickness in External Walls: Two Case Studies in Germany and
           USA

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Asmaa Mohammed Ali   Akram Farouk   and Mohamed Ezzeldin   As is well known, the cost of insulation riser linearly with thickness, obtaining the optimal thickness would result in a reduction in energy costs, lowering the building life cycle costs. Therefore, this study offers an excellent road map on the determination of the most economical nano-insulation material and its thickness. This study was applied in two existing buildings case studies located in Germany and the USA by using different nano insulation materials. Firstly, validate the degree-day approach by comparing actual and estimated energy consumption, then select the optimum thickness of used nano insulation, after that select the optimal nano insulation type and its thickness. Finally, calculate the payback periods. Results show that the nano insulation optimum point for the Seitzstraße building is 0.006 m of used nano insulation (VIP). The optimal nano insulation is expanded polystyrene with graphite with a thickness of 0.12 m. The Pentagon building is 0.007 m of used nano insulation (Aerogel Blankets), and the optimal nano insulation is expanded polystyrene with graphite with the thickness of 0.065 m. Furthermore, the optimal insulation and its thickness were estimated in the condition of considering the effects of space savings by comparing nano insulation materials to traditional insulation materials (PUR) and accounting for the expenses of renting the saved spaces.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Shake Table Test of Scaled Masonry Structure Using Rubber Tire Crumbs
           Mortar

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Restu Faizah   Henricus Priyosulistyo   and Akhmad Aminullah   The existence of masonry walls in structures is very useful in increasing the structure's resistance to lateral loads. The role of the walls is more important in providing adequate stiffness and damping than in resisting axial forces. The use of rubber tire crumbs (RTC) mortar on masonry walls is to increase the ductility and damping capacity of the wall. This study examines the application of RTC mortar on masonry walls, in particular for increasing the damping ratio of the wall. This study aims to determine the optimum RTC content in mortar by observing its dynamic properties using the shake table test. The specimens were 4 scaled models with mortar containing 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% RTC. The prototype is a 3D half-brick wall 2.5 m high and a 2.5 x 2.5 m2 plane, with a scale of 2 to provide a miniature model. There are 2 types of loads, namely sinusoidal loads and Yogya earthquake loads. The sinusoidal load has an amplitude of 0.1g with a frequency range between 4 Hz and 20 Hz, while the Yogya earthquake load has an amplitude between 0.1 g and 0.9 g. The results showed that the use of RTC mortar on the masonry wall structures can increase the damping capacity of the walls and reduce the drift ratio. This study recommends that the optimum RTC content is 30% of the sand volume.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Campus: University or a Modern Urban Structure'

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  V Goloshubin   and V Pavlova   Modern cities face a range of problems, such as the need to redevelop inefficiently used former industrial territories, traffic congestion in cities, air, water and soil pollution and the disappearance of cities' last remaining natural areas. These issues require rethinking methods for the redevelopment and renovation of city districts. The campus model for the formation of sustainable territorial units in a city is set to replace conventional zoning (residential area, industrial area, city centre, recreational area). In campus structures, like in university campuses, everything is grouped together: residential and recreational facilities, schools and workplaces. Meanwhile, the environment, with elements of an individually-branded design code, is an area for likeminded people (residents of the campus) to interact. New social and economic models, as well as new global ideas, contribute to the appearance of new campus city blocks and micro- and macro-structures that are comparable to smart cities – the showcases of contemporary intellectual communities. In such urban areas, nature also plays a different role: it ceases to be a passive background, a means of featureless landscaping based on standard principles. The present research offers a description, analysis and classification of campus urban structures, based on the preliminary study of historical types of landscape organization in university campuses. Based on comparative historical analysis and experimental modeling, it distinguishes five types of the architectural and landscape organization of campuses: the enclosed model, the communicative model, the podium model, the nature-oriented model and the nature-equivalent model. In nature-equivalent campuses, nature becomes the main participant in the environment. Such urban structures become natural elements themselves, as they become parts of the ecosystem: environmentally safe, sustainable and self-regulating components of the natural and anthropogenic global landscape. The material laid out in the present research is of practical importance for students of architecture and campus designers.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Mitigating the Traffic Congestion in the Urban Area Using the Integration
           of System Dynamics and Genetic Algorithm Approaches

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Norhaslinda Zainal Abidin   Khairah Nazurah Karim   Rosshairy Abd Rahman   and Azatuliffah Alwi   Urban traffic congestion has worsened in many countries today. This problem is getting worse for most urban areas globally, including Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia's capital city. It is predicted that the demand for mobility will increase tremendously as the city grows at a faster rate in terms of population, infrastructure, and economic activities in the next ten years. This paper aims to develop an integration of system dynamics (SD) with genetic algorithm (GA) approaches known as SD-GA model aiming to optimise the congestion index and mode share of transportation values in the year 2030 in Malaysia. The developed SD-GA model results show that the best level of congestion index is 0.41367 while the percentage of mode share is 78.41% in 2030. From all the tested travel demand variables, bus fare subsidies and bus route expansion rate emerged as the two highest increment percentages in achieving the best minimal value of mode share and congestion index. From the managerial perspective, this research contributes to the transportation industry by suggesting strategies to mitigate the high congestion index and optimise mode share in Kuala Lumpur.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Seismic Microzonation and Liquefaction Potential Study by Using
           Microtremor Result Data in and Around Sipora Island, Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Rusnardi Rahmat Putra   Novriadi   Iskandar G   Muvi Yandra   and Totoh Andayono   Geographically, the Mentawai Islands are located between two earthquake sources, and either of them could trigger a tsunami. In the eastern part of the Mentawai Islands, one earthquake source is the fault line along Sumatra. Mentawai Island had experienced some great earthquakes; the latest earthquake occurred in 2010 and produced a liquefaction event distributed along Sipora Island. This research proposes a seismic microzonation and liquefaction potential based on mictotermor observation results. We performed 53 microtremor single observations, and the observation sites were distributed across all districts with a population in Sipora Island, including north Sipora and south Sipora. The results show that the predominant period for mainland Tua Pejat in north Sipora and the whole of the south of Sipora Island (regions 1 and 3) have a large predominant period value>1 (long period), which indicates that the soil characteristic is soft soil. This result has correspondence with liquefaction potential Kg>5 while for the rock condition in region two the predominant period is less than 1s. These results provide crucial information for making seismic microzonation maps based on predominant period of soil and liquefaction potential map based on microtremor single observation, improving current hazard maps, and designing disaster prevention countermeasures in the north and south of Sipora Island, Indonesia.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • The Integrity of the Artistic Image of the City Based on Symbolization
           (the Case of Modern Architecture of Dnipro, Ukraine)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Irina Bulakh   Tetyana Kashchenko   Maryna Harbar   Valentyna Praslova   Yuliia Riabets   and Viktor Divak   This article is a continuation of the study on the problems of forming an artistic image of the urban environment. The article proposes the author's original concept of constructing an artistic image based on symbolization, which is based on the fundamental works of famous philosophers. The purpose of the article is to determine the general provisions and principles of symbolization as the basis for the formation of a holistic artistic image of the urban environment, which has the potential for the philosophical content of architecture and allows you to design modern architecture, taking into account the historical context and heritage. Methodology: the study consists of a systematic, integrated and comprehensive analysis of the artistic image and symbolization of architecture and urban planning. The study used the analysis of literature, regulatory, information sources, graphic-analytical methods, photographs, and field research. The theoretical basis for the study was the works of outstanding philosophers and art historians (Plato, Plotinus, Aristotle, Hegel, Areopagite, Kant, Schelling, Goethe, etc.). The research was influenced by the symbolic trend in the visual arts, which was developed by Aurier, Gauguin, Moreau, Redon, Malevich, Kandinsky, etc. The views of the Symbolist poets were investigated (Mallarme, Rimbaud, Ivanov, Blok, Mandelstam, etc.). Studies of artistic imagery and symbolization in the theory of urban planning and architecture have been carried out in the works of Alberti, Ledoux, Bull, Lynch, Venturi, Jenks, Tange, Alexander, etc. The main components of the symbolization processes (analogy, scheme, allegory, symbol) are stated and characterized, as well as the principles of symbolization (communication, transformation, commutation, and metamorphism). All the proposed principles of symbolization are illustrated by the example of the formation of a holistic artistic image of the urban environment in Dnipro, one of the largest cities in Ukraine. The modern architecture of the city was studied and analyzed from the point of view of the use of symbolization in the creation of large urban ensembles. Conclusions: the proposed principles for creating an architectural and artistic image of the urban environment have a hierarchical essence of their generality, as well as the continuity of construction in relation to the general processes of architectural and urban symbolization. Their application will allow the architect to form new design solutions, which, on the one hand, are aimed at preserving culture, heritage, and history, but at the same time allow generating something new - the architecture of the future.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Effect of Push-Pull Factors on Change in Behavior of Students' Shuttle by
           Using Motorcycle Case Study: Gianyar - Bali

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  I Made Rai Ridartha   Putu Alit Suthanaya   Dewa Made Priyantha Wedagama   and Ngakan Ketut Acwin Dwijendra   Transportation problems are caused by many factors. In addition to factors directly related to the transportation itself, such as traffic density, the availability of adequate public transportation, it is also influenced by other factors outside of transportation. The phenomenon of student shuttle activities using motorbikes is one of the causes of transportation problems. This phenomenon appears in almost all of Indonesia, including in Gianyar Regency. The frequency of these activities is influenced, among others, by the time schedule for teaching and learning at school (half day school) and the behavior and habits of the community in traffic. The habit of picking up students by motorcycle is getting stronger along with the low quality of public transportation services. Data collected from 14 junior high schools in Gianyar district showed that almost 48% of students were picked up by their parents using motorbikes. Meanwhile, 17.80% of students ride their own motorbikes for school activities. The consequences of these problems include congestion and the possibility of experiencing traffic accidents, inefficient use of time and costs and air pollution. On the other hand, the Gianyar Regency government has operated free student transportation #AMAN to serve students in 43 junior high schools, although its operations have not covered the entire region. The purpose of this study was to find how do push and pull strategies affect student's shuttle activities using motorbikes' The study was conducted in 14 junior high schools with 400 respondents from parents of students. The analytical method used is SEM-AMOS. The result of this study is that there is a fairly strong influence of the pull strategy on the willingness to move using student transportation. Meanwhile, the pull strategy has a less strong influence on behavioral changes in the use of motorcycle for student's shuttle activities.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Construction Operations Practices and Operations Research Tool Application
           in a Hypothetical Construction Project

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Jimmy Adora Nebrida   and Ronald Orale   This study aimed to assess the construction operations practices of three contractors; apply the construction operations practices for each company to a hypothetical construction project; and use an operation research tool in the hypothetical construction project. The results showed that the majority of contractors have similar organizational delivery systems with functional departments such as business development, finance, human resources, and construction operations, and they fall into the PCAB group. According to respondents, efficiency in resource use, avoidance of non-conformance works, elimination of wastes or non-value-added activities, value engineering, bulk order discounts, listing of different suppliers, double shifting of work scheme, prioritizing activities suitable for weather conditions, delegating work packages to subcontractors, resequencing the project schedule, application of value engineering are all important factors in optimizing project costs. The study concludes that operations research methods are important in project management, particularly in terms of reducing construction costs and increasing project profit. The findings indicated how the operations research tool, in conjunction with the QM for Windows application, made determining project schedule priorities to manage large and complicated project operations appear simple.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Basalt Fibre Reinforced Polymer for Strengthening of Self-Compacting
           Concrete Compression Member

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  P. P. Prasoon   and M. S. Ravi Kumar   The innovative findings that exploiting Identity reinforced concrete (RC) compression members can be stiffened with basalt fibre reinforced polymer (BFRP) textiles are shown in this research paper. It illustrates how to use BFRP to stiffen RC members. BFRP fabrics are less cost-effective, have a higher fracture strain, and are more durable than other fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) materials. Self-compacts are a new type of concrete, which can be able to place without the use of vibration. If the reinforcement is congested, it can flow freely under its own gravity, thoroughly filling the formwork and maximising compaction. Materials such as to increase the load capacity of decreased concrete as a reinforcing agent for columnar, basalt fiber-reinforced polymer (BFRP) is employed. The test matrix is strengthened by using BFRP fabrics. The column gets tested with increasing layers of BFRP fabrics. The increasing of two to nine layers of BFRP fabrics was used. It shows a significant strength increase in the maximum load bearing capacity, shear capacity, and ductility of concrete column. Ultimate load bearing capacity has been found to have increased by 92%. This technique of restoring and strengthening existing RC structures in place saves money and helps the environment of countries seeking to repair and maintain old infrastructure.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Community Response to Thermal and Its Influence to Outdoor Use

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Idawarni Asmal   Baharuddin Hamzah   and Happy Ratna   Karamak in North Galesong is a fishing village located adjacent to Makassar Strait. Temperatures can reach more than 40℃; as well as in the house units, temperatures can reach up to 37℃ during the day in the dry season. From the thermal comfort aspect, it is then far from comfort to do activities. It has an impact on changes in the occupant's attitude in choosing the activity space. The research objectives are to find the differences between indoor and outdoor temperatures that affect community response to the transfer of their activities from indoor to outdoor during the daytime with the aim of finding a comfortable activity atmosphere so that activities can be more optimal. The method used was to conduct thermal measurements on the macro and micro scale, including temperature, humidity by the HTC-2 to measure temperature and humidity, while for wind speed using an anemometer. Macro scale climate measurements were carried out in outdoor and micro-scales in indoor of the stage house units. Data collection was carried out simultaneously in the rooms in the sample house. The measurement results were presented in the table. The analysis was used in a comparison between outdoor and indoor climates. Measurements also take off people's perceptions of indoor-outdoor thermal as supporting data measured by the tool. The study has given information about the coastal climate effects on microclimate conditions (residential units) so that it became hot during the day. This study also provided insights for planners and policymakers going forward in response to heated conditions. The microclimate made the residents move the activity space to outdoor that was more comfortable and able to support their activities.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Groundwater Level Forecasting Using Multiple Linear Regression and
           Artificial Neural Network Approaches

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Putu Doddy Heka Ardana   I Wayan Redana   Mawiti Infantri Yekti   and I Nengah Simpen   Accurate and reliable groundwater level prediction is a critical component in water resources management. This paper developed two methods to predict forty-six months of groundwater level fluctuation. The approaches of Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) were compared for predicting groundwater levels. MLR and ANN approaches were performed at two monitoring wells, Ubung and Ngurah Rai, in the Denpasar region of Bali, Indonesia, considering all significant inputs of hydrometeorological time series data: barometric pressure, evaporation, temperature, wind, bright sunshine, rainfall, and groundwater level. The model's performance was assessed statistically and graphically. The ANN-predicted groundwater levels agreed better with the observed groundwater levels than the MLR-predicted groundwater levels at all sites. The results show the ANN performs better than MLR in terms of statistical errors, notably mean square error (MSE) value of 0.6325; root mean square error (RMSE) value of 0.7953; mean absolute error (MAE) value of 0.6122 based on the MLR in the Ubung monitoring well, while ANN models got an MSE value of 0.143; RMSE value of 0.379, and MAE value of 0.311. For the Ngurah Rai monitoring well, the MSE value is of 1.3406, RMSE value of 1.1579, and MAE value of 0.9152 for MLR, while ANN models obtained MSE value of 0.0483, RMSE value of 0.2198, and MAE value of 0.1266.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Observations from Ground Improvement Using Vacuum Consolidation Method

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Nishkarsha Koirala   Suttisak Soralump   and Sartsin Phakdimek   In the modern world of Civil Engineering, challenges arise during the various phases of construction, starting from the project development phase to the completion of the project. One of the main factors to be considered before commencing any infrastructure project is the foundation of where it is to be built. Without a strong foundation, it's not possible to proceed further to subsequent stages and in some cases, significant improvements may be required before starting the construction process. Although there are several different available methods for soil improvement in Civil Engineering, preloading using vacuum pressure with prefabricated vertical drains (Vacuum Consolidation Method) is one of the commonly applied techniques. Nowadays, it is widely used in countries having soft soil settlement problems. This paper presents the observations made from a soil improvement project using VCM including the site conditions and methodologies adopted during the process. The field data related to parameters such as pore pressure, settlement and shear strength improvement in natural soft clay have been presented and discussed. The degree of consolidation in the field has been back-calculated from settlement data and compared with values obtained from the 1-D consolidation equation. Field investigation tests, such as borehole tests and field vane shear tests, were performed before and after the soil improvement and it was found that the soft soil properties can be enhanced using vacuum consolidation without the use of any surcharge loading as well.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Hazard Identification Risk Assessment and Risk Control (HIRARC) for
           Mengkuang Dam Construction

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Chee Fui Wong   Fang Yenn Teo   Anurita Selvarajoo   Ooi Kuan Tan   and See Hung Lau   The construction industry is a main contributor to Malaysia's economy and yet some construction projects are considered being extremely unsafe, unhealthy, and exposing to a lot of hazards and risks to worksites. Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control (HIRARC) is a process commonly used to determine and evaluate both existing and potential hazards on a worksite and an effective control action plan used to reduce the identified hazards. HIRARC risk management is a fundamental to the business operation, planning and management. This study investigates the implementation of the HIRARC Risk Management Plan and Risk Registered Matrix for the construction project of the Mengkuang Dam in Malaysia, which involved the scopes of raising and extension of the existing dam. Construction of the dam upgrading and expansion was subjected to severe risks factors such as potential impact to the existing dam, project schedule delay, exceeding the project budget and contractual dispute. The Risk Register Matrix based on HIRARC was initiated for this project and was also implemented during the construction of the dam. The risk management plan framework and process involved in the risk identification, risk assessment, risk control, and mitigating measures are discussed for further assessments of risk control and action plans. The findings have shown that the construction project risk in term of the relative risks can be reduced by implementing an effective control action plan to mitigate the risks significantly. The HIRARC risk management that applied in this study can also be adopted in other dam construction projects to provide an effective safety management system and reduce the project relative hazard risks.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • Pedagogy for Design Ideation in Architecture through Authoritative
           Elements

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  3  Sunalini Esther Devadas   and Sheeba Chander   The pedagogy for Theory of Architecture in many Schools of Architecture is primarily oriented towards lecture-centric classes, even in cases of engaging the student with exploratory physical models and supplementary hands-on activities. There is a clear demarcation between the realm of theory classes and the design studio. The main onus of theory classes in architecture is to support and facilitate the design process in the design studio. In reality, this is seldom true. This research aims at pedagogy that familiarizes learners with the process of design with a specific focus on design ideation, thereby bridging the knowledge transfer gap between lecture halls and design studios. This article explores a pedagogical model that layers the crucial elements that lend authenticity to design, derived from an exercise for students of architecture, executed over a webinar. The authoritative elements explored have been acquired from architectural theories. The subsequent model can be used effectively in courses at universities pertaining to Theories in / of Architecture. Consequently, this model will pragmatically support and complement the design process in the design studio of a practicing architect as well. The objectives of the study are to investigate exploratory pedagogical models in architectural education in order to improve theoretical and creative cognition as well explore concepts and ideas in taught modules that will ease the burden of seeking them out in design studios.
      PubDate: May 2022
       
  • A Biomimetic Approach as a Sustainably Architectural Design in Designing
           Resort Hotels: A Study Case in the Tourism Beach of Tanjung Karang,
           Regency of Donggala, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Irdinal Arief   and Harifuddin Thahir   The Province of Central Sulawesi has an interestingly attractive potency of tourism beaches for tourists, such as white-sand beach, sunset spots, tropical beach forest, and the beauty of an underwater landscape, mainly coral reefs located in Tanjung Karang, the Regency of Donggala. The typographic preservation of this tourism destination is mostly still well-maintained, but some abandoned areas are also found due to tourists or inhabitants exploitation. It can be seen from buildings layout exceeding the beach border, garbage stacking in the coastal area up to the sea, careless clear-water consumption, and unmanaged and uncontrolled waste management system. Based on these circumstances, a strategy to maintain existing natural preservation is highly required by the utilization of environmentally friendly energy. The sustainable strategy integrates hotel resort areas with its surroundings, viewed from biomimetic architecture, and contains climate, biology, architecture, and technology, collectively. The research, then, discusses how to respond to the natural condition of Tanjung Karang beach, by considering its surroundings in terms of adaptation to nature and evolution [1], and also utilizes regional climate-supported energy, optimally, such as the solar energy and heat, wind, and surroundings-sourced water. Further, the adaptation of a coastal-traditional architecture was also performed by duplicating (mimetic), a transformation was relevantly conducted. In this research, a biomimetic approach was not comprehensively done, but it was limited to a simple simulation process, consisting of site management, site analysis via environment interaction, the concept of the hotel resorts design considering traditional principles such as building style, the mass form of buildings, and a schematic and simulated management of partly renewable energy.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Compressive Strength Evaluation of Concrete with Palm Tree Ash

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Saleh M. Alogla   and Ahmed I. Almusayrie   Concrete industry produces high carbon dioxide emissions that are harmful to the environment. As cement is the primary artificial component of concrete, most of the past studies focused on reducing the cement content in concrete manufacturing. To enhance the sustainability of concrete production, generally, cement is partially replaced with waste materials with similar characteristics such as silica fume and fly ash. One of the sources of such waste materials in date-producing countries is palm trees since each palm tree produces approximately 23 kg of waste annually. Currently, very limited use of palm tree waste exists in the concrete industry; specifically, palm tree leaves ash (PTA). This study is intending to evaluate the potential of adding PTA to concrete as a cement replacement by evaluating the compressive strength of PTA concrete. Several concrete cylindrical specimens were cast with variable percentages of added PTA. Three dosages of PTA (5%, 10%, and 15%) were added to the concrete as a substitute for cement by weight. The palm tree ash added to concrete was collected from burned palm tree branches and filtered based on its fineness. Assessment of the compressive strength of PTA-based concrete was performed at ages of 7, 28, and 56 days. The results of evaluating the compressive strength of the specimens showed that the concrete mixed with only 5% PTA possesses around 12% higher compressive strength than that without PTA. Further, increasing the dosage of added PTA to concrete yielded unfavorable results in terms of increasing the compressive strength. The addition of more than 10% of PTA to concrete as a replacement for cement triggered a significant reduction in compressive strength of the concrete. The findings of this study encourage partial replacement of cement with PTA in concrete up to 5% to reduce concrete carbon footprint and enhance sustainability of concrete manufacturing process with maintaining desired mechanical properties.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Numerical Model Validation for Mengkulang Glulam Timber Bolt Withdrawal
           Capacity

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Mohd Nizam Shakimon   Rohana Hassan   Mohamed Ali Hassan   Nor Jihan Abd Malek   Norshariza Mohamad Bhkari   and Mohd Sapuan Salit   The adequacy of timber joints determines how much load it can sustain, commonly called load-carrying capacity. European Yield Model (EYM), also known as Johansen yield theory, has been widely adopted in the design of timber joints for predicting load-carrying capacity. In EC5, the pulling out capacity is known as the 'rope effect' and becomes one parameter that governs the load-carrying capacity in a dowel-type timber connection. Due to the high cost of preparing the timber specimen, computer modelling always becomes the alternative in measuring the load-carrying capacity for timber connections. However, the computer modelling results need to be validated with the experimental laboratory test before being extended to different sizes and materials of fasteners. This study presents a finite element method (FEM) for numerical modelling and analysis to validate the experimental performance of timber's 12mm, 16mm, and 20mm bolt withdrawal capacity. This method adopted Abaqus 6.14.4 software package to create four (4) FEM models consisting of a bolt inserted into a glulam timber block at a different insertion depth, parallel and perpendicular to the timber grain direction. The axially inserted bolt was subjected to a pull-out force while the glulam timber block was held in position. The mild steel bolt and tropical Mengkulang glulam timber blocks were used. The validation showed an acceptable agreement between the FEM and the experimental results.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Quantification of Particulate Emission from Construction Activities Using
           Discrete-Event Simulation

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Charinee Limsawasd   and Nathee Athigakunagorn   Construction activities generate a significant number of airborne pollutants. Particulate matter (PM) is one of the important emissions arising throughout construction, especially in large-scale projects due to the utilization of heavy-duty equipment. Nevertheless, there is no competent approach that is capable of quantifying PM emissions from construction equipment operations at the pre-planning stage. Therefore, the development of a sufficiently accurate and simple quantification model is pressingly needed as the first step to help construction planners in identifying potential mitigation opportunities toward sustainable construction. This paper introduces a PM emission estimation model in an integrated application with a discrete-event simulation (DES) technique, namely EZStrobe. The model is developed with the aim of improving the current body of knowledge in the aspects of simplicity and practicality to address the restriction of input data availability in the initial phase of construction projects. A case study of a real highway project in Thailand is used to demonstrate the use and performance of the developed model in evaluating the environmental impacts in terms of diesel exhaust emissions. The findings identify critical construction activities and factors potentially affecting the environment. This approach enables construction planners to obtain a holistic, sustainable viewpoint in efficiently managing existing construction resources.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • The Development of Mitigation-Based Infrastructure of Coastal Settlement
           and Fishery-Economic Resilience

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Mimi Arifin   Shirly Wunas   Pratiwi Mushar   Wiwik W. Osman   Gafar Lakatupa   and Jayanti Mandasari   Indonesia is a maritime country where most of the population depends on marine resources, including settlements in Lero. However, geographical conditions are often unsafe. Coastal communities must adapt to the climate, geographical conditions, and prosper with marine resources. So far, the reality is that fishermen's settlements are always identified as slums, undeveloped residents, and difficult to get out of poverty. This research aims to determine the coastal settlements characteristics in Lero, participation level in mitigation, mitigation-based infrastructure development strategies, and fisheries economic resilience. The method used is descriptive qualitative and quantitative. The analysis used includes: spatial, scoring, and IPA analyses. The research results show that the residents of Lero Village must be adaptive to disasters because of their geographical location. Community participation in disaster mitigation is strongly influenced by external factors. Meanwhile, internal factors have no effect. Regarding infrastructure development, there are four priority scale aspects that require handling, namely improving pier facilities, ship repairing facilities for fishermen, management of residential waste systems and waste management of Lero settlements. The development of Lero as a coastal tourism village must be supported by the development of local potential-based community skills to improve the socio-economic sustainability of the surrounding population.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Impact of Safety Factors on Construction Workers' Performance

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Amani M. Al Hadidi   and Osama T. Al Meanazel   This study analyzed the factors of the Occupational Health and Work Safety (OHS) implementation and Risk Management (RM) implementation that affect the performance of site construction workers. It also examined the mediation role of RM between OHS and site construction workers' performance. A quantitative [1] survey method of self-distributing questionnaires was employed using simple random sampling of 600 site construction workers on a site-widening project in Jordan, with a 99% response rate. The results of the questionnaire [1] were used and analyzed for the validity test, reliability, f-test, and t-test for each item of statement. The method of analysis [1] used for testing the hypothesis is Partial Least Square-Structure Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) which utilized AMOS for the descriptive analysis test results. The results of this study show that the Work Safety (WS) variable was the most dominant element as there are 82% of health and safety devices in my workplace. However, in case of any [1] accident on the construction site, there was 81% of the practical result of the Occupational Health variable which was Emergency treatment. The dominant result was Workers [7] for the RM variable assigned for likely hazardous or serious tasks, which was 87% and controlled regularly by the internal audits for testing if they follow the set of procedures and instructions for the safety and health of the workers in my organization. The results of PLS-SEM concluded that the [0] implementation of OHS and RM had a positive and significant effect on the performance of site construction workers. Moreover, the RM plays a partial mediation role between Site Construction Workers' Performance and OHS. [1] The findings show that the application of OHS in the construction projects affects the achievement of the company's work.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • The Role of Apartments Interior Design on Individual Privacy: Residential
           Buildings in Erbil as a Case Study

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Alan M. Qaradaxi   and Hafedh A. Yahya   Privacy refers to the control of how much information about an individual should be allowed into the public domain. Individual privacy in an apartment building refers to the blockage of information within an individual room within the family apartment. Previous studies have given less attention on the privacy of residential apartments which this study focuses on. This research paper aims to explore the role of interior design in providing individual privacy in residential buildings. With time, more demand for apartment buildings is experienced and people are preferring more private places as physical connections become rare. As such, the question of how to maintain individual privacy with the population increase and reduced need for physical connections prompted the study. To assess the interior design privacy of the apartments, an observational case study was applied. Eight residential buildings in Erbil formed the research sample and they were assessed using a Likert scale to obtain average values of each variable. The findings show that interior design elements tend to influence visual and acoustical privacy to a great extent. The choice of the interior design materials has an impact on the overall rating of building on protecting both acoustical and visual privacy. Results show no correlation between visual and acoustical privacy for the individual for the same project. The interior design of Shahan city apartment presents the worst regarding to individual privacy. The study concludes that in order to increase the value of housing unit, it should maintain the individual privacy within the limitations of the societies. It is recommended that privacy achieved by controlling architectural elements of interior design of the apartment should raise its value. It is also recommended that the local and national governments strengthen policies regulating interior designs norms to reduce the lack of individual privacy.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Treatment of Liquefiable Soils by the Ballasted Column Technique: Case of
           Martil River Bridge in the North of Morocco

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Youness Tlidi   Lahcen Bahi   Latifa Ouadif   and Anas Bahi   The seismic activity in northern Morocco is largely due to an intense tectonic activity Plio-Quaternary and current generated by the approach of the two lithospheric plates Africa-Eurasia. Certainly, the liquefaction of soils is a phenomenon that presents a potential risk and a major challenge for the construction of foundations of engineering structures. The objective of this work is the realization of test plates to decide on adequate treatment in a soil liquefiable. For our case during the construction of a double bridge on a liquefiable soil and in a seismic zone, we were confronted with two technical problems, on the one hand the choice of the method of treatment of the soil in place and on the other hand the verification of this improvement by the results of the CPT tests (Cone Penetration Test) carried out before and after the densification of the soil. Many types of liquefaction remediation methods have been developed. However, for our case, the results indicate the effectiveness of the vibrocompaction method in improving the in-place soil compared to the dry method in eliminating the risk of soil liquefaction. It should be noted that the wet columns were lowered to 22m/TN, and the dry columns were stopped at varying depths between 2 and 14m/TN, and the results of the CPT (Cone Penetration Test) confirm the effectiveness of vibrocompaction and that the bridge foundations are protected against the phenomenon of soil liquefaction.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • The Spatial Experience of Visually Impaired and Blind: An Approach to
           Understanding the Importance of Multisensory Perception

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Dina Bakir   Yasser Mansour   Shaimaa Kamel   Yasser Moustafa   and Marwa H. Khalil   Design has long focused on the visual sense, with the neglect of other human senses. Currently, there is a growing body of literature that presents how perception is actually multi-sensory in nature. The visually impaired and blind rely on their other senses which make them appreciate other spatial qualities. The aim of the study is to understand how they experience and perceive the built environment through their compensatory senses. More specifically, the study intends to determine the spatial qualities that can enrich the multisensory experience in the built environment. A phenomenological research approach is adopted. The study relies on two different types of narratives. First, the autobiography of Taha Hussein "The Days" as a past experience of a blind person was selected. Second, in-depth semi-structured interviews and guided tours with visually impaired and blind informants were conducted. Instead of looking at what they are limited to, the study identifies their sensory capabilities that were enhanced by the surrounding environments. Through the exploration of such capabilities, the paper extracts multi-sensorial spatial qualities that cater for such capabilities. The paper identifies specific physical characteristics that were perceived by the visually impaired and blind informants regarding the surrounding spatial envelope. Findings of this study also show that sensory perception of physical characteristics acted as a dominant theme helping in cognitive processes such as constructing mental imagery, cognitive maps, and operating in the built environment. The findings of the study were discussed in light of previous research and literature. Such findings are expected to provide relevant insights for a multisensory design approach that engages all the senses, and helps designers provide users with richer experiences.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • The In-Formed Glitch and Its Tools for Generating Digital Architectural
           Form

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Yusur Raed Mohsen   and Basim Hasan Hashim   After the development of technology and the technological participation into the world of architectural design instead of the traditional methods that designers used to create shapes, the trend began to use the computers and architectural design software programs instead. This leads to a flaw in the architectural design rather than limiting it to the artistic side to generate architectural forms characterized by aesthetics and uniqueness. The glitch reveals a new opportunity and a spark of creative energy indicating that something new is about to be created. Therefore, the research problems are lack of knowledge in the in-formed glitch and the tools that are invested by architects to generate the architectural forms. The aim of the research is to find the tools that generate digital architectural forms through the in-formed glitch, as well as, study the two types of glitch (given and in-formed) and the glitch in architecture design. The practical application on some projects shows that one of the most important glitch tools designers relied on to reach architectural forms with unique aesthetic shapes that are characterized by dominance, transparency and balance. It expresses the aesthetic aspects in unexpected way that makes the recipient feel shocked when he sees the output for the first time, then multiple interpretations explaining the beauty in the eyes of the beholder depending on his cultural background.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • The Effect of Flow Velocity on Bridge Pillar Concrete Wings Using iRIC
           Software Nays2HD 3.0.

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Nenny   Fenti Daud S.   Sukmasari Antaria   and Hamzah Al Imran   This experimental study discusses flow velocity around concrete wings for the reduction of scouring on bridge pillars. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the flow velocity around the bridge piers before and after the concrete flange curtain by using iRIC (International River Interface Cooperative) software Nays2HD 3.0. A soil channel model with trapezoidal cross-section, cylindrical pillar and concrete wing curtain model was used in this study. The observation objects were flow discharge (Q), flow velocity (v), flow depth (h), and scour depth elevation (ds) in each time interval. Furthermore, the simulation results showed that the lowest and the highest flow velocity were 0.000 m/s and 0.998 m/s, respectively. The flow velocity that occurred around the bridge piers and concrete wings was relatively small due to the changing direction of flow after the concrete wings. Meanwhile, the scour that occurred around the bridge pillars was relatively small due to the presence of concrete wings in front of the pillars. Based on the validation results between the analysis of the iRIC software, Nays2DH 3.0 and a physical model at the output velocity (ms-1), there was an insignificant difference of 4.61%.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Restructuring Information Management in Building Design and Construction
           Using BIM as a Platform

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Petrit Pasha   and Mohd Tajuddin Bin Mohd Rasdi   The purpose of this research is to restructure information management in the building design and construction process by using the BIM management platform. BIM has appeared in the scene of the architecture and construction chain by addressing multidisciplinary inefficiencies, incapabilities, disorganizations, and delays that have been rooted in the structure of architecture and building chain for over decades. However, the German architecture and construction chains are experiencing huge difficulties in accepting, endorsing, and understanding the BIM benefits, because there is no clear guidance and best practices in BIM implementation that comes as a reliable example. This research aims to present, explain, and analyze the differences between projects that have been designed and built in the traditional way and those which have utilized assets of the BIM management software. The investigation is based on two case studies - one project managed in the traditional non-BIM manner and the other one utilizing BIM as the main platform. The results reveal clearly that the BIM-involved project achieves higher accuracy, better design quality, effective team collaboration, and satisfying cost and time-efficiency compared to the traditional design and build project. Nevertheless, the results also reveal that the BIM software is underused or misused among the teams involved in the building chain.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Modelling of Cracked Concrete and Identification of Design Parameters
           Using Static Non-linear Analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Shifana Fatima Kaafil Rehumaan   Disaster mitigation in developing countries calls for use of locally available composite materials and technology for faster implementation. The behavior of concrete with composites at vulnerable locations is considerably improved in non-linear form. The focus of the study is to provide design inputs for rehabilitation of damaged beam using locally available composite materials based on nonlinear static analysis. The study models are the tensile zone of a beam structure using finite elements and pre-assigned crack widths and crack depth. By non-linear material analysis, the stiffness variation is found out, approximated in a bilinear form then given as an input to get stiffness and displacement of the models before and after modulus of rupture for concrete. The model developed in this paper involves a lot of uncertainties and thereby fuzzy logic has been used to handle these uncertainties. The percentage increase in stiffness and percentage reduction in displacement for undamaged, damaged concrete model and concrete rehabilitated with composite are found using fuzzy logic then compared with the results obtained from finite elements analysis. The method developed in this paper is validated with an example, showing the percentage increase via load carrying capacity of the beam and the different types of repairs and rehabilitation. The equations developed in this paper are recommended for design implementation of cracked, uncracked and damaged specimens using locally made different composites.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • State-of-Art-Review: Latest Advancements in Seismic Isolation of
           Structures

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Syed Emad Uddin Ahmad   Khalid Moin   and Rehan Ahmad Khan   Seismic isolation is effected by providing an interface between the foundations of the building and superstructure which may consist of stories above the ground level by inserting devices. Those are meant to reduce the effect of ground motions generated by an earthquake or/ and wind load. In this process, the period of the whole structure including base isolators is elongated so that ground waves containing large energy contents in the horizontal components of the earthquake may be deflected conveniently. An updated state-of-art review of isolation techniques and the design of isolated buildings is presented in this paper. The research findings in the comprehensive form are extracted out of the large volume of research papers published during the last five decades, where only some limited quality papers are selected for the preparation of this manuscript. The review generally covered papers on the analysis and design of structures with base isolation. Review is not confined to buildings with friction pendulum isolators only, but also includes the study of structural response to some other types of base isolators and dampers to seismic attacks.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Risk Assessment of Railway Switch and Crossing Failures: Case Study of an
           Urban Rail Transit in Thailand

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Ratthaphong Meesit   Patraphorn Phornthepkasemsant   Rojjanast Rattanawan   and Thitinan Ruamsab   Railways are becoming the main transportation mode in Thailand. Thus, maintaining the optimal service level to passengers is one of the significant issues that need to be addressed. This makes the way to manage railway assets extremely important, especially with the essential assets on a railway network such as switches and crossings (S&C). This study presents how the risk of switch and crossing failures could be assessed and managed. The process of the risk management is based on ISO 31000, and the method used to analyse the risk is the Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA). In detail, the switches and crossings on the Airport Rail Link city line (ARL), Thailand, are considered as a case study. The interview data from six experts, engineers and technicians who are responsible for the maintenance of S&C were used to determine the risk of each S&C component. The results show that the point machines, check and wing rails are the most critical components of S&C in the case study, and the least critical components are heel blocks, slide chairs and closure rails. Based on these findings, it is suggested that the current S&C maintenance program of the ARL may need to be improved. The priority of the inspection and maintenance activities of each S&C component could be adjusted according to the risk evaluation results presented in this study.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • The Application of Building Information Modelling Method for Carbon
           Emission Analysis: A Case Study of Housing in Peat Lands

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Rudi Waluyo   Subrata Aditama K. A. Uda   Rizki Fajrianur Akbar   and Muhammad Irsyad   The construction sector is the largest contributor to carbon emission, especially from housing development activities, which has been on high demand due to the continuous increase in the population. This study aims to analyze the amount of carbon emission produced from house building materials on peat soil, using the Building Information Modeling method. The construction of houses on peat land is different from that of hard soil, because it requires to strengthen the foundation and to minimize the load on the superstructure of the building which was performed by choosing the type of material that is suitable for the location, and is also environmentally friendly. The carbon emission was calculated using a quantitative approach, where the volume of the material used was multiplied by its emission coefficient. The volume of material was obtained using the Building Information Modeling method, while the emission coefficients were acquired by utilizing the inventory data from ICE University of Bath and several literature studies. The results showed that the types of materials that produced the largest emissions were cement, mild steel, and wood, which had 14,051.90 KgCO2eq/house, 9,565.89 KgCO2eq/house, and 7,865.75 KgCO2eq/house, carbon value respectively. After redesigning the building and replacing light steel with wood, the emission reduction was 5.01% from a total of 42,523.33 KgCO2eq/house or 2,109 KgCO2eq/house with a saving of Rp. 154,397.04 or 10.87/house. Based on data from Central Bureau of Statistics of the City of Palangka Raya, the number of houses built in Palangka Raya City reached 918 units with an average building area of 45 - 70 m2, it is estimated to save Rp. 141,397,482.72 or $ 9,978.66. It shows the importance of environmentally friendly innovations in designs and the selection of low-emission materials, which has a positive impact on finance and climate sustainability. This finding is expected to provide insights for the government in the implementation of housing construction policies that prioritize environmental factors which reduce the level of carbon produced during the construction process and its operation.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • The Role of Construction Technology Techniques in Improving the
           Performance of Contemporary Housing Complexes, Bismayah City in Iraq: A
           Case Study

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Safaaaldeen Hussein Ali   and Marwa Mohammed Kassid AL-Zaid   Building methods have advanced because of technological development. So-called contemporary construction technology techniques have made construction processes faster, less expensive, and better performing, especially in the case of low-cost contemporary housing projects in Iraq, where these techniques have been developed by planning engineering solutions that fill the housing need in Iraq. This research aims to improve the formal, functional, and environmental requirements through contemporary construction technology techniques in housing complexes in Iraq. Solving the problem necessitated the adoption of a multistage analytical and descriptive approach. The first stage was to extract and create a theoretical framework for the subject. In the second stage, we applied it to the Bismayah housing project in Iraq to determine the most important terms approved in it. Finally, we analyze and discuss the results of the practical study.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Investigating Architectural Patterns of Indian Traditional Hindu Temples
           through Visual Analysis Framework

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Aditya Kumar Singh   Vinay Mohan Das   Yogesh Kumar Garg   and Mohammad Arif Kamal   The Architectural image of Indian traditional temples has been fascinating the scholars since their discovery, maybe due to their mystic sensorial experience. Historians, archaeologists, artists, anthropologists, astrologists, numerologists, and exclusively architects have been exploring the mysticism either linking myths or textural tenets. The sea change has been witnessed in the architectural language of temples since the beginning of their existence to date. Since the late medieval period, this language has been deciphered in majorly Sanskrit and manifested with due authenticity. It is the colonial period wherein the various scholarships have initiated attempts to decode the mysticism of architectural language through translations & visual transformations. Through a close review of the past researches, the paper has discerned the various constructs and approaches through which scholars have conceptualized and interpreted the architecture of Indian traditional temples. It has focused on contemporary visual frameworks for analysis of Indian traditional temples employed by scholars and the outcomes of the same. The comparatives between the building & text put forth by scholarships were often found constructed on shaky grounds while the visual interpretations had revealed either faltered dimensional transformations or implausible geometrical propensities.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Ergonomics in the Contemporary Balinese Building: the Integration between
           Architectural and Structural Aspects

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  I Nyoman Sutarja   and I Dewa Gede Agung Diasana Putra   Ergonomic requirements in a building must be reliable. They must meet the safety, health, comfort and convenience requirements specified in the building rules, including the ergonomic safety requirements in a traditional Balinese building. Traditionally, the Balinese utilized their body size to gauge their building's size. However, changes in technology and people's lifestyles have already influenced building techniques. To what extent are ergonomic aspects still used in novel Balinese architecture and building structures' This article examined recent buildings in Bali, integrating architecture, construction, advanced technology and traditional building components. This article analyzed the proper building design and structural system that addresses the ergonomics of the house, the indigenous knowledge of the people, and the advancement of technologies through fieldwork, literature study, interviews and structural analysis using SAP 2000. This study discovered that, traditionally, Balinese people utilized their bodies to determine the scale of their buildings, both in terms of space and structural components. As living standards and technology improved, they have begun to forsake the usage of body parts in measuring buildings. Nowadays, buildings have been designed using meter basis measurement, removing the ability to identify the building's owner using the owner's body as the basic standard for measurement. They also abandoned conventional structural techniques in favor of reinforced concrete systems, especially for non-religious buildings, because reinforced concrete frame structures supported by brick walls are more secure than wooden frame structures. However, the integration during the planning process between architecture and structural design process has still been performed.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • A Pilot Site Approach for Built Heritage Diagnosis: The Preservation and
           Conservation of Egongot Ethnic Minority

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  John Cedierick P. Abarca   Ar. Jocelyn A. Rivera-Lutap   Raydett Kelly C. Ronquillo   and John Dence S. Suizo   In the Philippines, some ethnic minority-built heritages are frequently misunderstood, and most are not given adequate attention in assessing their cultural significance. Consequently, people often lack adequate knowledge in the proper conservation and preservation of remaining cultural treasures. This may further result in the degradation, if not the oblivion, of key Filipino cultural values. It is with the use of the Pilot site procedure that we approached the architectural practice of Heritage conservation as we diagnosed the traditional dwellings of Egongot people of Aurora province in giving light to their traditional architecture as a vital built heritage in the country. The pilot site approach made use of historical documentation and surveys as well as present architectural condition assessment through observation. The first phase of the pilot site is the historic data collection which provided the traditional construction process and the use of vernacular materials. The second phase which is the architectural assessment provided observational information of its current state after the intervention of conservation treatment. The last phase of the pilot site approach which is the diagnosis of conservation treatment, is the consequent analysis of both past and present. These two factors are utilized to formulate a comparative analysis of ‘how it used to be' and ‘how its current state is'. The results showed various manipulations of construction methods and integration of modern building materials that threaten both the identity and structural integrity of the built heritage. As a result, appropriate preservation and maintenance guidelines are formulated to better appreciate the heritage architecture's historic and cultural value.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Off-Site Construction of Concrete Housing in the Andean Region: Advantages
           and Disadvantages

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Tito Castillo   Marcel Paredes   Alexis Andrade   Valeria Arroba   and Joselyn Guerrero   The construction of prefabricated houses is a viable option to solve the problems of housing demand in the Andean region. The prefabricated concrete houses have been built in several countries in the region and will surely be developed in the future. Thinking about their constructability, information is required about this construction system, which is scarcely known by the main people involved in construction: governments, users and builders. The present work seeks to fill the knowledge gap on the production and assembly of prefabricated concrete housing (PFCH), as well as on its advantages and disadvantages. For this purpose, a search for providers of this type of housing was carried out in Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador and Peru. Through an analysis of documentary information and interviews with the managers of the supplier companies, it was established that one of the main aspects in this construction system is the definition of the constituent elements of the house as this defines the need for equipment and hand of work for its assembly. The main advantage is the short execution time, while among the disadvantages is the poor adaptability of the designs. There are conflicting opinions as to whether its cost is an advantage. This research contributes to the constructability of PFCH in the Andean region, facilitating knowledge that can be integrated in the design and in the construction stage in order to improve the performance of the construction process.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Numerical Evaluation of Embedded Smart Irrigation System for Deep-Rooted
           Desert Trees

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Qazi U. Farooq   Muhammad T. Naqash   and Abdelkader T. Ahmed   Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's green initiative program aims to plant ten million trees across the country. The kingdom mostly has a desert climate with constrained water resources. The sand dunes and sheets spread across hundreds of square kilometers in the country. The plantation of trees and saplings in these harsh conditions cannot be achieved without an efficient irrigation system. Native desert trees have deep roots and smart irrigation techniques can be intrinsically applied to irrigate these plants, even in the wild. In this study, a smart irrigation system for deep-rooted trees has been numerically assessed for the sandy desert conditions. The partially saturated, subsurface flow analysis has been done by using FEM modeling. The study results exhibit the possible placement of smart irrigation diffusers along with the depth. The method can be used to irrigate only the target root zone and oblige in water conservation. The field installation of a smart irrigation system in deep strata and its long-term maintenance will be some of the prospective challenges for field engineers.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Sensitivity Analysis in Parameter Calibration of the WEAP Model for
           Integrated Water Resources Management in Unda Watershed

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  I Gusti Agung Putu Eryani   Made Widya Jayantari   and I Kadek Merta Wijaya   WEAP or Water Evaluation and Planning is a model that is used to simulate integrated water resources management. To get a model that is able to represent the real condition, a calibration process is needed. This study aims to determine the optimum parameter value through sensitivity analysis and to determine the parameter value to obtain the optimum model reliability value during the calibration process. Based on the sensitivity analysis process for several calibration parameters of the WEAP model, it is found that some parameters have similar characteristics. Change in Z1, DWC, RRF, RZC value is directly proportional to the RMSE value, the greater the parameter value, the greater the RMSE value obtained. Whereas change in Z2, DC, SWC, PFD value is inversely proportional to the RMSE value, the larger the parameter value, the smaller the RMSE value obtained. After the sensitivity analysis was carried out, the efficiency coefficient of the Nash Sutcliffe model was obtained 0.512 which was satisfactory. The Index of Agreement and the correlation coefficient of calibration also show good results with values of 0.848 and 0.743. From these results, it can be concluded that the WEAP model for the Unda watershed is satisfactory.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Enhancing Walkability in Brick & Mortar Retail Markets: Case Study of
           Chaura Bazar, Ludhiana

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Raminder Kaur   and Mahendra Joshi   Purpose – In success of brick and mortar (B&M) retail markets, pedestrian friendly urban design plays a pivotal role. Variables affecting walkability have significant social, economic and environmental benefits in B&M retail markets. Through qualitative analysis from field and public agency survey, this paper evaluates the walkability index of retail markets in and along, Chaura bazar road, Ludhiana. Design/ methodology/ approach – Safety, Comfort and Convenience are three important pillars for sustainable urban design for pedestrian in B&M retail markets. Multiple methods including Global walking Index (GWI), Pedestrian Environment Data Scan (PEDS) and Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) are available to measure urban environment related to walking in particular region. For analysis of selected market, GWI method was chosen owing to the fact that it is the best worldwide applicable method to perform walkability qualitative analysis. Findings – Irrespective of the fact that pedestrians are the most important users in B&M retail markets, Walkability Index of study area is 27, which is minimal walkable range. Thus, to increase walkability, it is much needed for architects, planners and policy makers to implement actions to improve safety, comfort and convenience of pedestrian in all potential B&M retail markets. Originality – Walkability is one of the important concepts in urban planning and this paper highlights influencing factors to promote walking in B&M retail market. Indeed, in cities like Ludhiana, huge potential in retail industry is available, thus qualitative analysis of B&M retail markets is needed to attain a sustainable urban environment. Under scope, in terms of walkability, existing markets in Chaura bazar, Ludhiana have been analyzed.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Identification and Categorization of Building Defects

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Omar Mostafa Alomari   The problem of building defects is one of the common problems that occur throughout the lifecycle of the building. The construction stakeholders consider it a critical issue that led to costs and time implications of reworks. Mostly, repairing construction defects requires a cost approximately ranging from 2.4% to 3.15% of the total cost of building. Therefore, the current study looks forward to discovering and classifying the common factors contributing to construction defects. To achieve this objective, the researcher adopted a qualitative method to collect and analyze the needed data through deep review of several previous studies that focused on the causes of building defects. Accordingly, this study identified 57 common contributing factors of building defects, which are classified into five groups according to their sources. These groups are Factors related to design, Factors related to construction, Factors related to materials, Factors related to human and External factors. Understanding the contributing factors of the building defects can help construction stakeholders take and develop various strategies to reduce the existence of defects in newly constructed buildings. Positively, the findings of this study could upgrade the management efficiency of the building defects assessment process in the future, which will help to avoid them as much as possible.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Electric Profiling Based Fully Recurrent Deep Neural Learning
           Classification for Groundwater Quality Prediction

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Raghuveer Narsing   and K. Karthikeyan   Groundwater is present under Earth surface within soil pore spaces and rock formation. It is recharged via surface and typically discharged. Water pollution affects the quality of water and troubles human health, economic growth as well as social wealth. The groundwater quality identification is essential to maintain freshwater resources for sustainable development. But, the existing methods failed to improve the groundwater quality and minimize time consumption. To address these problems, an Electric Profiling Ground Water Identification based Fully Recurrent Deep Neural Learning Classification (EPGWI-FRDNLC) Method is designed to achieve efficient quality analytics by higher accuracy and minimum time consumption. In EPGWI-FRDNLC Method, electric profiling process is carried out for ground water identification. After that, a fully recurrent deep neural learning classification process is carried out for ground water quality prediction analytics. Fully recurrent deep neural learning classification process includes more than three layers for performing the ground water quality analysis. In EPGWI-FRDNLC Method Model, a lot of data were measured for input and given to the input layer. After that, input data were given to hidden layer 1. In that layer, softmax regression is used for performing the input parameter analysis like temperature, pH, turbidity, salinity, nitrates and phosphates. Then, the regression coefficient value is transferred to hidden layer 2. Tanimato similarity function is employed for identifying the similarity between the regression coefficient value of training data and threshold value. Tanimato similarity value ranges from 0 to 1 and the results are sent to the output layer. By this way, EPGWI-FRDNLC Method improves the ground water quality prediction analytics. Experimental evaluation of EPGWI-FRDNLC Method was performed with various metrics by an amount of data.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Production of Eco-Friendly Concrete Masonry Units Using Powder Waste Glass

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Roz-Ud-Din Nassar   Danish Saeed   Muhammad Sufyan-Ud-Din   and Shumayal Nassar   This article investigates the use of powder waste glass (PWG) as partial replacement of cement for the production of Concrete Masonry Units (CMU) using a lab experimental program. Initially, an optimum level of partial replacement of cement with PWG was determined in the preliminary experimental tests on mortar mixtures incorporating PWG. Mixtures with 100% cement were also produced for comparison with the PWG modified mixtures. Test results of the main experimental program confirmed the viability of 15 wt.% replacement of cement with fine PWG having median particle size of 18 µm towards production of CMU with enhanced strength and durability attributes. The use of PWG as partial replacement cement benefitted the later-age strength and durability of the resulting cementitious mixture. At 56 and 90 days of ages, the PWG mixture-based CMU achieved about 12% higher strength than that of control CMU. Furthermore, eight-day cumulative water sorption of PWG-based CMU was recorded to be 43% less than that of normal CMU. Similarly, a 10% reduction in the dry density of the hardened CMU produced with PWG was recorded in comparison to that of control CMU produced with 100% cement. The inclusion of PWG as partial replacement of cement was observed to increase the initial and final setting times and slightly reduce the flow characteristic of the resulting cementitious mixtures. The use of PWG for the production of CMU blocks is viewed as an excellent practice for the production of strong, durable, light, economical and eco-friendly masonry construction.
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • 3D Modeling and Structural Monitoring of the Puka Pukara Archaeological
           Complex-Peru

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  2  Rolando Mamani-Huaman   Hernan Chavez Rojas   and Mariel P. Ramos Inche   Archaeological buildings are part of our national cultural heritage, have a legacy of historical significance, and are generators of economic benefits, due to tourist movements. Three-dimensional models have become a useful and significant tool for monitoring records, virtual reality, and structural analysis of architectural monuments. Aerial photogrammetry is the most employed method, it provides a complete model of the monument, incorporates a digital camera that can be used manually, placed on a drone, or on top of tripod instruments. Therefore, this method is versatile and can generate complete 3D models at the expense of longer processing times. This study proposes the 3D modeling and structural monitoring of the archaeological complex of Puka Pukara, to characterize the general state of damage of the monument, including inaccessible areas. The data generated from the area acquisition provided a thorough identification of the pathologies in the facades and walls. The results show highly deterministic 3D digital models that are then rigorously analyzed. The structural monitoring showed that the west wall and the east façade of the Puka Pukara enclosure show deterioration, cracks, deformations, and a high risk of decline, so emergency actions are recommended for their stabilization. The paper presented a single case study where a single 3D scanning technique was applied to the archaeological complex of Puka Pukara. The results generated by the methodology allowed complete digitization (exterior and interior) with a high level of detail of the structures, which can only be achieved by using one methodology (photogrammetry).
      PubDate: Mar 2022
       
  • Effects of Vegetation on Urban Heat Island Using Landsat 8 ‎OLI/TIRS
           Imagery in Tropical Urban Climate

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Sri Sutarni Arifin   Baharuddin Hamzah   Rosady Mulyadi   and Abd. Rachman Rasyid   The decrease in the number of vegetated areas has an impact on increasing Land Surface Temperature (LST) which encourages the formation of urban heat islands. A lot of literature discusses the correlation between soil surface temperature and vegetation, but does not consider the geographical aspects and climatological conditions of the tropics located at the equator. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effect of vegetation cover and surface temperature in the research area which will later be used as a reference in recommending the need for green open spaces in urban areas with tropical climates. In this study, a case study was conducted in the city of Goron‎talo using the Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS image interpretation method, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) algorithm, the Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI) algorithm, and land surface temperature measurements using thermal bands 10 and 11. The results showed that areas with high vegetation index had low temperatures while areas with low vegetation index had high temperatures. The effect of wetland area depends on land use conditions at the time of image recording and water bodies have no significant effect on LST.‎
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • The Identification of the Existence of Dispersive Soil on the Soft Soil
           for Dam Filling Material

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Lusmeilia Afriani   and Ryzal Perdana   Dispersive clay soils are highly erodible, even under standing water conditions. Dispersive clay soils are easily eroded both on the surface and in landfills, despite their high plasticity index and ability to be passed by water flows at low velocities. Dispersive soil will cause a variety of problems in dams and water structures, including the potential for seepage patterns in the embankment material, which can trigger piping, compromising the stability of the water structure. Dispersive soils occurring in many parts of the world are easily erodible and deflocculated in water, posing serious problems for stability of the earth and earth-retaining structures. Earth dams constructed on dispersive soils have sustained internal and external soft soil damage. The purpose of the current study was to identify the predetermine of dispersive clay soil as a filling material for the Way Sekampung Dam in Indonesia. Pinhole and Crumb tests were carried out to determine the dispersity of the original soil. This study analysed 17 undisturbed soil samples collected from 17 different locations throughout the study area. The research findings indicate that there is no evidence of dispersive soil distribution in the samples studied. According to the Pinhole and Crumb tests, all soil samples have ND-1 and 1 status, respectively. These findings are supported by laboratory test results which indicate that the soil content with a diameter greater than 0.005 mm is always less than 12% for each sample. In addition, another test revealed that the permeability value of all tested clay samples was not too low (around 10-2 to 10-4), indicating that they did not possess the properties of dispersive clay, which had a very low permeability value (around 10-6 to 10-7). In general, the clay surrounding the dam site is free from dispersive properties and is therefore safe and suitable for use as a dam filling material. Finally, these findings will be beneficial for dam constructions to understand the possibility of dispersive soil causing significant issues that require attention in geotechnical engineering.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Comparison of Different Model Updating Algorithms to Detect Damage in A
           Structural Slab Using Mode Shape Data

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Lyn Dee Goh   Norhisham Bakhary   and Fatin Nadiah Abdul Rahman   Vibration-based damage detection (VBDD) is one of the techniques used in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) for detecting structural damage. VBDD provides more efficient, reliable and economical methods to improve the safety and reduce the cost of maintenance in structural engineering. This paper investigates the performance of model updating (MU) method using different types of algorithms in damage detection. A finite element analysis is performed to obtain dynamic properties of undamaged and damaged slab structure for model updating process using different types of algorithms. Three optimisation functions of different algorithms employed in this study are constrained optimisation, least-square optimisation and multiobjective optimisation. Different damage cases are introduced at different locations with different damaged intensities by reducing the structure's elastic modulus in corresponding segment. The performance of MU is evaluated by Stiffness Reduction Factor (SRF). The comparison of SRF for actual value and predicting value is made to check the applicability of three types of algorithms in damage detection. Mean Square Error (MSE) is applied to evaluate stopping and tolerance criteria effect on result improvement. The results show all three types of algorithms are capable to provide reliable results in damage prediction and an improvement of result has been made when increasing the stopping and tolerance criteria.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Experiment Study of Catalysed Lignocellulosic Biomass Thermoelectric
           Concrete with Active Solution

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Hoong-Pin Lee   Kar-Loke Teow   Wen-Zhang Lee   and Nurharniza Abdul Rahman   Emission of CO2 becomes one of the global challenges and catalyzed lignocellulosic biomass thermoelectric concrete (CBC) is a new source of energy which helps to encounter this challenge. CBC is an advance class of concrete, which has proven to be able to generate voltages throughout thermal change, but several drawbacks were reported such as low voltage and insufficient compressive strength to meet construction industry needs. This study intends to investigate the incorporation of active solution like alkali/acidic solution as activation booster, palm oil fuel ash (POFA) as partial cement replacement and catalyst for charges extraction, under thermal changes. Active solutions used in this study were Sodium Hydroxide, Iron(III) Sulfate, and Copper(II) Sulfate. Specimens with dimension of 50 x 50 x 20mm and 150x150x150mm were prepared and cured accordingly; then tested its conductivity with temperature ranged from 0℃ to 100℃; and uniaxial compressive strength test, respectively. The experiment has proven that incorporation of active solution in CBC mix is able to enhance both voltage supply and compressive strength by average 249.73% and 41.64% (with active solution Fe2(SO4)3), respectively. With a complete circuit, it can be noticed that specimen's voltage density is directly proportional to exposed temperature, from 38.35 V/m2 at 0℃ to 129.67 V/m2 at 100℃. The study has proven that CBC with addition of active solution is able to enhance the matured compressive strength and at the same time, carrying voltage when a complete circuit is applied. With this, the application of CBC in construction industry has been increased to structural application for alternative renewable energy source.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty Index for
           Public Transport

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Nur Farhana Norzelan   Siti Zaharah Ishak   Suria Haron   S. Sarifah Radiah Shariff   and Teh Zaharah Yaacob   The COVID-19 outbreak is a global pandemic that is now widespread across the world. Malaysia government has implemented the Movement Control Order (MCO) or so-called massive restriction in Malaysia. The restriction amongst others includes that the public is advised to stay and work from home. Only the essential services are allowed to operate at capacity within the stipulated Standard Operating Procedures (SOP). Public transport operation is considered as essential services that need to provide people with mobility and access to employment, community resources, medical care, and recreational opportunities in communities. This study aims to identify the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on urban public transport in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The objectives include: to determine the change of ridership trends, to measure the Customer Satisfaction Index (SCI) and Loyalty Index (CLI) in taking consideration of the current COVID-19 SOP provided by public transport operators. The questionnaire survey was distributed via online and received 401 respondents. The results show significant decreases in ridership and new mobility patterns emerge from public transport to private cars. The COVID-19 pandemic also impacted the CSI and CLI value for both public transport services-bus and rail within the urban public transport users. The highlights of public transport users' concern on using the public transport during this pandemic will be discussed.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Assessment of Subgrade Degradation Induced Mud Pumping at Railway Track: A
           Review

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  N. N. Yahaya   A. Ibrahim   J. Ahmad   A. Ahmad   M. I. F. Rozli   and Z. Ramli   Generation of mud pumping is commonly triggered by a combination of three main factors such as excess fines, excess water, and cyclic loading. Excess fines particle is generated from depositing mechanisms (i.e., dust, waste material and ballast breakage) and fluidisation or internal erosion mechanism (i.e., subgrade degradation). Mud pumping phenomenon that is associated with ballast fouling has been widely discussed and is of interest among the railway engineers and researchers. However, subgrade degradation or fluidisation of subgrade layer induced mud pumping mechanism gained less attention from the researchers due to complexity of subgrade soil behavior. Various methods applicable in railway track's subgrade degradation assessment based on destructive and nondestructive test were comprehensively reviewed in this research paper. The assessment on subgrade mud pumping is based on migration of the subgrade fine mechanism including in-situ excavation test, particle size distribution test, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and physical modelling test. This paper summarizes the advantages and weaknesses of various assessment methods of subgrade degradation induced mud pumping and clarifies most effective method for repair and maintenance of railway track.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Corroded Subsea Pipelines Burst Pressure Prediction Utilizing Finite
           Element Data Using ANN

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Mohd Fakri Muda   Mohd Hisbany Mohd Hashim   Mohd Khairul Kamarudin   Mohd Hairil Mohd   and Marzuki Abdul Rahman   The Engineering industry is constantly exploring an effective and fast-solving method for complicated engineering problems. The adaptation of artificial intelligent technology can diminish the time-consuming of conventional analysis methods, especially in offshore engineering. For that reason, this study is pursued to build a prediction model to predict the residual strength of API 5L X42 subsea pipelines. An artificial neural network is used as an analytical medium in developing the prediction model. Three (3) physical shapes of corrosion data with diverse corrosion level are designed as input data based on the corroded subsea pipelines of true 2009 historical inspection data of South China Sea. The output data are obtained from the finite element analysis to produce the burst pressure data. The performance model is evaluated using mean squared error (MSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) which results in 9.13 x 10-5 and 0.005499 respectively for the optimum model. The predicted output shows significant similarity in line with the finite element output for validation purposes. This model is expected to provide quick prediction reliability of subsea pipelines to the engineers and reduce or eliminate massive analysis work.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • The Optimal Artificial Neural Network for Small Datasets on Shear
           Resistance Prediction of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Beam

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  S. F. Senin   R. Rohim   and A. Yusuff   This study presents an approach for the prediction of the shear strength of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) beams using the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) developed based on existing experimental shear resistance results from various researchers. The experimental results database containing 42 sample numbers of SFRC beams (with shear span-to-depth ratio exceeding 2.5) without stirrups, with compressive strength of concrete varying from 24.9 to 68.6 MPa and steel fibers of hooked end type are used to develop an ANN model. The developed ANN model is trained by using 70% and 90% of the data and another 30 to 10% served as the validation data purpose. The shear strengths prediction based on ANN model was found to be in perfect agreement with the experimental values when the optimal neuron number is 2 and by fixing the training set size as 90%. Results showed that this ANN model has strong potential as a feasible design tool for predicting the shear strength of SFRC beams without transverse reinforcement or stirrups within the range of input parameters considered in this study.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Reconstructing the Understanding of the Symbolic Meaning Behind the
           Architecture of Javanese Traditional House

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Riandy Tarigan   Antariksa   and Purnama Salura   The architecture of traditional Javanese houses is full of symbolic meaning because they function as embodiments of the vertical (sacred), internal (private) and horizontal (social) relationships that are expressed in the activities, places, spaces and shapes as well as the meaning behind them. The current understanding of traditional architecture focuses on mere physical formation. The architecture of traditional Javanese houses is currently experiencing development both in terms of activities carried out in them as well as their physical shapes. These changes are caused by the added non-household activities, a shift of views on the part of the house owners and residents which results in the development of symbolic meaning. Understanding of the symbolic meaning behind the architecture of traditional Javanese houses—which separately examines the five aspects above— requires a deconstruction so that one may gain a thorough grasp of new understanding. The methods used are: (1) subjective observation on the activities and furniture arrangements in every room, the placements for the new activities and rooms for movement based on compositional principles. (2) Juxtaposing the structures of symbolical meaning between cosmological architecture of traditional houses with the current architecture of Javanese traditional homes to learn the development of symbolical meaning. (3) Conducting in-depth interviews to learn symbolical meanings according to the residents' views. These interviews are also done to clarify the subjective research done by the researcher. The objective of this research is to obtain a research method that is able to express a deep, holistic understanding of symbolical meaning. The significance of this research is to pose as a stakeholder in formulating policies in relation to the continuity and enrichment of the architecture of traditional houses.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • CFD Study of Flow Characteristics and Pressure Distribution on Re-Entrant
           Wing Faces of L-Shape Buildings

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Arun Kumar   and Ritu Raj   The purpose of this research is to investigate the wind flow pattern and pressure distributions on the re-entrant wing facades of an irregular L-cross sectional shape model over the range of wind incidence angles. Computational simulation with ANSYS (CFX) solver has been used for the study on model of the building of cross-sectional area 300m2 and height 50m at a length scale of 1:100. ANSYS (CFX) is a finite element modelling CFD program of pressure-based solver technology suitable for low Mach No. (Ma) fluid flow. Homogeneous flow of steady wind with gustiness of 5% turbulence in boundary layer of atmosphere is taken for the study. Investigation has been conducted for a range of wind angle of attack from 0° to 180° @ 15° interval. The findings were confirmed by examining similar wind flow on a rectangular model of same cross-sectional area and height under same boundary conditions as applied to L shape model. The results were compared with the values given in various international wind design codes/standards. For a better understanding of the flow characteristics around the L shape model in terms of flow stagnation, flow separation, creation of wakes & vortices and reattachment of flow; illustrations of flow patterns around the model for certain specific wind incidence angles are presented. On the basis of study of surface pressure generated on the model envelope, coefficient of pressure on the re-entrant corner faces has been discussed. The pressure on these wing faces has been found critical between 75° & 180° wind incident angles.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • The Adoption of BIM Technology in the Architectural Consultancy Firms in
           GCC Region

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Mohamed Faisal Al-Kazee   and Racha Ramhamdani   Nowadays, the construction industry market is in rising demand for the adoption of new construction technologies. Building Information Modeling (BIM) is one of the most technologies that are progressively being used for the majority of firms in GCC and worldwide. In this regard, BIM has promising applications for teamwork projects and stakeholders in the construction industry, especially architects. In addition, BIM plays an essential role in supporting them and facilitating the different procedures throughout the building life-cycle. However, our knowledge about architects' adoption of this technology is very limited. For this reason, the main aim of this paper is to identify the progress of architecture firms in BIM adoption and classify the characteristics of firms that have implemented BIM. Furthermore, the research method was mainly structured to cover several types of BIM studies and indicators about the spread of BIM applications in the local construction sector. Moreover, several questionnaires were designed to assess the level of BIM maturity in this region. The paper findings are expected to make all the project stakeholders aware of the current status and required steps towards BIM adoption at different levels in the GCC region. Additionally, the research results will pave the road to foster and enhance the BIM working field and facilitate its implementation by different disciplines within a wide range of architectural consultancy firms.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • A Framework of Critical Success Factors and Success Criteria for
           Structural Works of a Mixed-Use Building Construction Project

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Vien Carlo M. Amora   and Joseph Berlin P. Juanzon   The need to determine the critical success factors (CSFs) and success criteria (SC) would serve as keys to an effective and efficient project delivery and performance to achieve project success. This paper analyzed the CSFs and SC through the application of Pareto Analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process using a validated questionnaire as a basis in developing a framework for structural works of a mixed-use building construction project through the determination of priority CSFs and most recognized SC. Based on the results, the study found twenty-six CSFs associated with structural works of building project delivery using meta-analysis. The top six CSFs were established as the vital few or the 20 percent after performing Pareto Analysis. Utilizing a validated questionnaire, experts evaluated CSFs through the fundamental scale of the Analytic Hierarchy Process which revealed the ranking of most prioritized CSFs such as Teamwork and Communication, Training and Education, Personnel, Project Mission, Top Management Commitment, and Client Focus, respectively. Furthermore, the study determined the five most recognized SC with the highest frequency on existing literature such as Client/Customer Satisfaction, Cost – Budget, Time – Schedule, Quality – Performance, and Other Stakeholder's Satisfaction. With this, a framework has been developed based on priority CSFs and recognized SC that can be used by construction project participants during the structural phase and may serve as a guide to achieve the utmost objective of all construction projects which is success.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Situational Analysis of Identification Graphics and Canopies in Tampico
           Downtown and Pedestrian Effect

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  R. I. Lozano-Castro   J. Gonzalez-Velez   M. T. Sánchez-Medrano   L. A. Brandt-García   C. E. Berumen-Rodríguez   and K. Suarez-Dominguez   Tampico is an important commercial city at Tamaulipas, Mexico, founded in 1810, which has grown to occupy more than 70% of its habitable zone. The old town, for example, has buildings dating from the late nineteenth century to, mid-twentieth century belonging to the time of the Porfiriato (1876-1911) and the oil boom (1911-1938) that were modified in their use with the process of modernization. Currently, this sector is commercially distinguished. Every company that owns a building uses specific iconographic elements for graphics identification to make itself known. The exposed identification graphic is located in a space that can capture the pedestrian viewer's attention until its commercial and competitive identification to acquire the merchandise. In this sense, a study of 10 blocks of neighboring areas in the downtown city was carried out to recognize the current changes in derivatives of distinctive elements and the emerging need to increase the segment assigned in the step pedestrian, even when the inscription or graphic communication in the commercial identification graphics attracts the passing spectator's attention. On the other hand, special care has not been taken to maintain and preserve the architectural character of the historical area, detecting serious pathologies caused in the study due to a short intervention of the facades where the iconographic elements have been arranged.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Pareto Optimal Design of the Tuned Mass Damper

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Ahmed Abed   and Om El Khaiat Moustachi   Strong vibrations due to wind induced loads and earthquakes have undesirable effects on tall buildings and long-span bridges, and can cause discomfort, dizziness and anxiety for their occupants and users. The Single Tuned Mass Damper (STMD) is vibration control device used to mitigate strong motion. This study investigated the STMD from the perspective of multi-objective optimization. The main goal was to identify and characterize the Pareto set of optimal STMD parameters in terms of damping and stiffness. The optimization was performed using a multi-objective optimization algorithm based on gradient descent and successive bisecting of the search domain. and norms of the transfer matrices for structural displacement and acceleration were considered as design objectives. We found that for peak response reduction, irrespective of the excitation type, structural damping and STMD mass ratio, the Pareto set was linear and extended mainly in the direction of frequency ratio, while the damping ratio varied marginally within the set. For RMS displacement and peak acceleration minimization, the Pareto set was composed of two segments. Additionally, in all instances, the Pareto set was found to be bounded by the single-objective optimal STMDs for the considered design objectives. The implications of the findings were discussed and approximations of the Pareto optimal STMD were suggested.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Experiencing Public Parks through Phenomenology: Case of Riffa Walk Park,
           Bahrain

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Sandra Rachel Anil Job   and Islam Hamdi Elghonaimy   Human beings experience the world with a natural attitude, which is often due to everyday habitual experiences. These everyday experiences require being 'in place.' It is known that the visual sense is highly dominant over other senses. By representing virtual images of architecture, which cannot be distinguished from reality, sensorial experience in spaces has been lost and has become meaningless. By introducing sensual bodily experiences in places, one can come across meaningful spatial and bodily experiences inside and outside the built environment. Senses like sight, hearing, touch, and even smell contribute to the spatial experience and pleasure. An approach that emphasizes multi-senses will not alienate people from experiencing a space. This research intends to investigate the bodily experiences within an urban place. Further, the behavioural patterns, noise levels, and issues that persist within the place are observed and recommendations are given for fostering a complete spatial experience within the site.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Evaluation of Mechanical Performance of High Performance Hybrid Fiber
           Reinforced Concrete Containing Micro Silica

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  N Venkata Narasimha Prabath   and Ramadoss P   In the extended use of concrete in military applications, runway pavements and infrastructures, concrete is subjected to heavy impact loads that vary both in velocity and intensity. The addition of fibers in high performance concrete (HPC) can overcome its shortcomings such as brittleness, high shrinkage and less resistance to impact and also improve the ductile behavior and energy absorption capacity. In this study, development on strengthening of HPC using steel and Polypropylene fibers was focused. Moreover, an inclusion of volume fractions of both steel and polypropylene fibers, leads to an increase in the mechanical properties of concrete matrix. The present study represents the adding steel and Polypropylene fibres at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 0.25, 0.5, 1% by volume of concrete, respectively. A concrete mix has been designed to achieve the M60 grade concrete, mixes proportioned for FRC to determine the compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength of high performance hybrid fiber reinforced concrete at 28 days. The experimental results showed that the use of hybrid fibers with 1.5% steel and 1% Polypropylene fiber in HPC concrete has improved the strength of the concrete by 36% and 25.1% HPC with single fibers. The statistical tool was formulated to predict the strength properties of fiber reinforced concrete (i.e., compressive, flexural and split tensile strengths). The response surface method (RSM) was used to analyze the data and develop a regression equation. RSM was able to predict the experimentally tested values within an acceptable range.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Single Pile FEM Modeling: Ultimate Capacity Determination of Bored Piles
           Embedded in Silty-Sands Using Modified Drucker-Prager Cap Model

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Nathaniel E. Rivera   and Gilford B. Estores   Ultimate pile capacity determination is crucial before the structure construction. This essential pile resistance can be accurately predicted and studied using the finite element method. FEM is a numerical method that is anticipated to be indispensable in advances in pile analyses, aiming at pile effectiveness and material efficiency. Pile modeling is attainable using FEM for the stability investigation concerning the geotechnical findings. In addition, several constitutive mathematical models have been available for FEM applications to reasonably simulate soil behavior under pressure. This study conducts numerical modeling of eight bored piles of different diameters and lengths embedded in silty-sand soils. Using the FEM software ABAQUS, pile load-settlement curves are obtained to determine ultimate pile capacity, skin friction resistance, and pile base resistance. The modified Drucker Prager Cap model is used as a constitutive soil model for silty sand soils. In applying the MDPC model, the cap hardening behavior (hardening parameter) is obtained by having the site soils compression and swelling indices determined using the proposed regression equations in the literature. Piles were modeled successfully, and the results positively correlate with the results of the dynamic analysis test conducted in Davao del Norte, Philippines.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Validation of Sustainability Criteria as a Tool for the Evaluation of
           Habitability of Prefabricated Concrete Homes for Andean Areas

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Marcel Paredes   Alexis Andrade   Tito Castillo   Valeria Arroba   Emma Cevallos   and Rafaela Viteri   The incorporation of sustainable projects in the construction field and the use of prefabricated products allow to provide solutions for the real estate industry due to low cost. The goal of this research is to confirm the sustainability criteria of three different certifications such as: BREEAM, LEED and VERDE. Making paired comparisons based on the AHP method relating according to priorities of importance, preference or probability of pairs of the elements, based each time on a represented criteria in the decision hierarchy. According to the calculated values and the results, the AHP process was used to evaluate certification methods. The results of weighting between the three certification methods, determined that LEED adjusts to the reality of the Andean zone of Ecuador. As this area is a fragile place and susceptible to the contamination of water, soil and ecosystems, the innovation presented in this method, when ranking and comparing the weightings, makes it have greater weight compared to the other two analyzed. In this way, it was possible to interpret and develop a table of importance of suitable criteria to be implemented in the Andean zone, having as a result that the most important criterion is water with a percentage of 40.43%.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Crack Pattern Analysis of Plain Concrete Pavement due to Swelling Pressure
           on Expansive Soil

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Arif Afrianto   Ary Setyawan   Bambang Setiawan   and Wibowo   This research was conducted on the Surakarta-Gemolong-Geyer provincial road which is suspected to be built on expansive soil using the ATENA V5 3D software program. ATENA program can be used to simulate crack propagation in concrete and reinforced concrete structures. This study uses quantitative analysis methods, to the analysis of fracture patterns of rigid pavements with transverse reinforcement on expansive soils. Rigid pavement is modeled into 2 types, namely rigid transverse reinforced pavement models due to swelling pressure forces on expansive soils and transverse reinforced rigid pavements without swelling pressure forces on expansive soils. The swelling test on the soil carried out in the laboratory was 37 kPa. The rigid pavement model is subjected to load testing. The load used is the standard load of a medium-sized truck. The repetition of loading used is 30 times. The loading is divided into 3 types, namely: edge, center, and corner loading. The results of the analysis of rigid pavements were compared between rigid pavements due to swelling pressure forces on expansive soils with rigid pavements without swelling pressure forces. The results of the analysis from the ATENA software program show that every loading test on rigid pavement due to swelling pressure forces cracks greater than loading without swelling pressure forces. Edge loading shows that cracks due to swelling pressure are 3.5% higher than those without swelling pressure. Middle loading shows cracks due to swelling pressure which is 8.33% greater. Middle loading shows that cracks due to swelling pressure are 3.56% higher than without swelling pressure. This research can be used as a reference and prediction in identifying cracks that occur so that the government can carry out appropriate design planning and maintenance and rehabilitation of rigid pavements on expansive soils.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Full-Fledged Use of Semi-Basement Space by Building Seismic-Resistance,
           Energy-Efficiency, Microclimate and Preventing Influences of Thermal
           Bridges and Mold Growth

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Erkin Boronbaev   Berikbay Unaspekov   Aigul Abdyldaeva   Elmira Tohlukova   Kamoliddin Holmatov   and Nurbubu Zhyrgalbaeva   The known theory and experience of energy-saving architecture allow solving the article's task and ensuring sufficient insolation, passive solar heating, and occupants contact with nature through semi-basement windows. The goal is a full-fledged use of the semi-basement space achieved for seismically active regions with a moderate, cold, and hot climate by ensuring the normative seismic-resistance, energy-efficiency, and microclimate of the building and preventing influence of thermal bridges and mold growth. The set of recommendations also covers the provision of the required sanitary-hygienic conditions in the semi-basement rooms. The multidisciplinary problem is solved by integrating the methodologies of various fields of science. By means of numerical investigations, it established that the soil adjacent to the semi-basement foundation wall increases the thermal mass and building envelope heat-protection capacity. The isotherms and the intensity of heat fluxes made it possible to eliminate the effect of thermal bridges that interact with the soil and outside air. The expedient thickness and width of the additional layer of thermal insulation of thermal bridge zones in excess of the normative layer of the enclosure's thermal insulation were established. The graphical dependence of the wall's inner corner temperature from this width allows selecting the microclimate level. A multilateral contribution to building improvement is derived from a single-family home example: comfortable microclimate conditions have been created in the semi-basement for placing main rooms there; energy savings for heating this space is 16-20%; saving of monolithic frame and foundation concrete is 10-12% ensuring the higher than normative building seismic-resistance.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Workplace Design Concept Based on Indoor Environmental Quality Analysis to
           Prevent Coronavirus Transmission

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Hilma Tamiami Fachrudin   Khaira Amalia Fachrudin   and Imam Faisal Pane   People spend a lot of time in the workplace, where indoor environmental quality in the room provides the quality of health and comfort. Indoor environmental quality must be supported by a good air system to keep the air in the room healthy and clean. People who work in closed spaces have a greater risk of being exposed to the Covid 19 virus. This research will create a workplace design concept based on an analysis of indoor environmental quality from green building councils in several countries to prevent coronavirus transmission. This research uses qualitative methods with data collection through observation and interviews. The samples were divided into two groups, namely workplace with a centralized air conditioning system and a split air conditioning system. Indoor environmental quality consists of ventilation, air quality, thermal comfort, health protection, and passive design. The results of the analysis show that the workplace with a centralized air conditioning system does not utilize ventilation optimally, maintains air quality using a mechanical air filter that is integrated with the HVAC system, centralized thermal comfort, and has implemented health protection. Workplaces with split air conditioning system maximize ventilation and have indoor air quality management. Occupants can control thermal comfort and implement health protection.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Le Corbusier's Modulor: Anthropometric Myth

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Julio Lorenzo-Palomera   Carlos Fuentes-Pérez   and Yolanda Aranda-Jiménez   Since its two publications, 1948 and 1953, the Modulor has been incorporated as an anthropometric and human proportion reference until today as part of the design process heritage. Therefore, reliable metric information sources are needed, real data-based, useful in the architectural design process. Using documentary research, this critical essay deconstructs Modulor's attributes as a reference to the human scale, as it is based on a fanciful abstract drawing but not on real population stature measurements. Le Corbusier sought to justify the 2.20 meters height fitting to the human scale only considering an arm raised humanoid figure. Anthropometric databases are used from different sources, some French, where wide samplings indicate that height measurements considered by Le Corbusier's advisers, 1.75 and 1.83, do not correspond to population mean stature, 1.60-1.69, when the Modulor was made up. It was considered, in France, from the beginning of the physical anthropology of which anthropometry is a part, 18th century, until the trends of the 20th century. In addition, data from other countries during the 19th and 20th centuries also has through Le Corbusier´s lifespan. Human height is a variable measure, not standard. People can be 2.00 tall (Netherlands, 1996) or small, 1.49 (Guatemala, 1996). Neither the standing nor the seated body width was studied anthropometrically at all. Modulor besides is an excluding metric model in gender and ages. No more databases were analyzed, but those studies offer enough contrast between the abstract (Modulor) and the concrete (real people) height measurements. A large sample design, based on mean measure, is an erroneous criterion because it applies only to a population's small range. That is what Le Corbusier established with the Modulor to be the measure of all things but with fixed standard. Therefore, it is recommended to check other sources to corroborate it. The Modulor is a myth, so it is recommended to stop including it like a database or an anthropometric manual. As a human-scale option, it might be helpful for design learning as an incorrect criteria example.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Towards Developing the Renovation Design Guidelines for Aging Low-Cost
           Residential Buildings in Thailand: A Case Study of 5-Story Baan Eua
           Arthorn Condominium

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Natapong Puangpinyo   and Sulawun Thanjaichon   Nowadays, many developing countries have become aging societies that are effective for dwelling preparation in the future, especially Thailand. Thailand has entered an aging society and becomes a "Super-aged society" (Society or country with population aged 65 and over, more than 20% of the entire population) soon. These have increased the elderly housing projects of both the private and government sector, and most of the high-cost elderly housing projects in Thailand are related to incremental payback opportunities following the business investment plan [2]. The elderly housing projects for the low-cost project of the Thailand government are still not enough to demand because of an interruption in the government process for the new project. The renovation of the existing building for low cost was a simple way to solve the inequality problem of housing in an aging society. Nowadays, Thailand government still has a low-cost housing project which is Baan Eua Arthorn condominium that can be renovating existing building for the elderly. The case study research is Baan Eua Arthorn condominium project spreading all over the country with the same pattern design that can emphasize design renovation guidelines for generalized the low-cost elderly dwelling. This research focuses on the 5-story Baan Eua Arthorn condominium project that has two problems. The first problem is that a public area cannot support emergency assessment in a vertical assistance system. The second problem in the unit resident in the bathroom does not have assistive devices for the elderly and an available area for the elderly caregiver. This study found two solutions. First, equipping a public elevator with four install options can connect to the cluster building. Second, designing area of the resident unit and adding assistive devices of the elderly and for the elderly caregivers can encourage life quality of the elderly.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Impact of Authoritative Elements on Placemaking in Architecture

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Sunalini Esther Devadas   Sheeba Chander   and Kiruthiga K   The understanding in the differentiation between spaces and places is vital in architecture. One deals with the physical dimensions that constitute the physical form and boundary while the other is an edifice that contributes to the narrative of the user and is people-centric. Spaces and Places are not mutually exclusive owing to the fact that any place intrinsically stems from a space. However the components that define each of these phenomena differ in intent during their creation. All spaces employ the use of metrics to generate lines, planes, volumes. Well-designed spaces combine these tangible metrics with creativity and a keen focus on aesthetics that bear positively on the physical manifestation and composition of these forms. Places go beyond creating purely aesthetic spaces and engage the user/s in a dynamic dialogue that helps the user forge an emotional and/or spiritual connect to the place. There are several elements which aid in the creation of such place. Of these, authoritative elements may be considered to lend authenticity to design. This paper tests the hypothesis that authoritative elements are key influencers of Placemaking in Architecture.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Influence of RAP and Waste Plastic on Cracking Resistance of Warm SMA
           Mixes

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Varuna M   Bhavani Prasad G   Anjaneyappa Venkateshappa   and Amarnath M S   Cracking resistance of stone matrix asphalt (SMA) mixes is determined with and without reclaimed asphalt pavement materials (RAP) using coarse aggregates having elongation and flakiness index (EI+FI) of 25 and 35% respectively. The RAP at varying proportions viz 0, 10, 20 and 30% were blended with shredded plastic waste (SWP) at dosages of 4, 8, 12 and 16%. Zycotherm is used as warm mix asphalt (WMA) additive. Volumetric properties were determined at optimum binder content using Marshall mix design. Semicircular bending test was carried out to determine cracking resistance. No significant change in fracture resistance was observed for mixes prepared using aggregates having (EI+FI) of 25 and 35%. The strain energy release rate (Jc) for SMA specimen using VG-30 with varied RAP content of 10, 20 and 30% was found to be 0.55, 0.58 and 0.62 kN-mm respectively. The addition of SWP increased Jc value up to 8% for hot asphalt SMA mixes. Decrease in Jc was observed for above SMA specimens when prepared using WMA additive. It was observed that addition of WMA enables utilization of SWP up to 12% and use of SWP in SMA mix prepared with RAP increases resistance to cracking.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Evaluating the Effect of Adding Sugarcane Bagasse to the Fire Clay Brick's
           Properties

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Amany Micheal   and Rania Rushdy Moussa   Due to the increase in population density, the waste and its by-products produced by industry, housing, and agriculture have increased. Waste accumulation causes several environmental problems and contaminates natural resources such as air, soil, and water. Moreover, it threatens human public health and increases the number of epidemics and medical pandemics. The percentage of organic waste increases daily. Almost 60% of the waste collected from the housing sector is organic waste, in addition to the agricultural wastes that are also considered organic waste. In developing countries, there are no clear waste management systems. The waste is poorly managed, it is either burned or disposed of in waste dumps improperly. On the other hand, mud bricks are considered a substantial wall building material used in developing countries. This experimental research aims to study the properties of new mud brick prototypes by partially replacing 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5% of the mud with sugarcane bagasse (SCB), which is considered an organic waste material, to create eco-friendly bricks. This research will use an experimental, quantitative method to test the efficiency of the bricks after partially replacing mud with SCB. These experiments will test the slump, strength, cracks, absorption, and density with different SCB replacement percentages. The research revealed that the compressive strength of the mud bricks suffers a considerable reduction due to the burring of the fibers.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Siri' na pacce: The Local Wisdom of Coastal Community Settlement Patterns
           and Its Existence amid COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Sri Aliah Ekawati   Mukti Ali   Gafar Lakatupa   La Ode Muhammad Asfan   Stevanny Manga   and Fitha Rachma Sari   The handling of some issues due to the spread of the COVID-19 virus has been carried out in various cities, including the coastal city of Makassar. Efforts to break the chain of spread of the virus have been carried out starting from the recommendation to comply with health protocols to the establishment of regulations that limit people's daily movement. On the other hand, some local wisdom rooted in the lives of coastal residents also experienced a shift in meaning during this pandemic. This study aims to examine the meaning of local wisdom siri' na pacce in people's lives in coastal settlements, its manifestation in life during the COVID-19 pandemic and efforts that can be made as disaster mitigations. Methods of data collection were done by observation, interviews and questionnaires. The data collected was then analyzed by spatial analysis and description. This study found that the siri' value was influenced by bad stigma towards people with COVID-19 so that the meaning shifted in a negative direction. The value of pacce still has a positive form. It can be seen from community cooperation to help patients who are in self-isolation. At the end of the study, recommendations for pandemic disaster mitigation were formulated in coastal settlements, such as determining the location of temporary shelters and evacuation points.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Study of Geopolymer Concrete Beam with Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer
           Rebars – A Review

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  M. Kalaiselvi   and R. Sivagamasundari   Reinforced Concrete (RC) is a widely used composite material in construction. It is composed of concrete with high compressive strength and steel bars and stirrups of high tensile strength placed longitudinally and transversely, complementing each other in overcoming their weaknesses. Corrosion of steel reinforcement and cement sustainability are two main persistent issues creating great difficulty in the entire construction industry across the globe. Sincere efforts were also made to replace ordinary Portland cement with geopolymer cement, and steel reinforcements with fiber reinforcement for more than two decades. Different combinations were tried in using them for beams, slabs, columns, and combinations of the above. Though researchers have shown many leads in the research, no concrete proofs were made about the better combinations and the structural code for common usage. In this paper, available literature were reviewed in detail and summarized. A study was carried out for the intended purpose to identify focus areas for further research, and it is listed.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • The Influence of Side Friction on Speed-Mixed Flow Behavior on Arterial
           Roads in Tourism Area in Bali

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  D. M Priyantha Wedagama   I Wayan Suweda   and N. L. G Astariyani   The arterial roads in tourism areas show a lack of control over activities that occur on the arterial roadsides. This study constructs a speed-flow behavior model to analyze the influence of side friction events under mixed traffic flows on arterial road performances in Bali. This event is dominated by the entry and exit of vehicles from road access points. The study results show that in friction conditions, the speed of the motorcycle is significantly affected by the presence and speed of other motorcycles and light vehicles, but in base conditions, it is significantly affected by the presence and speed of all types of vehicles. Meanwhile, the speed of light vehicles is significantly influenced by the presence and speed of motorcycles and other light vehicles. A further study is required to analyze the influence of motorized vehicles on the selection of heavy vehicle speed on arterial roads. Due to side frictions, a decrease in road capacity (pcu/hour) was found between 14.37% and 26.60% while a decrease in speed was between 13.79% and 76.19%. These show a significant side friction problem on arterial roads in tourism areas. The road control policy, particularly on roadside access is needed for these arterial roads.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • An Investigation into the Causes of Pedestrians' Walking Difficulties in
           Cairo Streets

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  Joy Maged   Rania Rushdy Moussa   and Usama Konbr   This paper intends to focus on Cairo streets from the pedestrian-use perspective. It aims to explore and examine the factors that make Cairo streets better places for walking. Moreover, it intends to contribute to the limited qualitative research on walkable streets and pedestrians' walking experience, specifically in Cairo. In addition, it provides a conceptual framework for understanding the walkability of streets and the experience of pedestrians, built on both empirical field study and prevailing theoretical models reviewed in the literature. To closely examine the factors that determine Cairo streets to be walkable and therefore pedestrian-friendly, the research investigates the status of two streets in Cairo as a case study. The case studies section investigated the street characteristics and the local pedestrians' needs and perceptions towards their walking experience in the streets. This study investigated the status of Cairo streets by recording the users' perceptions of different types to understand the causes of this problem. Moreover, to encourage the walking in Cairo streets and promote social activities, the study investigates two major streets in Cairo, "El-Korba and Al-Azhar," using qualitative research methods of participant interviews and observational surveys. Furthermore, it conducted a comparative study to examine the causes and proposals' solutions, down to the study's results.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • Assessment of Green Open Space in the Transit-Oriented Development Area in
           Jakarta

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2022
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  10  Number  1  T Endangsih   B Prayitno   and A Kusumawanto   The Jatinegara Station area has developed as a commercial area causing the surrounding residential areas to develop into dense settlements and have limitations in providing facilities and infrastructure, especially green open spaces. Along with the increasing intensity of commercial activities, this has an impact on changing green open spaces into built-up land. The purpose of this study was to examine the existing condition of green open space in the Jatinegara TOD area and then compare it with the standards set by the local government. The results of this comparison are used to provide input on the design of green open spaces in the research area. This goal is achieved by using a quantitative approach. The analysis of the need for green open space is calculated based on the standard of 30% of the total area. The need for green open space is 20 m2 per person and the Gerarchis method is used to calculate the need for green space based on oxygen demand. The analytical method used in this research is descriptive quantitative analysis. As the first step is to identify the characteristics of green open space, analyze the availability of green open space and its form and typology. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that the availability of green open space affects the environmental quality of the TOD area. The form and typology of green open spaces found in the study area are urban forest green open spaces and sub-district environmental parks. Therefore, the existence of green open spaces needs to be maintained through the development and arrangement of green open spaces by taking into account the types of vegetation that can absorb CO2.
      PubDate: Jan 2022
       
  • The Need of Statistical Approach for Optimising Mixture Design of
           Controlled Low-Strength Materials

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5A  Mohd Azrizal Fauzi   Mohd Fadzil Arshad   and Noorsuhada Md Nor   The statistical phase method was introduced to achieve optimal mixing controlled low-strength material (CLSM) proportions, utilising statistical studies. There is no well-known explicit formulation for predicting hardened properties (in terms of unconfined compressive strength (UCS)) of CLSM. The proposed approach to optimising CLSM mix design is demonstrated in the most common case where experimental mixing was considered in compliance with the full factorial experimental design involving three variables with two levels (23) and the Box-Wilson central composite design (CCD) method. Twenty CLSMs with six replicates (one hundred and twenty specimens) were considered in changing the levels of the main factors that affect CLSM compression strength, the water/cementitious ratio (2.53-2.73) and the wastepaper ash (WSA) percentage (50-100%) and cementitious materials content (160-200 kg/m3). The experimental results were used to analyse variance and design a UCS polynomial regression equation for design factors considered in this research. In order to emphasise how to optimise CLSM mixtures with different options, a statistical model was developed.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Bearing Strength of Concrete with Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP)
           Wrapping Axially Loaded through Circular Plate

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5A  N. A. Yahya   N. Md Nor   M. R. Md Zain   C. L. Oh   and S. W. Lee   Bearing strength of concrete is strongly related to contact behaviour when the loaded bearing plate penetrate over limited area of concrete surface. The model of concrete bearing was examined using the three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear explicit finite element micro-model in the ABAQUS/Explicit. The contact interaction between the concrete surface and the steel bearing plate was modelled using Surface to Surface (S-to-S) contact model. For material nonlinearity, the Concrete Damage Plasticity Material Model (CDPM) was adopted to stimulate nonlinear behaviour of concrete. The main objective of this paper is to determine the effects of external reinforcement namely Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) wrapping in strengthening the bearing capacity of concrete blocks. The concrete block models are with three different bearing ratios of unloaded-loaded area 2, 4 and 6 were investigated. The FE results have shown that the structural performance of concrete bearing with CFRP external wrapped can increase the axial load capacity up to 30% than normal concrete block without CFRP wrapped. However, the effectiveness of CFRP wrapping is decreased as the concrete bearing ratio is increased. This indicates that the CFRP wrapping is effective for concrete blocks with high contact areas.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Analysis of Rework Causes in Infrastructure Projects in Pulau Pinang

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5A  Nor Janna Tammy   Isna Izzani Ismail   Raja Nor Husna Raja Mohd Noor   Juzailah Nur Yunus   and Zuraisah Dollah   Construction industry plays an important role in the Malaysia economy. One of the factors that contribute to this industry is infrastructure projects. Rework in infrastructure projects can cause the collapse of the Malaysian economy since it is detrimental to project outcomes. However, less attention was given regarding rework within the Malaysian construction industry especially in infrastructure projects. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the rework causes in the infrastructure project at Pulau Pinang. To acquire opinion of professionals from the construction industry about rework causes in infrastructure projects, questionnaires were distributed via Google form and received 52 responses. Data was analysed through SPSS 25.0 and ranked according to the level of importance. From this research, the results revealed that subcontractor factors and design related factors are the major categories that contribute to rework causes. In addition, the study showed that communication effectiveness within owners and changes made at request of the client are the main rework causes which considerably influenced infrastructure projects performance.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Downstream Community Awareness of the Failure Risk and Emergency Action
           Plan of Bukit Merah Dam

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5A  Nurhidayati Mat Daud   Aisyah Umairah Madzman   Siti Hafizan Hassan   Amalina Amirah Abu Bakar   Nuraini Tutur   Mohd Kamarul Mohd Noh   Ernie Abd Manan   and Ahmad Farhan Hamzah   Kerian and other villages further downstream are vulnerable to dam failure as Bukit Merah Dam is an aging Malaysian dam, having been used since 1906. The aim of this article is to evaluate how the demographic characteristics of downstream communities affect their perceptions of the existing dam. The article will also analyze the effect these demographic characteristics have on the awareness levels of dam failure risk and the implementation of the Emergency Action Plan (EAP) by Department of Irrigation and Drainage Kerian (DID). The vulnerability of the downstream communities to a dam failure disaster can be minimized by their own preparedness for actions that should be taken during a dam failure event. This study opted for a quantitative approach, which included a questionnaire survey. The data discussion revealed that the demographic characteristics influenced the community perceptions of the dam, their awareness of a dam failure disaster and the implementation of the EAP by DID Kerian. From the result, it can be concluded that the dam has positive impacts on the livelihoods of downstream communities as mean outputs for this analysis are above 3.0. For the standard deviation, the value was 0.595, 0.747 and 0.533, meaning that demographic characteristics influenced the communities' perceptions. They know the potential future risk (66.7% to 100% said 'yes' in the statement of risk awareness) but lack knowledge about the implementation of the EAP (42.9% to 75.0% responded 'no' in the statement of EAP knowledge). Most respondents accepted the EAP positively and are trying to understand the importance of the EAP.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Reinforced Concrete Slab with Added Steel Fibers for Engineering
           Application: Preliminary Experimental Investigations

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5A  Siti Junnaidah Baserah   Nur Azwa Muhamad Bashar   and Yee Hooi Min   The application of steel fiber as added materials in a plain concrete shows many potential benefits in improving structural properties namely tensile and flexural strength. The plain concrete with steel fibers added is said to be effective for both short and long terms duration based on its characteristics mainly size, shape, volume, and distribution. Such potentials have made it a material worthy to be further studied. This research was conducted to assess the strength of a plain concrete with the addition of steel fibers in the conventional concrete slab. Several testings were conducted to determine the strength characteristic (compressive and flexural) of the control sample; conventional reinforced concrete (RC) and reinforced concrete with steel fibers added (RCSF). In this study, the commercial steel fibers taken from Dramix which is categorised under 5D-Type was added during the concrete mixing processes according to the three different percentages of 0.5%, 0.75% and 1.0%. Obtained result shows that the concrete with steel fibers added (0.5%) had the highest compressive strength while both reinforced concrete and concrete with 0.75% addition of steel fibers showed almost similar flexural strength value. Deflection testing was conducted on both RC slab and RCSF slab via Three-point bending test. It is found that the RC slab showed a higher mid-span deflection rate. Furthermore, result from the physical observation and measurement for crack propagation evaluation shows that RC slab had a wider cracking gap compared to RCSF. In a nutshell, steel fibers in plain concrete gives several advantages and provide an alternative for the construction practitioner in minimizing the construction cost while maintaining the quality and reducing the cracking problem mainly due to the structural properties of concrete.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Acoustic Emission Signal Application on Damage Evaluation of RC
           Beam-Column Joint under Monotonic Loading

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5A  Md Nor N.   Jalilluddin A. M.   Mohamad M. Z.   Mat Saliah S. N.   Ibrahim A.   and Abd Ghani K. D.   Beam-column joint in reinforced concrete (RC) structure is a critical element that needs to be monitored continuously throughout its service life. The beam-column connection acts as the core component that receives moment transfer from adjacent elements. Consequently, the integrity of the RC beam-column joint reduces when subjected to load over time. This study investigates the damage of RC beam-column joint subjected to static load until failure using acoustic emission (AE) signal strength. The size of the RC joint sample was composed of 300mm x 200mm x 600mm, 200mm x 200mm x 1200mm and 1500mm x 500mm x 300mm for beam, column and foundation respectively. The vertical loading was applied to the beam at 530mm distances from the column surface. Four sensors were used at specified positions at the beam and column surfaces. It was found that the increment of load intensity results in intensified acoustic emission signal strength.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Thermal Conductivity Performance of Kenaf Core - Quarry Dust Brick (KCQB)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5A  A. H. Hassan   Z. Ahmad   M. F. Arshad   N. A. Salehuddin   and M. Z. Mohd Nor   Rapid development has led to increasing demand for sand, which is the main source of sand brick and other construction purposes. High demand and environmental issues contribute to the shortage of resources and continuous increase in the cost of the material. In order to overcome this matter, there is a need for replacement materials as alternative resources for fine aggregate. In Malaysia, a renewable resource from biomass that can easily be converted to aggregate material is the woody part of kenaf. It is commonly called kenaf core and is available in abundance after the processing of kenaf stem for bast fiber production. The investigations cover thermal conductivity, compressive strength, density, and porosity of Kenaf Core Quarry Dust Bricks (KCQB). Nine (9) types of samples of bricks, plates, and brick wall were prepared by varying the kenaf core contents. M1, M2, M3, and M4 were used as control samples while M5, M6, M7, M8, and M9 were variable samples with different percentages of kenaf core from 5% to 25%. Quarry dust was fixed at 75% for every variable mix and the balance of 25% sand was replaced by kenaf core at 5% intervals, respectively, until the portion of sand was zero. Based on all properties studied, it is found that the addition of kenaf core affected the thermal conductivity, density, porosity, and compressive strength value. Based on all the properties studied, the addition of kenaf core affected the compressive strength, density, porosity, and thermal conductivity. The compressive strength and density decreased as the kenaf core increased. However, the inclusion of kenaf core resulted in higher porosity. Meanwhile, the addition of a kenaf core from 5% to 25% as sand replacement improved the thermal conductivity values from 0.63 W/m•K to 0.42 W/m•K.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • The Effect of Vibration Impact from Piling Works to the Surrounding
           Buildings

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5A  Nurulzatushima Abdul Karim   Adhilla Ainun Musir   Mohd Samsudin Abdul Hamid   Siti Hafizan Hassan   Ahmad Ihsan Qistan Kamarulzaman   and Mohd Farid Ahmad Majid   Construction activities such as dynamic compaction, pile-driving, and any site activities heavy construction equipment can generate ground and structure vibration. Vibration may cause damage to nearby structures. As the current construction works are frequently located in urban areas where the distance between the nearest building structures to the construction site is not far. Therefore, this paper studied the effect of vibration produced from piling work to the nearest existing building and determination of limits in term of allowable vibration and distance limit between piling work and existing structure. An accelerometer was used to collect the vibration data from the piling activities and the data were analysed by using Microsoft Excel. The findings of the study presented several vibrations and limits based on several guidelines. The study stated not disobeying the proposed guidelines may harm and damage the existing structure. This research contributes to future development to ensure the future construction does not exceed the limit as stated in the guideline to avoid any type of damage to the existing structure. Thus, any project in the future should take into consideration the effect of vibration and the distance limit to reduce the effect of vibration from the construction site to the surrounding structures.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Anisotropic Deformation Model for Hawkesbury Sandstone Incorporating
           Inherent Mobilised Shear Strength

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5A  Noorfaizah Hamzah   Nur Ain Mat Yusof   and Mohd Jamaludin Md Noor   An extensive study on modelling progressive Hawkesbury Sandstone degradation by anisotropic deformation subjected to monotonic loadings is presented and discussed in this study. Hawkesbury Sandstone was used due to its unique behaviour, which was initially assumed to be a uniform testing lithology with respect to grain size, compressive strength and stiffness. This study identified a theoretical approach to the anisotropic model of rock deformation. The model utilizes the stress-strain curve to derive the development of mobilised shear strength and applies it to the rock to simulate how it compresses in anisotropic. Monotonic loading tests were performed in triaxial conditions at variations of confining pressure, 4MPa and 8MPa. An increment of confining pressure was used to obtain elevation in the stress-strain curve. Progressive monotonic loading changed the mechanical characteristics of the rock; the level of the applied stress is compressed axially and then expanded laterally. During applied loading, the rock may experience damage or rock failure; the correlation between the magnitude of the mobilised shear strength and the axial stress associated with it is regarded as an intrinsic property in the rock mass. The stress-strain behaviour of rocks under anisotropic stress conditions can be predicted using this method. The mobilised minimum friction angle is used to determine the location of the mobilised shear strength envelope. The results reveal that the mobilised intrinsic shear strength is developed if the rock is forced to compaction. This is evidenced by the envelope rotating upward to the shear force envelopes during failing. Consequently, it can be deduced that the cementation (c') of the rock increases.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Experimental Investigation on Acoustic Emission Characteristics of
           Reinforced Concrete Beam Strengthened with CFRP

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5A  Soffian Noor Mat Saliah   Noorsuhada Md Nor   Khairul Nizam K.   Muhammad Ariffaizad M.M.   and Mohd Subri Tahir   Reinforced concrete (RC) structures are generally subjected to increasing loads, age-related deterioration and design changes that affect the integrity of structures. Therefore, this paper presents an experimental investigation of a carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) reinforced RC beam under three-point loading. Acoustic emission (AE) was used to monitor the progression of damage. The loading, AE intensity and AE signal strength were analysed and discussed. The analyses were performed using the AE signal collected from CH6 and CH7. The result is that crack nucleation produces high signal intensity compared to other crack modes. Moreover, the intensity plots fit the identified crack modes when the beams were reinforced with CFRP. Therefore, AE can be used to evaluate the performance of the CFRP reinforced RC beam.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Compressive Strength of CFRP Confined Concrete under Exposure to High
           Temperature

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5A  Nur Aiman Suparlan   Hazrina Ahmad   Mohd Hisbany Mohd Hashim   Muhammad Amir Shafiq Rahamad Ali   Ruqayyah Ismail   and Fariz Aswan Ahmad Zakwan   Currently, in Malaysia, there has been an alarming number of fire breakouts that not only concern the lives of the residents but also the integrity of the exposed structures themselves. Exposure to high temperature may result in significant damage to reinforced concrete structures such as losses in strength, thus affecting its mechanical and physical properties. The chances of re-using the structure after the event of a fire by means of applying certain retrofitting measures are mainly dependent on the residual load-bearing capacity and an acceptable residual deflection. The structural design of buildings should be carried out so that a structure is able to maintain its stability and strength throughout its service life, including design consideration on fire resistance. This research was carried out to study the effectiveness of the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheet to strengthened concrete cylinders under high temperatures (600℃ and 800℃). The study will focus on the effect of high temperature on compressive strength as well as the effect of high temperature on the CFRP concrete cylinder. Eighteen (18) concrete cylinder samples of 300 mm height and 150 mm diameter were fabricated, which consist of six (6) control samples (without CFRP), six (6) CFRP concrete cylinders and the remaining three (3) CFRP concrete cylinders were insulated with fire protection mortar. The average strength loss of the control sample (without CFRP), when exposed to 600℃, is about 28% compared to control samples. The average compressive strength of the CFRP concrete cylinder exposed to 600℃ is increased by about 9% compared to the control sample. Fire protection mortar can prevent the concrete cylinder from spalling, major cracks and combustion of CFRP at high temperature. The knowledge in this research field can be used as the basis for structural rehabilitation work.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Assessing the Vulnerability of Kota Kinabalu Buildings

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5A  Noor Sheena Herayani Harith   Viliana Jainih   Mohd Azizul Ladin   and Mohd Irwan Adiyanto   A gradual increase in moderate and low seismic activity has occurred in Sabah over the course of several years due to the presence of certain moderately active fault lines in the region. Around 300 moderate earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from MW 4.0 to 7.0 have occurred in the last 120 years. The majority of existing buildings in Sabah are wind and gravity loaded. This study proposes a preliminary seismic vulnerability assessment methodology based on empirical and analytical vulnerability method for 250 existing buildings in Kota Kinabalu city. The empirical vulnerability assessment focuses on building evaluation utilizing a standard Rapid Visual Screening (RVS) method and the FEMA 154 guidebook's moderate seismicity assessment form. A field survey was conducted on the buildings ranging in height from low-rise to high-rise. As a result, when subjected to moderate-intensity earthquakes, 60% of the buildings are classed as susceptible and vulnerable to seismic hazard. The current study included the use of nonlinear static analysis to seven different building cases for further investigation. The findings of the analysis demonstrate that the majority of the buildings respond linearly elastical when subjected to peak ground acceleration (PGA) at 0.17g, which indicate that, buildings without seismic design accumulate damage early when subjected to moderate earthquake loadings.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • CrackLabel: A Thresholding-Based Crack Labeling Tool for Asphalt Pavement
           Images

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5A  Nor Aizam Muhamed Yusof   Muhammad Khusairi Osman   Fadzil Ahmad   Mohaiyedin Idris   Anas Ibrahim   Nooritawati Md Tahir   and Norbazlan Mohd Yusof   In an image classification system based on deep learning, a training dataset is a set of labelled images and is often composed of a large number of images. Image labelling tool is usually used to facilitate in creating the training dataset used by the classifier during the learning phase. This paper presents a new image labelling tool called CrackLabel that can automatically label the cracks in the asphalt pavement images. A specially designed image thresholding method called the Global and Lower Quartile Average Intensity (GLQAI) method is utilised. In this study, the training dataset is developed by using real pavement images that resized to 1024×768 resolution. First, crack images are automatically segmented into 768 small patches with 32×32 resolution (pixel). Then, a threshold-based method is applied to automatically segment these patches into two classes which are crack and non-crack patches. The image thresholding method based on the average of global average intensity (GAI) and lower quartile intensity (LQI), namely GLQAI is proposed for this task. Next, the labelling process is performed by assigning patches associated with the crack and background into the crack and non-crack folder, respectively. Finally, the performance of CrackLabel is benchmarked by comparing the results with the manual label crack images by human experts, and three commonly used thresholding methods; Otsu, Kapur and Kittler-Illingworth thresholding. Experimental results show that the proposed thresholding method achieved the best classification rate among various thresholding methods with 94.50%, 93.60% 94.00% and 94.05% for recall, precision, accuracy, and F-score respectively. In conclusion, it is observed that the proposed method using the newly threshold algorithm is very effective in label images into the crack and non-crack patches to maximize the training performance.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Development of Nomograph Chart for Pervious Concrete Containing Coated
           Biomass Aggregate

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5A  Salaheddin Arafa   Ahmed Elmesh   Otman M. M. Elbasir   Nur Izzi Md. Yusoff   and Abdalrhman Milad   Pervious concrete is an effective and unique way to overcome critical environmental issues and support green, sustainable growth. Pervious concrete refers to a non-slip porous pavement concrete, which is permeable to water. Recently, the demand for sustainable waste palm oil products for construction in Malaysia has dramatically increased. For long-term sustainable development, palm products waste can be recycled in pervious concrete production. This study on pervious geopolymer concrete (hereafter PGC) explored an alternative binder and aggregate for Portland cement (OPC) and natural aggregate (NA), while it also developed a pervious concrete's compressive strength. Biomass aggregate (BA) was obtained by burning palm oil biomass. Thus, biomass aggregate (BA) is introduced as a replacement for natural aggregate (NA). In order to generate coated biomass aggregates (CBA), BA was combined with alkaline liquid (AL) and fly ash (FA) and then heated inside an oven at 80 degrees Celsius for 24 hours. PGC containing coated biomass aggregate is the most commonly used cement substitute in concrete as the industrial by-product waste. This study investigated the performance and optimised mixture design of various PGC mixtures that incorporated NA to replace BA CBA compared with OPC pervious concrete containing NA. PGC generated via CBA possessed greater compressive strength without any impact on permeability to water. Outcomes show that both CBA and BA are possible alternative aggregates for generating PGCs. As a result of this study, a nomograph chart was developed, which provided a guideline for designing PGC made by CBA and BA, and cement pervious concrete made with NA.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • The Influence of Cyclic Stress History on the Energy Absorption of
           Weathered Rock

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5A  Nurul Ainain Mohd Salim   and Zainab Mohamed   Energy absorption plays an important role in rock deformation and rock failure. Under compression load, rock fails abruptly which can cause sudden energy release that demonstrates the structural failure. The deformation of rock is based on the energy absorption and dissipation which is found dissimilar for each weathered specimen. Weathered granite namely Grade II, III and IV were tested under static compression load to determine the energy accumulation and dissipation of weathered rock is determined. The results were then compared to rock samples with and without pre-loaded cyclic stress. The comparison is made in order to observe the effect of cyclic stress history on weathered granite samples. Based on the result, it is demonstrated that the weathered granite samples with cyclic stress history absorbed more energy as compared to the samples without preloaded cyclic stress.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Development of Optimal Work Pattern Framework for Malaysian Construction
           Workers

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5A  Siti Hafizan Hassan   Mohd Samsudin Abdul Hamid   Nur Izzyanie Zainal   Zulfairul Zakariah   Nurulzatushima Abdul Karim   and Adhilla Ainun Musir   Currently, the country's unpredictably high temperatures are major source of concern for outdoors workers. Because this element has the potential to affect worker productivity, research into both working time and temperature becomes a great interest. Aside from that, both factor studies will determine the best work schedule for construction workers to avoid heat stress. The investigation was completed using two methods: interviewing and site observation. The optimum recipe for worker productivity was discovered during the interview by the site specialist. After obtaining the correct formula, a site inspection was carried out. During the site observation, a few variables were recorded, including average temperature, working time range, and worker output for three different types of work: bar bending, rebar wall installation, and tile installation. The effect of heat stress on three types of work is investigated. Then there was a comparison of worker productivity in two different sorts of jobs. Based on the findings, the best working pattern has been identified. Then there was a comparison of worker productivity in two different sorts of jobs. The best working pattern that adds the most to worker productivity was discovered as a result of the investigation. Finally, obtaining the requirements for a successful project as well as an optimal work pattern achieves both objectives.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Work and Energy Response of Prefabricated Concrete Structure under
           Earthquake Excitation: Kolej Delima UiTM Pulau Pinang

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5A  Mohd Samsudin Abdul Hamid   Norul Mas Diyana Ahmad   Kay Dora Abd Ghani   Adhilla Ainun Musir   Daliah Hassan   and Siti Hafizan Hassan   An earthquake occurs at any place that is located along or nearby the Pacific Fire Ring. The differences of earthquake excitation depend on the magnitude and peak ground acceleration whether in low, medium or high region. Four different previous earthquake excitation records were adopted in this study namely Kunak, Bukit Tinggi, El-Centro and Pacoima Dam earthquakes to analyze the work and energy response of prefabricated concrete structure that was designed using BS8110. It was found that the structure did not experience damages under low Kunak and Bukit Tinggi earthquake excitations but minor damages under El-Centro and major damages under Pacoima Dam earthquake excitations. Major damage occurred at the connection of the structural element such as beam-column connection and slab-beam connection due to large energy dissipation, reducing the structural strength and stiffness. This study is important in developing the best retrofitting methods for the structures after-impact maintenance.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Evaluating the Effect of Embedment Depth on Collapse Failure Analysis of
           Strip Foundation

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5A  M. M. Nujid   J. Idrus   N. F. Bawadi   and A. A. Firoozi   Bearing ultimate capacity of shallow footing on uniform soil can be evaluated experimentally. However, analytical and experimental methods are difficult to analyze and predict complicated behaviour of soil beneath the footing collapse failure on layered soil. A strip footing on dense sand overlying soft clay of bearing capacity is computed utilizing the three-dimensional (3D) geometry model by finite element method analysis. The soil model of the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is selected in the assessment. The effect of embedment depth with ratio foundation width (B) to the top layer thickness (H) exposed to vertical point loading is evaluated for different strength properties of soil layers. The present results were verified from established analytical formula. It shows the ultimate bearing capacity on layered soils on a strip footing increase in width of the footing. Local shear failure mechanism is observed in one of all cases with most cases indicate general shear failure mechanism occur for layered soil of dense overlying soft clay.
      PubDate: Sep 2021
       
  • Development of a New Algorithm to Address the Transportation Issue

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  A. N. M. Rezaul Karim   Farzana Sultana Rafi   Mohammed Nizam Uddin   Md. Iftakhar Mahmud   Mayeen Uddin Khandaker   Riaz Mahmud   and M. R. I. Faruque   Transportation issues are particularly important when it comes to delivering products to customers at a reasonable cost and promptly. Even though most real-world transportation problems have many challenges, these issues cannot be solved using conventional approaches. The literature contains several strategies for obtaining a feasible solution to the transportation problem, including the most effective Vogel's approximation technique (VAM). Other methods available in the literature are Least Cost Method, NWC Method, Column Minima Method, and Row Minima Method. However, existing methods do not always provide a good effective solution that can reduce the number of iterations to find the best solution. Thus, the development of improved approaches to transportation problems is still challenging. The proposed method is based on a very simple, easy-to-understand, and realistic for transportation issues. Methods: In this analysis, a more efficient, simple, and quick computation methodology has been established. This approach was coded using the PyCharm 3.1 programming platform and the Python 3.8 programming language. Results and Conclusion: The proposed strategy has been demonstrated with numerical examples. A collection of benchmark cases is used to evaluate the new process. This was compared with other conventional methods, the test results indicating that the proposed method has the lowest cost compared to others and has reached a faster solution time, optimal solution and it outperforms the VAM and other commonly used approaches. As a result, our new method can be thought of as a distinct approach to finding the quickest solution to any transportation problem.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Investigation of the Movement of Cement Clinker Particles in the Screw
           Body of a Rotary Kiln for Its Making

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  A. N. Sekisov   G. V. Serga   D. A. Gura   A. A. Savenko   and V. P. Danko   The possibility of improving the technical and economic indicators of the technological process and equipment for the cement clinker making in rotary kilns by replacing the inclined cylindrical bodies of rotary kilns with screw bodies mounted horizontally is shown. The kinematics of motion of clinker particles in the screw body of a rotary kiln for the cement clinker making is analyzed and mathematical models of their motion inside the screw bodies are proposed. Examples of the created spatial forms of screw bodies of rotating furnaces with the use of the program complex "Compass-3D" are shown. Technical solutions protected by patents of the Russian Federation [1-9] are offered, and designs of bodies of the rotating furnaces are shown. The analytical study of the motion of the particles of cement raw mass is presented in the article, and output dependence to determine their velocity in a screw body of the rotary kiln have particular scientific and practical importance. In such furnaces, technical and economic advantages are achieved due to the longitudinal movement of the sludge pellets in a furnace for cement clinker making, the horizontal arrangement of the rotary kiln body and their counter flows, due to the fact that inside the entire length of the screw body, formed of a screw surface and helical grooves, which provide not only the movement of granules in the sludge, but also contribute to the intensification of the interaction of sludge granules for cement clinker making with each other and with the walls of the body, and this allows not only influencing the nature of the movement of sludge granules for the cement clinker making and expanding the technological capabilities, increasing the intensity of heat exchange, simplifying the operation of the rotary kiln at its horizontal location, expanding the technological capabilities, but also reducing the dimensions of the furnaces in length and their weight.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Using Local Materials to Optimize the Eco-design of a Resilient Urban
           Environment in Sustainable Urban Project Process

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Messaoud Moudjari   Hafida Marouf   Hameed Muhamad   Omar Chaalal   Marc Mequignon   Walid Maherzi   and Mahfoud Benzerzour   All forecasts state that in the 21st century: there will be more urban. Thus, the majority of the population will live in cities. The urbanization model and the transport system of the city inherited from the 20th century have become disarticulated. There is a new trend for reinventing the frugal and sustainable city. This takes into account all the aspects of the ecological transition, especially energy, in the face of the climate challenge. This challenge is part of the Urban Project approach, which stems from postmodernist theory. The innovative idea of this collaborative intelligence aims to redesign the connected and more ecological city. This thinking is about green growth integrated with the carbon neutrality strategy. Today, this vision of urban renewal is based on sustainability which is a fundamental criterion in the eco-design of the safe and resilient city. It supports the use of renewable energies, the issue of climate change, the health emergency as well as the use of Green-Tech in ecological architecture and eco-urbanism, to serve strategic issues, especially environmental ones. The Urban Project will have to be multidisciplinary in the cross analysis of various themes. Moreover, this approach must be based on the judicious articulation of spatial and temporal scales. Also, this process must take into account contextual realities while favouring the ingredients of urban ecology. It is a question of supporting biodiversity, the green and blue grid, and above all the use of geo-sourced materials in the eco-construction of the low-carbon city. Certainly, this operational and interactive mode is complex. Consequently, it refers to multiple notions of transversality, partnership, governance and participatory democracy. This inclusive and concerted process is based on thinking-design, resulting from the fruitful meeting of public and private actors around an agile and acceptable city project for the post-carbon era.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Feasibility Study of Geometrical Parameters of Wood Transportation Roads
           Including Prediction of Optimum Terms of Construction and Retrofitting
           Sequence

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Aleksey Vasilyevich Skrypnikov   Vyacheslav Gennadievich Kozlov   Vladimir Anatolyevich Zelikov   Petr Viktorovich Tikhomirov   Dmitry Mikhailovich Levushkin   Vladimir Valentinovich Nikitin   Roman Viktorovich Mogutnov   and Pavel Aleksandrovich Sokol   The methods of optimum design of road longitudinal profile for various purposes, allowing eliminating subjective decisions, are developed and implemented by various research establishments. These methods are based on a deep theoretical background; they are automated but characterized by certain serious drawbacks. Firstly, the use of the minimum amount of excavation works as a criterion of optimality cannot provide an optimum solution regarding a definite period, because traffic intensity and its annual increase are not taken into account. Secondly, the proposed methods do not stipulate the necessity of stepwise development of road geometrical elements and their comprehensive substantiation. Finally, the optimization programs of design lines of the longitudinal profile are complicated and cannot be always applied in small design bureaus. This work, being based on the presented features of analyzed publications and the necessity of their further development, is aimed at the development of methods and recommendations for a feasibility study of main parameters of transversal and longitudinal profiles of wood transportation roads including prediction of optimum terms of construction and retrofitting sequence. Achievement of the formulated purpose is mainly determined by mutual links and the structure of elements considered in this work. For clear determination of subordination of these elements, their influence on techno-economic calculations, and systematization of the overall process, it is necessary to develop a logical model of the problem. Another step to achieve the goal is a mathematical description of links of the logical scheme, that is, the development of the mathematical model of the solution. Since the solution assumes searching for optimum parameters, the mathematical model should be based on the target function with its extremum corresponding to the required optimum combination of the optimized elements. Several variants and the search area are defined by the required limitations.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Multi-Nozzle Abrasive Water Jet for Oil and Gas Platforms Decommissioning:
           A Review

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Wesam Salah Alaloul   Muhammad Ali Musarat   Lim Eu Shawn   Ahmad Mahamad Al-Yacouby   Iraj Toloue   Waqas Rafiq   and Waqas Farooq   Decommissioning offshore platforms present unique safety and health challenges to the oil and gas industry. In the Malaysian waters, there are over 300 fixed jacket platforms, and most of them exceeded the design service life of 25 to 30 years. One of the key challenges that determine the method of removal of aged jacket platforms is subsea cutting techniques. As underwater cutting is a challenging and expensive task, it is very much essential to develop cost-effective cutting techniques for decommissioning fixed jacket platforms. Thus, the objective of this paper is to present the state of art on Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) cutting techniques by identifying the most significant parameters affecting the performance output measures for decommissioning of Jacket platforms applications. As the cutting process is very complex and times consuming tasks, the paper identifies research gaps and recommends new research areas in Multi Nozzles Abrasive Water Jet (MN-AWJ) for decommissioning applications. Many parameters are affecting the performance of AWJ that is why an in-depth critical review was adopted in this manuscript to determine the most significant parameters that need to be considered in the optimization of AWJ performance.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Construction Project Management Based on Building Information Modeling
           (BIM)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Yin Rui   Lim Yaik-Wah   and Tan Cher Siang   In the construction industry, Building Information Modelling is primarily viewed as a catalyst for productivity and innovation. As projects have become more and more complex, there has been an increasing concern about the concept of project complexity. Understanding project complexity and managing contractors need to improve their management level as the rising building intricacy increases. In the construction industry, the contractors have faced many challenges, including workforce, increasing cost, inadequate risk management, unrealistic expectations/bad forecasting, limited skills, and delay problem. The project participants must coordinate and plan according to the project scope, including the construction process simulation, monitoring the construction quality, reducing rework, and improving economic benefits. Some of the main-contractor managements are trying to apply new modern technology. Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a tool used to the design, construction, and maintenance process of the whole cycle of the construction project. This article aims to analyze the BIM tool and take its advantage to improve the construction project management efficiency. The case study research approach is utilized to analyze the BIM tools. It includes the BIM 3D/4D/5D tools as the new method to build visualization model, execute clash detection, take-off quantity, simulate the construction process, make the work schedule graphically, and ensure the project is complete on time. This study is to research construction project management through applying the BIM tool. The BIM platform optimizes the design quality and improves construction work efficiencies, such as clash detection, work schedule, quantity take-off, etc. The results are also helpful for the identification of research clusters and topics in the BIM community
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Repair of Fire Damaged Axially Loaded Short RC Columns Using GFRP Wrap

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  L. N. K. Sai Madupu   and K. S. Sai Ram   Fire damaged columns can be repaired with glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) wrap to regain its full strength or even more. In the present work, short reinforced concrete (RC) rectangular columns which are exposed to elevated temperature at 4000℃ for 2 hours duration are repaired using GFRP wrap glued with epoxy resin. Strengthening of existing columns using GFRP wrap is a simple, easy and economical solution. GFRP wrap enhances the stiffness of the column in lateral direction, which improves the load carrying capacity of the column. The behaviour of GFRP wrapped column is different from the behaviour of column without GFRP wrap in response to the applied load. The behavior of GFRP strengthened column depends on various factors such as column cross sectional area aspect ratio, radius of rounded edges of the column, number of GFRP layers wrapped, width of GFRP strip, wrap pattern, epoxy properties etc. Various wrap patterns are tried to obtain effective one which greatly enhances the load taking capacity of short axially loaded columns. GFRP wrapping using strips showed good results than using continuous layer. The load carrying capacity of fire damaged GFRP repaired columns is increased by 42.3% compared with undamaged column without GFRP wrap and increased by 112.6% compared with fire damaged column without GFRP. Designer should fairly estimate the capacity of the strengthened column. Mathematical models are developed to predict the strength of repaired columns.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • The Bridge Maintenance Factors Model: A PLS-SEM Approach

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Nectaria Putri Pramesti   Henricus Priyosulistyo   Akhmad Aminullah   and Ambrosius Koesmargono   Bridge maintenance is essential to maintain the function of the bridge in serving transportation. Decision-makers face many challenges in keeping old bridges with excellent and continuous care while the available budget is limited for maintenance planning. Setting up a priority for handling rehabilitation and maintaining a bridge must pay attention to appropriate criteria that directly influence the treatment priority scale system. Then the requirements related to prioritizing maintenance are investigated, and a model is developed to examine the effect and relationship of these criteria in bridge and the priority determination of bridge maintenance. Factors are determined based on existing regulations, previous research literature studies, and stakeholders' interviews regarding bridge rehabilitation and care. The data collected from the questionnaire survey were analyzed with the partial least squares approach of the structural equation modeling technique (PLS-SEM). This model adapts 13 sub-criteria from three priority maintenance criteria: technical (structural), technical (functional), and non-technical. The PLS-SEM model's result confirms that if non-technical and technical-functional influence is strong, the technical-structural will become more substantial and increase the priority support for bridge maintenance. In the context of bridge maintenance, this study's results enrich knowledge about the factors in the decision-making model and the relationship between technical and non-technical aspects.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • The Utilisation of Recycled Concrete Aggregate as Partial Sand Replacement
           in Wall Panel Production

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Amir Khomeiny Ruslan   Noorsuhada Md Nor   Muhammad Syaqif Hazim Kamar   Muhamad Yusri Zainal   Soffian Noor Mat Saliah   Sarina Ismail   and Azmi Ibrahim   Recently, extensive research within the concrete industry has been devoted to a sustainable approach by using concrete waste as a natural aggregate replacement. The reason is that the volumes of building-related waste generated nowadays are becoming a significant threat to the environment but they may be used as a useful material in the construction industry. Hence, this study aims to investigate the effects of using recycled concrete aggregates as a partial fine aggregate replacement in mortar cubes and wall panels. Mortar cubes and wall panels sized 70.7 mm x 70.7 mm x 70.7 mm and 1000 mm x 300 mm x 100 mm, respectively, were prepared. The recycled concrete aggregate was mixed into the mortar at percentages of 0%, 50% and 100% of the total mortar volume and designated as 0RCA, 50RCA and 100RCA, respectively. The samples of both the mortar cubes and wall panels were assessed under a compressive strength test. The cubes samples were tested at the ages of 3 days, 14 days and 28 days. Meanwhile, the wall panels were compressively loaded for more than 28 days. It was found that the 0RCA mortar cubes represented the highest compressive strength compared to the other 50RCA and 100RCA samples by 46.6% and 38.8%, respectively. The 50RCA wall panels represented the highest ultimate load of 203.26 kN with strength effectiveness of 179.75% compared to 0RCA and 50RCA wall panels. This indicates that recycled concrete aggregates can be a useful material in the production of wall panels.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • The Piling Installation Vibration Damage Behaviour on Drainage at
           Construction Site

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Adhilla Ainun Musir   Nurulzatushima Abdul Karim   Mohd Samsudin Abdul Hamid   Emir Shahreman Dilah   Daliah Hasan   and Mohd Farid Ahmad Majid   Nowadays, there are a lot of ongoing construction projects at nearby existing building and residential area. Each construction will have many effects such as environmental effect and damage effect on the existing infrastructure and building. The effects of construction activities include piling work to existing infrastructure or building produce settlements and cracks. This effect is usually caused by vibration effect from construction work. This study represents a research on the effect of vibration during piling installation that is generated by hydraulic piling machine for drainage located at construction site as damage object. All the data were recorded by Labview Signal Express Software and analysed by Microsoft excel. The result from the analysis of the relationship between the vibration with the distance showed that the vibration decreased when the distance increased. Other than that, it showed that all the vibration values were lower that the vibration limit.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • The Tlemcen (NW-Algeria): Urban Colonial Heritage as a Tourist Attraction

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Nabil Kari   Joan Curos Vila   and Cherif Bemmoussa Wissem   This paper discusses the importance of urban colonial heritage aspects identification in the promotion of tourism in the case of the old city of Tlemcen. The latter was one of the Algerian traditional Arab-Muslim cities occupied during the 19th century by the French colonial armies. According to their "supposedly" civilizing project, the French Génie Militaire has remodeled the city's traditional fabric to modernize and transform the colonial territories. So, amongst other cases of historic Algerian towns, and after the installation of the European community, the old city of Tlemcen began gradually to forge a new identity, which was resulted from profound transformations that affected its socio-spatial structure. The city of Tlemcen experienced, during this period, the introduction of new urban principles. The French colonial authority aimed to transform the city of Tlemcen to meet the 19th European community's requirements. The European cities' architecture and urbanism were, therefore, seen as models that symbolize modernity. In a relatively short period, the Tlemcen ancient city was changed from a city with old Arab-Muslim cities' urbanism to a town with modern European urbanism. The impressive urban dynamic was engaged at that time to make the city more modern and less introverted. Today, apart from the Tlemcen's Medina remains, we cannot ignore the richness of the built colonial heritage in the Tlemcen old city center and that it constitutes a valuable tourism resource. Thus, the aspects of these built heritage attractions need to be identified for the community to be preserved and valorized to promote tourism in this historical place. The paper is thus aiming at identifying urban colonial heritage and understanding how crucial it is to take them into account in the process of tourism promotion in the case of Tlemcen's old city center. Based on documentary research and a qualitative approach achieved through walking inquiries, informal discussions with local community representatives, visitors, professionals and institutional actors, the reconnaissance work has brought out the main elements of the built colonial heritage and the urban planning characterizing the long period of colonial presence in Tlemcen, which are considered to have aesthetical and testimonial values and can therefore be seen as an asset for the Tlemcen city tourism enhancement.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Assessment of Environmental Factors on Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete
           with Calcium Chloride

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Mohamed A. Al rawashdeh   Ashraf Adel Shaqadan   Omar Ahmed Asad   Isam Abdel Halim Asad Yousef   and Ahmed Essa Alzoubi   Corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete causes severe damage in durability as weakness support of reinforced elements. We investigate impacts of cement fraction and curing method on corrosion progression. Corrosion level is evaluated by measuring carbonation penetration and electrical conductivity in concrete plots as indicators of corrosion. Two types of cement were used, Normal and quick setting. For each cement type, two concrete mixes were used (3% and 8% C3A are designed). Six levels of CaCl2 ranging from 0.5 % to 3% were used to simulate corrosion. Also, two curing methods are compared, liquid water and steam application are used. Chloride ion in low alumina cement mortar progressed faster than high alumina. The results show significant increase in carbonation depth for (less cement) compared to (more cement) mixes. Also, steam curing showed less penetration than normal water setting method. Variation in carbonation penetration for 0.5 and 1 % CaCl2 is high close to double. Electrical potential of steel in cement mortar is negatively related with increasing calcium chloride content and with increasing cement content. Also, normal setting cement shows better corrosion protection as demonstrated by higher measured EC.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Challenges of Maintaining Housing Structures in the Old City of Hebron

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Wisam Shaded   This paper discusses the importance of preserving traditional dwellings, especially those located within the boundaries of cities and old towns. It addresses the most important problems and obstacles that prevent the preservation of these buildings, as well as highlights cultural heritage and its importance in preservation process. This is done using a descriptive analytical approach; including documentation and questionnaires as its main tools. The study raises questions about maintaining building structure and its components of cultural significance without compromising its material and cultural essence. The study is focused on the Old City of Hebron and presents the difficulties that affect the livelihood and living conditions of people living within its boundaries. The study finds that there are necessary changes that are required to facilitate living in the Old City, including maintenance and re-fating, changing tiles and restructuring of plumping and sanitation facilities. These changes however, need to take preservation of the structural elements, and cultural heritage into account. The study concludes that there is a need for more studies to examine the structure and the identity of dwellings in the Old City which will help in future efforts to preserve the cultural essence of these dwellings and protecting them from structural changes, while making them inhabitable for people.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Seismic Performance of Hybrid and Non-Hybrid Fiber-Reinforced Concrete
           Based Beam-Column Joint

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Pallab Das   and Satyabrata Choudhury   Beam-column (BC) joints are the most crucial zones of structures wherein that region, the bond, and normal stresses are comparatively higher. In the present study, the seismic performance of the joint region has been improved with reinforcement with various fibers (polypropylene fiber and steel fiber). Tests are performed with various fiber types in the BC joints under a 100 kN capacity cyclic actuator. The output attributes considered are load, displacement, degradation in the stiffness, drift angle, and dissipation of energy in the BC joint. The specimens have also been computationally modeled and analyzed for static cases using ANSYS-v14 software. Static analysis procedure has been used to determine the key parameters like displacement, stress, strain, and forces in structural components due to the loads. Percentages of polypropylene fiber are varied between 0.15 - 0.50% and the steel fiber is kept constant at 0.75%, while the control specimen (CS) prepared with only normal concrete of mix M25 grade of concrete with characteristic cube compressive strength of 25 MPa without any fibers. Results indicate that the specimen having 0.25% polypropylene and 0.75% steel fiber exhibits better performance under reversed cyclic loading. Further, improvement in BC joints in terms of strength and ductility has been observed in presence of hybrid fibers.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Analysis and Reuse of the Fine Waste of a Residual Solid Treatment Plant
           of a Concrete Company to Prepare a Mortar with Hydraulic Cement

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Hernandez-García J. R.   Aranda-Jiménez Y.   Sánchez-Medrano Ma. T.   and Lozano-Navarro J.   The purpose of the investigation is the use of a residual material through its recovery in a concrete mixer located in the town of Ixtaczoquitlan, Ver., Mexico, to make a recycled hydraulic mortar of f´c 70 kg/cm2 for masonry works, providing sustainability to the concrete mixer and to determine its compressive strength compared to a normal mortar. The methodology consists of the recovery of a sample of fine waste of concrete from the treatment plant in CAGSA (Constructoras Asociadas del Golfo S. A. de C. V.), to dry it, classify it and then make mixtures with % fine waste-% mine sand (in a percentage ratio of 10%-90%, 20%-80%, 30%-70%, 40%-60%, 50% -50% and 60% -40%), as well as, water and cement, to later compare the results against a sample control and evaluate its compressive strengths. The results of compatibility with the other materials that make up the mortar are favorable and benefit its homogeneity and fluidity. The best compression strengths are mixtures at 10% -90%, and 20% -90%. In conclusion, this residue is compatible with the materials that make up the mortar and can be used to glue partitions and masonry plaster. Within the new and relevant aspects of the study is confirmation of the use of a new mortar from fine concrete waste, mixed with andesite-type mine sand, strengthening the sustainability of the environment. It was investigated that the analyzed residues contain 90% of Calcium, which is used in the manufacture of accelerating additives for concrete, based on calcium chloride. It can be a raw material to make additives that accelerate resistance. Follow-up research is recommended regarding the slump test, fluidity, compressive strength, consistency, and water retention of this type of mortar with fine recycled aggregate.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Solution Suggesting Application Model to Minimize Delays and Cost Overrun
           for Low to Midrise Building Construction in Pampanga

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Mark Gibson M. Pusod   and Bernard S. Villaverde   Given the growing economy in the Philippines, the exponential growth in the construction business in Pampanga creates jobs and boosts the industry. This research was conducted to examine various strategies or solutions to a specific construction problem and generates suggestions or effective ways to address them immediately. The system created in this study provides storage where the problem and solution can be documented for further studies and future use. The most frequent issues faced by construction companies that cause delays and expense overruns require a solid determination to take action. These problems are from construction studies and works of literature. A survey questionnaire was used to study the most suitable solution; the questionnaire includes standard answers to resolve the factors and minimize the cost that overruns the project. Field/site engineers, procurement officers, quality assurance engineers, and the project manager were the targets of this study. Cost overrun occurs because the elements were made naturally and by human. It was distinguished by mean factor examination utilizing Likert's scale and cross-organization utilizing Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Tools and algorithm utilizing Visual Studio Software (C-sharp program). The outcomes are the correlation of the elements between the two techniques, examination of the variables from the gathered information and the components gathered by different engineers, and the arrangements experts made to reduce the impacts of these features.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • The Meaning of Space in the Residence of Java - Tondano (Jaton) People in
           Minahasa Case: Residence Period of 1900-1950

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Heryati   Muhammad Faqih   Murni Rachmawati   and Arina Hayati   The understanding of the meaning of space differs among people with different background of culture. So does among the modern and traditional people. This research aims at understanding the meaning of space in the residence of Java Tondano People in Minahasa. To achieve this objective, three important elements of residence must be considered, which are; setting, activities, and values. Bottom up approach is taken to reveal the meaning. The method of data collection and analysis are through triangulation of literature review, field observation, and interview. Case study implemented on the residences that Jaton People built within the period of 1900-1950, which historically show the characteristics of Minahasa traditional house. The result of the analysis suggests that the space in the house of Java Tondano people is not only a place to have a family, but also an integrated part of the Java Tondano people to preserve the value of community, to build relation and to maintain the harmony with the surrounding community. Such meaning of space is motivated by the value of appropriateness, tradition, and goodwill.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Effect of Water/Cement and Aggregate/Cement Ratios on Consistency and
           

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  I Made Alit Karyawan Salain   This study investigates the effect of water cement (w/c) ratio and aggregate cement (a/c) ratio on consistency and compressive strength of concrete made by using volcanic stone waste aggregates. A total of 12 (twelve) concrete mixtures were made by varying w/c ratio and a/c ratio. Portland pozzolan cement was used as a hydraulic binder while volcanic stone wastes with a maximum diameter of 40 mm granules were used as fine aggregate and coarse aggregate. The consistency test, which is expressed in term of slump, was carried out for fresh concrete, while the compressive strength test, for each concrete mixture, was realized at the age of 28 days using 5 (five) cubical specimens measuring 150x150x150mm. The results of this study show that slump increases and compressive strength decreases with increasing w/c ratio for a constant a/c ratio. Slump decreases and compressive strength slightly increases with increasing a/c ratio for a constant w/c ratio. The decrease in slump and the increase in compressive strength with increasing a/c ratio for a constant w/c ratio is more clearly noted for a w/c ratio more than 0.5. Compressive strength decreases proportionally with increasing slump due to the increase in w/c ratio. This decrease tends to be sharper in mixture with lower a/c ratio.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Studying the Mechanical Properties of Rigid Pavement Reinforced with
           Single and Hybrid Fibers

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Marwa Ahmed Moustafa   Arafa. M. A. Ibrahim   Hemdan Okasha Ahmed   Farag Khodary   and Yehia A. Hassanean   High strength concrete (HSC) is the most widely used material and is presented in many different constructions such as rigid pavement. Concrete has a low tensile strength, limited fatigue life, and is characterized by brittle failure resulting in almost complete loss of loading capacity. HSC reinforced with fibers has displayed great performance in both fresh and hardened states. Recently, the use of single fiber has increased in the rigid pavement and the study of its effect on the properties of concrete. It was found that there is a need to study and compare the effect of adding hybrid fiber to concrete mixture to improve the behavior and properties of concrete. This study investigates the optimization of HSC reinforced with steel fiber by different percentages (0% to 1%), polypropylene fiber (0.0% to 0.26%) and the hybridization of steel fiber and polypropylene fiber as 1% volumetric fractions (0.8% + 0.2%), (0.7% + 0.3%) and (0.6% + 0.4%), respectively. The slump value, compressive strength, tensile strength, and flexural strength are determined. Abrasion resistance and water absorption are also measured. The fiber percentage is adjusted to alter the brittle failure. The results showed that adding fibers to the concrete mixture decrease both slump and abrasion, while increasing permeability, tensile and compressive strength.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Anthropometric Deficit in Normative Minimum Spaces for Housing in Mexico

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  J. G. Lorenzo-Palomera   Y. G. Aranda-Jimenez   K. Suarez-Dominguez   and L. A. Brandt-Garcia   The dimensions of houses in accordance with housing law, rules and regulations in Mexico are established based on standards without a precise basis in anthropometric requirements. Therefore, equal house prototypes are built in different regions of the country, although the physical characteristics of people are dissimilar. Education and strategies in architect formation require adapted information for house design. Given this scenario, the study's objective is to contrast such metric standardization with the volume of personal space delimited by body segments of population samples in three regions of Mexico. For this, an anthropometric database was generated, considering body mass, height, reach, body mass index, and personal space. Data are integrated concerning minimum dimensions of areas established in the minimum housing regulations, and necessary furniture measures are incorporated. Measurements were sorted by a given number of cases from each city. Similarities and differences between anthropometric data in the samples of three cities and the information that must be considered in the architectonic design were shown. When comparing minimum normative dimensions with anthropometric data and necessary furniture measurements, some volumetric discrepancies are evident. The Housing Law requires humanization, focusing on the inhabitants, their requirements and characteristics as added values of adequate housing. This paper is a new way to introduce the parametric analysis and consideration in Mexico and a basis for laws development.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Electrical Waste Fibers Impact on Mechanical and Durability Properties of
           Concrete

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Ganesh Naidu Gopu   and A. Sofi   Major aspects that were considered while designing a structure are safety and serviceability. Serviceability is also called as life span of structure reduces, when exposed to severe environments. Solid waste management in developing nations has been growing everyday, which influenced the scientists and researchers around the world in recycling and application of solid waste in various fields. Introduction of waste and recycled fibers in concrete is quite prominent from last few decades. In this research, electric waster copper fibers (EWCF) are added to concrete to test mechanical properties and chloride ion penetration that could reduce the durability of concrete. Adopted percentages of copper fibers added to the concrete are 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75 and 2.00 for volume of concrete. Concrete introduced with EWCF was tested for compression, tensile, flexural and elastic modulus to determine mechanical behavior. Most optimal EWCF percentage of replacement that increased the strength of concrete is 1.0% in volume of concrete. Water absorption, sorptivity, acid attack, bulk diffusion and rapid chloride penetration test (RCPT) were performed on concrete with EWCF to evaluate the durability and microstructure performance. E-Glass and Steel fibers were also adopted in the study to compare the mechanical properties and durability. Optimum values for both strength and durability were determined from the experimental test results.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Effect of Initial Cracking and Bitumen Coating on Performance of Concrete
           in Sulfate Environment

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Roz-Ud-Din Nassar   Taqdees Aysha   Safeer Abbas   and Danish Saeed   Sulfate attack on concrete is considered to be one of the major durability issues. It results in major deterioration of concrete and ultimate failure of the concrete structural members. Mainly, sulfate attack is caused by the transport of sulfate ions from outside source into concrete. Sulfate attack usually manifests in the form of expansion and cracking of concrete. This study reports the strength and durability performances of cracked and uncracked plain and reinforced concrete specimens in sulfate environment induced by their exposure to various concentrations of sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) solution over a period of 120 days. A variety of specimens produced with a standard concrete mixture having w/c ratio of 0.47 were tested under aggressive sulfate environment. Physical testing including visual inspection and change in mass of the conditioned specimens was carried out at 7, 14, 28, 56, 90 and 120 days of exposure period to accelerated sulfate environment. Compressive strength of cylinder specimens and flexural strength of reinforced concrete prisms were also tested at the same ages. Test results showed that bitumen coating of concrete specimens enhanced their resistance to the deleterious effects of sulfate attack. It was further observed that the depth of efflorescence and change in mass of specimens was higher in the case of their exposure to higher concentrations of sulfate solution. The effect of exposure to sulfate solution was severe in the case of cracked specimens than the uncracked ones. The results of this study provide insight into the performance characteristics of concrete in sulfate environment.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Feasibility Tests of High Volume Blended Metakaolin-Brick Powder Concrete
           Incorporating Wastes of Crushed Brick and Plastic as Aggregate

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Mahmood Fawzi Ahmed   Sustainability of the construction industry is taking a priority worldwide. The objective of this work is to evaluate the contribution of double using of waste clay brick and waste plastic for some properties of high volume metakaolin concrete. Waste brick powder (BP), after grinding, was blended with metakaolin (MK) at (50:50) % by weight, and this blended powder was replaced for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) at ratio (50:50) %. Six mixtures were produced, including one control mixture and five mixes that have a substitution 30% by volume of natural coarse aggregate with different ratios of blended waste clay brick aggregate (BA) and plastic aggregate (PL). The essential focus of the study is to observe density, compressive and splitting strengths of mixtures containing waste aggregate along with their workability in comparison with the control mix. The results showed that inclusion of blended wastes aggregate have adversely effect on the concrete workability, and decline the density at fresh and hardened state. Also, the use of wastes aggregate (blended or solely) has reduced the splitting strength. Moreover, compressive strength of control mix was 38.3 MPa, while mixes with waste aggregate have ranged between 32.9 - 42.4 MPa. It is, therefore, more beneficial to produce sustainable concrete with moderate strength for variety applications in the construction sector.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Studies on Cent Percent Utilization of Recycled Coarse and Fine Aggregates
           in the Construction Industry

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  D. Durga Prasad   and Kishore Ravande   As a measure of conserving the resources and for creating eco-friendly environment, studies have been conducted on recycled demolished concrete aggregates (RCA) for their complete usage in the construction industry. The method adopted comprises improving the structure, physical and mechanical properties of RCA. The RCA that are obtained from impact jaw crusher, the surface of these aggregates is improved by processing it through miller machine by way of ball rotation action, where the surface defects and brittle fracture are removed without affecting the permanent mortar adhered on the aggregate, to these modified aggregates which are porous and weak in structure, the surface of the aggregates is subjected to various treatments to improve its structure. The techniques used are densification, hydrophobization, polymerization, and a combination of polymerization & densification. On these combinations, the various dosages of chemical treatments were applied and tested for their properties on coarse and fine aggregates. Finally, a combination of 2.5% of Lithium silicate treatment on coarse aggregates and 1 % colloidal silica treatment on fine aggregates has given satisfactory results in usage in concrete/cement mortar mass. On these combinations, the durability and microscopic studies (SEM, EDS, XRD) were done and it was observed that the combination has more association of silica with calcium and these resulted in more formation of C-S-H, and a dense interfacial transition zone. The aggregates applicability was tested in the field by using it for various civil works. All the tests and analyzed parameters indicate that the treated aggregates are future materials and act as a complete replacement for natural aggregates.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Calculation Method to Determine the Zone of Underground Damage in Water
           Supply System Pipelines

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Abdulkhakim Salokhiddinov   Andrei Savitsky   Olga Ashirova   Poshoazimkhon Khakimova   Mohammad Qaasim Yahyah   and Lola Gandjaeva   The application of water conservation and leakage prevention at all stages of water delivery to the consumer can provide the rational and efficient use of water resources. The long length of heating and water supply networks, their high degree of wear and tear lead to the appearance of leaks. The paper describes research results on developing the calculating method for detecting underground damage zones in the water supply system pipeline. The basis for this study is the main difference between the regulated water intake for the needs of the water user and the uncontrolled loss of water from a damaged pipeline. The water user takes water from the water supply system in accordance with the designed parameters, and such a water intake will not cause unusual changes in the water pressure in the pipeline. The volume of water lost through pipeline damage will always be proportional to the sharp water pressure change in the pipeline. We developed the mathematical model to substantiate the detecting method of the pipeline damage zone. The model considers the operational characteristics of pipelines to the full extend: head and water flow, the degree of deterioration of water conduit, the geodetic position of water intake points. The mathematical model, confirmed earlier by dozens of independent experiments, made it possible to replace expensive hydraulic experiments and prove the possibility of using the developed method of detecting hidden damages of water conduits by extrapolating the measured piezometric heads. The proposed software system for calculating the underground pipeline damage zone in water supply systems makes it possible to determine the pipeline damage hidden zones based on solving the hydraulic problem for a linear pipeline and studying hydraulic processes. We can use the created optimization model as a proven analog of a physical hydraulic stand in hydraulic studies in the simulation mode.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Organization of Decorative Lighting of the Architectural Environment

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Alla Aleksandrovna Kornilova   Yevgeniya Mikhaylovna Khorovetskaya   Madygali Kudayberdievich Tezekbayev   Bekmurat Zhumashevich Yespenbetov   and Gulmira Kurmangadievna Jamankulova   The goal of the present research is to determine the criteria of a conceptual and theoretical model of the decorative lighting organization of the architectural environment in the regional conditions of Northern Kazakhstan. The following issues were resolved during the research: 1). the influence of historical, natural, climatic, and socio-economic factors on the decorative lighting formation of the architectural environment were determined; 2). the analysis was carried out and the features of decorative lighting of the architectural environment in the territory of the region under study were revealed (as exemplified by the city of Nur-Sultan); 3). the principles of forming a conceptual and theoretical model of the decorative lighting organization of the architectural environment and its elements were defined. As a consequence of conducted research, a conceptual-theoretical model of the decorative lighting organization of the architectural environment was developed based on retrospective analysis and regional features of Northern Kazakhstan. The optimality criteria of decorative lighting organization of architectural environment were also determined.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Building Heating Process: Numerical Analysis of the Impact of Moisture and
           the Type of Concrete

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Christophe Songong Tsakeu   Elie SIMO   Josue Ivan Charles Zambe   Steve Franklin William Tabekoueng   and Stephane Nguifo Sob   We numerically performed the influence of moisture, external temperature and the type of concrete on the energy provided for buildings heating. The coefficient of diffusion is not taken as a constant. We developed a technique based on DOPRI5 fourth-and-fifth-order Runge-Kutta variable step integrator. Investigations were conducted in the range of -5: 20℃, which cover the majority of thermal conditions in which people live. As a result, energy consumption increased both with the increasing level of moisture content and with the decreasing level of the external temperature. For instance, in the case or normal concrete, when the outside temperature was T1= 15℃, the power of building heating was 30W/m2 and when it was T1= -5℃, the power of building heating became 175W/m2. We have found that the presence of moisture induces additional energy expenditures. Two different types of concrete were involved in this study, namely normal concrete and pumice concrete. For an outdoor temperature of -5℃, the required heating power was 175W/m2 in the case of a normal concrete wall. On the other hand, we needed only about 87.7W/m2 when the wall was made of pumice concrete, showing that energy expenditure for pumice concrete was half that of normal concrete.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Structure of Infrastructure Project Selection Criteria in Indonesia: A
           Systematic Approach

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Seng Hansen   Eric Too   and Tiendung Le   Infrastructure project selection is a challenging decision-making problem. While previous literature has pointed out relevant criteria for infrastructure project selection, these criteria need to be contextualized for the effective selection of appropriate projects. This paper aims to identify these criteria in an Indonesian context. A systematic literature review was adopted to identify infrastructure project selection criteria from both local and international practices. It was coupled with twenty semi-structured interviews to draw knowledge and experiences from the Indonesian experts. Finally, a questionnaire survey was distributed and the data was analyzed using factor analysis to obtain the underlying structure of infrastructure project selection criteria. The review of literature outlined 23 selection criteria, out of which 19 criteria were considered important in the Indonesian context. Factor analysis further produced a structure of selection criteria that comprises of five major components: technical criteria, administrative criteria, strategic fit criteria, risks & politics criteria, and innovation. This study contributes by structuring infrastructure project selection criteria that also marks the transitional change from a conventional to a modern decision-making technique as adopted in Indonesia. Thus, it provides a useful reference for decision makers in making a context-based infrastructure project selection.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Reading the Rationality of Mangunwijaya's Architectural Tectonics

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  A Robert Rianto Widjaja   Josef Prijotomo   and Yohanes Basuki Dwisusanto   The development of tectonics as a discourse in the modern era has further exerted the influence of technology on works of architecture, thus allowing for more freedom when it comes to exteriorizing various structure forms. This phenomenon has resulted in diverse perspectives when it comes to understanding the concept of tectonics, most alluding to a physical representation. In essence, tectonics discusses not only physical forms, but also the verity that produces beauty. These current times - where the general public is dumbfounded by the ever-advancing technology - makes for greater appeal in researching Mangunwijaya's works on tectonics, for he was able to showcase both adeptness and simplicity, far away from neither technological advancements nor modern fabrications. His works on tectonics are highly appreciated by many observers. This research concludes that the essence of tectonic beauty lies heavily in its truthful and authentic representation instead of merely technological advancements. This understanding encourages architects and educators to enrich their knowledge when it comes to unveiling truthfulness behind a structure and what that represents as a discourse in tectonics beauty, while at the same time voicing a response to the current discourse on tectonics. Comprehension of Mangunwijaya's works on tectonics was able to be established through organizing a rational reading method in regard to case studies, finding relations between physical elements that construct tectonics with representations of tectonics, as well as regarding context as a significantly influential factor. Through a comprehensively-and-rationally-arranged matrix, digestible and teachable understanding of Mangunwijaya's tectonics was successfully obtained.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • The Threshold for Under-Reinforced Concrete Sections Proposed by ACI 318,
           EC 2 and BS 8110

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Panjehpour   Shahryar Sorooshian   and Deepak T. J.   The ductile behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) cross-sections has always been desirable for building codes and standards. However, the threshold to distinguish ductile and brittle behavior of RC cross-sections proposed by building codes has yet to be evaluated [1-4]. This behavior mainly depends on the type of RC cross-section whether it is under- or over-reinforced. While there is not much research conducted on general comparison of the three codes of ACI 318-19, BS 8110 and Eurocode 2 (EC2) regarding design and analysis of RC structural elements, the specific detailed investigation on the threshold for under- and over-reinforced RC cross-sections has yet to be conducted. This article aims to determine the most accurate threshold used to distinguish under- and over-reinforced RC cross-sections amongst the three aforesaid codes by scrutinizing fundamentals and assumptions. A RC cross-section with strain distribution diagram over the section for the three statuses of under-reinforced, balanced, and over-reinforced cross-section is discussed in this research. A theoretical approach is adopted to compare the threshold through the depth of neutral axis of balanced steel concrete cross-sections. The method of calculation is associated with the maximum tensile strain of longitudinal steel bars at the cross-section. The depth of neutral axis is considered to be equal to effective depth of the cross-section multiple by a coefficient. This coefficient is the focus of the comparison. The coefficient is directly given as a number by BS 8110 and EC2. In ACI 318-19 there is no direct value given for the threshold, which leaves no choice other than the accurate calculation of depth of neutral axis for the balanced reinforcement which is in form of an equation. The article concludes that ACI 318-19 provides the most accurate threshold to classify under- and over-reinforced RC cross-sections while EC2 provides the least accurate threshold. The accuracy of threshold proposed by BS 8110 is between those of ACI318-19 and EC2. The scope of this research is confined to singly- and doubly-reinforced concrete cross-sections with any shape using ordinary concrete.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • The Domination of Cultural and Symbolic Capital in the Preservation of
           Temple Heritage Architecture through a Restoration Approach in Bali,
           Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  I Kadek Pranajaya   and Ngakan Ketut Acwin Dwijendra   Architecture plays an essential role in various aspects of life and becomes evidence in tracing the nation's history. Efforts to encourage the preservation of historical buildings, including preserving the architectural style of Balinese temples, have been carried out by many people. The traditions and local wisdom of traditional Balinese architecture inherited from the people in Bali can be used as cultural capital and symbolic capital for the development and preservation of traditional Balinese architecture. Restoration activities at the Temple of Guwang Village, Gianyar Bali, Indonesia aim to restore the building as closely as possible to its original form by prioritizing aspects of preservation so that the carving patterns, ornaments, and characteristics of traditional Balinese architecture in the temple still survive as evidence of civilization and historical developments. The exploratory qualitative method [24] was used in this study by triangulation of data collection, namely from documents, observations and in-depth interviews. This research method aims to analyze the dominance of cultural and symbolic capital in the restoration process carried out by the people of Guwang Village. The results of this study will undoubtedly enrich the vocabulary of researchers and readers in understanding the process of restoring the architectural heritage of temples in Bali, and in addition, to offer knowledge in the scientific area of architectural culture and to improve and add understanding, both for authors and readers.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Experimental Study on Mechanical Properties of Pervious Concrete
           Containing Recycled Aggregate

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Abdulfattah A. Amin   Khaleel H. Younis   Firas F. Jirjees   and Talib K. Ibrahim   This investigational study aims to examine the influence of using recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) instead of natural coarse aggregate (NCA) on the fresh properties (workability) and mechanical properties of pervious concrete (PC). The mechanical properties include compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength and the impact resistance of PC was also assessed using drop weight test. In total, four mixes were prepared (including control mix with 100% NCA) in which various ratios of RCA (30%, 70% and 100%) replaced the NCA in the preparation of PC mixes without using any fine aggregate and fixing the water-cement ratio (w/c) to 0.4. The outcomes of the study reveal that the content of the RCA has significant adverse effects on the workability and mechanical performance of the investigated mixtures. This adverse effects increase with the increase of the content of RCA. The strength reduction, compared to the mix with NCA, reached to 59% for compressive, 28% of the splitting tensile, 38% for flexural strength and 50% for the impact resistance when 100% RCA is used.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Monte Carlo Simulation in a Peruvian Highway

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Jean Carlos Espinoza Jaco   Claudia Margarita Lopez Galarza   Roy Monteagudo Venero   and Jimmy Alberth Deza Quispe   Highways and roads are important for nations' development and life quality. This is not different for Peru. A highway project called Daniel Alcides Carrión is expected to provide a solution to the over-employed Carretera Central road. This is a multimillionaire and important infrastructure project. Hence, it is important to evaluate the possible sustainability risks. In consequence, this study employed the Monte Carlo simulation for such a purpose. First, variables have been chosen and segregated into input and output. Variables like the initial investment, recurrent maintenance, periodical maintenance, savings in the operative cost of vehicles, and time savings employed the triangular distribution. Traffic growth and inflation rate employed the Pert distribution. The project's Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return have been selected as output variables. Crystal Ball software has been employed to perform the Monte Carlo analysis. Consequently, this research found a high probability that the highway can become a profitable project due to its Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return. Moreover, savings in operative costs of vehicles and traffic growth rate had positive impacts on the project's Net Present Value. However, the initial investment had a negative relationship with the output variable. Hence, the new highway should take prevision policies to maintain traffic flux. Thus, avoid closures that can have both human and natural sources. This study is the first in the Peruvian academic literature regarding highways risk analysis. Moreover, this study provides researchers, state officials, future highway managers, and users' valuable information to elaborate preventive measures to maintain the highway's social sustainability and increase its benefits.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Predicting Bond Strength of Steel Reinforcement in Self-Compacting
           Concrete (SCC) Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Ngudiyono   Jauhar Fajrin   I Nyoman Merdana   and Fathmah Mahmud   The advantages of using self-compacting concrete (SCC) are reducing the time of construction and the number of employments, reducing noise that can disturb the surrounding environment, and increasing the density of hardened concrete structural elements, automatically affecting bond strength reinforcement in SCC. The bond strength is a parameter as an essential factor affecting the behavior of reinforced concrete. In this manuscript, the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model was built to predict the bond strength in SCC. For showing the performance of the ANFIS model, the level of accuracy-based correlation coefficient (R2) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) were determined. Learning process data consists of input and output. The input in this study includes compressive strength of concrete (f'c), the diameter of steel reinforcement (db), and development of length (Ld), while the output bond strength (). The results of the proposed model were in good agreement with the experimental results, as evidenced by an R2 of 0.71 and an RMSE of 3.31 MPa in the testing data, indicating that the proposed ANFIS model is capable of accurately predicting steel reinforcement bond strength in SCC.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Geopolymer Binder Based on
           Umeanyar Slatestone Powder

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Ni Kadek Astariani   I Made Alit Karyawan Salain   I Nyoman Sutarja   and Ida Bagus Rai Widiarsa   This research focuses on the mechanical and microstructure properties of geopolymer binder with slatestone waste as the base material. This geopolymer binder comes from industrial waste crushing slate in the Umeanyar area. This waste is processed into stone powder (USSP) which contains SiO2 (49%), Al2O3 (11%), CaO (11.2%). This USSP uses a sodium hydroxide (SS) activator with a concentration of 14 M. The proportion of the mixture of precursor and activator (P/A) is 70%: 30%; 75%: 25%; 80%: 20% and alkaline activator Na2SiO3: NaOH (SS/SH) of 1:1; 1.5:1; 2:1, by weight. Samples of specimens were made in the form of a cube with a side of 50 mm and tested at the age of 7 and 28 days. Mechanical properties tested include density and compressive strength based on ASTM-C39. Meanwhile, the microstructural analysis used X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electronic Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX) analysis. The results of the density test were 1.90g/cm3 and 1.85g/cm3 respectively and the compressive strength test results were 7.40 MPa and 12.73 MPa at the age of 7 and 28 days, respectively.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Alfa Natural Fiber Composite Reinforcement for Concrete Beams

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Sofiene Helaili   Moez Chafra   and Yvon Chevalier   Lightweight, corrosion-resistant, and longer-lasting composite materials are increasingly used as primary load-bearing materials in structures' design. The cost of rehabilitating structures is lower than that of demolishing and rebuilding them again. Therefore, economical, and eco-friendly materials could extend the life of the structures and reduce the carbon di-oxide footprint on the environment. The purpose of this paper is to present a composite hollow body that can be inserted in reinforced concrete beams. The priority was to use more economical, biodegradable, and recyclable local natural fibers. The goal is to get lighter but stronger beams. The main innovation on this work is the usage of a composite made from natural fiber. A 3D finite element model of the 5 m span beam is developed to see in detail the beam's behavior and the composite reinforcement behavior. A classical reinforced concrete beam is compared to composite shells reinforced one. As a result, the beam is lightened, the deformation is relatively reduced, the traction in concrete is reduced, and the stress in steel bars is increased but remains far from the steel's elastic limit. An experimental work was done based on 40 mm x 40mm x160 mm beams to verify the correlation of the finite element model parameters with experimental results. The results show a good correlation. The weight of the beam 5 m span beam is reduced by 26.65% without affecting its behavior. For the reinforced and non-reinforced 5 m span beams, at a similar deflexion of nearly 0.7 mm, similar stress in concrete of about 2.3 MPa and similar stress in steel bars of about 10 to 13 MPa, the maximal stress in the composite is equal to 0.460 MPa which is insignificant compared to the composite failure stress, which is about 229 MPa. The composite has a long-life and can support the efforts if the beam must be rehabilitated, for example. Consequently, lightened beams can be used in reinforced concrete structures made of non-lightened elements and have the same structural behavior.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Effects of Urban Growth on Street Networks and Land Use in Mosul, Iraq: A
           Case Study

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  6  Wahda Shuker Al-Hinkawi   Sarah Salh Youssef   and Haneen Ali Abd   Urban centers grow and expand gradually, and this growth is accompanied by renewal processes for many parts of these centers over time. Traditionally, conditions and needs developed slowly and cities often only changed greatly due to natural disasters or wars. However, with the acceleration of the Industrial Revolution and subsequent important technical transformations in transportation modes, a large, accelerating, and indisputable impact affected historical urban centers, which suffered many morphological changes represented by the intrusive opening of streets to the passage of vehicles with varying degrees of sympathy toward the characteristics of these centers. This research starts from the general hypothesis that street networks affected the changes in old urban centers represented by growth and urbanization and the accompanying change in how parts of this traditional fabric were used. Therefore, we need to have a clear and accurate perception of the change in the characteristics of the spatial organization of the urban and historical centers that resulted from these formal changes. This requires defining and describing the characteristics of this spatial organization before and after these changes occurred. The present research adopts the space syntax method to measure morphological changes and the historic center of Mosul in Iraq is chosen for the practical study due to the city's need for a development strategy that controls expansion and growth when rebuilding the city after the destruction that resulted from the military operations in the war with ISIS.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
       
  • Sensitivity of Enhanced SRTM for Sea-Level Rise Variation on Egyptian
           Coasts

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Alshimaa A. Hussien   Mohamed Gomaa M. Mohamed   Pasent H. A. Yousef   Mohamed R. Hagag   and Tarek Abou El Seoud   The accuracy of digital elevation models (DEMs) is very critical to planning adaptation strategies for coastal areas under changing scenarios of global climate and sea-level rise. This research assesses the accuracy of the interferometric DEM from the SRTM mission as it is one of the free available DEMs that have been widely used in many applications. The SRTM model is enhanced using the best fit global geoid model for Egypt instead of EGM96 and by applying a mathematical scale factor formula. This research aims to obtain a higher vertical accuracy of the SRTM model that achieves the requirements for coastal inundation studies with minimum field measurement data. The methodology approach consists of three phases. In the first phase, the enhancement scale factor formulas were derived using uniformly distributed ground control points (GCPs) at two different terrains data in Egypt. The second phase contains the evaluation and validation process. It was observed that the enhanced accuracy achieved ranged from 45% to 60 % based on the type of terrains. In the last phase, the sensitivity of these DEMs to sea-level projections using the recent available local tide gauge data was analyzed. It is recommended to investigate this method approach to determine the optimal size and distribution of reference ground control points needed to adjust various free open DEMs of low vertical accuracy for further studies and other applications.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Memada-mada: The Power Relation and Architectural Creativity of Gianyar
           Palace

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Ida Bagus Gde Wirawibawa   I Dewa Gede Agung Diasana Putra   and Ngakan Ketut Acwin Dwijendra   Balinese royal palaces' forms illustrate the evolving nature of the kingdom's political control and the strategies used by its rulers to foster the stability of its territory. Although every kingdom has opportunities to demonstrate its authority through architecture and layout, architectural hierarchy is presented from the form of architectural productions, including the traditional gate called kori agung among palaces called puris, especially the architectural form in palaces of Gianyar. This phenomenon has risen to the questions on how far the authority power influences the architectural form. Are there any other elements that influence the architectural form design in Gianyar' Drawing from seventeenth- through twentieth-century photographs, correspondences and collected oral traditions, this paper explores the oral traditions and power relationships among the kingdoms that influence the layout and form of the palace's architectural production called puri in Gianyar Bali. This paper found that the phrase "memada-mada" has influenced the architecture of palaces in Gianyar, especially the kori agung. The term refers to attempting to avoid performing the same or greater acts as those with a higher status.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • 'Shop as Home': The Meaning of Built Environment to Quality of Life of
           Shop Houses Residents in Medan, Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Wahyuni Zahrah   Nurlisa Ginting   Dwira N. Aulia   and Amy Marisa   The shophouse is an urban house type that combines a residential and a shop in one building. This typology is commonly found in Medan and other cities in Indonesia due to its flexible space. Among the various studies on shophouses, minimal ones discuss the occupants' point of view. However, they are the most appropriate party to be asked about their living experiences in that multi-functional house. This study aims to explore the meaning of a shophouse for its residents. This is a qualitative research with a phenomenological approach that analyses the essence of a phenomenon based on the actual experiences of people live there. Ten participants were selected purposefully and their experiences were explored through in-depth interviews. This research applies the interpretative method by carrying out the steps of structured phenomenological analysis proposed by Moustakas. The investigation found that participants give meaning to a shophouse as ‘where all life takes place.’ There are some problems while living in the shophouse, but the dwellers can cope with it until they feel no significant obstacles while living in it to achieve the desired quality of life. The study results strengthen the study of the relationship between the built environment and the achievement of quality of life and provide a new perspective in assessing shop houses, particularly in Medan, Indonesia. This study has limitations because it focuses more on a person's personal experience living in a shophouse. However, the findings can make contribution to urban planning activities, especially the development of shophouses to maintain urban residents' life quality. Besides, the results of this research can enrich the insight of architectural design in understanding occupants' preferences for a double-functioning building.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Saudi Residences' Adaptability: How Employees Worked from Home during
           COVID-19 Lockdowns

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Jamil Hijazi   and Douha Attiah   During the COVID-19 pandemic, most employees in Saudi Arabia were asked to work from home. This study investigated the extent to which the indoor spaces of Saudi homes were adaptable to the concept of 'working from home' and how employees managed to work productively. A questionnaire survey was conducted among Saudi employees to gather data on their normal workplaces, home workspace designs, and work productivity. The results show that 42% of participants work in the living room, only 42% used an office desk and chair, 38% did not use any specific furniture, and 46% used mood enhancers (the addition of personalised elements to their work setup) to help them adapt better to working from home. Altogether, 63% of the participants indicated that they were satisfied with their productivity levels. Based on cross-sectional trends identified in our analyses, this paper makes recommendations for how employees who have to work from home can adapt quicker to the new situation. This includes recommendations for minor changes to existing home designs rather than rezoning or restructuring the home layout.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Water Network Improvement Using Infrastructure Leakage Index and
           Geographic Information System

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Ahmad Nahwani   and Albert Eddy Husin   This study aimed at determining Infrastructure Leakage Index (ILI) supported by Geographic Information System (GIS) to facilitate strategy determination, map problems, and determine potential revenue for actions to solve leakage realistically, effectively and efficiently. Economic analysis was carried out to determine investment feasibility of corrective actions for leakage of clean water network infrastructure. More importantly, variables in this study were obtained from literature review. Primary and secondary data were then collected and analyzed statistically, and other economic analysis tools were also used. This study used a quantitative method with a population of 11 (eleven) service zones involving 35 leaders, executors and staff of leakage team. All populations of service zone were taken as research sample, while for leakage team, sample was taken using Slovin formula which obtained 32 respondents. Questionnaires were distributed to find the main affecting factors using AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) method with the help of Expert Choice software Results of this study indicated that there were basically five main factors causing water loss due to infrastructure leakage. Handling infrastructure leakage could reduce rate of physical water leakage by 48.5% (from 11.38% to 5.86%) of the total physical losses per year. In addition, return on investment was obtained in year 3, while profits were earned in year 4.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Biodegradation Processes on the Facades of Residential Housing from the
           Point of View of Energy Savings

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Darja Kubečková   and Magdaléna Vrbová   After 2000, 2010, energy and heat savings became a key concern of the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union. The result of these efforts and activities was, in particular, the introduction of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD I., EPBD II., include EPBD II. recast), into the legal ambience of the EU Member States. The resulting requirements are mainly reflected in the areas of energy decrees and normative regulations and place high demands on the gradual reduction of energy consumption and overall sustainability. The new thermal-technical and energy legislation and ever-stricter criteria of the European Union require among other things that measures taken towards overall improvement of building performance should include better quality thermal insulation of building envelopes of both, new and refurbished buildings. However, one has to evaluate real impact of improved thermal insulation and energy saving parameters within the context of the overall structural and environmental design of buildings by also taking into account the ramifications of such improvements to building structures. On the one hand, there is a qualitative energy improvement; on the other hand, we encounter new manifestations of defects and failures in the form of biodegradation of facades. The aim of the paper is to present a case study based on monitoring of prefabricated apartment buildings, laboratory analysis of biodegradation microorganisms and model calculations, and to explore how increasing the thickness of thermal insulation can negatively affect the condition of the building facade and how they can start biodegradation processes in the form of mosses, lichens and algae. The paper shows the need for the interaction of all interdisciplinary contexts that lead to quality reconstruction and renovation interventions, the aim of which is to extend the life of a panel residential housing by at least another twenty years.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Value Increase of Jetty Project Based on System Dynamics

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Agung Prihantoro   and Albert Eddy Husin   Waste or additional costs in infrastructure projects such as jetty projects are often caused by rework. Besides having an impact on costs, rework is also a very significant contributor to waste or add time which causes delays in the completion schedule of the project. A lot of research on rework has been carried out on both building and road construction projects, but there is no jetty construction project. This study aims to develop improvement scenarios to minimize the emergence of rework on pier infrastructure projects by modeling and simulating cost performance. The research variables were obtained based on the results of a literature study by asking for opinions from experts who are compatible in their scope. The initial model used the causal loop diagram form which was later developed into a Stock Flow Diagram, after which a repair simulation was carried out using the system dynamics method to determine the effect on cost performance. From the research results obtained 14 factors that affect the cost and time performance on the jetty project, the implementation of system dynamics can provide the optimum solution with the ability to reduce the percentage of the number of reworks by 24.12% for 12 months.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Rethinking Municipal Markets (Bandabuliya) within the Context of
           Sustainability: Case of Cyprus

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Damla Mısırlısoy   Municipal markets have played an important role in social, cultural and economic activities of the communities. Municipal markets can be seen as a symbol of tradition and as part of a city's tangible and intangible heritage. Municipal markets are part of the cultural heritage of their related community and therefore they must be conserved and continuity should be provided for future generations. For sustainable use of municipal markets, they should answer the needs of today's community by preserving their authenticity. The aim of the study is to identify municipal markets in Cyprus and propose sustainable adaptive reuse strategies for their future use. The study includes a holistic approach since municipal markets from North and South part of the island is observed through site survey. The research is also emphasized the significance of municipal markets as a part of Cypriot culture. As the method of the study, the model for achieving sustainable adaptive reuse of traditional marketplaces is used for developing strategies for the future use of the municipal markets. The results of the research address that the municipal markets are important for the cultural heritage of the related community. However, in Cyprus they used more for the economic activities, and important social and cultural values were ignored. Municipal markets should be conserved by considering the tangible and intangible heritage values. Local needs, beliefs, practice and traditions should be taken into consideration with a holistic approach in the conservation process of municipal markets.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Socio-Physical Transformation towards Sustainable Urban Morphology through
           Land Readjustment in Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Ngakan Made Anom Wiryasa   and Ngakan Ketut Acwin Dwijendra   In the development sector, the need for land is increasing, resulting in the higher land value and land use mismatches. Urban areas have a relatively fixed area, while the need for land continues to increase. Weaknesses in urban management lead to speculation, illegal land use, and slums. Development activities should impact the physical, environmental, economic, and social conditions of the community [29]. The development process often pays little attention to these matters. In the last few decades, we have observed a very rapid social transformation process in urban areas that has changed the morphology of Indonesian cities. This transformation has accelerated after the implementation of regional autonomy in Indonesia since 1999. Land conflicts in urban areas do not end, so it is necessary to consolidate land as an activity to restructure land tenure, land use, and land acquisition to improve environmental quality and preserve natural resources and ecosystems by involving the community to play an active role. This study aims to evaluate the extent to which land readjustment in Indonesia can improve the efficiency and productivity of morphological transformation of urban land use, the extent of community participation, and its alignments to low-income people and their handling of slum areas. This study uses qualitative exploratory research methods and normative juridical approach methods through library studies. It uses the legislative approach, fact approach, and conceptual approach and primary data in the form of interviews to complete library studies. The study results show that land readjustment can improve the efficiency and productivity of morphological transformation of urban land use optimally and it is an effective way that contributes to the spatial planning that is more just, integrated and sustainable.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • On the Analytical Models of Confined High-Strength Steel-Fiber Concrete

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Sutarno   Antonius   and Sumirin   Generally, confinement models of the steel-fiber concrete were very ductile because the fiber has a significant influence on the increase of the concrete deformability. Nevertheless, the existing steel fibrous confined models now have significant differences between each other, especially the peak stress value and post peak behavior. It is some of the different reviewed design parameters that affect the stress-strain equation of developed confined steel-fiber concrete. This paper investigated the existing confinement models to evaluate pre- and post-peak behavior of experimental results of confined steel fiber concrete for square sections. This paper has discussed models of existing steel fibrous concrete restraints compared to the results of experiments. In general, it can be concluded that the Hsu model is able to predict the best K value and ascending branch curve toward the experiment results. However, in the unfettered concrete ductility of the descending branch curve, the predicted values of ε' cc and ε50cc, it can be said that all the models reviewed are still not able to model properly. The difference is mainly due to the parameters reviewed to lower the restraints of each model are not the same. The comparison results presented in this paper recommend the need for more complete experimental research with broader parameters such as cross-sectional shape, fiber ratio, and restraint bone characteristics, in order to lower the model of restraint more generally.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Blast Vulnerability of Multi-Storey Masonry Infill Reinforced Concrete
           Frames

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Saba Shamim   Shakeel Ahmad   and Rehan Ahmad Khan   The prototype or experimental study of blast effect on structures is not always possible due to high risk of life and environmental wellbeing. However, advancement in computational science had made it possible to solve such complex and risky problems. Researchers in the past few decades have presented ample computational and numerical studies on blast effect on masonry structure using deterministic approach. The studies have neglected the effect of various uncertainties that may perhaps occur during an actual blast scenario. Therefore, in present study probabilistic Finite Element (FE) analysis was performed on three statistically stable masonry infill RC (Reinforced Concrete) frames having single (G+0), two (G+1) and three (G+2) storey levels respectively to arrive at the blast fragility curves. The probability of failure was computed based on the inelastic tension damage curves developed for the masonry. The effect of scaled distance and different storey levels on blast vulnerability of masonry infill RC frame walls are investigated through these fragility curves. The results indicate a noteworthy effect of scaled distance and storey levels on the blast resistance of the structure. Frame G+0 is found to be comparatively more vulnerable against the blast load effect than other multi-storey frames. The critical value of scaled distance (Zcritical) corresponding to PF 90% in panel P1 was found as 6.67m/kg1/3, 4.81m/kg1/3 and 4.66m/kg1/3 respectively of frames G+0, G+1 and G+2; in panel P2 was found as 4.3m/kg1/3 and 4.6m/kg1/3 respectively of frames G+2 and G+3 and; in panel P3 was found as 4.32 m/kg1/3 of frame G+3. It is also observed that RC frame is negligibly affected with respect to the masonry panel in terms of blast load mitigation.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Regression Analysis Following Levenberg - Marquardt Algorithm to Estimate
           Elastic Modulus of Sandy Clay Embankment

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Tuan Anh Nguyen   and Chieu Quang Phan   Road design must consider the factors affecting the elastic modulus of the cohesive soil used for the roadbed. Accurate determination of the elastic modulus of the pavement will help calculate properly the deformation of the pavement and prevent the appearance of cracks in the pavement; especially when the roadbed is flooded. This study is based on the laboratory data, using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and building a program for regression analysis, proposing the coefficients to estimate the elastic modulus of the roadbed. From the research results obtained, the way to choose the adjustment coefficients has been improved by adding the coefficient µ, the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm has solved the problem with only 1,351 iterations, proving the simplicity and efficiency to solve the problem of nonlinear minimum squares that sometimes cannot be solved by the Gauss-Newton method. This algorithm is applied to regression analysis of experimental results, adding the values of coefficients a9 and a10 to propose the values of the remaining coefficients an and bn of the formula Dong-Gyou Kim, MS, 2004 with correlation coefficient R2 is 0.8929. As a result, the article proposes the appropriate value of the regression coefficients into the formula to estimate the elastic modulus of the sandy clay embankment according to the humidity and material characteristics of land, instead of using the Benkelman method which is time-consuming, expensive and difficult to implement.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • The Effect of Pori Hole Distance Variation on Infiltration Capacity in
           Sandy Clay Soil Sample Drainage Channels

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Fenti Daud Sindagamanik   Sukmasari Antaria   Nenny T Karim   Fauzan Hamdi   and Asriany   The infiltration capacity will decrease if the number of infiltration fields decreases. This results in increased surface runoff or inundation. The planning concept that creates a groundwater infiltration area in drainage will be able to reduce inundation in drainage. Pore Cylinder Hole is a water infiltration method by increasing water absorption in the soil. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of pore-hole spacing on infiltration capacity in pore-cylindrical drainage and to determine how much infiltration discharge due to variations in hole spacing using three levels of pore cylinder heights. This research was conducted using a pore-cylindrical drainage model and spacing the biopore holes and flowing water on the drainage surface. From the results of this study, it was found that the effect of the hole distance on the infiltration discharge, the closer the hole to the pore cylinder, the greater the infiltration discharge that occurs, it can be proven from the results of analysis of research data, for a flow rate of 400 cm3/sec, Qf = 35.1 cm3/sec. for spacing of holes 16 cm); Qf = 31.9cm3/s (to describe 32 cm holes); and Qf = 3.13cm3/s (for spacing of 16 cm holes).
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Design-Build Approaches with Building's Users in Local School Case Study
           in Cairo, Egypt

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Ibrahim Samy Sayed Saleh   Mostafa Refaat Ahmed Ismail   Ahmed Atef Eldesouky Faggal   and Alaa Adel Mahmoud Al-shareef   A design build studio approach is a design process that involves the users, local community, and professionals in the entire development of a project - from the conceptual ideas generation to the implementation phase. This paper aims at analyzing techniques of involving the school students directly in the process of improving their school built elements performance – with focus on social spaces such as playgrounds - from the design and planning phases to the implementation phase. The main goal is to develop a model to involve the students in the process of realization, which includes not only the satisfaction achieved at the end, but also the problems, difficulties, and compromises that have to be faced in the process. The case study for testing the design - build techniques with building's users and local community is Shagaret el Dorr School in Ibn Tulun district. The paper will test the efficiency of physical model technique for filtering and analyzing the spatial qualities and intended activities from the children's models and eventually transform these collected data and user's input into design proposals to be built. A survey was done to assess the process and results of the case study and sent to project's participants and professional architects. The results of the survey will be part of holistic criteria for school design participatory process. The end result will be a matrix of design build techniques and guidelines for working with users and community (phase 01), transferring into designs (phase 02), and building (phase 03).
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Influence of Passenger Comfort Requirements on the Interior Layout of
           Long-Haul Aircraft

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Mikhail Yu. Kuprikov   Alexander A. Orekhov   Yelizaveta D. Shulga   and Yan Naing Min   The plane has become a convenient method of transportation. The main idea of aviation in the 21st century is the safety of passengers and crew, but the human is always inclined towards comfort. The structural and parametric analysis of the long-haul aircraft development made it possible to form the concept of the fuselage layout with capsule accommodation of passengers. By adding the third axis to the dimension of the aircraft expressed in take-off mass, it clearly showed the ultimate dimension of the aircraft, expressed by modern infrastructural constraints. The histogram of the distribution of flights between the largest airports in the world that can operate with long-haul aircraft was showed. The distribution of large airports was characterised by the demographic factor. The proposed variant of the capsule accommodation, designed for the Boeing 777-200LR, can be installed in other passenger airliners with a ceiling height of at least 2.1 m. Analysis of alternative options for the layout of the passenger compartment allows us to state: with a flight range of more than 8 hours, the flight is comfortable only in business or first classes. The proposed two-story capsule placement allows providing the layout with first-class seats in a given cabin.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Flexural Resistance Factors for Structural Ultra Lightweight Engineered
           Cementitious Composite Slabs

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Bashar Behnam   and Mohammed Al-Iessa   Many problems associated with the use of normal weight concrete have been solved with the development of structural ultra-lightweight engineered cementitious composite (SULWECC) that has the capability to exhibit strain-hardening behavior prior to failure. However, the feasibility and standards that address the design of such engineered cementitious composites (ECC) in flexural slab systems are not available. In this study, reliability analysis and calibration process are carried out on three different SULWECC slab systems with the intention of estimating the potential flexural resistance factors. Although the high volume of randomly dispersed synthetic short fiber is considered the main reinforcement, SULWECC slab systems internally reinforced with carbon FRP mesh are also considered. The reinforcement ratio is selected so that the section is under-reinforced. Relevant load and resistance random variables are used, and appropriate statistical parameters are selected. The target reliability indices are chosen to be consistent with those used to develop current design code specifications. The nominal moment capacity is calculated based on a new model that consists of: elastic linear stress distribution in the compression zone and elastic-perfectly-plastic uniform stress distribution in the tension zone. The determined flexural resistance factors ranged from 0.59 to 0.69, although higher values are justifiable in special circumstances. The average slab thickness needed to satisfy the strength requirements ranged from 1/37 to 1/22 times the slab length. Flexural toughness to measure ductility is evaluated using load-deflection curves of experimentally tested SULWECC specimens.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Effects of Heat Transfer through the Walls of a Catholic Church in
           Semarang Indonesia Simulated with Psi-Therm Software and OTTV

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  L. M. F. Purwanto   and Karsten Tichelmann   Verifying the effects of heat transfer towards the rise of temperature in certain spaces which impact air control and conditioning. Climate change affects the rise of environmental temperatures, with the humid and tropical Indonesia not exempt from its effects. Many church buildings in Semarang, Indonesia, of which were previously partial to natural ventilation, have now opted to rely on Air Conditioning in order to cool their indoor temperatures. As a result, electrical consumption is now at an all-time-high, with the absence of proper adjustments needed to anticipate heat transfer from the outdoors from entering these buildings. Aside from skyrocketing expenses spent on electrical bills, the rise in energy consumption is also partial to uncontrollable energy waste. This research aims to provide a guide in designing the walls of church buildings, in order to reduce massive electrical consumption. Methods used in this research are calculations done through the software Psi-Therm as well as making considerations regarding Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV) in order to provide the big picture of controllable thermal conductivity through church wall design. Research results entail a design model of heat transfer flow obstruction which will be beneficial for future church designs.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Sustainability of Excavation Soil and Red Brick Waste in Rammed Earth

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Mostafa Shaaban   Sustainable construction is an urgent theme in both industrial and developing countries where the construction sector consumes 36% of worldwide energy usage and 40% of the natural resources. Moreover, it causes a hug adverse impact on the environment. One of the major practices to achieve sustainability in construction sector is the use of waste and recycled materials as building materials. The use of waste reduces the consumption of natural resources, energy consumption and carbon emissions. This study is carried out on three types of waste and by-product materials; excavation waste, crushed red brick, and fly ash (FA) which emits from coal-fired thermal plants. The study aims to assess these materials to produce rammed earth as sustainable solution reduces resource consumption, energy consumption, and the environmental pollutants caused by building activities and industrial waste. In order to achieve that, five FA levels 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% were mixed with excavation waste of natural soil, and crushed red brick to prepare five rammed earth mixtures. The samples were tested for compressive strength, dry shrinkage, erosion resistance, and microstructure analysis using the scanning electron microscope. The obtained results show that the aforementioned materials can be utilized to produce rammed earth comply with the standard requirements. Also, the observed results indicate that the better properties were measured for mixture prepared using 20% fly ash.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Energy Analysis of the Educational Building in Palembang Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Heni Fitriani   Muhammadiya Rifki   Citra Indriyati   Aditya Rachmadi   and Ahmad Muhtarom   The issues of global warming and the greenhouse effect are of enormous concern today for most people. With increased demand for energy and a reduction in existing energy resources, demands for more energy efficient buildings within the construction industry are growing rapidly. Buildings are one of the largest energy consumers and account for about 40% of total energy consumption. This study aims to investigate the energy consumption of existing building located in Palembang as compared to the benchmark of Indonesian Standard for educational buildings. This paper also develops an energy analysis model with BIM integration to produce accurate predictions of the educational building performance with better scenarios. The EUI calculations were carried out in two ways. First, the electrical usage used in the building was calculated and then compared with the SNI 03-6196-2000 standard. Secondly, a 3D model was developed by redrawing the building object using BIM Revit application which follows the ASHRAE 90.1 benchmark standards. It was found that HVAC dominated for about 69% of the total energy consumption for the first floor, whereas electronic appliances contributed to the highest proportion of energy consumption, which was about 66%, for the second floor. The EUI value for the first floor was 22.43 kWh/m2/month, while the second floor was about 45.56 kWh/m2/month, resulting in an average EUI of around 33.99 kWh/m2/month. The existing building was then classified as a very inefficient building in terms of energy consumptions. Based on the renovation designs, 9 scenarios were then developed to measure potential energy savings generated by the building using the Insight 360 web-based energy analysis tool. In the last scenario, considering a building installed with solar panels with a time limit of 30 years, 90% of surface coverage resulted in an EUI value of -6.49 kWh/m2/year with 102.10% of energy efficiency. This building scenario could provide energy export and save the energy excess. It can also be concluded that there was a significant improvement on energy use reduction and a substantial increase in energy savings under different renovation design scenarios. Finally, the results will help the decision makers identify the potential for energy savings in all energy-consuming facilities and equipment in the building as well as develop strategies for energy conservation.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Experimental Investigation of Non-composite and Composite Deck Bridges

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Abhishek Sharma   K. K. Pathak   and P. K. Singh   Use of composite RCC deck over steel bridges has now significantly increased. The detailed experimental study was conducted to ascertain improvements due to composite RCC deck over non-composite bridge model. Deck type steel bridge models, with and without composite decks were tested in laboratory up to failure. The failure in non-composite model was observed due to buckling of top chord member at a stress of 234.6 N/mm2, whereas for the model with composite deck it changed to rupture of the bottom chord in tension at a stress of 614.8 N/mm2. Failure load and stiffness of the structure also increased significantly due to the composite action. Shear connectors designed as per IRC 22:2008 transferred the shear effectively and deck slab also participated in load sharing. Further, load sharing in the top chord compression member comprising the steel top chord, the concrete in the deck slab, and the reinforcing steel in it, was also explored. It is found that 72.0% of the composite top chord compressive force is taken by the RCC deck, and in the RCC deck 30.7% force is taken by the reinforcement. Strain variation in deck slab was also recorded using strain gauges. Strain in deck slab over top chord members was observed to be 54% more than the strain in the middle of the deck slab.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Adapting Cities for Mediterranean Migration Influxes: The Arrival City

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Omar Salem   Migration was and still is one of the main topics repeated continuously throughout history and studied by scientific communities. Yet, studies have been lacking the relation between migration and the urban fabric of a city, either in terms of preparedness or as an impact. Migration should not be seen entirely as a socio-economic issue; the pressure this creates on land resources and its impact on the urban fabric needs to be as well taken into consideration. In the scope of migration, one would always find two types of cities; departure cities where the efflux arises and arrival cities receiving the influxes. Certainly, both types of cities are positively and negatively affected by migrations. In the Mediterranean basin, the origin of so many cultures based on the mobility of their inhabitants, the current socio-economic and political instability in the MENA region, contributed to a massive influx of migrants to European cities for many reasons including, but not limited to, its proximity and the relatively high livelihood quality. This particular phenomenon obliges us to question the time-being used methods to deal with the present extensive influxes and to rethink new city planning approaches towards a resilient Arrival city. This paper demonstrates the case of European Arrival cities; definitions, characteristics, as well as the urban, socio-economic and political adaptations for the current overflowed migration influxes. The demonstration and discussion should be primarily seen as a catalyst that does not only promote for a healthier absorption in choked cities impacted by migrations but intensify the vital role of states, urban planning and resilience in shaping satisfactory conditions for fruitful development impacts of migrations to exist in such cities.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Pocket Parks: Urban Living Rooms for Urban Regeneration

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Mennatallah Hamdy   and Rovena Plaku   Urban parks are mostly implemented as large green-infrastructural projects exclusive to recreational activities and economies. Currently, 54% of the global population is urban and is projected to increase to 68% by 2050 (UN 2012). This entails the need for a more sustainable approach towards food production, movement and overall living together in cities. Micro-scale communal spaces could potentially prompt such goal. They are often most effective when they utilize abandoned or ill-used urban voids; transforming them into pocket parks. This paper frames pocket parks as a potential first step towards both: sustainable urban regeneration, and equal access to public spaces in dense cities. It hypothesizes pocket parks as an answer to economic crisis, food production pressure, run-down communities and the lack of development land for communal spaces. It highlights their key implementation challenges. Also, the influence of communities' contextual needs on pocket parks' size, design, activities and funding is investigated by comparing selected international projects. Reflecting on the Mediterranean context, case studies from Cairo, Egypt and Tirana, Albania are analyzed and room for further implementation is discussed. Finally, the paper concludes with some recommendations to overcome their implementation challenges in commercial city centers and mixed-use residential areas.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Green Footprint Calibration to Addressing Urban Health While Enhancing
           Outdoor Thermal Comfort

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Sammar Allam   In the pursuit of manifesting Sustainable Development Goals (SDG's) set in 2015 by the United Nations, this study attempts to consolidate Goal 11 Sustainable cities and communities through demonstrating a green footprint calibration and enrich urban green infrastructure based on carbon footprint per capita. Carbon Emissions is an escalating issue due to the increasing over population and rapid urbanization. It endangers urban health and contributes to the spread of chronic diseases such as asthma, headaches and vulnerable immune systems. Conceiving green footprint correspondent to carbon footprint does not only convey a pragmatic manifestation of urban health, it also enhances urban thermal comfort. No doubt that one of the main causes of Urban heat island phenomena is the Glass House Gases (GHG). Carbon Sequestration is the main concern of this research utilizing urban thermal comfort indices like PET, UTCI and OutSET while simulating Trees as one of the green infrastructure elements.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Hydrophobic Polyurethane Coating against Corrosion of Reinforced Concrete
           Structures Exposed to Marine Environment

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Cecielle N. Dacuan   Virgilio Y. Abellana   Hana Astrid R. Canseco   and Minerva Q. Cañete   The environment, in which structures are exposed influences durability performance and deterioration. The durability degradation of structural concrete located in aggressive marine environments due to corrosion is a major problem in the construction industry. Deterioration due to corrosion is associated with quantifiable losses, which is a financial burden for any developed country. The initiation of corrosion can be obviated to some extent by different methods. Hydrophobic coatings are waterproofing coatings on the external surfaces of concrete structures, which are used to combat the problem of deterioration due to corrosion and to extend the serviceability of reinforced concrete structures. Polyurethane coatings can be used to protect structural materials, particularly those exposed to corrosion, abrasion, weathering, and other processes that would help to degrade base materials over time. From the experimental study conducted, a total of 58 specimens of different descriptions were cast and subjected to several tests, including chloride permeability, chemical resistance, chloride diffusion, water absorption, and corrosion-accelerated procedures using the galvanostatic method. The results indicate that the effectiveness of polyurethane in resisting the diffusion of chloride is eight times greater than that of the base concrete specimen. It has a lower percentage weight reduction, considering acid penetration. The chloride permeability of the coated specimens was negligible, and the water absorption was low. The crack frequency was reduced in the specimens with hydrophobic coatings. The group of specimens with hydrophobic coatings had lower corrosion rates and narrower crack openings and had less reduction in diameter. Furthermore, it takes longer for cracks to develop on the surface of the specimen with polyurethane coatings. It has a lower amount of corrosion, and it takes a longer period to accumulate a critical amount of corrosion. Thus, hydrophobic polyurethane coatings are highly effective in reducing the chloride permeability and water penetration values, which helps to eliminate corrosion and lengthen the service life of structures located in an aggressive marine environment.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Review of Aerodynamic Design Configurations for Wind Mitigation in
           High-Rise Buildings: Two Cases from Amman

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Sonia F. Al-Najjar   and Wael W. Al-Azhari   This study is concerned with reviewing and analyzing methods used in early design stages to mitigate wind effects on high-rise buildings. In order to mitigate wind effects on structures and specifically high-rise buildings, early stage aerodynamic design decisions are made. Architects try to mitigate the wind effects on buildings by choosing the right form configuration like tapering or setbacks, etc., or by making vital decisions in the early design stage. However, structural engineers utilize the structural system that can best counter-act forces acting on the stability of the building. For both architects and engineers there are many tools which can be used in early design including advanced analysis methods, wind tunnel testing and wind studies combined with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. This study reviews general architectural and structural design configurations performed in the early phases of the design process, for achieving structural stability, comfort and cost control. The research methodology depends on the study and analysis of different international building examples, and also by reviewing two local high-rise building cases in Amman, Jordan. The study concludes that there are many architectural aerodynamic configurations for the purpose of mitigating wind loads, which can be used as guidelines in the early design phases.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • The Importance of Universal Design for the Disabled in Public Buildings: A
           Public Building in Northern Cyprus as a Case Study

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Ümran Duman   and Kozan Uzunoğlu   It is essential that public buildings, which have an important place in the whole city and are open to every one's use, designed with the concept of universal design. Universal design; It aims to make standard designs for all groups of people living in a society with different characteristics, regardless of their physiological characteristics, age, gender, social, economic, and educational level. The design and use of public buildings, which are sometimes the city's symbol, sometimes the space that the citizens add color to their lives, and sometimes the facilities where services are received, are essential for the city's identity and the citizens. In this article, the concepts and principles of universal design were defined; the importance of anthropometry and ergonomics in universal design and its historical development were also discussed. As a part of the city, the universal design approach principles have been studied to design accessible, navigable, and accessible buildings together with the city. The legislation having a significant role in shaping the buildings and physical environment has also been discussed and interpreted within this scope. With this study, it has been revealed that "approach to building" (urban level), "circulation within building" (building level), and "reaching services in spaces" (space level) criteria, which are the primary approach criteria of universal design, coincide with the approach introduced in transforming the "user system" into a "building system". Thus, a criteria-based building evaluation form was created to evaluate many public buildings' design following universal design principles. From this point of view, the most used public building of Northern Cyprus has been comprehensively studied. The building's internal organization and its immediate surroundings have been examined and suggestions made within the framework of universal design principles.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Strength Analysis of Soil Retaining Wall Using Numerical Method of
           Manokwari Landfill

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Eko Tavip Maryanto   Rezza Ruzuqi   and Victor Danny Waas   The city growth and development with all the dynamics are currently going on quite rapidly demand, the provision of facilities and city infrastructure is getting better and more adequate. Urban infrastructure development, especially those related to waste management, is an urgent need in the context of efforts to prevent environmental pollutions. Several factors need to be considered to building infrastructure, one of which is the security factor. The safety factor is a major factor in the construction of the retaining wall. The purpose of this study is to investigate mechanical effects of soil retaining wall in the three types of designs of the landfills by 2D finite element analysis. The results could provide a reference for building to withstand the active lateral compressive forces of soil and water. The contribution of this study is sufficient for providing a functional strength of retaining walls. FEM (Finite Element Method) is a numerical method that is often used in analysing the compressive strength of retaining wall. In this study, 2D analysis is used to determine the compressive strength of the soil on the retaining wall of the landfill in Manokwari City. The retaining wall in this study is varied based on these three forms of the retaining wall. It is according to the literature and the three different finite element numbers based on the software. Ansys software is used to simulate the compressive strength of retaining walls against the ground. The results found were compared. The results obtained indicated that the geometry design 2 has a better safety value when compared to the others. This is reinforced by the results of the numerical calculations obtained, namely A2 = 29497.3 N/mm2, B2 = 42579.2 N/mm2, and C2 = 82138.8 N/mm2.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Embodied and Operational Energy Assessment Using Structural Equation
           Modeling for Construction Project

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Subrata Aditama K. A. Uda   Mochamad Agung Wibowo   and Jati Utomo Dwi Hatmoko   The construction industries had a significant role as emission gas contributors through direct activities, such as the construction process, the operation and demolition of the building, and indirect activities, which is the designing process to decide the types of materials and the shapes of the building. This paper aimed to create an embodied and operational energy assessment concept based on a project life cycle using qualitative methods through a research questionnaire. In the questionnaire, there were 18 indicators based on a literature review relating to embodied and operational energy within the scope of the project life cycle (initiation, design, construction, and operation). Indicator assessment used a Likert scale and was analyzed by Structural Equation Modeling Partial Least Squares. Respondents in this study include consultants, contractors, and stakeholders. The results of the study showed a significant relationship between the initiation and design phases of the construction phase and the operational phase to minimize energy. Stakeholder commitment to the environment and planning that prioritizes energy efficiency (embodied and operational energy) had the highest T-Statistic values of 100.479 and 61.581 with a 95% confidence level. This showed the role of stakeholders and designers is crucial to the reduction in energy embodied and operational during the project life cycle, so that awareness and commitment are needed in realizing green construction.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • The Experimental Behavior of the CFST Column and Beam Externally Bonded by
           CFRP Strips

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Beerinder Singh   and Suneha Dhiman   This research article has been analyzed to examine the structural enhancement of concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) sections used externally with carbon fiber reinforced polymer. Due to their structural benefits, concrete-filled steel tubular sections are among the most common today. High strength, reduced cross-section, excellent seismic-resistant structural properties, increased fire resistance, and improved visible stiffness are just some of the advantages. Carbon fiber was used as a form of strips with a different number of layers and strip spacing on beam and column specimens. Twelve columns were tested, ten of which were externally reinforced with CFRP strips of various widths and spacing, and the remaining two columns were not reinforced with carbon fiber. However, ten beams were tested, eight of which were externally reinforced with CFRP strips of various widths and spacing, and the other two beams were not reinforced with carbon fiber. All specimens were tested at one point loading under a universal testing machine. Experimental results found that in comparison to the reference column and beam, the CFST column and beam specimens reinforced by carbon fiber have a higher load capacity.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Morphological Concept in Evaluating Riverbank Slum Settlement Programs in
           Kotalama Malang

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Nuryantiningsih Pusporini   Windhasari Retno Palupi   Dewi Septanti   Sarah Cahyadini   and Happy Ratna Santosa   Slum settlements in Kotalama are characterized by some building irregularities and poor sanitation and waste management. Flood and landslide are also two potential threats. The government provides inspection road and embankment construction plans as part of watershed management programs. This study aims to evaluate the plans using qualitative and quantitative methods. Data is obtained from planning and scientific documents, field observation, and interviews. The morphology of settlements was analyzed using space syntax analysis to determine the integration and connectivity of space. The riverbanks morphology is analyzed to determine the placement of the inspection road and embankment. The results show that the inspection road can increase citizens' connectivity to the centre of the area and enable them to access the waste transportation system. The use of depthmapX as a tool for evaluating connectivity is a practical way to apply data source and application. The Indonesian government can use it for a more diverse planning evaluation. Meanwhile, the riverbank's morphological analysis shows that using ecohydrological engineering, the construction of inspection road and embankment could reduce damage to the river's ecology and function. Also, the government can use the concept of designing more sustainable river embankments.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Numerical Simulation of Residual Behavior of Steel Concrete Interface
           after High Temperature Exposure

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Ziyad Zenasni   Mohamed Haterbouch   Khalid Nasri   Mohammed Zenasni   Rajae Addou   Kinda Hannawid   and William Prince Agbodjand   Behaviour of reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete structures subjected to fire is an important research theme in civil engineering. In addition, experiment investigations show that the concrete behavior is strongly affected by temperature. The aim of this work is to study numerically the residual behavior of steel-concrete bond after high temperature exposure. To do a numerical study, bond stress at the steel-concrete interface were developed using a concrete damage plasticity model (CDP model) implemented in the nonlinear finite element software «ABAQUS». The physical, mechanical and damage plasticity parameters (compressive damage and tensile damage) required for the model were drawn from previous literature works and the model was validated by simulating the uniaxial compression strength test under different temperatures using Abaqus code. The model was finally applied to simulate a pull-out test made on a reinforced concrete specimen heated at various temperature (105℃, 150℃, 200℃, 300℃, 400℃ and 500℃.) and then cooled at room temperature. The numerical results show a good correlation with the experimental results and clearly indicate a deterioration of bond performance when temperature increased, particularly the bond stress, bond stiffness and pull-out force. The model was also used to validate the results of initiation and propagation of cracks.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Typological Study of Financialized Housing in Chile: Verticalization in
           Estación Central

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  José-Francisco Vergara-Perucich   In urban studies, the financialization of housing has become a key aspect in understanding the affordability problems faced by households around the world. The financial interests involved in housing production shift the focus from the provision of a residential habitat to the creation of long-term fixed income capital. However, these studies of high interest to architects have not been studied from the perspective of design and spatial typologies of financialization. This study reviews architectural typology using planimetric information of houses whose main objective is to become profitable products. Based on the critical review of 37 high-rise housing projects in the commune of Estación Central in Santiago de Chile, a matrix of analysis of the main characteristics of studios and one-bedroom flats is constructed to describe the financed housing unit category in a verticalization model. The research revised official sources for each project, reviewing plans, permits and environmental impact statements that describe the works and their specific analysis. The case study is of high interest because they were installed in a low-income commune of Greater Santiago, capitalized the sector by attracting new residents from higher-income communes, and transformed the urban landscape through residential buildings that are on average 30 stories high. As part of the results, 24 typologies are extracted then summarized in two general types of flats for financial speculation. Also, each case was analyzed by its financial value using the NPV and IRR techniques for economic assessment of investments exposing how profitable these types of projects are. The investment in real estate capital has an impact on the design and formation of typologies arranged for financial speculation with housing. The results of this research illuminate a discussion on the role of architects in the development of housing for financial purposes and propose a discussion on the importance of understanding the architectural aesthetic of financing as a highly relevant disciplinary problem.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Optimal Geometric Allocation for Cost Management of Vehicle Maintenance

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Amani M. Al Hadidi   Rami A. Maher   and Osama T Al Meanazel   The paper aims to find out the best plane location of a construction company headquarter for n construction sites, and reducing the maintenance cost of the vehicles working between the headquarters and the sites to the lowest cost possible. The total traveled distance of all possible locations is calculated, by assuming each location in two ordinations (x, y). MATLAB software is used to generate an accurate model and calculations of each point presenting a construction site. The results found different models of different cases of locations with a variety of coordination. The results showed that a programmed model can solve many problems related to cost management in construction sites for any given organization. The model was successfully used to lower (theoretically) the cost of the used vehicles from and into the location sites and the headquarter of the company. Accordingly, the company can conclude some cost-effective factors, which aid in deciding on the necessity of road quality pavement.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • The Influence of Motorcycles on Discharge Headway and Saturation Flows at
           Signalized Intersections under Mixed Traffic Conditions

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  I Wayan Suweda   and D. M Priyantha Wedagama   The high proportion of motorcycles and lack of lane discipline at signalized intersections under mixed traffic conditions are the motivation to conduct this study. The discharge headway models are constructed at three (3) signalized intersections in the SARBAGITA urban area in Bali. The result shows that motorcycles affect saturation flow due to their shorter headway than light vehicles while increasing discharge headway of other vehicles. The discharge headway between pairs of heavy vehicles is longer than these of motorcycles due to their slower acceleration at signalized intersections. This study also found that the discharge headway plays a significant role in determining the saturation flow and capacity of a signalized intersection. If a heavy vehicle is one of the pairs, then it has the potential to have a headway exceeding the other vehicle pairs. This indicates, however, that the higher proportion of motorcycles at the signalized intersection approach does not necessarily mean shorter discharge headway. There may be other influencing factors, such as the riding behavior of motorcyclists. The dominance of motorcycles can affect the value of the saturated flow, but an increase in the proportion of heavy vehicles may reduce the effect of motorcycles on the saturation flows.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Development of Simulated Scenarios for Quadricycle Safety

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Giuseppina Pappalardo   Salvatore Cafiso   and Alessandro Severino   In Italy, quadricycles can be driven by the youngest category of drivers of 14 years of age. The increasing popularity together with the low-level of safety regulation of these vehicles compared to cars gives cause for concern. Simulators, considered as a training method, provide a realistic reproduction of driving environments so that they can be used to improve driving skills and risk awareness to novice and young drivers. Simulation trial can also be used to evaluate driving performance about safety. At first, the more appropriate simulated accident scenarios for training of young drivers were identified as those with the highest frequency in real world crashes. Since the ISTAT national crash data base includes a multitude of information, but no unique scenario code, it was necessary to use all the available data to classify the proper scenario associated with each crash. To this aim, the taxonomy theory was applied to create a comparable structure for the database. For training and evaluation tests, five accident scenarios were implemented in a simulation course that lasted approximately fifteen minutes. Ten participants driving a simulated quadricycle in a simple one screen simulator were used as a sample to test the working performance of the scenarios. Finally, Traffic Conflict Technique was applied to measure performance indicators derived from the data acquired during the simulation tests. The results confirmed data from the accident database about the location of accidents in rural intersections.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Trefftz Displacement Potential Function Method for Solving Elastic
           Half-Space Problems

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  3  Charles Chinwuba Ike   Benjamin Okwudili Mama   Hyginus Nwankwo Onah   and Clifford Ugochukwu Nwoji   The elastic half-space problem has been solved previously using Boussinesq, Papkovich, Love, and Green and Zerna, potential function methods. In this work, the Trefftz displacement potential function method is used to obtain the stress and displacement fields in an elastic half-space subjected to boundary loads. Point load and various distributed loads are considered. The problem is presented using displacement formulation as Navier–Lamé equations. It is proved that the Trefftz functions are solutions of the Navier–Lamé displacement equations. Strain fields are derived in terms of the Trefftz function using the strain-displacement relations. The stress fields are similarly derived. The Trefftz function for the case of a point load acting at the origin of the elastic half-space is derived using the double exponential Fourier transformation technique. Stress equilibrium boundary conditions are used to fully determine the Trefftz function. Stress and displacement fields for the point load are then determined. The solutions to stress and displacement fields for point load are then used as Green functions to obtain stress and displacement fields for uniformly distributed load over a finite line, circular area and rectangular area. It is found that the solutions obtained for the stress and displacement fields in the elastic half-space due to point and distributed loads are identical with previously obtained expressions, thus validating this work.
      PubDate: May 2021
       
  • Assessment of the Role of Greenbelts in Environmental and Socio-Economic
           Development of Urban Areas in Southeast Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  2  Nicholas I. Obi   Dickson M. Nwalusi   Eziyi O. Ibem   and Ogochukwu F. Okeke   As urban areas in many developing countries continue to witness rapid spatial and demographic growth, the sustenance of greenbelts is seriously threatened due to increasing demand for land for housing and provision of urban infrastructure. However, in a country like Nigeria, there is a lack of clarity on some contentious issues regarding urban greenbelts. This study investigated the role of greenbelts in environment and socio-economic development of cities in southeastern Nigeria. A questionnaire survey of 300 built environment professionals, including architects, engineers, town planners, land surveyors, quantity surveyors and property developers was conducted in the study area. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests of significance and it was observed that although around 75.3% of the respondents agreed that green belts contribute to increasing pressure on the existing land in the study area; most of the participants indicated that greenbelts play significant role in urban environment sustainability and socio-economic development by protecting air and water, serving as local sources of food and medicine, means of preserving agricultural land, promoting biodiversity and preventing urban land degradation. In addition, prohibiting housing and physical developments in greenbelts and using Brownfields as alternative sources of land for housing were identified as the possible strategies for preserving urban greenbelts in the study area. This research is intrusive in revealing the key roles greenbelts play in urban development agenda and the possible ways for preserving them in rapidly urbanizing regions in Nigeria and beyond.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Technic and Mystics of Tukang Wangunan in Sundanese Traditional Houses in
           Indonesia (Case Study: Baduy Tribe Community-Banten)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  2  Nuryanto   Ngakan Ketut Acwin Dwijendra   Syamsul Alam Paturusi   and I Made Adhika   Modern Sundanese society, especially in the Provinces of West Java and Banten, Indonesia considers technique and mysticism two things that are impossible to meet, because the technique is rational while mysticism is irrational. This assumption is different from traditional societies that view technique and mysticism as being reconciled, one of which is in the process of building a house. This is the background of the research to reveal how technique and mysticism can meet and unite by the tukang wangunan (craftsman). The Baduy community in Lebak Regency, Banten Province, Indonesia was chosen as the research location, covering the Baduy Panamping Village. Baduy is a prototype of Sundanese traditional society that has existed for hundreds of years. This study uses a descriptive qualitative method with an ethnographic approach. The results showed that: (1) The Baduy community views that mystical elements occupy a higher position than techniques, because of their relationship with Karuhun (ancestors); (2) In the technical element, there is a core of strength as the knot point in the form of jangjawokan (incantations) which is always read by the tukang wangunan, so that it sticks firmly to every dimension of the material; (3) The meeting point between technique and mysticism lies in the belief system of the Baduy community, namely Sunda Wiwitan, which gave birth to three cosmological views: Buana Nyungcung, Buana Panca Tengah, and Buana Larang. Tukang wangunan gets instructions from their ancestors through tirakat (special ritual), harewos (magical whispers), and impian (dreams) about how to bring together technical and mystical elements.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • An Ensemble Neural Network for Damage Identification in Steel Girder
           Bridge Structure Using Vibration Data

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  2  SJS. Hakim   SN Mokhatar   S. Shahidan   TNT Chik   ZM Jaini   NH Abd Ghafar   and AF Kamarudin   Damage detection has the ability to prevent the occurrence of unpredictable failures and increase the serviceability of structures. Vibration-based damage detection methods are due to the fact that the damages will change the dynamic characteristics of a structure, such as natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios. Resultantly, structural capacity is usually impacted, which subsequently, adversely affects performance. Fortunately, artificial neural networks (ANNs) have emerged as one of the most powerful learning tools, inspired by biological nervous systems. Unsurprisingly, the said technique has been applied for structural damage identification in the past decades. Relatedly, the objective of this study was to investigate the potential of ensemble neural network-based damage detection techniques in a scaled steel girder bridge structure using dynamic parameters. Experimental and finite element analyses of the structure were performed to generate modal parameters and study the efficiency of the ensemble neural networks in order to improve structural damage identification. Pursuant to the damage identification results, the ensemble ANN-based damage identification method was able to detect and locate damage with a high level of accuracy.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Virtual Rebuilding and Documentation of the Historical Old Market of Domat
           Al-Jandal City

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  2  Majed Alzara   Urban heritage is a precious asset for humanity, reflecting its accomplishments over the eras. There are many buildings and heritage sites that have been lost due to lack of interest in documenting and preserving them. At this present time, when the information about these buildings and heritage sites are available, that leads to make studies for virtually rebuilding them. The aim of this study is to use modern technology to virtually rebuild and document the data of the old market of Domat Al-Jandal, and make a virtual rebuilding of the market, to be a strong historical addition to this archaeological area as it was before. This historical market was one of the most famous old markets in the Arabian Peninsula, which was destroyed in 1974 as a result of urban development and the absence of development strategies to protect the market's urban heritage. The author digitally documents and preserves the market for architectural, urban, construction, and other purposes. The study includes a set of important steps, beginning with collecting information from different sources about the old market through interviews and collecting both of old and new aerial photographs for the case study site. Computing software and 3-D digital modeling technology are then used to virtual rebuilding of the market and document it via a virtual reality system using real materials. Finally, this study provides details related to the features and terrain of the ancient Dumat Al-Jandal market. The study showed that the reconstructed market will consist of two parts with 42 shops, 33 shops facing on the corridor of market`s piazza, and 9 of which were with piazza-facing entrances.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • About Possibility to Use Industrial Coal-Rank Classification to Reveal
           Coal Layers Hazardous Characteristics

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  2  Antoshchenko Mykola   Tarasov Vadym   Liubymova-Zinchenko Olga   Halchenko Anatolii   and Kononenko Andrii   The research is concerned with all the fossil coal metamorphism series based on their rank classification. Currently, based on the genetic characters of metamorphic coal conversions, no proved regulatory definition of the coal layer hazardous characteristics is available. For mining forecasts, the regulatory framework uses a limited number of the classificatory parameters with properties, which have not been determined for the whole multiplicity of coals metamorphic transformation. Special features of each coal rank shall be specified using their proxy parameters. It proves that they specify different aspects of the metamorphic coal conversions, as well as other classificatory parameters. For proved forecasting the coal layer hazardous characteristics, it is necessary to use some combinations of the classificatory parameters. It is testified that any alterations of coal properties due to their inner structure conversions may be characterized by maximum and minimum values of different parameters for the same coal rank. The limit for possible alteration of the K rank coals volatile mass yield has been established in lower than normal level. It is noted that coals with the same consumer performance may in some cases be characterized by different values of the classificatory parameters, and in other cases—the coals with different values of the classificatory parameters may have the same processing behavior. It is proposed, when establishing any hazardous properties of the coal layers in addition to the industrial classificatory parameters, one should use alterations of the organic part elemental composition, mineral impurities and moisture in the whole range of metamorphism series.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Acid Resistance of Ternary Blended Nanosilica Concrete Incorporating Fly
           Ash and Alccofine

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  2  Avuthu Narender Reddy   and T. Meena   The use of industrial waste or byproducts as a replacement of cement leads to cost reduction, energy-saving, and is also eco-friendly. Studies reveal that the quaternary and ternary blended concrete may be superior in durability properties when compared with conventional concrete. With the expansion of the use of concrete structures in the sewage system, the corrosion effects of aggressive acid attacks on cement-based construction have gained more significance. The present study aims to investigate the acid resistance of M30 and M60 grades of concrete and the influence of the combination of fly ash, alccofine, and nanosilica in it. The combination of 25% fly ash, 10% alccofine and various percentages of nanosilica (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%) have been tested for 28, 56, 90,180 days for acid resistance. From the result, it is seen that the concrete with a combination of fly ash, alccofine, and nanosilica showed better performance in resisting the acid attack on M30 and M60 grades of concrete based on percentage weight loss of specimens over different curing periods.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Water Level Prediction Using Different Numbers of Time Series Data Based
           on Chaos Approach

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  2  Adib Mashuri   Nur Hamiza Adenan   Nor Suriya Abd Karim   and Nor Zila Abd Hamid   The prediction of water level in floodplain area is important for early signals and flood control. A total of 6350 hourly water level time series data located at Sungai Dungun were used in this study. The data were divided into training set and testing set. The training set consisted of the first 6000 data which were used to predict the last 350 data. A total of six set data consisting of different amount of training set of data were involved in this study. Consequently, it was used to determine the influence of different amount of data on predicting accuracy by using chaos approach. Those sets of data required a combination of parameters for prediction. In this study, the different amount of data had impacts on the combination of parameter for prediction. In addition, the correlation coefficient showed different values for all sets of data and excellent prediction when they were all used in testing the data. Hence, the different total amount of data will give impact on different combination of parameters and prediction accuracy for water level prediction based on chaos approach in floodplain area.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Proposed Model of Neutral Temperature Equation for Adaptive Thermal
           Comfort in Student Flats Units in the Tropics

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  2  Samsuddin   Ramli Rahim   Baharuddin Hamzah   and Rosady Mulyadi   Thermal comfort of residential rental flats is one of the problems from the ventilation aspect considering that the planning of flats is based on natural ventilation. This article is intended to formulate an alternative to the neutral temperature equation from the equation proposed by Humphrey, Auliciem, de Dear, Nicol, and Roaf with day and night measurement times. Measurements were carried out for three weeks in a student rental apartment building, Hasanuddin University Faculty of Engineering in Bontomarannu, Gowa Regency, which has 5 floors with 104 rooms. Measurements were made with 2,577 respondents during the day, and 2,043 at night. During the day, with an operating temperature between 29.2℃ to 31.0℃, the neutral temperature (Tn) obtained from the PMV model is 27.6℃ (To). This figure is lower than the actual choice of the TSV scale and the TCV scale, which were 30.3℃ (To) and 29.7℃ (To), respectively. At night, with an operating temperature between 27.7℃ to 29.5℃, the neutral temperature (Tn) obtained from the PMV model is 26.2℃ (To). Meanwhile, the neutral temperature obtained from the respondents' actual choices (TSV and TCV) were 28.8℃ (To) and 28.2℃ (To), respectively. The neutral temperature equations presented in the Humphrey, Auliciem, de Dear, Nicol, and Roaf equations show a lower thermal coefficient than the corrected thermal coefficient and the elaboration of the equations carried out in this study, both from daytime measurements and from night measurements.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Numerical Parametric Study on the Cyclic Performance of Trapezoidally
           Corrugated Steel Shear Walls

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  2  Ali Joharchi   Siti Aminah Osman   Mohd Yazmil Md Yatim   and Mohammad Ansari   Corrugated steel shear wall (CSSW) has higher ductility, energy dissipation capacity and toughness compared to the conventional steel plate shear wall (SPSW). The corrugation steel plate can be either installed vertically or horizontally. In recent decades, several experimental and numerical studies have investigated the effect of the corrugation angle, infill plate thickness and openings on the cyclic behavior of the horizontally-corrugated steel shear walls. However, to date, the behavior of the vertically-corrugated steel shear walls has not been fully studied. Thus, this paper aims to investigate numerically the cyclic behavior of the vertically-corrugated steel shear walls. The corrugation angle (30°-120°), infill plate thickness (1.25, 2, 3 mm), and the height-to-width (H/B) ratios of the walls (0.5, 0.8, and 1.2) were the parameters of this study. The influence of these parameters on the hysteresis behavior, toughness, and energy dissipation capacities of the CSSWs are investigated using 35 finite element (FE) models developed by ABAQUS/Standard. The FE results reveal that increasing the corrugation angle can improve the energy dissipation capacities and toughness of the CSSWs up to 15% and 5.8%, respectively. Furthermore, increasing the infill plate thickness and decreasing H/B ratios can significantly enhance the ultimate load, toughness, and energy dissipation capacities.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • The Development of Readiness Indicators for Transit-Oriented Areas

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  2  Dadang Iskandar   R. Jachrizal Sumabrata   and Radhitya Abiyoga   The diversion of people towards public transportation has become the main focus of the Central Government and this involves rearranging the areas traversed by mass transportation corridors through the concept of transit-based integration known as the Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) in order to overcome congestion problems in Greater Jakarta, especially the Jakarta area. However, these plans have raised concerns on the ability of the transit-oriented area to fully accommodate the TOD concepts and principles or just to serve as only a part of the property business owned by several parties. The implementation of the concept is also not optimal due to the lack of an appropriate tool to identify the readiness of an area to be developed into a transit-oriented area by the government and the actions required to unlock the potentials of the development. This research, therefore, used 22 indicators to determine whether an area fulfills the transit-oriented elements and the factors required for its preparation. This involved using literature studies to produce research variables after which a survey was conducted and tested for validity and reliability by the drafter, academics, experts, and practitioners. The indicators were developed into an assessment instrument consisting of 5 parts to represent the research variables and other 23 questions.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Hidden Orders and Preserving Tools of Heritage Fabric

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  2  Khawla K. Kawther   and Ghada Al Slik   Heritage cities are suffering from many and varied problems that they were unable to meet the current requirements, which made them an unfit environment for contemporary housing, causing a change in its residential functional structure, with the desertion of part of its indigenous population, and threatening the social and historical value of its urban fabric. There is great importance in preserving the urban heritage fabric in general. The research objectives are concerned with the heritage fabric in Al-Shawaka- Al-Karkh / BAGHDAD- IRAQ, in particular. This can be said to be the area of origin before the construction of the round city of Baghdad, and it has preserved its residential function through the ages; this makes it a special area for preservation and rehabilitation of the urban fabric in it. The research problem: The hidden orders and its relations to the preservation of architectural and urban. The research hypothesis: Each urban fabric has its own Orders. There are apparent Orders at the level of the urban fabric, at the same time, there are hidden Orders. It is necessary to study the hidden Orders of the heritage urban fabric, and understand them, which leads to find new tools in the way it is preserved, rehabilitated, and linked to the contemporary fabric .The research also deals with the difference between architectural preservation and urban preservation at the fabric level. When moving between alleys of Al- Shawaka, there is a neglected legacy on the large and small levels, the researchers analyzed these alleys to find hidden order. The methodology: studying the specificities of heritage urban fabric context historically and morphologically. The research aims to find Hidden Orders as well as the phenomenon Orders in the region and it aims to arrive at general indicators to preserve and rehabilitate them.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • A Data-Driven Conceptual Framework for Climate Adaptive Building Shell: A
           Hybrid Control Strategy

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  2  Erhan Karakoç   and Gülen Çağdaş   Climate adaptive building shells contribute to improving building energy performance and occupant's comfort needs by using control strategies. Climate adaptive building shells carry out the adaptation efficiently thanks to the mechanisms consisting of sensors, processors and actuators systematically participated in decision-making process. In this article, it is aimed to examine the strategies that contribute to the efficient operation of the elements and components controlled by the strategies in the context of climate adaptive buildings. In addition, it is aimed to develop a conceptual framework of hybrid control strategy based on measured data, weather forecast data and received data based on time pattern. The methodology of this paper is to review existing literature on climate adaptive building shells and adaptation mechanism via developing a conceptual framework for a hybrid control strategy for occupant's comfort and energy efficiency. It is structured to provide a framework for examining design and management principles and their relationships between elements and components. The contribution of this study is to evaluate the design and potentials of the adaptation mechanisms and control strategies in the context of climate adaptive architecture. By using more efficient control systems and mechanism, sustainability related to energy conservation of the building can be enhanced.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Mechanical Strength Analysis of Bamboo for Flood Resilient Shelters: A
           Preliminary Study

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  2  Rina Yadav   Cheng-Chen Chen   Wen-Cheng Shao   and Lih-Yau Song   The main objective of the study was to investigate the mechanical properties of Moso bamboo species (Phyllostachys pubescens) in wet and dry conditions and waste rubber engineered bamboo, according to climate for temporary shelter design during flood occurrence. For experiment, bamboo of diameter 5 cm and made four samples (length 25 mm, width 3 mm and thickness 1.5 mm) for testing tensile strength and flexure modulus (length 13 mm, width 2 mm and thickness 1 mm). The study finds that the tensile stress for dry sample (A) was 29.0 MPa; elongation break was 4.5% and these parameters for water soaked sample (A1) were 17.1 MPa and 10.6% respectively. Tensile stress for dry sample laminated with rubber tube (B) was 31.5 MPa; elongation break was 3.1% and these parameters for rubber tube laminated water soaked sample (B1) were 19.9 MPa and 5.6% respectively. Flexural strength for samples A, A1, B and B1 were 290.5, 283.1, 339.9 and 292.8 MPa respectively. Results indicate that the strength of rubber tube laminated samples increases. The study concludes that vehicles' waste rubber tubes can be utilized to enhance the strength of bamboo for making temporary shelter in flood affected areas.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • A Review on BRT Scoring System for Malaysia Practice

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  2  Hamsareka Thevadass   Goh Boon Hoe   Wong Kok Cheong   Teo Fang Yenn   Christina Chin May May   Yuen Choon Wah   and Yap Eng Hwa   Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) is the bus-based public transit system, which is designed to maximize the efficiency, capacity and reliability comparatively to the existing traditional bus system. Generally, this advantageous, cost-effective and convenient BRT comprises the designated laneways, priority-given intersections, off-board fare collection and more, which reduces the delay in travelling and increasing the capacity as well. In order to maintain the standard of the BRT, where to be distinguished from the conventional bus system, there are few BRT scoring systems available from the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP) and Federal Transit Association (FTA). However, each scoring system has its pros and cons, which might not be suitable for the Malaysian practice. In addition, the scoring system is not very emphasizing on the BRT stations in regards with the locations, supporting infrastructures and more, which has the potential to affect the transit ridership. This paper reviews the existing BRT standards that have been utilized in assessing the existing BRTs all around the world. Moreover, this reviewing reflects the compliances or suitability of the available BRT standards to be used in assessing Malaysia BRTs. This method of reviewing provides more focused scoring guidelines which can complement the Malaysian practice in a more contextual manner. The identified gap in the existing BRT standards will be recommended with newly formulated guidelines that fit more into Malaysia context and encourage more inclusivity which promotes active transportation. Hence, the newly formulated BRT standard as per Malaysia context can enhance the existing design principles which can promote more ridership.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Experimental Study of Adobe Masonry and its Adherence with Reinforced
           Concrete Confinement Elements

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  2  Jesús A. Velarde Gil L.   María T. Sánchez M.   Rubén S. Roux G.   and José A. Espuna M.   The constructions with adobe masonry confined with concrete elements, experience a separation between them, mainly due to the inherent physical and chemical characteristics of both materials that are not very compatible with each other; adobe, a raw masonry with a high clay content, undergoes changes in its shape in the presence of humidity and temperature variation, which affects its adherence to concrete elements, compromising the confinement, function and stability of the walls. The different coefficients of expansion and contraction between concrete and adobe, added to their physical properties, make it difficult to achieve adequate adherence between these two materials. In the present study, 6 mixtures of earth (adobe) were designed, with different granulometry proportions to measure the adherence between adobe and concrete, identifying the most suitable one with the purpose of using it as a bonding material in walls for houses, from this study, with the best response being the sample MA-3. The test methodology was based on standards applicable to concrete and annealed brick masonry, as there is no available one for this material. Thirty-six adobe specimens adhered to concrete were tested, to which a normal load was gradually applied to their cross section, to a piece of adobe between two pieces of concrete, recording the ultimate horizontal shear stress between both materials. The scope is considered the result of the test of adobe pieces adhered to concrete subjected to horizontal shear force, considering different granulometry in the composition of the adobe mixture. This work provides a starting point for the standardization of the test and the justification of the need for an additional element that contributes to the confinement.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • The Millennials' Energy Efficiency Behaviour towards Eco-friendly Home

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  2  Maranatha Wijayaningtyas   RES. Mangun Redjo   Fourry Handoko   Kukuh Lukiyanto   and Wilson Rangga A. A. J.   Having an environmentally friendly and energy-efficient house is a critical requirement today as this has a positive impact on residents and the surrounding environment, which supports the improvement of the three main pillars of the concept of sustainable development. However, many factors influence the energy-saving behaviour of households, especially the millennial generation. This study aims to identify and analyse the millennial generation's behaviour towards energy efficiency activities in environmentally friendly houses using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The quantitative method was applied with a cross-sectional survey method and analysis with structural equation modelling. The respondents were 200 millennials in Malang and Surabaya with purposive random sampling. The analysis resulted that attitudes have a positive effect of 0.22, subjective norms have a positive effect of 0.44, and perceived behavioural control has a positive effect of 0.19 on the energy efficiency intention. The results also showed that perceived behavioural control and energy efficiency intention partially have a positive effect of 0.61 on energy efficiency behaviour. Based on the analysis and hypothesis testing results, it is concluded that subjective norm and attitudes positively and significantly affect the millennial generation's energy efficiency intention, besides perceived behavioural control. Thus, this study will support the sustainable development stakeholders so that it will lead to understanding the millennials' behaviour and reasons for safe energy in eco-friendly homes concerning appropriate energy usage rules.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Analysis of Landscape Design and Facilities in National Bank Park at
           Lahore, Pakistan

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  2  Sadia Farooq   and Mohammad Arif Kamal   The parks are always required in urban areas but repair is the key feature that enriches parks with the visitors. The maintenance and facilities of the landscape area is a major concern for today's landscapers due to cost analysis and available facilities for the projects. The research worked on the landscape design and facilities provided to the visitors of National Bank Park, Lahore Pakistan. Many research related to landscape have been conducted, but they are not focused on the parks which are constructed under the supervision of a company. The data was collected through a survey and a small interview session from the visitors coming into the park. The balance, proportion, rhythm, and beauty along with a combination of colors, textures, and forms are incorporated in the park. The majority of female students answered the questionnaire, the provided space, gazebos, walking paths, flowering plants, trees and trash bins in the park are satisfactory but cleaning need attention. A floor plan must be provided at the entrance of the park. Interviews concluded that boating area requires frequent water filtration, the swings need to be repaired and food quality and prices need to be evaluated. More trash cans and bins are needed to ensure waste management of the park. The garden needs division of the space to serves different activities.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Comprehension of Conventional Methods for Ultimate Bearing Capacity of
           Shallow Foundation by PLT and SPT in Southern Bhutan

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  2  Karma Tempa   and Nimesh Chettri   Shallow foundations are very distinctive in Bhutan since construction of buildings are regulated to 7-8 story and the superstructure loads are not very high compared to high-rise buildings elsewhere. However, the safety of the buildings depends primarily on the stability of the subsoil. This can be evaluated by estimating Ultimate Bearing Capacity (UBC) and it is the measure of the subsoil strength. In the current study, field test such as Plate Load Test (PLT) and Standard Penetration Test (SPT) are conducted in the study area which are most common conventional methods adopted in Bhutan given the typology of infrastructures. Detail analysis is performed for PLT and SPT data collected from southern parts of Bhutan to assess the shear stability characteristics of the subsoil. The field exploration was carried out at embedment depth of 1.5 m in both the tests. PLT directly provides UBC through load and settlement plot. With SPT N-values, UBC are estimated for square footing using empirical correlations proposed by Terzaghi 1943 and Meyerhof 1963. The results are compared to comprehend the design parameters. Both in-situ test resulted close estimation of UBC. In SPT, analysis results indicate Meyerhof's correlation more conservative suggesting safe and economical foundation design. The parametric analysis was performed to deduce and validate correlations among the parameters used. The subsoil lithology was reviewed to validate the subsoil characteristics for the southern belt of Bhutan to which resistivity profiles of the underlying strata of the subsoil in the region have been reported similar to the investigation conducted in this study.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Materializing Low-Cost Energy-Efficient Residential Utility through
           Effective Space Design and Masonry Technique - A Practical Approach

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  2  Hamna Bukhari   Wesam Salah Alaloul   Muhammad Ali Musarat   Sohail Akram   Iqra Tabassum   and Muhammad Altaf   The swiftly mounting world energy consumption has sparked questions regarding supply constraints, the collapse of energy resources, and dense environmental effects. Although the construction industry has much developed, yet construction is still a difficult, and costly process. Consequently, there is a necessity to find additional energy-efficient and cost-saving substitutes to sustain the urbanization of houses at a reasonable price to low-income groups. This study aims to provide an energy-efficient proposal for a housing scheme with strict control over cost allowing the low-income groups to enjoy livability stemming from the thermally comfortable and cost-saving technology. For this purpose, visits and surveys were carried out to critically analyze the respective housing scheme. Two proposals were suggested i.e. Proposal A by applying a low-cost technique called a Rat-trap bond to the walls and Proposal B, by designing an architectural plan for proficient utilization of space along with Rat-trap bond. Proposal B is highly recommended for construction as it saves 799 units of electricity and is 28% cost-effective during the construction phase than the existing housing unit. Summarized results were prepared from cost analysis and Ecotect analysis which ascertains the proposal to be energy efficient in addition to low cost. It is recommended to invest in cost-effective and energy-efficient technologies at the governmental level so that the challenge of inadequate housing can be answered once and for all.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Infrastructure Projects for Green Cities between Implementation Challenges
           and Efficiency Indicators

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  2  Ahmed M. Selim   and Doha M. Saeed   The world's population will be 9.2 billion in 2050, which is 2.2 billion more than today, with most of the increase in Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia. That will negatively affect the availability of arable land, infrastructure, and environmental performance of cities, furthermore, achieving sustainability pillars (environmental, economic, social) becomes mandatory for all countries after signing in the recommendation of the 2015 UN Summit, many initiatives and concepts were adopted to face these challenges and accomplish sustainable development. The green cities concept (GCC) and its strategies are considered an optimum approach to achieve sustainable development objectives and overcome these challenges, by enhancing performance for the existing infrastructure, reducing natural resource consumption, decreasing CO2 emission, and engaging citizens in decision-making. On another hand, infrastructure projects are vital for achieving (GCC) concept because it reflects the progress and economic performance of countries. This study discusses the green cities, conventional and green infrastructure challenges, then presents Public-Private Partnership (PPPs) as a tool for implementing and overcoming its challenges from the green economy and green contracts perspectives. In addition, concluding an Operational Framework for implementing infrastructure projects by (PPPs) which determines the main phases in (PPPs), allocates the most important strategies for each phase, and indicates the main internal stockholders who share in decision-making. Finally, the study assigns (53) efficiency indicators and obtains a weight for each indicator by identifying the Relative Importance Index through an online questionnaire evaluated by (15) experts to track the achievement of the operational framework.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Core-to-Cubic Strength Ratio for Historical-Like Concrete

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  2  Antonio Brencich   Fahdi Hasweh   and Davide Pera   Coring is considered to provide the best estimate of concrete compressive strength in existing structures and is commonly used to calibrate Non-Destructive and Moderately Destructive Techniques. Historical concrete, produced in the pre-code period until the ‘20s, significantly differs from modern concrete due to lack of standardization, improper rules of thumbs and to aggregate shape (round, smooth and often excessively large aggregates) and proportioning. Therefore, the applicability of the procedures calibrated on modern concrete to a historical one, also coring, is an issue that needs to be discussed. In this paper, an experimental campaign on historical-like concrete, i.e. with the same defects as historical concrete, aims at identifying the reliability of drilled cores due to the effect of round aggregates. The results show that standard procedures commonly used on modern concrete cannot be directly applied to historical concrete: drilled cores suffer from scale effects (core diameter) and from cutting damage of the material much more than modern concrete. In detail, the core-to-cubic ratio, that modern codes assume in the range 0.70-0.85, due to the dimension and shape of the aggregates is found inside a larger range, 0.70-1.00, and, as opposed to modern concrete, is found to be decreasing as concrete strength increases. Besides, the diameter of the core is found to have a relevant effect on the estimate of the material compressive strength and on the core-to-cubic strength ratio, pointing out that the dimension of the core affects the results much more than for modern concrete. This latter result, which needs further research, points out that historical concretes may be rather different from modern ones and probably need larger cores to be drilled than modern concrete due to the larger dimension of aggregates that are often found in pre-code concrete.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Reviving Cultural Tourism in Kendran Bali Indonesia: Maintaining
           Traditional Architecture and Developing Community-based Tourism

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  2  I Dewa Gede Agung Diasana Putra   I Made Adhika   and Anak Agung Gde Agung Yana   As a tourist destination, traditional villages and houses are not only places for socio-cultural and domestic practices but also facilities for tourists. This phenomenon is a paradox in the development of a cultural tourism area. Tourists expect a natural and authentic culture. On the other hand, the community hopes to participate actively in tourism activities and utilize their houses and village as economic resources. The participation of local people plays a vital role so that the success of developing a tourism destination depends on the level of the local communities' supports. However, people's participation in the tourism business has triggered local culture transformation since they have utilized their traditions, including their vernacular house and village, as tourist resources. To investigate this phenomenon, architectural examination and interviews are used as a method of investigation. This paper found that to sustain the tourism destination, it is significant to pay attention to its planning and traditional house transformation. In the transformation process, local communities must be encouraged to identify their own goals so that the development of tourism in the village can address tourist needs without polluting the traditional values. This participation model discusses the relationship between local traditions and practices, including traditional building practices and tourism. This model can be implemented in other tourism villages.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • An Optimum Thermal Insulation Type and Thickness for Residential Buildings
           in Three Different Climatic Regions of Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  2  Nedhal Al-Tamimi   Efficient thermal insulation in the harsh desert climate of Saudi Arabia, where the cooling requirement of buildings is dominant, is very important from the aspect of energy efficiency. Through its eco-friendly properties, thermal insulation is one of the most efficient strategies for reducing energy use while providing the desired thermal comfort. In this study, the impact of thermal insulation type and thickness on reducing the annual energy consumption was evaluated for a sample prototype building located in three Saudi cities. DesignBuilder energy simulation tool has been used for more investigation such as the insulation cost benefits using the life-cycle cost model to knowing when to stop adding insulation. Results showed that applying thermal insulation to the walls and roof leads to a significant reduction in the total costs for all four insulation types. The results show that energy cost savings vary from 5.6 $/m2 to 9.7 $/m2 depending on the city climatic condition. On the other hand, the highest payback period value with 8.8 years in Khamis Mushait (Moderate climate), while the lowest value reached 4.7 years in Gazan (Hot-humid climate).
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • A Novel Approach to Use Soil-Cement Piles for Steel Sheet Pile Walls in
           Deep Excavations

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  2  Tuan Anh Nguyen   Dat Thanh Nguyen   and Anh Duc Nguyen   In recent years, owing to advances in technology, excavation pits have shown increased improvements. Taking advantage of advanced solutions combined with traditional ones has brought about considerable advantages for construction contractors and saves on expenses to carry out construction projects. Owing to their ability to analyze geotechnical problems, several calculation and simulation software, such as Plaxis, Bentley, along with many others, have grown in popularity. Among them, Midas is one such software, which is a set of solutions developed by the MIDAS IT company and is widely applied in many constructions. The authors evaluated the ability to use Midas software to calculate the stability of a wall in a deep excavation pit for the Ho Chi Minh City Water Environment Improvement Project. The results of these researches reveal that combining soil-cement piles and steel sheet piles decreases the internal forces in sheet steel pile walls. At the same time, this solution not only reduces horizontal displacement but also keeps the settlement of the soil around the excavation pit within the permissible range, which helps to ensure that the adjacent pavements are stable and will not crack. The results of this study can be applied to similar geological constructions.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Mechanical Properties of Translucent Concrete Using Plexiglass Bars and
           Fiberglass

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  2  Walid Fouad Edris   Essam Odah   Isam Abu-Qasmieh   and Amany Hendy   This research aims to investigate the efficiency of using plexiglass material as an alternative to optical fibers in the production of transparent concrete through studying the mechanical properties of transparent cement mortar. The importance of the current study comes to introduce innovative structural material with high aesthetic and structural specifications and meets the needs of the new concepts of sustainable buildings as well. The novelty of the proposed material lies in innovating a new type of transparent concrete using plexiglass material that allows light to cross through different directions, where such a polymer material can be embedded into the concrete as well-designed distributed bars. The proposed composite performance was evaluated by conducting relevant laboratory experiments on prepared mortar specimens to investigate compressive strength, flexural strength, and bond strength. The plexiglass bars were represented 6% and 16% of the specimen cross-section area, and volume respectively. Experiments were conducted in two time stages, after 7 days and after 28 days of preparing the mortar with plexiglass and fiberglass. Results show that the composite does not harm the mechanical specifications comparing with the conventional mortar, and obtaining new features of concrete with an emphasis on consistency to the requirements of environmental sustainability in the field of architectural construction.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Glass Structures in Post-Industrial Buildings and the Role of the
           Industrial Heritage in Shaping Creative Urban Spaces

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  2  Anna Sulimowska-Ociepka   This paper presents the topic of postindustrial structures as crucial elements shaping the image of contemporary cities and it demonstrates their value against the background of the evolution of the concept of the industrial culture heritage. Irrespective of their scale and initial intended use, postindustrial structures constitute an important trace of the tradition and culture of a given place. They are often crucial elements of the cultural landscape and landmarks for subsequent generations of local communities. More and more frequently, cities notice their potential, based on which they can build their own attractive image. Contemporary technology and technique offer numerous possibilities of making use of this heritage in order to create urban space of a new quality and exhibit surprising aesthetic values. One of such possibilities is a creative application of glass – a material which offers nearly limitless possibilities of creating an architectural form. Based on in situ studies and literature research, the paper presents examples illustrating how thanks to the application of advanced glass structures buildings which have already lost their original functions get re-discovered for the cultural landscape of the city and co-create its new quality.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Emerging Architect's Design Method in Designing Tourist Accommodation Case
           Study: Tourist Accommodation in Ubud, Bali

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  2  Siluh Putu Natha Primadewi   Ngakan Putu Sueca   Ngakan Ketut Acwin Dwijendra   and Ni Ketut Ayu Siwalatri   Design as an activity involves certain ways and paths that must be traversed to achieve the goal. But along with the involvement of new architects in the realistic architectural world, whether it contributes to the introduction of new design approaches, influencing the direction taken to achieve design goals, the current architect in his work is the right research object to study it. The background of the knowledge makes the architect certainly form thought about their way or method of design. This research aims to find out the emerging architect's design methods in Bali in designing tourist accommodation. The benefits of the study can be used as teaching materials for students to build tourist accommodation and provide tourism actors with information about aspects that need to be considered in the design of tourist accommodation. This research's qualitative method, with in-depth interview technique and design document study with research variables, then analyzed through theories based on predetermined variables. The results of data analysis are described qualitatively to get a conclusion. The results showed two design processes (intuitive way and rational way) passed by architects in designing tourist accommodation. The design factors that are the main generator of problems in designing and design solutions are also developed differently, depending on the context and type of tourist accommodation.
      PubDate: Mar 2021
       
  • Traffic Flow Prediction in Urban Area Using Inverse Approach of Chaos
           Theory

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  Nur Hamiza Adenan   Nor Suriya Abd Karim   Adib Mashuri   Nor Zila Abd Hamid   Mohd Shahriman Adenan   Armansyah   and Ikhsan Siregar   Traffic congestions problem could affect everyday life especially in urban area. In order to solve the issue, an excellent traffic flow prediction needs to be developed for a better traffic management. Hence, this study was conducted in order to predict traffic flow by using the data of total volume of vehicles per hour at two main roads located in urban areas namely Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia by using application of chaos theory. Phase space reconstruction was used to determine the chaotic behaviour of the total volume of vehicles per hour data. The reconstruction of phase space involves a single variable of the total volume of vehicles per hour data to m-dimensional phase space. Meanwhile, the inverse approach as well as local linear approximation method was used to develop prediction model of the traffic flow time series data. This study found that (i) the time series data were chaotic behaviour based on the phase space plot and (ii) inverse approach can provide prediction on the traffic flow time series data besides give excellent prediction with the value of correlation coefficient more than 0.7500. Hence, inverse approach of chaos theory can develop to prediction model towards the traffic flow in urban area; thus may help the local authorities to provide good traffic management.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • The Behavior of the Instantaneous Speed Ratio at Merging Area of Traffic
           Flowing on Federal Highway

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  Nur Syahirah Husin Basri   Nurul Akmal Mohamed   Muhammad Akram Adnan   Rab Nawaz   Nurul Hila Zainuddin   and Nurul Farihan Mohamed   The purposes of this study are to determine the ratio of instantaneous speed on Federal highway at Kilometer 32.9 from Kuala Lumpur to Shah Alam, to analyse the implications of the instantaneous speed ratio's numerical findings, and to examine the behaviour of convergence for each level of easiness to flow. The continuous flow model is one of the traffic flow theories that conclude the traffic flow is identical to the equation of heat. The research design used in this study is a comparative model. The continuous flow model uses a boundary value problem as well as additional constraints to solve the differential equation solution. The videotaping approach was used to select a sample of highway traffic data on the tapered acceleration path. The findings of this study disclosed that the ratio of instantaneous speed converged slower at lower levels of easiness to flow than at higher levels of easiness to flow. The ratio of instantaneous speed was found to be more accurate when the additional iteration numbers were considered and the traffic's instantaneous speed ratio on the Federal highway at Kilometer 32.9 from Kuala Lumpur to Shah Alam was less than 1.39 at location 0.4 of 1. That value is less than 1.4 as proposed by the theoretical model. In conclusion, the mathematical model was found to be accurate in estimating the safe distance and speed of vehicles on merging area so that the collision can be minimized and for the assessment and decision-making of the configuration of the traffic flow. As the implication, this study offers the potential to increase the efficiency of the traffic flowing through the entrance ramp.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Urban Landscape: Essay of Definition of an Algerian Vernacular Style among
           Students in Architecture

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  Nabil Roubai Chorfi   This research is carried out with Algerian architecture students in a didactic framework which aims to demonstrate the process of defining architectural bias in the Algerian and, by extension, Mediterranean urban landscape. Many Algerian cities no longer have their character despite regional, climatic and socio-cultural particularities. The old urban fabrics are gradually transformed into precarious housing zones, concerned by a policy of resorption which disintegrates them, annihilating any historical anchoring in a style that one could qualify as Mediterranean or Algerian. It is in this environment of physical and intellectual impoverishment that we tried to understand the cognitive process that leads students to refer to this or that criterion as part of the expressionist vocabulary of Algerian architecture. Using an anchored theorizing approach, we have built up a corpus within the design learning workshop, thus resulting in a framework of formalization criteria of an architectural, spatial, colourimetric or sometimes functional order. Thus, some admit the local expression only for cultural or religious buildings while others do not conceive of an Algerian style without the presence of symbolic and often stylized or modernized artefacts, such as the trellis or the arcade. Attitudes are far from uniform and consensual.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Image and Signification of the Neo-Moorish Architecture in Algeria Case
           Study: The Big Post Office in Algiers

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  Amina Chalabi   and Youcef Lazri   Algeria is one of the Maghreb countries that lived through French colonialism, a colonialism that left behind a great architectural and urban legacy that adorns Algerian cities and is an integral part of their urban landscape. This legacy consists of a mosaic of architectural styles ranging from neo-classical to buildings of the modern movement through art Deco and neo-Moorish style. The specificity of the neo-Moorish architecture, which is based on its cultural references inspired by the local architecture, has given it a special place among the inhabitants. The public buildings of the neo-Moorish style have become today's important landmarks in Algerian cities. As any form of architecture has a meaning for the users, we tried in the present work, to verify empirically the question of the social representation of the neo-Moorish style in Algeria and the relationship that a local population can maintain with an architectural heritage issued from the colonial period. This is done through a symbolic example, which is the great post office in Algiers. We opted for a qualitative approach carried out in the field with the help of a methodological tool, a questionnaire-based survey. A survey, which, despite these limits in terms of the inhabitant's predisposition and the disparity of points of view between the generations, revealed a collective acceptance and an attribution of multiple heritage values to this legacy. Finally, this will allow us to inscribe this social representation in the logics of institutional heritage.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Seismic Performance Evaluation of Existing Building in Earthquake Prone
           Area Based on Seismic Index and Seismic Demand Method

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  Rusnardi Rahmat Putra   Yusuke Ono   Nurhasan Syah   and A. A. Cantika   Padang is the capital of West Sumatra Province, close to three earthquake sources such as the Megathrust Zone, the Mentawai Fault, and the Great Sumatra Fault on the mainland. Due to the fact that the impact of the earthquake can create a tsunami event in the future, the government needs to prepare shelters for vertical evacuation. About 65 existing buildings have been selected as vertical evacuation buildings, but there is no clear information on their seismic performance. This research proposes a complete assessment of the existing RC building by considering soil characteristics such as the predominant period and Vs30 from microtremor observations. A selected 3 stories of a school building located in the earthquake red zone (Vs30 < 150m/s and predominant period T> 1.5s), less than 1 Km far from the shoreline, was considered in this paper. Based on the seismic index evaluation of the building, the X direction is smaller than the seismic demand (0.8) for the first and second floors (unsatisfactory). For the first, second and third floor, the Y direction has a larger seismic index than the seismic demand. Therefore, the performance is satisfactory for the first to the third story. Based on the required inspection, the building is unsatisfactory for the X-direction. Therefore, it needs to be strengthened. We propose a re-size of the RC for the building column to improve the ductility. The proposed size for the column is 50 x 60 cm. From the re-seismic evaluation, a satisfactory seismic index for the X and Y direction can be obtained.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Implementation of Lean Six Sigma Method in High-Rise Residential Building
           Projects

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  Syafrimaini   and Albert Eddy Husin   Fueled by the growth of residential needs, high rise building projects has become a major contributing segment that increases the competition in the world of construction project services [1]. In the implementation of high-rise building construction projects, scheduling and good quality control plays a very important role in the timeliness, cost, and quality of the overall project completion. Project delays often occur in the construction project implementation process. It results in poor quality that is not in accordance with the technical specifications. In the end, it causes loss to a project [2]. Project delays may occur because of internal factors, external factors, weather disturbances, changes in images, etc. Quality failures are usually caused by poor communication between parties in a project. Project development must fulfill the 3 most important things, namely cost, quality, and time. [3]. Cost overrun is one of the issues confronting the construction industry. Most of the construction projects in Malaysia have experienced a cost overrun of 5 to 10% of the total contract [4]. To control the cost, quality, and time, the researchers used the Lean Six Sigma method. Lean Six Sigma is a combination of lean and six sigma which can be defined as a business philosophy, systemic and systematic approach to identifying and eliminating waste or activities that are not value-added through the continuous increase in productivity to reach level Six Sigma, and consists of 5 stages of improvement commonly called DMAIC consisting of Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control [5]. This research focuses on basement construction, especially bore pile secant pile and excavation work. By applying the Lean Six Sigma method, we can get a cost efficiency of 6,85% and a time efficiency of 9,60 %. Therefore, this research is very useful.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • The Kinematic Source Process of the MW 5.9, 1999 Chia-Yi Taiwan Earthquake
           from Teleseismic Data Using the Hybrid Blind Deconvolution Method

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  Boi-Yee Liao   and Sen Xie   The kinematics rupture process of the Chia-Yi earthquake occurred on October 22, 1999 (Mw 5.9) in Taiwan is investigated. The hybrid blind deconvolution technique is applied to the teleseismic waves to invert source parameters, including slip amplitudes, rise times and rupture velocities on the fault. From the directivity effect of the fault, the actual fault plane is determined as east dipping. According to the derived ASFT, the total duration of the rupture process is 6.5 sec. A good correlation notices that the larger slip amplitude corresponds to the longer rise time of the subfault. By using the inverted source parameters and combining the stochastic method for finite fault, the strong ground motions of 12 stations at epicentral distances ranging from 3.28 to 29 km are simulated. The results show that the agreements between simulated and recorded spectra are quite satisfying. It means that the inverted source parameters are reliable and the stations where located at near source distance are dominated by source effects. The inhomogeneous distribution of slip and the variable corner frequency could play important roles in the simulation process. Although the source effects are dominant, there are some significant discrepancies existing at stations, implying the site effects are influential.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Sustainable Neighborhood Assessment: Evaluating Residential Sustainability
           in Sharjah City's Old Neighborhoods Using the UN-Habitat's Sustainable
           Neighborhood Principles

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  Noora A. Chookah   Emad Mushtaha   Imad Alsyouf   and Abdulsamad Alkhalidi   Neighborhood sustainability plays a fundamental role in preserving the city for population growth and future expansion. It also plays a significant role in reducing urban sprawl, one of the main issues facing rapidly growing cities. Ideal sustainable neighborhood planning should address the three sustainability dimensions: environmental, economic, and social sustainability. This paper aims to assess the urban sustainability of the Al Nasseriya neighborhood in Sharjah City according to the UN-Habitat's five principles of sustainable neighborhoods. The strategy depends on investigative procedures utilizing information examination, site visits, and data analysis. Conventionally, the study is based on the UN-Habitat's guidelines on practical neighborhoods that state that neighborhoods should be minimal, coordinated, and associated. They suggest a quantitative analysis scope as a maintainability investigation of neighborhoods using five primary administrators: an effective road network, high-density population, mixed land uses, social blending, and limited land-use specializations. The assessment shows that Sharjah's physical urban context has several shortcomings related to the UN-Habitat's criteria that should be addressed. The results of the study demonstrate the critical issues affecting urban sustainability practice in the study area. Finally, urban improvement guidelines are recommended to advance development and amplify proficiency.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Analytical Approach to Estimate Equivalent Strut Width for Wire Meshed
           Masonry Infilled RC Frame under Dynamic Loading

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  S. V. S. Jebadurai   D. Tensing   C. Daniel   E. Arunraj   and G. Hemalatha   In this paper, an analytical investigation is carried out using an open-source FEM software SEISMOSTRUT to analyze infill RC frame with and without chicken wire mesh along with experimental verification. To estimate the equivalent strut width, six models proposed by various researchers are considered to find various failure modes of infills such as in tension, compression and shear. The theoretical model had the same dimensions and load pattern as compared to experimental investigation. For studying the infill wall's lateral load capacity, two specimens were cast, namely infill wall without mesh (B1) and infill wall with mesh (B2). From the experimental investigations, yield displacement (), Initial stiffness (Ki), Ultimate loads (Pu), Ultimate displacement (), Ductility (μ) and Cumulative energy dissipation capacity were estimated. The proposed model is found to be in close agreement with the experimental model results in terms of ultimate load and displacement. The failure mode observed for the infill walls was diagonal tension in the experimental investigation. Based on diagonal tension and corner crushing mode, an equation is derived which is suitable for estimating the equivalent strut width for walls with mesh and the failure loads in compression and tension. The failure loads calculated from the proposed empirical relations are compared with the experimental investigations for verification.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • The Saturated Flow Modeling on Motorcycle Behavior Based on Through
           Movements at Signalized Intersections

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  I M Kariyana   P A Suthanaya   D M P Wedagama   and I M A Ariawan   In developing countries such as Indonesia the proportion of motorcycles to other vehicles is reaching 76%, which is very high. The proportion of motorcycles in Bali Province exceeds 85% while in Denpasar City is 82%. Previous studies suggest that a high proportion of motorcycles will certainly affect the saturated flow. Therefore, the effect of motorcycles on saturation flows should not be neglected. With a high proportion of motorcycles that will affect the behavior of motorcyclists at irregular intersections such as in front of the stop line, besides other vehicles and behind other vehicles or in the flow, the behavior of the motorcycle affects the saturated flow. In calculating saturated flow, the Indonesian Highway Capacity Manual (IHCM) does not have specific measures that adopt the behavior of motorcycles. If the motorcycle is not properly regulated, it will interfere with the movement of other vehicles when the green light is on. The behavior to be examined in this study is the behavior of motorcycles in front of the stop line, outside the current (beside flow), or in the current (inside flow). In this study, a model was developed to determine saturation flow based on the behavior of motorcycles for through movements at signalized intersections with or without ESSM.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Students' Attitudes toward Plagiarism in the Interior Design Field

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  Abeer A. Alawad   Plagiarism is an important issue, with which students need to get acquainted before they start practicing as professionals after graduation. This study aimed to identify students' attitudes towards plagiarism in the interior design field. It identified three aspects of visual plagiarism according to students' perceptions: students' knowledge and understanding of the topic, causes of plagiarism, and the time when plagiarism typically occurs during a project. The participants were interior design and furniture students (n=59) from King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected through a questionnaire. The results revealed that students understand the general meaning of plagiarism but lack clarity regarding its finer details in the field of interior design. Five reasons, related to accidental plagiarism, were found to drive student to plagiarize. Furthermore, coping was most likely to occur in specific project phases. This study provides information that will help facilitate better practices for preventing visual plagiarism in various artistic fields. It will also make faculty members aware of students' perceptions of plagiarism in the field of interior design, along with the need to include this issue in the curriculum to ensure academic integrity, foster creativity, and provide a clear understanding of plagiarism before students commence their professional careers.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Optimizing Investment Selection for PPP Framework in the Transport Sector:
           A Risk Perspective

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  Nguyen Minh Nhat   and Le Anh Dung   The huge financial requirement of essential transport infrastructure system has challenged the availability of government funding. To fill the fiscal gap, public–private partnerships (PPP) framework has been applied as a promising mechanism. The success of PPP projects, however, is significantly influenced by a number of critical factors. Therefore, an optimum and comprehensive evaluation of projects, reflecting critical risks, supporting investment decisions, has been highly demanded by both the public and private sector. Various works, in previous studies, have been spreading scientific models assessing risks in the construction industry, and some of them focused on the area of PPP. However, the majority of published methods just concentrated on addressing and leveling risks, and there is a lack of application in evaluating and comparing different PPP projects, as investment options, with regards to key issues. Hence, in the situation of limited budget, the public and private partners may struggle with deciding the most potential alternative. To overcome this real-world challenge, this paper, by proposing a mathematical model, attempts to optimize investment selection by evaluating different projects' riskiness with the focus on transport projects. Different actual PPP transport projects in Vietnam were employed as case studies to analyze the practicality of the proposed application.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Nonlinear Amplification Model in RC Frame Structures: Case Study for
           Chi-Chi Earthquake

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  Ravinder Kumar Agrahari   and K. K. Pathak   For the seismic design of non-structural components (NSCs), more awareness is required not only for prevention of catastrophic impact of human life but also for saving the economical crises. Due to the seismic ground motion, an inertia force acts upon the primary structure as well as non-structural components. The inertia force which affects the NSCs is related to the acceleration amplification factor. Various researchers presented the amplification factor as a function of the normalized height of the structures, but it is found that the amplification factor depends on other factors as well. In this paper, non-linear acceleration amplification models are proposed, which not only depends on the normalized height of the structure but also on the range of ground acceleration and the natural period of the structures. For this, five moments resisting RC frame models of 2,4,6,8 and 10 storeys are considered. A large number of ground motion data, having the range of less than 0.067g, twenty-nine ground motion data in the range of 0.067g to 0.2g and twenty-four ground motion data in the range of 0.2g to 0.3g respectively are accounted. Linear time history method is used for the analysis of all models. Based on the results, the non-linear amplification model is proposed and compared with the previously reported models.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Sustainable Usage of Waste Materials in Aerated and Foam Concrete: A
           Review

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  Indu Susan Raj   and Karthiyaini Somasundaram   The utilization of waste materials in concrete is now a widely used concept that counteracts the depletion of natural resources. In addition to this, it will untangle the disposal of waste materials in nature and find an alternative approach to shelter the environmental resources. Due to rapid growth in industrialization, waste management has become increasingly challenging in recent years. Several waste materials could be used in whole or in part to replace cement or aggregates. The main disadvantage of conventional concrete is its increased self-weight. The paper summarizes the current knowledge of two types of lightweight concrete, viz aerated and foam concrete that can be made less dense than conventional concrete and the possibility of using waste materials. The usage of admixtures like Fly ash, GGBS, silica fume, and waste materials like quarry dust, rubber particles, rice husk ash, plastic waste, glass powder, and foundry sand is examined. The effective use of waste materials in lightweight concrete is reviewed by evaluating properties such as workability, elastic modulus, compressive strength, flexural strength, and microstructural characteristics. The optimum percentage of Fly ash, GGBS, silica fume, and rice husk ash is found to be 20%, 50 -75%, greater than 10%, and 20 – 30%, respectively. Out of different types of plastic waste used in concrete, PVC granules that pass 5mm sieve size are used to prepare lightweight aggregate concrete, which exhibits a density of around 1500kg/m3. The quarry dust is the best option for an acceptable aggregate replacement at 20% in foam concrete. The studies show a drastic increment in compressive strength and capillary absorption is also increased to 14% than conventional cement, which reduced the risk of early-age cracking. Fine aggregate replaced of glass powder exhibits delay in setting time at higher percentages. While using 20% of fine aggregate substituted with foundry sand yields comparable results to the control specimen in terms of their mechanical properties
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Adaptation of Physical Setting to the Appearance of the Jiung Night Market
           at Public Open Space in Jakarta

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  Dedi Hantono   Budi Prayitno   and Diananta Pramitasari   Jiung is an informal market growing in public open spaces in Kemayoran, Central Jakarta, Indonesia. It consists of a row of non-permanent stalls and is also observed to be surrounding the densely populated settlements and four main Streets which are the Benyamin Sueb, Haji Ung, Kemayoran Gempol, and Bendungan Jago. Most of the traders come from the settlements behind the row of the market stalls and sell from morning to night except for those on the Kemayoran Gempol Street section, who are allowed to only trade up to late afternoon when traders with tents on the Street resume. These trading activities, however, lead to the closure of the Kemayoran Gempol Street and the tents used in the night market also cover the stalls of the Jiung Market merchant. Meanwhile, this market is acceptable to the residents and also the traders due to the long time existence of the Night Market activities in the place. There is, therefore, the need to understand the adaptation process to be implemented for the night market traders to be acceptable using the qualitative approach. It was discovered that a mutually beneficial relationship is the main reason the Night Market has survived up to the present moment. Moreover, the market was also found to have influenced the distribution of traders in several locations around the area but it is possible to inhibit the distribution growth through an architectural approach as a contribution towards the planning and design of urban public spaces in the country.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Influence of Spatial Layout of Residential Buildings on Sedentary
           Behaviour of Residents in Enugu, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  Austin M. Ezezue   Eziyi O. Ibem   Francis O. Uzuegbunam   Chinwuba O. Odum   and Monoyoren E. Omatsone   Sedentary lifestyle is a major cause of several non-communicable killer diseases globally. However, there is limited understanding of how the design and planning of residential buildings can help in curbing sedentary lifestyle among urban population in the developing countries. This research investigated the spatial layout of residential buildings and its influence on sedentary lifestyle of the occupants in Enugu metropolis in southeast Nigeria. A questionnaire survey of 400 residents and evaluation of the active design features of the floor plans of their residential buildings were conducted in the study area. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Duncan multiple comparison test, and thematic content analysis. The residential buildings were found to have the traditional house and western style house layouts. Although the results indicated that residents spent about 90% of the time at home on sedentary activity, those living in buildings with traditional house layout were found to spend the least time on sedentary activity compared to those in dwelling units with western style house layout pattern. The results of Duncan multiple comparison test revealed that residents in house layouts where the conveniences are separated from the sleeping place or lounge, spent significantly lower time on sedentary activity such as sitting, while the reverse was the case for light activity like standing. The findings of this research are instructive in revealing that when it comes to active design, the traditional house layout pattern appears to have advantage over the modern or western style. It is therefore recommended that to achieve residential design that promotes physical activity among occupants, architects and other professionals involved in housing development should consider the adoption of the traditional layout concept in the design of future homes in the study area and beyond.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • The Paradigm of Antithesis and Harmony as the Dualism of Pattern
           Fundamental in Architecture of Residential Houses in Bali, Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  I Kadek Merta Wijaya   Residential architecture in Bali consists of housing in the highlands with a linear pattern (luan-teben pattern) and lowlands with a sanga mandala pattern. The two residential ways form the building masses' configuration with natah (plaza or open space) as the building masses' binding space. The zoning system of building masses creates a dualism relationship pattern that contains Utama (high value) and nista (low value) meanings. The dualism relationship forms a building mass configuration with different building functions and characteristics. The purpose of this study is to examine the importance of the relationship between two building masses in high and lowland residential in the diametric and middle space aspects as the intermediate space or the second node of the diametrical building. The research method used in the study of the meaning of dualism was a qualitative content analysis of the perspective on; (1) space user characteristics; (2) the aspects of the function accommodated; (3) the philosophical background of the user community; and (4) the dynamics of change. The study focuses on highland settlements (Pinggan Village and Pengotan Village) and lowland settlements. This research found: (1) universal meaning based on the general conception of the direction of the sun rising and setting; (2) local purpose from the concept of respect for ancestors in the context of figures and places of origin; (3) the meaning of the antithesis in the context of hierarchy and spatial function; and (4) the meaning of harmony in the context of mutually reinforcing relationships.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Needs of Comfort, Safety, Recognition of a Housing Design with a POE
           Approach, Case: Dliko Indah Housing Salatiga Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  Djoko Indrosaptono   Tri Susetyo Andadari   and Alfanadi Agung Setiyawan   The number of housing needs for low-income people continues to increase every year, and the government and the private sector create affordable housing with decent housing according to Indonesian healthy housing standards. Dliko Indah Housing Salatiga is housing that was planned and designed in the form of housing units of various types that were built in the 1980s and still exist today. Dliko housing has been in existence for more than 30 years, and has undergone physical changes in various design elements. This condition is suspected of having several driving factors for residents to change it. Through the post occupancy evaluation (POE) method approach, it is hoped that the answers to the occupants' motivations can be obtained as to why they made these changes and at the same time obtain the driving factors. The aim of this research is that the results can be used as an evaluation in planning and designing similar housing developments in the future. The research method used is a qualitative rationalistic research approach, using stratified random sampling. Related theories and journals are used as a tool to analyze as well as direct research, and to obtain field data. The final result is a variation in the percentage of change rates for each of the elements that make up a simple home design such as: changes in KDB, building plans, functions, facades and changes in materials. These changes are the demands for Comfort, Security, and Recognition.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Appraisal of Awareness and Implementation Levels of Energy Efficiency
           Design Strategies for Office Buildings in Abuja, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  E. M. Erebor   E. O. Ibem   I. C. Ezema   and A. B. Sholanke   Energy efficient buildings are buildings that consume less energy while also maintaining or improving the comfort conditions for their occupants, compared to the normal building type. Such buildings result not only in less negative impact on the environment, but are economically sustainable and resilient. This study investigated the extent to which building professional firms in Abuja, Nigeria are aware and implement the different energy efficiency design strategies available for deployment in office buildings, in order to ascertain the current level of knowledge and implementation of the strategies within the building industry in the study area. A structured questionnaire was used to gather data from 80 professionals drawn from architectural and engineering firms involved in the design of office buildings in the study area. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics and the results indicate that both the awareness and implementation levels of energy efficiency design strategies by the firms are high. Whereas most (78%) of the respondents are aware of the various energy efficiency design strategies employed in office building designs, few (22%) of them have little or no knowledge of the strategies investigated. On the implementation level, majority (69%) of the participants recorded a high rate, while few (31%) recorded a low rate. The study also found that the strategies the firms are mostly aware of are site planning, natural ventilation and building orientation. Whereas, the three most adopted strategies among the strategies investigated are: building plan and space organisation; site planning and building orientation. Among the recommendations of the study is that relevant stakeholders of the building industry in the country, should provide platforms from time to time for promoting the benefits of energy efficiency design strategies in the country, in order to maintain the high level of understanding and deployment of the strategies by the building professionals that currently exist in the study area. This is envisaged to ultimately lead to curtailing the adverse effects of global warming on the environment in the long run.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Social Sustainability in the Planning, Design, and Construction in
           Developing Countries: Guidelines and Feasibility for México

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  Rosy A. Arcila Novelo   Sergio O. Álvarez Romero   Gilberto A. Corona Suárez   and J. Diego Morales Ramírez   Sustainability is based on three pillars: social, economic, and environmental. However, the main systems of evaluation of the sustainable building, such as Building Research Establishment Assessment Method (BREEAM) and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), have a strong burden towards the environmental aspect, neglecting the social and economic, and underestimating the effects of the building projects on reducing poverty and inequity. The purpose of this research was to identify socioeconomic criteria for the reality of developing countries, specifically México, and systematize them in a conceptual framework for the stages of planning, design, and construction of buildings with a focus on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and human rights. Through semi-structured interviews with experts and surveys, 12 criteria were identified and ranked for the planning stage, 19 for the design stage, and 15 for the construction stage, being especially relevant the contribution to the Sustainable cities and communities (SDG11), Decent work and economic growth (SDG8) and Reduced inequalities (SDG10) goals. It was found that projects considered sustainable were required to have clear policies on the issues of labor rights, social inclusion, zero tolerance for corruption, gender perspective, and prevention of damage to community environmental assets. The criteria identified contribute to the knowledge of social and economic sustainability in developing countries and aim to make those involved aware of the significance of their decisions in the different stages of the life cycle of construction projects.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Improving Passive Solar Housing Design to Achieve Energy Efficiency; Case
           Study: Famagusta, North Cyprus

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  Mojdeh Nikoofam   and Abdollah Mobaraki   The significant aim of architecture is to support different human needs especially housing as an essential requirement; as well as the consideration of environmental factors. One of the environmental issues is the consideration of climatic conditions that have a deep influence on designing to create comfortable indoor spaces and housing durability. Based on climate conditions, passive solar energy as primary factor decreases energy consumption inexpensively. Furthermore, it is undeniable that socio-cultural structure of the society has deep influence on designing houses. The purpose of this study is to investigate how to improve housing quality for achieving low-cost energy by use of endless energies as a potential point in Famagusta with Mediterranean climate. Moreover, the second part of paper is the considered strategies in different period of Cypriot dwelling, as an important strategy in comparison evaluation.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Application Edge Designs to Study The Actual Causes That Led to The
           Frequent Traffic Accidents

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  Alanazi Talal Abdulrahman   Background: Hundreds of people die every day as a result of traffic collisions all over the country. The majority of these collisions are caused by cars or pedestrians breaking traffic laws, such as speeding or talking on their phones. Most drivers drive their cars while feeling sleepy or tired, or driving under the influence of medication that causes drowsiness, or lack of concentration, or hallucinations. The latest statistics from Ministry of health of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia indicate that the death rate in road accidents in Saudi Arabia is 17 people every 40 minutes. Therefore, based on this statistic, traffic accidents have become a source of concern for the Saudi Arabian society. They cause great losses in human and material resources, in addition to psychological and social problems. It is necessary to conduct a field study to find out the actual cause of the spread of accidents in Saudi Arabia. Objective: This study sets out to examine the actual reasons that led to the frequent traffic accidents in the Saudi Arabian society. Methods: An online survey provided quantitative data from 1000 participants. Factual importance was investigated utilizing edge plan examination and the relapse investigation utilizing the SPSS program to decide the real makes that drove the spread of auto collisions in the Saudi Arabian culture. Results: The findings indicated that driving vehicles by unqualified persons, drug abuse and grain deprivation are the factors that led to the spread of traffic accidents in the Saudi Arabian society. Conclusion: it is recommended that Saudi Arabian government professionals develop an operational plan to study these causes to take action. In the future, data may be analyzed using supersaturated prototypes, in which a large number of variables are studied for just a few simulation trials.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Sustainable, Energy Efficient and Economical Design of Single-Family
           Dwellings

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  Roz-Ud-Din Nassar   Eka Sediadi   and Fathia Elmenghawi   Large scale construction of housing units and other built infrastructure in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and other Middle Eastern countries result in consumption of huge quantities of aggregate, water and cementitious materials causing fast depletion of these resources. Extreme weathering conditions, on the other hand, require construction of housing units having energy intensive serviceability resulting into uneconomical construction and operational costs of these housing units. This situation merits developing design and construction techniques of these housing units that are sustainable, energy efficient and economical. This paper suggests innovative design and construction approaches for development of single-family housing units that address these requirements. The suggested techniques incorporate the use of recycled and industrial by-products towards production of green concrete and concrete masonry units (CMU) and an architectural design that is based on the concept of use of optimized space and configuration integrated with use of sun shading devices. Field investigation of the energy efficiency of a housing unit constructed according to the suggested architectural design and construction materials showed considerable savings in cooling load of building in summer when compared with that of a traditional building.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Behaviour of Fly ash and Metakaolin Based Composite Fiber (Glass and
           Polypropylene) Reinforced High Performance Concrete under Acid Attack

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  Sachin Patil   H. M. Somasekharaiah   H. Sudarsana Rao   and Vaishali G Ghorpade   Improvements in concrete properties have been achieved by researchers with the invention of High-Performance-Concrete (HPC), which can now be improvised by using a combination of mineral admixtures. HPC is usually more brittle which can be made ductile by modifying its composition by adding fibers in the design mix, which led to the development of fiber-reinforced concrete. High-Performance-Concrete made with glass fibers and polypropylene fibers is regarded as Composite Fibre (Glass and polypropylene) Reinforced High Performance Concrete (CFRHPC). The development of cost-effective state-of-the-art procedures for producing, evaluating, and designing with CFRHPC will enhance the performance for each performance characteristic and can be reliably achieved in the field. This investigation evaluates the effect of cement being partially replaced by combined fly ash and metakaolin with glass fibers and polypropylene fibers as an addition to produce high-performance concrete with composite fiber for resistance to hydrochloric acid, magnesium sulphate, and sulphuric acid attack for 30, 60, and 90 days. The water to binder ratios (W/B) of 0.275, 0.300, 0.325, and 0.350 and an aggregate to binder ratio (A/B) of 1.75 were adopted. Fly ash and metakaolin were replaced in the range from 0% to 15% each, glass fibers were added in volume percentages from 0% to 1%, and polypropylene fibers were kept constant at 0.25%. The combined effect of fly ash and metakaolin at 5% each as replacement of cement and the addition of composite fiber dosage of glass fiber=1% and polypropylene fibers=0.25% for W/B of 0.275 was found to be the optimum combination to obtain maximum acid attack resistance, which was also justified by SEM, EDX, and XRD analysis done in this investigation. CFRHPC production minimizes enormous cement production and safeguards the environment from pollution and concrete from environmental pollution throughout its service life.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Designing a Sustainable House in Kuwait

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  Yousef Abdul Mohsen Al-Haroun   This paper discusses the process of designing a sustainable house in Kuwait. The design concept uses Kuwait's traditional vernacular elements as the primary sustainable strategies with priority given to cutting energy costs, using passive solar systems, solar panels and alternative air conditioning. The method used in this study is a variant of the "research through design" approach. This paper describes a viewpoint rarely discussed and addresses the many challenges of sustainable design and its implications for the larger built environment and society in Kuwait. The paper contends that although designing a house to express culture and promote sustainability is possible there are significant barriers within the current construction climate. There is no motivation or incentive for homeowners to design their houses sustainably due to the availability of cheap subsidized energy and water supply. Moreover, sustainable materials and technology are difficult to access in Kuwait due to low demand and high cost. There is a significant gap between ideal sustainable design and the reality of construction. Therefore, the paper asserts that the government needs to play an active role in terms of building eco-regulations, planning, and policy-making to establish sustainability as a mandatory part of design and building practices.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Morphological Evaluation of Surface Degradation and Mechanical Properties
           of Compressed-Earth Blocks (CEB)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  A. Martínez Loaiza   J. F. Pérez-Sánchez   E. J. Suárez-Domínguez   M. T. Sánchez-Medrano   V. M. García Izaguirre   and A. Palacio-Pérez   Earth architecture has been an ecological alternative since the surrounding materials can be used. The durability of earth elements such as compressed-earth blocks (a soil brick) is less than that of traditional blocks. In the present work, the evaluation of weathered earth-based walls was carried out after six years in the mid-region of the Gulf of Mexico coast (Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico) and contrasted with sections of compressed earth block without environmental degradation. The blocks were fabricated from two different blends with the following materials: (A) 50.4% clay soil (Altamira, Tamaulipas, Mexico), 38.4% Medrano sand, 6.4% cement, and 4.8% nopal mucilage aqueous solution (1:10). (B) 50% clay soil, 35% cement, 10% lime, and 5% nopal mucilage aqueous solution. A stochastic model was developed from image analysis to understand the biofilm formation process, and the modification of the compressive strength was evaluated. It was found that the compressive strength decreases (up to 65%) due to degradation. The CEBs stabilized with lime showed no surface changes, and there were no changes in the strength properties. For the cases in which there was degradation, it the fractal dimension and the respective specific surface area were found to have increased. This work can improve the perception of using this material in Mexico's regions, where the humidity levels are potentially dangerous for the earthen structures. Besides, it offers a non-destructive methodology to determine the deterioration of housing walls built with earth elements.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Factors Influencing Optimal Hospital Design: A Comparative Study between
           Thai and Norwegian Public Hospitals

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  Supuck Prugsiganont   and Tanut Waroonkun   This paper aims to determine the factors that influence the design process for public hospitals. The paper intends to provide knowledge regarding the hospital planning and design process from the perspective of policy makers, facilities managers, hospital planners and hospital designers. This study is a qualitative study, where twelve participants from Thai and Norwegian hospitals were interviewed. Respondents included hospital project directors (n=3), hospital planners/designers (n= 5), and facilities managers (n= 4). Interviews were transcribed and analysed using thematic and content analysis. Four main themes were identified from the analysis: (1) organization of the healthcare system (2) hospital management system (3) work systems in the healthcare organization (4) hospital design process. Comparisons of results were made between Thailand (a developing country that strives to provide sufficient healthcare services) and Norway (a developed Nordic country that provides efficient public healthcare services). The main finding of this study indicates the critical importance of user involvement in the hospital design process in both countries. The involvement of different stakeholders in each stage of the design process is the key to successful design outcome. Other issues and recommendations for designers are further discussed.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • Analytical Comparison of Composite and Non-Composite through Type and Deck
           Type Steel Truss Bridges

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  4  Abhishek Sharma   Krishankant Pathak   and Pramod K. Singh   In trusses, deck type and through type truss systems are generally provided with various member arrangements. To utilize the materials used in the trusses more efficiently, RCC decks are nowadays made composite with the truss members. In this paper, analysis of 72.0 m deck type and through type, non-composite and composite bridges is presented. The bridges are modelled using STAAD. Pro v8i software with truss members as beam element and deck slab modelled as four noded plate element. The loading on the bridge is done as per the provisions of IRC-6 and IRC-24. The composite deck effectively reduces the horizontal deflections due to lateral seismic and wind loads in both the truss systems. Decrement in vertical deflection of the truss system was also observed making the structure mode stiffer. Stresses in the members made composite with the deck slab were also reduced and hence resulted in material saving and decreased steel offtake. In the case of composite deck type bridges due to load sharing by the deck slab, the stresses in the top chord are reduced significantly hence eliminating the chances of buckling. Advantages of composite deck are better utilized in deck type bridge system compared to through type bridge system.
      PubDate: Jul 2021
       
  • A Concept Model to Scale the Impact of Safety Risk in a Construction
           Project Using a Semi Quantitative Method

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  1  Dewa Ketut Sudarsana   The success of a construction project is influenced by variables including time, cost, quality, scope, safety and the environment. These variables all have associated risks. These risks can be managed through the stages of risk identification, risk analysis to determine priority, the risk response itself and risk control. Qualitative and quantitative methods are generally used in the risk analysis stage. A probability-impact (P-I) risk matrix is used for qualitative risk analysis. The weakness of a qualitative risk analysis is that it is not able to provide integrated information on the impact of risks on the project variables, whereas semi-quantitative analysis can alternatively be conducted. The current semi-quantitative description and measurement scale is limited to the P-probability and I-impact for variable cost, quality, time and the scope of the project. The integration of the project constraint variables found is usually a triple constraint which integrates the cost, quality and time variables. The accommodation of global issues in the safety aspects of the project then allows for the development of a diamond model that integrates the variables of cost, quality, time and safety. The development of a semi-quantitative risk analysis is limited by integrating the triple constraint variable where the diamond constraint variable has not been found. This is due to the unavailability of a semi-quantitative safety impact scale. This paper specifically formulates the impact of risk on the safety aspects in a semi-quantitative manner. A descriptive methodology was used for this research. The variance in the safety impact scale was identified from a literature review and the expert judgment method was analyzed through brainstorming with experts. The results of the analysis for the formulation of the safety risk impact scale model using the semi-quantitative method were obtained through the use of a hybrid formulation between the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) guidelines and the Standard Australian / Standard New Zealand (AS / NZS) 4360 with a scale of 1 to 5 and a description of the impact starting from very low through to low, moderate, high and very high. It has numeric values of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 adopted from the PMBOK while the detailed descriptions were adopted from the AS / AZS 4360 guidelines. This obtained safety scale can be used in integrated risk analysis with semi-quantitative methods and a constraint diamond model with the variables of cost, quality, time and safety.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • Application of Mathematical Function to Estimate the Compaction
           Characteristics of Unsaturated Soils

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  1  Armand Augustin Fondjo   and Elizabeth Theron   The study aims to propose a mathematical approach to determine the optimum moisture content () and the corresponding maximum dry unit weight () of unsaturated fine-grained clay soils with accuracy. Laboratory tests such as grain size distribution, Atterberg limits, specific gravity, Proctor compaction test, and soil suction measurement are conducted to assess soil properties. The WOP and are determined using the mathematical approach based on differential function (∂) and the graphical method. The differences in optimum moisture content values between the mathematical approach and the graphical method () values are 0.43 %, 0.36 %, 0.42 %, 0.24 %, respectively for soils PES, BFS, WIS, BES, and induced differences in total suction of 179.17 kPa, 144.00 kPa, 175.00 kPa, 96.00 kPa, respectively for soils PES, BFS, WIS, BES. Moreover, the differences in matric suction are 148.27 kPa, 116.13 kPa, 144.83 kPa, 80.00 kPa, respectively for soils PES, BFS, WIS, BES. and values are smaller than 0.5 % and marginal in the context of saturated soil mechanics. However, the total suction and matric suction values induced by values are significant for unsaturated soils. An accurate estimation of and can be performed on unsaturated compacted soils using the mathematical approach.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • Aesthetics and Incidence of the Rose Window in the Santos Juanes Church,
           Spain

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  1  J. M Molines Cano   and A. Almerich-Chulia   Gothic architecture represents one of the most attractive moments of sacred architecture. In this context, some architectural elements act as leading characters, which are known as Gothic aesthetics. One of these is the rose window. It is a set element filled with marked symbolism that arouses considerable interest, and Spain has plenty of examples. In Valencia (Spain), the Santa Catalina or San Nicolás churches are extremely relevant temples. A coetaneous building of these churches is the Santos Juanes Royal Parish church, located next to the city's Central Market. Today it presents traces of this gothic origin, although the building has undergone complete Baroque modification, as evidenced by the huge "O" of San Juan. An element, according to all the traces, might be a big rose window that it is blocked today. Therefore, given the uncertainty of this particular element being present in the set of this church, this article aims to analyze the current aesthetics showing this well-known oculus in not only its historic and constructive forms, but also its structural one. To do so, we collected and analyzed historic and technical documentation, and studied the incidence of this element on the building's stability as a whole.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • Semi-Empirical Model for Predicting the Swelling Stress of Compacted,
           Unsaturated Expansive Soils

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  1  Armand Augustin Fondjo   Elizabeth Theron   and Richard P. Ray   Heaving soils are the most problematic worldwide. These soils develop swelling stress that produces uplift forces detrimental to the foundations. In engineering practice, swelling stress is not considered in general. Considering the swelling stress in foundation design enhances the service life of construction. The oedometer swelling test is the technique ordinarily used to assess the swelling stress. Nonetheless, the oedometer swelling test is cumbersome, time-consuming, making the test unattractive, and not cost-effective for the low-cost housing project. The objective of this research work is to propose a model to predict swelling stress as an alternative to oedometer testing. Geotechnical studies such as Atterberg limits, particle size distribution, free swell ratio, specific gravity, linear shrinkage, suction measurement, Proctor compaction test, and zero-swell test are performed to estimate the soil properties. Multivariate regression analysis is performed using NCSS.11 Program to develop the predictive model. The model is assessed base on the following: determining coefficient value, comparing predicted values with experimental values, comparing the proposed model with other existing models found in the literature. Besides, the Box-cox transformation function is used to improve the accuracy of the model. The developed model can be utilized to assess the swelling stress of compacted heaving soils, and it is much more accurate than other existing models.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • Modern Model of a Rural Settlement: Development of Planning Structure and
           Reconstruction of Villages

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  1  Alla Aleksandrovna Kornilova   Yevgeniya Mikhaylovna Khorovetskaya   Tatyana Alekseevna Abdrashitova   Ainur Barlybayevna Smagulova   and Irina Vladimirovna Lapteva   The study is aimed at developing a modern model of a rural settlement that corresponds to the socioeconomic conditions of the market economy in Kazakhstan and modern ideas about architectural planning solutions of an aesthetic nature. The proposed model will help researchers, experts, specialists in preparing recommendations for the development of rural settlements of various levels, depending on the administrative and economic significance, population size, national, regional characteristics. Villages at the present stage of development of Kazakhstan vary significantly both in importance (farm center, rural districts, etc.) and in population size (from 5,000 to 50 people), as well as in the status of territorial zones (residential and industrial zones).The study has allowed to:- reveal the dynamics of the development of rural settlements, their architectural and planning structure in time and space;- determine the dominant factor and priority approach to the formation of the architectural and planning structure of the village at each historical stage;- identify the reasons for the degradation of the architectural and planning structure of villages in the historical context;- define that the architectural and planning structure with the traditionally clear functional zoning of villages has been gradually replaced by diffuse-penetrating structure;- reveal that the mutual position of the main functional zones has changed, the production zone and the community center have undergone the greatest transformation;- develop a theoretical model of the formation of the architectural and planning structure of rural settlements; identify the main aspects and principles of its formation.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • An Investigation into Application of Dry Construction Technique in
           Providing Low-cost Housing for Nigerians

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  1  Adegbenga Raphael Ashiru   and Kamaldeen Jide Anifowose   The significance of housing in mankind history cannot be overstressed. However, many Nigerian cannot afford to own a building due to high cost of building materials. Given the gaps, crises arising from shortage of low-cost housing necessitate a sustainable solution using new innovation and technology that is capable of fostering housing delivery. Due to high funding cost of capital projects in Nigeria and instability of crude oil price in the international market, the construction industry is in a tight spot to develop a cost-effective system of producing low-cost houses. It is in line with the above statement that this research was carried out to investigate the application of dry construction technique in providing low-cost housing for Nigerians. A quantitative approach was adopted that provided a wider understanding of the research based on the researcher's capability. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Version 16) was used to obtain the descriptive and inference statistical analysis. Conclusively, the research results indicated that dry construction technique offered an outstanding opportunity to Nigerian government, citizens and the Primary Mortgage Institutions (PMIs) the assurance of prompt provision of low-cost housing by dropping the construction time to 70% and upturn housing supply. Therefore, government should look into the sustainability and socio-economic insinuation for provision of low cost housing in a supportive approach while stakeholders in construction industry should consider provider approach in bridging the housing deficit in Nigeria.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • Review on Aluminum and Steel Semi-rigid Connections Behavior Design Model

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  1  Guy Oyeniran ADEOTI   Ernesto Cabral HOUEHANOU   Huihuan MA   Eric Adechina ALAMOU   and Feng FAN   Several research reports agree on the influence of joint rotational behavior on the stability of space frames. One must therefore consider it in space structures study. Joint rotational behavior is generally considered in space structures study by means of its moment-rotation behavior curve. Models such as analytical, empirical, experimental, informational, mechanical and numerical mostly are used to determine joint mechanical behavior. This review paper presents an overview of available methods for the prediction of semi rigid connections behavior of under both static and dynamic loads. Advantages, disadvantages, and principal characteristics of each model stretched out. The modeling of joint behavior in studying space structures is associated with a mathematical representation model of the joint moment-rotation curve. Several models, linear, bilinear, multilinear and nonlinear representations are developed through the years to picture accurately the joints moment rotation behavior. The most precise representation applies continuous nonlinear functions, even though the multilinear representation is generally used for mechanical models. Using test data on aluminum and steel bolted connections conducted at Harbin Institute of Technology a simple stable quartic polynomial model is proposed to represent the behavior of the connections. In addition, Three others models are also proposed, including an Odd power Polynomial Model as proposed by Frye & Morris Model, a three parameter Power Model in accordance to the Kishi & Chen Model, and a four-parameter exponential model in line with the Yee & Melchers Model. These three models are compared with the simple quartic polynomial model proposed in this paper. As a result, the proposed connection design model, independent of test data, can be used directly by designers to assess semi-rigid, bolted connection behavior in Space Structures. The present work will give support to engineers for easy and accurate choice of the joint behavior prediction model and portrait correctly the behavior of the joints for best use in semi-rigid space structures construction.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • Effects of Fiber Reinforcements on the Strength of Shotcrete

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  1  Syed Azmat Ali Shah   Mian Asfahan Ali Gul   Tayyab Naqash   Zeeshan Khan   and Muhammad Rizwan   Like concrete, Shotcrete poorly performs when subjected to tension; therefore, it experiences displacements and breaking when it is exposed to tensile loadings—adding fibers to concrete increases the ductility of Shotcrete. For this reason, two shotcrete mixes were prepared, plain, and reinforced with fibers (Fiber Reinforced Shotcrete, FRS). The results were looked at and recorded. Shotcrete with a strength of more than 35 MPa were designed and prepared. Steel and polypropylene fibers of different weights and shapes are added to Shotcrete. After adding fibers to Shotcrete, Shotcrete with fascinating properties is produced after testing the samples for 7 and 28 days. The results stated that the tensile and compressive strength of Shotcrete enhanced with additional fibers. Shotcrete has indistinguishable properties compared to concrete, and adding of polypropylene fibers up-to 3kg/m3 disclosed a nearly 20% rise in the compressive strength of Shotcrete. The compressive strength diminished with an increase in the quantity of fiber past 3kg/m3. The tensile and flexural properties of Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Shotcrete (PFRS) continued expanding with higher fiber quantity. Similarly, the compressive, tensile, and flexure strength of Shotcrete increased with an increase in the number of steel fibers.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • Exploration of Fabric Typology for Interior Furnishings with Reference to
           Regional Textile Products of Pakistan

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  1  Sadia Farooq   and Mohammad Arif Kamal   The fabric is one of the core elements of interior design. The fabrics are important in interior design because they are everywhere and needed by everyone, that helps to attain perfection in design. Many decorations include textiles with interesting patterns, and artists create the images on those textiles. Pakistan has a rich culture and crafts which are deeply rooted in interior textiles in the form of use of colors, designs, materials, and of course the minds which combine them to a memorable piece. The purpose of the study is to find out the use of fabric as a textile product in the interior and to find out the best type of design, texture, color, and pattern in textiles interiors as a fabric. The data are depicted through pictures taken form homes and interviews of house ladies also helped to find out choices for interior textiles. The survey of household textiles concluded that a variety of color, design, and texture is available in fabrics, household ladies preferably use cotton, linen, wool, viscose, polyester, leather, and nylon blends. The fabrics are selected according to the regional suitability, cost, durability, comfort, and aesthetic properties. The bedsheet, pillows, cushions, curtains, towels, wall hangings and coverings, dining sheets, and lamps are popular fabric products in home textiles. The other consideration was for end-use, cost, durability, comfort, and aesthetic properties. Pakistan must promote national products because of its unique design, quality, durability, and low price.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • The Acoustical Performance of Water Hyacinth Based Porous-Ceramic Compared
           to the Biomass Fiber Composites for Architecture Application

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  1  Erni Setyowati   Gagoek Hardiman   and Nur Farida Grafiana   The hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes) is an aquatic weed that causes the silting of swamps. The water hyacinth research was developed because of concerns over the threat of biodiversity in swamps by utilizing water hyacinth for ceramic and composite mixtures. This current research highlights the comparative acoustical performances of ceramic and composite with water hyacinth contents. Dried water hyacinth was added to the clay ceramic mixture with a weight percentage of 2, 6, 8, and 10 wt%. The ceramic dough was then shaped hexagonally with an interlock system and molded overlay respectively before burning and biscuits, while the composite dough consisted of 200 ml polyester resin: 25 mg water hyacinth: 20 ml catalyst. The acoustic test methods refer to ASTM 1050-98 and ASTM E2611-09 for sound absorption and sound transmission loss respectively. The result showed that the 8 wt% water hyacinth mixture of porous ceramic had an average absorption coefficient of 0.29 and a sound transmission loss of a wide range of frequencies with an average of 59.1 dB. Meanwhile, the resin composite has a poor average of sound absorption of 0.10 - 0.11 and 58.08 - 58.36 dB on its STL. The innovation of the water hyacinth-ceramic, however, had a promising character as a Helmholtz-based diffuser-absorber.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • "The Singing Building" in the Ryazan Kremlin (XVII-XVIII Centuries): A
           Strategy for Preserving the Object of Cultural Heritage

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  1  Marina V. Knyazeva   Sergey V. Mokhovikov   Lidiya V. Alekseenko   Natalia S. Bryazgunova   and Genadiy B. Baranov   Introduction: The Ryazan Kremlin is a unique architectural open-air museum-reserve. The importance of the Ryazan Kremlin in the town-planning system of the city is associated with its historical significance. It is the oldest part of Pereyaslavl-Ryazan. The architecture of the Ryazan Kremlin is represented by 17 monuments of history, culture and architecture of federal significance. Among them is the "Singing Building", which is a traditional example of civil architecture before Peter the Great. Purpose of the research: Determination of conditions and factors creating prerequisites for the destruction of historical and architectural monuments. Creation of an effective mechanism to ensure the safety of the cultural heritage site. Research methods: The research involved the work of domestic and foreign authors. Analysis of the works showed an insufficient degree of study of the problem. The article presents historical and archival data on the architectural monument of federal significance, presents the methods and methods provided by the project for the restoration, preservation and restoration of the decor of the facades, which have losses with their painting. The main repair and restoration work and their sequence for preserving the cultural heritage object - the building of the "Singing Building", which is one of the iconic and representative buildings built in the middle of the 17th century, is described in the eastern part of the territory of the "Archbishop" yard of the Ryazan Kremlin. Results: Based on historical information about the cultural heritage object and its technical condition, including the territory occupied by the object, small architectural forms, monumental painting and interior decoration items, engineering structures and equipment, an analysis of the current state of the monument was carried out and a project of restoration work on the facades and interiors of the building was developed.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • The Architectural and Interior Design Identity Crisis: The Case of Girne
           in North Cyprus

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  1  Yaman Sokienah   This article discusses the effects of globalization on architecture and concentrates on a case study which is Girne-North Cyprus. It outlines globalization's impact on architecture and interior design in Girne, including the method in which the architecture is transformed in the process of globalization. This article shows the impact of the rapidly growing construction sector, particularly in the form of mass housing, in the carefully considered and natural re-identification and changing the meaning of places. The study has been limited to Girne's city as an example of what is happening in Northern Cyprus. The impact of globalization on the local built environment was investigated through reviewing the literature on the construction sector in North Cyprus. The problem of globalization's effects on identity in the world has become present significantly in Girne's city through the global architectural and design style that is being added to the urban, architectural, and interior design of the city. The development associated with globalization and its mechanisms contributed to bridging this gap. It can be concluded that the existing situation was mass housing and construction companies that are being introduced to the city will increase the urban growth and development of the Girne. However, this development will directly reflect on the architectural and urban form of the city negatively. If the same attitudes keep developing, even more, the city's identity will be lost.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • Integration of Solar Panels as the Shading Devices to Lower the Indoor Air
           Temperatures

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  1  Jefrey I. Kindangen   Veronica A. Kumurur   and Octavianus H. Rogi   This study tries to verify how the integration of solar panels as a shading device can reduce indoor air temperature. Two stages of the experiment have been conducted, the first experiment compared the shadowing performance of the solar panels placed parallel in front of the window, while the second experiment compared the shadowing performance of the solar panels placed 45 degrees on the top edge of the window with the panels aligned in front of the window. Two models of similar buildings have been built; to see how much influence the location of solar panels as a shading device, the surface temperature of the glass and indoor air temperature were measured using temperature and humidity data loggers. The measurement results of the first experiment showed that compared to a model without solar panels, especially from 7 a.m. to 5 p.m., significantly decreased by an average of 2.5°C and 0.6°C consecutively to the glass surface temperatures and the indoor air temperatures. In the second experiment, the comparison of shadowing performance between solar panels placed parallel in front of the window with panels placed tilted 45 degrees indicates that especially for windows on the East side the use of solar panels placed parallel in front of the window is more potential. This result also has the potential to become a renewable energy source, but further research is still needed, especially regarding solar panel electricity production capacity.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • Investigation of the Influencing Soil Parameters on the Air Entry Values
           in Soil-Water Characteristic Curve of Compacted Heaving Soils

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  1  Armand Augustin Fondjo   Elizabeth Theron   and Richard P. Ray   The air-entry value (AEV) is a fundamental parameter of the soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC). AEV is the minimum matric suction value required for entry of air into soil voids. The primary objective of this research work is to assess the impact of geotechnical index properties, swelling properties, mineral composition on AEV of compacted heaving soils, and discuss how they affect AEV. Soil properties were investigated through lab tests such as grain size distribution (GSD), specific gravity, Atterberg limits, linear shrinkage, free swell index, free swell ratio, X-ray diffraction, compaction test, and soil suction measurement. SWRC Fit program was used to perform non-linear fitting of the SWCC based on models VG, DB, FX, LN, and BL. Surface plot of data was used to characterize the impact of soil properties on AEV. It was observed that AEV is ranging from 10 kPa to 20.20 kPa, models DB and BL gives the best fitting SWCC. The percent of smectite mineral exhibits a significant impact on AEV. Swelling properties such as free swell index and free swell ratio influence the AEV with a respective determination coefficient of 85.72%, 88.68%. The plasticity index, linear shrinkage, specific gravity, and dry unit weight impact the AEV with a respective determination coefficient of 95%, 95.45%, 90.43%, 94.29%. The fine-grained content, clay fraction, void ratio, and water content influence the AEV with a respective determination coefficient of 97.95%, 84.89%, 80%, 94.31%. The finer the soil, the higher the AEV. The activity of clay and percent of illite mineral exhibit a marginal effect on the AEV.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • Geotechnical Hazards and Environmental Changes Threatening the Sphinx
           Avenue and the Project of Luxor: Open Museum

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  1  Ibrahim A. Alnaser   M. M. Abuzeid   A. F. Gelany   Ahmed H. Backar   and Mohammed Y. Abdellah   The simulation of the ceremonies of the Pharaonic celebrations in the Sphinx’s Avenue is one of the most important Millennium Goals for Luxor Governorate, which is supported by UNESCO until 2022. All sections of the road were constructed during the eighteenth to thirty dynasty period. Some attachments have been added to the road in different periods, such as wine presses used in major ceremonies that were held on the road such as ophthalmic feasts and beautiful valley feasts, etc. The road has been neglected across different periods, and more than 4 meters of sand, silt and Nile clay were accumulated in different sites. Excavations began on the road in the late 1940s, until work was halted after the January Revolution due to lack of funds. The aim of these study is examination of the geotechnical properties of the project to Facing challenges that led to bury and deterioration of the road and also to develop sustainable geotechnical solutions to resist threats and risks. Scanning Electron Microscope was used to investigate the six samples of soil under the six sections of the road to study the hazards due to the impaction of clay minerals which threaten the Sphinx Avenue and The Project of Luxor, Open Museum. Basic properties test of the foundation soils illustrated the expansive properties which often were classified moderate. Expansive properties are one of the factors of the evaluation of the hazard besides the relevance of the construction to environmental changes and sustainability agents.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • Performance Characteristics of Road-base Containing Mixed Steel Slag and
           Cathode Ray Tube Glass

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  1  Ahmad Yusri Mohamad   Maslina Jamil   Nur Izzi Md. Yusoff   and Mohd Raihan Taha   One way to promote sustainability in construction is through the preservation of natural resources and utilization of recycled wastes. This paper describes a laboratory study on the use of steel slag and cathode ray tube (CRT) glass for road base pavement layer. Measurements of the physical and mechanical characteristics of each sample are taken to evaluate the effectiveness of using these materials in road base pavements. The laboratory evaluation comprised of Los Angeles abrasion value (LAAV) test, California bearing ratio (CBR) test and performance characterization; the unconfined compression strength (UCS) and indirect tensile strength (ITS) tests were also performed. The values for LAAV are satisfactory, indicating that the steel slag and granite mixtures have adequate resistance and abrasion for use as road base pavement aggregates. The higher percentages of steel slag in the mixture produced higher CBR values for both the soaked and unsoaked mixtures. Test results also show that the mixtures containing up to 70% steel slag and 15% CRT glass meet the standards requirements. Results of the UCS and ITS tests for performance characterization showed that the performance of the sample mixture was enhanced significantly upon incorporating a higher percentage of steel slag in the mixture. The lab test results showed that the mixture composing of granite, steel slag and CRT glass is a suitable alternative made from recyclable materials, for use in road base pavement layer.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • Comparative Study on Restaurants' Furniture: Ginkgo and Niazi's
           Restaurants in Famagusta, Cyprus

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  1  Ejeng Ukabi   and Huriye Gurdalli   The role of furniture in commercial spaces supports the diversity of human interactions. Beyond the user's importance, furniture also reflects cultures and exerts psychological influences on people at different levels of social stratification. The style tells about a period, and its arrangement with form can contribute to the restaurant's ambiance. Today, restaurants have become an integral part of the urban space's functioning in food servicing provision and in conjunction with other subsidiary functions like Cafe to ease users' taste and intentions. This paper aims to identify the similarities and differences in the furniture used in two restaurants with different construction periods and districts-historical and modern within a city, Ginkgo Restaurant and Niazi's Restaurant in Famagusta-Cyprus. The study will also consider the spatiality of the restaurants and their synthesis with the outdoor space. The paper adopts a case-oriented approach, a thorough physical assessment of the indoor and outdoor spatiality of the restaurants selected. The techniques included field sketches/preparation of measured drawings and making field notes complemented by taking photographs. This comparative furniture analysis highlights public consciousness for tourists, designers, students, and Public-Private Partnership for cities undergoing urban change to pay attention to restaurant spaces as a proponent to sustainable urban health.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • Effect of Additional Reinforcement Length in Beams on Base-Shear Capacity
           in Performance-based Design of Low-Rise Buildings

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  1  Poleswara Rao Kovela   Balaji K. V. G. D   Phanindranath T. S. D   and B. Santhosh Kumar   Most of the existing low rise RCC buildings with 4 to 6 floors were constructed pursuant to the code provisions without detailed Earthquake analysis. To comply with the revised code provisions, it is essential to build up the seismic resistance of the existing buildings. International building safety agencies such as NEHRP, FEMA, and ATC etc., formulated the Performance-based design methods to verify the seismic resistance of the existing buildings and also recommend the retrofit the building to achieve the targeted performance. Pushover method (nonlinear static analysis) is one of the methods. This paper describes the increase of seismic capacity of structure with the additional steel contribution from 25 % to 75% increase in the beams near the beam-column joints. Moreover, this additional steel is placed up to 02.L, 0.25L and 0.3L of the beam span. To accomplish the above parameters, 4-storey, 5-storey and 6-storey rectangular framed structures are analyzed with the pushover analysis. The seismic capacity curves in terms of base shear versus displacement are illustrated. It is found that 10 to 25% of base shear is increased when beams are provided with additional reinforcement from 25% to 75% @0.2L. In this case of increasing the additional steel length from 0.20L to 0.3L, nearly 5% increase of the base shear is observed in width direction but no augmentation is observed in the length direction of the building.
      PubDate: Jan 2021
       
  • Modelling Macro Scale Spatial Analysis: Location Intelligence Application

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Hassina Nafa   and Husam R. Husain   Cities have distinctive identities that vary physically according to their geographical location, demographics, culture, environment, and economic factors. Altogether, they are targeted at a better quality of life by promoting their identity through revitalization efforts. This paper puts forwards an urban modelling application of location intelligence tool (Carto DB), and how nowadays tools could provide planners with both analytical databases and practical platforms to implement future strategies, which allow appraisal of cities’ current situation, along with specific strategies, methods, and approaches for mapping and highlighting the different aspects of life to develop exercises in macro planning issues which are capable of responding to the needs of today’s phenomena. This application applied diverse case studies selected from students’ hometowns with different complexity, history, within recent developments. The results show that the synchronicity and growth between software and urban planning provided and tested new analytical tool, which allows spatial applications of various strategical analyses on different scales.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • Appraisal of Place Identity through Tangible Elements of Cultural Features
           in Erbil City

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Zhino Surchi   and Hassina Nafa   The rapid growth of the cities with transformation of traditional urban spaces has caused a gap between cultural characteristics of urban identities. The identity of a specific place emerges from a series of cultural and social features of the relevant society embodied in the physical forms and shapes of the urban area. The paper aims to attain an overall understanding of keeping urban identity alive throughout the time, by analyzing the cultural characteristics of urban space. The study tries to develop a conceptual model focusing on the tangible relationship between the place identity and the cultural manifestations of the city of Erbil. The study adopted the quantitative way to test whether tangible elements affect place identity. The results indicate that a combination between place identity and cultural places can fortify our experience of place, and understanding of the influence of identity on urban development.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • The Assessment of Cities Physical Complexity through Urban Energy
           Consumption

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Mustafa Aziz Amen   Complex systems analysis is a widely used technique for assessing urban efficiency and sustainability of cities. However, sustainable cities need an effective energy management strategy based on regulations. This research aims to better understand sustainability efficiency of cities by establishing a link between complexity and urban energy consumption. The study demonstrated a technique for estimating physical complexity based on the built environment in an urban region. Accordingly, it applied quantitative measurements of complexity to urban form using empirical methods and information analysis. Consequently, the study evaluated urban complexity and energy consumption in cities using Simpson's variety index and the passive volume ratio. The researcher examined the relationship between complexity and energy use in two districts in Erbil; one is a traditional neighborhood, while the other is part of a modern grid system. The study found that increasing the physical complexity of urban tissue results in reduced urban energy consumption. Thus, there is a chance to comprehend urban energy efficiency with the physical complexity of the city. Consequently, the findings enable decision-makers to evaluate physical complexity using a sophisticated toolset to create more sustainable cities.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • Retrofitting Campus Outdoor Space Based on Thermal Performance: Case Study
           Seberbay University Campus, Tanta City

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Shahira Sharaf Eldin   Mustafa M. Elwan   and Amr A. Bayoumi   University campuses are meant to provide open and green spaces for students to create and excel. In this paper, the redesign of the Campus Outdoor Space (COS) of the College of Engineering in Tanta is assessed as it is a central square overlooked by buildings of the college exposed to excessive solar radiation. The method of the study consists of many stages. First, field measurements were appraised by Nova- Lynx weather station and investigating weather data files through the Climate consultant program. Next, the proposed design was tested and evaluated with the simulation programs Ansys Fluent CFD software to investigate thermal conformability. The positive environmental impact of the new design was revealed by comparing contours of solar heat flux, reflected infrared solar flux, wall radiated heat flux of surrounding buildings and analysis of temperature. Results indicated that COS redesign initiated a framework that integrates environmental comfort approaches producing retrofitting design rubric.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • Toward a Paradigm Shift in Urban Planning in Tehran: Neighborhood
           Development Plans

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Kaveh Hajialiakbari   Mitra Karimi   and Safiye Tayebi   Establishment of facilitation offices in deteriorated neighborhoods of Tehran for more than a decade has led to a significant transition from top-down and authoritative intervention into a bottom-up and participatory-based renewal; one of the important parts of this transition is the adoption of a distinct approach to provide neighborhood development plans (NDPs). This approach is based on the identification of the main problems of neighborhoods, attention to all dimensions, adaptation with parallel and upstream plans, and activation of the participation of local communities and collaboration of stakeholders in public, private, and third sectors. In this paper, the neighborhood development planning approach to the problem of deterioration and obsolescence in Tehran is defined; the most important parts are the content, features, process of provision, executive framework, and assessment phases of the plan. Despite the necessity of urban renewal-regeneration integrated and systematic planning, the challenge of ignoring the unique characteristics of neighborhoods will be addressed by NDPs Scaling and Framing. Actually by defining a new level in medium and short-term plans, Tehran Municipality changed the approach of urban planning. Developing a dynamic, flexible, partnership-driven and scalable framework for dealing with the urban decay to correctly identify the neighborhoods key issues and the point solutions has been the new approach's main objective.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • Systematization of Features and Recommendations Regarding Architectural
           and Urban Planning and Placement of University Hospitals

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Irina Bulakh   Olena Kozakova   Margaryta Didichenko   and Olena Chala   The purpose of the article is to identify the architectural features of the university hospitals design, which are based on a comprehensive analysis and systematization of the existing historical and recent global perspective, as well as the study of the latest trends in the development and architectural design of medical institutions in leading countries. The University Hospital is a multifunctional medical complex that combines and synthesizes several functions: multidisciplinary and specialized, educational and training, and research functions, experimental and innovative items production, as well as various auxiliary, secondary services and processes. The main contribution and originality of the study is the systematization of the existing experience in the construction of clinical and university hospitals and on this basis, the punctuation of the main provisions, features, and a number of recommendations (architectural-planning, structural and construction materials, master plan, aesthetic and artistic solutions, and functional components of the blocks) for the architectural design of these types of medical institutions. The main and significant conclusion of the article is the understanding of the individual project approach to the design of university hospitals, as well as the need for their active development as the most promising and effective type of hospital structure. When designing university hospitals, it is also proposed to take into account the principles of sustainable development and apply them within the boundaries of environmental design aimed at reducing the negative impact of urbanization processes.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • Biomimetic Approaches for Adaptive Building Envelopes: Applications and
           Design Considerations

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Riham Nady Faragllah   In the past decade, the evolution of biomimicry architecture was considered as an important issue for achieving adaptation strategies to cope with the different climatic aspects and to provide thermal comfort inside buildings which suit various environmental conditions. Egypt is one of the countries that faces the problem of using excessive energy to cool buildings due to weak building envelopes especially during the summer season that needs to be solved through biomimicry design approaches. The paper assumes that the role of nature design has a significant influence to promote occupants’ comfort, ensure energy conservation of the building and can be seen as an important contribution to sustainability of the built environment. The paper presents the concept and development of biomimicry architecture and its impact on building envelopes. Then, it analyses different biomimetic design applications in hot arid climates to conclude adaptable design considerations that are flexible and responds to differences in their surrounding context. Finally, the third part concludes a biomimicry design matrix for building envelopes that can act as a road map for adaptive implementations. The scope of the paper is the study and analysis of biomimicry as an important tool for architectural design and sustainable construction focusing on the possibility of applying biomimetic principles for adaptive building envelopes describing their potential for future building design in hot arid regions.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • The Development of Aperture at Residential Buildings in Mediterranean
           Climates for Mitigation of Carbon Emissions

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Dr. Maryam Iranfar   and Dr. Salar Salah Muhy Al-Din   The study aims to enhance the efficiency of the design process in the early stages of the design through guidance on the aperture design of buildings in Mediterranean regions. The study focuses on the outer glazing areas as the weakest part of the envelope for thermal resistance. Simulation software ‘Design Builder’ has been applied to assess CO2 emission in the residential buildings in Kyrenia through their apertures, and the ways to reduce carbon dioxide emission. Therefore, an eventual model has been developed and simulated according to the initial data obtained from the selected building samples as case studies. The study has concluded with mathematical models to assess the relationship between the size of apertures and the emission of carbon dioxide in the various topographical regions of Kyrenia concerning the sea and mountain views. The study would provide academic legislators and local authorities with new ideas in Kyrenia and Northern Cyprus.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • Investigation of Thermal Comfort in University Offices: The Case of the
           Bingöl University

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Gonca Özer Yaman   Fatma Kürüm Varolgüneş   and Perihan Çulun   Thermal comfort and indoor air conditions affect the mental and physical performance of users. People spend most of their time indoors. The thermal comfort conditions of these places directly affect the performance of individuals. Today, there are few examples of interior spaces with suitable conditions in terms of thermal comfort. Academician work offices in university buildings are also places where academics spend a long time. In this context, it is important to investigate and examine the thermal comfort conditions of these places and to put forward suggestions for improvement. For this reason, in this study, examinations were made in the offices of academicians in the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture. Within the scope of the study, 9 (nine) offices orientated in different directions were determined. Temperature, humidity, air movement and radiant temperature values were measured in the offices during January-February 2021, which is the period when the spaces in these offices should be heated. Measurements were made using a multi-functional air conditioner. The data obtained as a result of the measurements were interpreted according to the ASHRAE standard 55 and ISO 7730 limit values. It has been understood that the mean comfort temperature value found in all the offices of the university staff is in compliance with ASHRAE standards and the relative humidity of the air is insufficient.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • Building Performance Evaluation for Adaptive Reuse: A Multi-Criteria
           Approach

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Buket Giresun Erdoğan   and Çiğdem Polatoğlu   Adaptive reuse is a common approach for buildings that no longer serve their original function despite their good physical conditions. Such applications require the examination of the building regarding its qualities and capabilities. The focus of this study is the capability of the buildings to correspond to the user’s requirements following adaptive reuse processes, and the effects of new functions on the building performance optimization. Achieving reliable data in building performance evaluation will be possible only through the correct definition and association of the criteria. This study examines the adaptive reuse of Mugla Museum, a former prison building, through archive research, plan analysis, observations, and interviews. The result of the study has shown that the functional and perceptive performance of Mugla Museum is neutral, while the technical performance of the building has been found to be good. The building corresponds to its function with average performance, and the level of performance has the potential to be increased through adjustments in the building program or capacity increase. The study has shown that performance evaluation is necessary for determining the strengths and weaknesses of buildings. Within this context, developments in assessment methods would contribute to the betterment of adaptive reuse processes.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • A New Design Proposal for Perforated Solar Screens and Optimization in
           terms of Solar Control

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Fatma Zoroğlu Çağlar   and Gülay Zorer Gedik   With the use of Perforated Solar Screen (PSS), solar gains are controlled, cooling loads are reduced, and comfort conditions can be achieved while using its energy efficiently. Nowadays, the use of PSS is increased, especially in large, glazed facades. The design of PSS needs to develop and optimize for the temperate humid climate. A new design proposal is presented by considering the basic principles in terms of providing solar control by PSS within the scope of the study. The optimization of the design proposal has been carried out in terms of solar radiation, Annual Sun Exposure (ASE), and View with the use of Rhinoceros/Grasshopper by considering the design variables (angle, perforation ratio, width, and distance, etc.) of the PSS. An optimum design proposal has been presented for the existing classroom (transparency ratio: 60%) on the southern facade. Thermal comfort and surface temperature have been calculated. Design proposals can be developed for the west and east facades by using the method of this study.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • Experimental Investigation on Concrete Filled Steel Tube Columns under
           Concentric and Eccentric Loading

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Panya Klongaksornkul   and Kitjapat Phuvoravan   Modern construction projects such as skyscrapers, bridge with a large span, residential structures, towers for transmission, warehouses and other industrial structures have all incorporated concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) columns. Fire resistance, excellent ductility and high bearing capacity are all the advantages of CFST columns. Among the different shapes of CFST columns, uses of rectangular and square CFST columns are becoming more favored in modern construction projects for their simple beam-to-column connections design. This study tested 10 concentrically loaded CFST columns and 8 eccentrically loaded CFST columns. One of the most effective techniques to delay local buckling and enhance the ultimate strength of the CFST columns is to use longitudinal inner stiffeners on these steel tubes. Cold-formed steel tube sections are vulnerable due to local buckling; however, a concrete core is able to restrict such early local buckling in the cold-formed steel tube. The test specimens consisted of unstiffened sections and longitudinal inner-stiffened sections. In total, the experimental program tested 18 CFST stub columns with both compact and slender sections, without longitudinal stiffener, with 2 longitudinal inner stiffeners and with 4 longitudinal stiffeners. The test strengths have been as compared with predictions based on the existing design code AISC 360-16 for calculating the ultimate capacities of the CFST stub columns subjected to both concentric and eccentric loading. The focus was mainly on the effect of vertical stiffener square concrete-filled steel tubes on the overall concentric and eccentric compression capacity. The results identified that the longitudinal inner stiffeners had a significant impact on the ultimate strength, deformability and mode of failure in the CFST stub columns. To prevent local buckling of such steel tube, a longitudinal inner stiffener could be applied. In addition, the compression capacity was increased by 12–13.5%.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • A Framework for Managing Building Waste from the Restoration of Historic
           Cairo

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Sameha Ibrahim Salem   Yasmine Sabry Hegazi   and Sherif Kamal Dessouky   The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for managing wastes resulting from the restoration works in historic Cairo, Egypt. To achieve the above mentioned aim, a research methodology was designed to accomplish four objectives. Firstly, a literature review was used to investigate the nature of historic buildings, and national and international experiences of managing restoration waste. Secondly, 43 case studies from historic Cairo were used to identify the most common practices for managing building restoration waste. Thirdly, a survey questionnaire was conducted with experts to evaluate the most sustainable indicators of assessing building material waste. Finally, a framework was developed to facilitate the management of buildings' restoration waste in historic Cairo. Moreover, it concludes the most important factors of buildings' materials waste management in historic Cairo. The research discusses the importance of historic buildings and their status of ignorance and obsoleteness. In addition, it highlights the deficiencies of the waste management system. Furthermore, it presents a framework to manage waste resulting from restoration work on the buildings of historic Cairo, which represents a synthesis that is novel and creative in thought and adds value to the knowledge in a new way.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • Application of Contemporary Architecture in the Transfer Hub High Land
           Borobudur Building

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Andiyan Andiyan   and Tita Cardiah   This study aims to provide a supporting facility for the Borobudur Highland region in the Nglinggo-Sedayu Gate portion that will serve as a public transportation/transfer hub for the Borobudur Highland tourism area. This phase of research employs a combination of methods: site survey, primary and secondary data gathering, review of literature, precedents, and current comparative studies, data processing, and idea generation. According to the findings, the Transfer Hub building idea is Contemporary Architecture, which blends two architectural styles: modern architecture and Neo Vernacular, in which modern architecture incorporates contemporary features. In contrast, Neo Vernacular is more cultural, as shown by the Transfer Hub building's façade featuring the "Sekar Jagad" Batik motif. Hence, it is ideal for attractive natural forest landscapes and curvy terrain that present difficulties and selling points for the transfer hub building. Additionally, it is distinctive in transportation infrastructure in the Borobudur Highlands region that leads to the Transfer Hub. In conclusion, the Transfer Hub building supports and complements the Borobudur Highland infrastructure. The modern architectural approach to the Transfer Hub building adds value to the area's views and mode of transportation.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • Investigating Construction Delay Factors and Their Causes on Reservoir
           Projects in Vietnam

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Dinh Tuan Hai   and Nguyen Van Son   Currently, irrigation and hydropower are important economic and social development sectors that improve the quality and efficiency of people's life in the world as well as Vietnam. Vietnam has constructed around seven thousand reservoirs to date for many purposes such as water supply, flood control, or hydroelectric power. These reservoir construction projects play an important role in using water resources effectively and efficiently. However, many of these projects have been facing construction delays or increasing investment capital. This study aims to investigate the main causes of construction delay of reservoir projects through data collected from 310 valid respondents. Based on comprehensive literature review, this study identified and assessed a total of 37 primary causes which were grouped into six categories, namely, design phrase (six causes), construction phrase (five causes), human factors (five causes), technical factors (10 causes), legal factors (three causes), and external factors (eight causes). The results of regression analysis indicated that causes of technical, external, and human categories were the main causes of construction delays in reservoir projects. In conclusion, this study was useful for both academics and practitioners in exploring the important causes in reservoir construction projects which can help decision-makers reduce construction delays and use resources efficiently.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • Socio-Spatial Relation in Small Island (Case Study: Karanrang Island,
           South Sulawesi, Indonesia)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Rahmi Amin Ishak   Slamet Trisutomo   Ria Wikantari   and Afifah Harisah   Social interaction is an influential factor in shaping a community in a small island. There is a lack of study on how multi-ethnic groups of people living in a small island have shaped their community and maintained social harmony. This study identifies and analyzes the social interaction of residents in Karanrang Island in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. It focuses on how the social behavior of the residents has formed the spatial pattern of residential and community areas, including open spaces. Data of the residents' social behavior, activities, spatial layout of buildings, pathways, and major amenities were gathered from spatial mapping and on-site surveys. The analysis of socio-spatial patterns used the space syntax analysis method, namely Axial Analysis and Visibility Graph Analysis (VGA). The result shows that socio-spatial integration tends to occur in the irregular spatial configuration of residential areas, whereas socio-spatial segregation tends to occur in the regular spatial configuration. Furthermore, from the viewpoint of socio-spatial relation, the factors of activity location, residential density, and distance between houses significantly relate to social aspects such as community participation in social activities and willingness to assist neighbors. These findings are expected to provide consideration for the development of the socio-spatial structure that is suitable with the characteristics of small island communities, also to contribute to the sustainability of social order in the residential neighborhood of small islands.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • Potentially of Soybean as Bio-Catalyst in Calcite Precipitation Methods
           for Improving the Strength of Sandy Soil

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Luthfi Lofianda   Heriansyah Putra   Erizal   Sutoyo   and Hideaki Yasuhara   The biocementation-based soil improvement technique that has been recently developed is enzyme-induced calcite precipitation (EICP). Previous studies on the EICP technique used pure commercial urease enzyme as a reaction catalyst to precipitate calcite from urea and calcium chloride. However, pure commercial urease enzyme is inefficient for application on a large scale due to its high price. Therefore, studies reported that soybean is a potential alternative for pure commercial urease enzymes. This study evaluates the strength of sandy soil by treatment using EICP grouting solution with soybean extracts as the bio-catalyst. The extracts used in this study were obtained by filtration and centrifugation treatment. Based on the calcite mass quantification and precipitation ratio, 20 g/L soybean extract concentration in both treatments is used for treating the solution. Then, the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests were conducted to evaluate the increase of the strength of sandy soil. The maximum UCS value was obtained at the 28 days of curing time in both treatments. The centrifugation treatment has a higher UCS value with 65.6 kPa than the filtration treatment with 53.6 kPa. Thus, this study elucidated that soybean extract has a great potential to be a bio-catalyst in the calcite precipitation method.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • Airflow Patterns and Droplet Spread in Natural Ventilated Classrooms

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Jefrey I. Kindangen   and Octavianus H. Rogi   Some infectious diseases, such as COVID-19, are verified by transferring droplets and aerosols through the air or direct contact, which is especially dangerous in enclosed environments like classrooms. This paper aims to investigate airflow patterns in a classroom in Manado, Indonesia, and examine the number and density of droplets that could eventually wind up on students' hands and faces in a naturally ventilated classroom. Visualizations using smoke machines and measurements of airflow speed, air temperature, and humidity have been performed in a naturally ventilated classroom. Modeling the initial velocity of droplet spraying and its spread using electric and manual nozzles with colored liquids is equivalent to the speed of talking, coughing, and sneezing. The number and density of droplets are proportional to their distance from the source, with the initial velocity of their spray exerting greater significance. Compared to what is received on the students' faces, the position of the armchair table or the students' hands receive more droplets in terms of number and density. In this condition, gravitational forces play an essential role in the spreading of droplets. More research is still needed on droplet spread with different classroom conditions, such as air conditioning or other methods.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • A Parametric Study on the Buckling Behavior of Square Steel Plates under
           Uniaxial Compression

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Mazen Ali Musmar   Steel plates are common in thin walled structures. They are used in various forms and geometries such as intact (not perforated) plates, stiffened plates, perforated, or perforated stiffened plates. This study employs nonlinear pushover finite element analysis to determine the critical buckling strength as well as the plate maximum strength for uniaxially square plates in the form of intact, stiffened, perforated, as well as perforated stiffened plates under uniaxial uniform compression. Curves representing the load axial displacement relationship as well as load buckling relationship were plotted. Tables summarizing the plate critical buckling strength and the plate maximum strength for each of the four plate forms were presented in order to specify the controlling failure for each form, which is considered as a vital factor for the design process. The study indicates that the critical buckling stress for stiffened plates always increases as the number of stiffeners increases. Nonetheless the critical buckling stress decreases as the number of perforations increases. Thus, a stiffened perforated plate would be a proper solution if perforations are unavoidable. The study concluded that in both stiffened square plates and in stiffened perorated plates, the ratio of the plate area to the sum of stiffeners areas tentatively indicate the possible occurrence of stiffener tripping. Ansys software was utilized to perform the analysis that was validated in calculating the critical buckling strength as well as maximum plate strength of intact plate subjected to axial compression.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • Effect of Curing Methods on the Compressive Strengths of Palm Kernel Shell
           Concrete

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Odeyemi S. O.   Abdulwahab R.   Anifowose M. A.   and Atoyebi O. D.   Appropriate curing of concrete is necessary to obtain maximum durability and achieve designed strength for concrete exposed to different environmental conditions. Curing is regarded as the means of regulating the degree and extent of loss of moisture from concrete when the cement in the concrete is undergoing hydration. This study made a comparative study of the consequence of adopting different methods of curing on the compressive strength of concrete modified with Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) aggregate. Concrete cube specimens of mix ratio 1:1:2 were cast with water-cement ratio of 0.55. The specimens were cured using four (4) different procedures: immersion, sprinkling, wet-curing and open-air. The concrete samples were tested for their compressive strengths at ages 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of curing. The results obtained show that immersion method of curing has the highest compressive strength at 28 days with a value of 17.07 N/mm2. This was followed by the sprinkling method of curing with 15.78 N/mm2. Wet-curing method has a compressive strength of 14.48 N/mm2 and open-air curing has compressive strength of 13.11 N/mm2. It was concluded that immersion and sprinkling methods are suitable methods for curing PKS concrete.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • Environmentally Friendly and Sustainable Production of Particle Board
           Using Maize Cobs

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Ishimwe Cédrick   Tuyisenge Nkusi Ange   Nduwumwami Ivan   Uwiduhaye Fabrice   and G. Senthil Kumaran   This research project was carried out to propose a new material made out of maize cobs for particle board manufacture. The purpose was to examine general limits within which a satisfactory board can be made with this agricultural residue. Mostly, maize cobs are considered as agriculture wastes. These natural and organic waste materials are sometimes being kept for a long time so that they can decompose for making fertilizers and others are burnt which is harmful to the environment and atmosphere as a whole. This study focuses on using maize cobs in production of a three-layer particle board for furniture where it was started by collecting maize cobs from local farmers in Gicumbi District and testing their physical and chemical properties using eye vision. After, cobs have been grinded in small particles by using flour mill machine and then sieved to retain particle of desirable dimensions. Since this board is composed of three layers, the particles are of two types. Small particles are 1 to 3 mm for both outer layers (face layers) and 4 to 6 mm for middle layer (core layer). Particles were then washed to remove dust, cooked for protecting particles from decaying after board production and sun dried at an average temperature of 27℃ within 72 daylight hours for extracting moisture. Later, the prepared particles were mixed with sisal fibres and bonded together by glue and then formed into boards of different sizes with an average mechanical compression of 3.8 N/mm2. Afterwards, the formed board was removed from the formwork and exposed to the sun within 5 days for drying and hardening. After that, one of the hardened boards was covered by veneer cover for enhancing the external appearance and increasing its resistance to moisture. Lastly, the covered boards were tested for checking their efficiency. The results were compared with the data available from the present standard. All samples satisfied the standard requirements except for water absorption test. It was generally observed from the results that the maize cob is a good material for particle board manufacture and its properties were consistently dependent on the resin concentration levels and density. The developed product will be an environmentally friendly and sustainable product. This product will reduce the importation of particle boards from other countries and will encourage the SMEs to create the jobs, which will fulfill the Rwanda's vision.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • Effect of Deep Vibration on Physical State of Soil Being Changed

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Vladimir D. Geidt   Larisa V. Geidt   Andrey V. Geidt   and Svetlana V. Sheshukova   The effect of vibration on soil compaction has gained a good reputation when consolidating an artificially improved foundation. The studies aimed at analyzing the effect of the deep vibration on the properties of the compacted water-saturated soil have made it possible to establish that vibration can be an effective means of consolidation speeding-up. Vibration contributes to the emergence of additional excess pressures in the pore water; the filtration rate due to the increased pressure gradient increases as well. Consolidation speeding-up (soil compaction by squeezing out the pore water) is quite relevant. It is clear that consolidation speeding-up of foundation water-saturated soil is extremely important in site preparation for reducing site preparation time up to a period of a short summer. The study focuses on the mechanism of deep vibration (longitudinal mechanical waves) having an effect on water-saturated soil consolidation. The mechanism is based on the changed physical state of the medium and takes into account its structure. Two soil models have been proposed. The first one-parameter soil model is called a "sandwich (layer- cake)". The second two-parameter soil model is called a "loose sandwich". In here, the first model is a special case of the second one. Both parameters have simple physical significance. The study shows that according to the proposed mechanism, the effect of vibration on soil consolidation is reduced to redistribution of the relationship between the stress in soil skeleton and the pore pressure versus the value of "vibration pressure" in such a way that the pore pressure increases, nevertheless, cannot exceed the value of the external static load. The paper also presents the results of numerical calculations.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • Courtyard: A Look at the Relevance of Courtyard Space in Contemporary
           Houses

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Richa Gupta   and Mahendra Joshi   The paper attempts to uncover the key issues concerning the sustainable built form of towns in the aftermath of rapid urbanization and growing population. The objective of this study is to understand the suitability and practicability of the courtyard forms in the urban settlement. Traditional courtyard houses in India are the native types of houses. These typologies of houses have been developed through the time-tested method and reached widespread acceptance. It became apparent that contemporary along with the traditional courtyard design should be studied on various parameters to determine the most suitable courtyard design for an urban context and quantify possible design solutions in various regional contexts. The paper presents a literature review at two levels. The environmental and socio-cultural impact of courtyard typology has been addressed at the first level. And the second level explores the typological implication of courtyard houses at an urban scale with special emphasis on parameters like building bye-laws, Floor area ratio, and density. The study revealed that the courtyard serves as a holistic space within the house, however depending on the regional and climatic context, the attributes may differ. The paper concludes that courtyard typology has the potential to justify the cultural, anthropological, and climatic needs of the occupant therefore could be adopted in urban settings. The study also provides future direction for the research work as a very limited background study is available to establish a direct relationship between courtyard typology and building bye-laws.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • Vertical Electric Sounding and Multi-Layered Deming Perceptive Classifier
           for Ground Water Identification and Quality Prediction Analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Raghuveer Narsing   and K. Karthikeyan   Water quality prediction is a critical problem because of vigorous impact on natural surroundings and human life. Groundwater crisis has become a global concern as their vulnerability increased with greater frequency and magnitude. This study proposes a Vertical Electric Sounding Ground Water Identification based Multi-Layered Perceptive Classifier (VESGWI-MLPC) model introduced to address prediction accuracy. The main objective is to perform groundwater quality prediction analytics with lesser time consumption and higher accuracy. This model performs two processes, namely groundwater identification, and quality prediction analytics. Groundwater identification is carried out using a vertical electric sounding process. The vertical electric sounding process is a cost-effective resistivity survey process. Current is moved through the subsurface from one current electrode to the other and the current move is recorded for groundwater identification. Groundwater quality prediction analytics is carried out using a multi-layered perceptive classification process. In order to perform groundwater quality prediction analytics with higher accuracy, multi-layered perceptive is employed. Multi-layered perceptive classification process contains three layers for groundwater quality prediction analytics. In input layer, amount of information is collected as input. After that, parameters of the input data like temperature, pH, turbidity, salinity, nitrates, and phosphates are analyzed through perceptron in a hidden layer for performing groundwater quality prediction analysis. At last, output layer classifies and displays data. Thus, the groundwater quality prediction analytics performance gets increased in accuracy and time. Simulation results are considered by different factors namely prediction accuracy, error rate, and prediction time by amount of data. VESGWI-MLPC model enhances prediction accuracy and reduces prediction time and error rate compared with three state-of-the-art methods.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • Optimum Thickness of UHPFRC Overlay for Restoration of Normal Concrete
           Elements

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Aysha Haroon   and B. H. Abu Bakar   Ultra high performance fiber reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) is a promising new concrete, especially in repair and restoration. It has been identified to exhibit good bonding and strengthening properties with the old concrete as an overlay repair material. But its usage has not been much pronounced due to its high-cost factor which overshadows its efficacy, because certain constituents of UHPFRC are not readily and easily available. Hence, optimal usage of this concrete for repair and rehabilitation can greatly be beneficial to the construction industry. Therefore, this study is involved in identifying the optimum thickness of UHPFRC as a repair overlay material for normal concrete elements, so that the self-weight of the material can be reduced to its minimum, and indirectly the impact of its price can be greatly reduced. With this intention, normal concrete elements were repaired with different thicknesses of UHPFRC overlay starting from 15 mm to 50 mm. The repaired composite composed of normal concrete substrate and varying thickness of UHPFRC overlay were subjected to different property evaluations to identify the optimum thickness of UHPFRC overlay in compression, tension, and shear. The ideal thickness of the UHPFRC repair overlay was concluded based on its ability to restore the original strength of the old normal concrete. It was upshot that an overlay thickness of 20 mm is more than sufficient to repair and restore the normal concrete.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • Healthy Vertical Housing Study of Psychological Considerations

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Lubna A. Kadhim   and Mufeed Ehsan Shok   The world population is growing significantly, and the population continues to flow from the countryside to the cities. Such phenomena make vertical housing a solution to these issues even if it is not as satisfactory as other forms of accommodation. The overview indicates that some adverse psychosocial effects have been consistently associated with elevated residential environments. The research problem has been identified. The effects of vertical housing on mental health and how these psychological effects can be reduced to create healthy vertical housing lack clarity. The research starts from a general hypothesis that vertical housing has adverse effects on the mental health of residents. Thus, the need lies in knowing the reasons for this effect and how to address it through design, thus creating healthy vertical residential buildings. The research adopted the descriptive analysis method based on the vocabulary of the theoretical framework extracted from previous proposals. The Interlace project in Singapore was chosen for the practical study after obtaining the title "the best building in the world" at the World Architecture Festival in 2015.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • Performance of Polypropylene Fibre Reinforced Laterite Masonry Bricks

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Nourou Mahaman Lawali Salaou   Joseph Thuo   Charles Kabubo   and Zachary Abiero Gariy   Accessibility to energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly materials are among the critical challenges that the building industry faces. In addition to its high cost, concrete and cement blocks or structures production is one of the factors that cause climate change. Therefore, the building industry has to develop innovative materials that contribute to the reduction of the challenges above. Due to its availability worldwide and its environmentally friendly characteristics, earth materials appear suitable against climate change in the building industry. However, blocks produced from earth materials have low compressive and tensile strengths and low durability. Recently, many researchers focused on stabilising soil with cement, lime, fibres, Etc. Cement/lime stabilisation is neither cost-effective nor energy-efficient, while natural fibres reinforcement faces durability challenges. In this study, a laterite soil was reinforced with polypropylene fibre, a type of waste plastic. The use of these plastic wastes contributes to reducing plastic worldwide and producing low-cost and environmentally friendly building materials. The main objective of this research work is to study the performance of polypropylene reinforced laterite bricks. A hair-like polypropylene fibre was mixed with air-dried laterite soil at 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, and 0.4% fibre content by weight of dry soil. The blocks and bricks made were air-dried for 14 days and tested according to EN 772-1:2011 (E). The findings on the unconfined compressive strength test, indirect splitting tensile test, compression test and initial rate of water absorption test are presented in this paper. The results indicate that the compressive strength of reinforced bricks increased by 84%, and the water absorption rate was reduced by 50% at 0.23% fibre content by weight of dry soil. These results show that polypropylene fibre can be an alternative reinforcement material to produce more durable earth blocks and bricks with improved compressive strength. It is recommended that one should mix dry laterite soil with fibre. Then add the optimum water content determined from the compaction test and mix until the mixture is homogenous before making blocks/bricks. Blocks/bricks made should be air-dried, avoiding exposition to sunlight.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • BACKHOME: Transformation of Old Shop Houses into a Contemporary
           Backpackers' Hostel with Better Indoor Environmental Quality

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Nik Lukman Nik Ibrahim   BACKHOME is a backpacker hostel in Kuala Lumpur city centre designed by Ar. Masyerin Md Nor, the principle of Domaine Architects Sdn Bhd. The design of this backpacker hostel had won the prestigious PAM Award in 2016 for commercial building. The travellers' sanctuary was originally four units of shop houses built in the 1970's. It was remodelled into a stylish and contemporary hostel to accommodate tourists visiting Kuala Lumpur or transiting to neighbouring countries such as Thailand, Indonesia and Singapore. Set amidst the hustle and bustle of Kuala Lumpur city centre, this hostel is a peaceful sanctuary for travelling backpackers. The refurbishment of the shop houses has provided better indoor environmental quality achieved through design strategies for natural ventilation and daylighting. This article reviews BACKHOME based on the current trend of adaptive reuse criteria usually adopted locally and also internationally. These include sustainability, construction, public engagement and historical aspects. From the review, it shows that the novelty of the scheme adopted in BACKHOME lies in the innovative engagement of these criteria. The scheme realised and manifested in BACKHOME can be very impactful in paving a new mode of adaptive reuse practice in Malaysia. This article highlights the essential aspects of the success of BACKHOME which could be emulated in any future adaptive reuse project especially involving heritage shop houses in this country.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • Mechanical Analysis of Fiber Reinforced Adobe

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Omar Khtou   Issam Aalil   Mohamed Aboussaleh   and Fatima Zohra EL Wardi   The south-east of the kingdom of Morocco, including the Tinejdad region at the south-east, has a remarkable earthen architecture. It is built by combining two techniques, that of rammed earth and that of adobe. This work is carried out with the aim of preserving and developing this ancestral know-how. The study is initially a characterization of the soil used for earthen construction in the region; the grain size and plasticity of the soil showed that it was not very clayey and moderately plastic (clayey sand) and it was suitable for earthen construction. The characterization also concerned the fibers traditionally used, namely wheat straw and barley straw. Secondly, the study focuses on the influence of different fibers, those mentioned above as well as sawdust and the crushing of barley straw on the mechanical characteristics of adobe in relation to its compressive strength and bending strength. Several fiber mass ratios were studied, and an improvement in compressive strength and bending strength was observed for the different fibers. The fibers have also provided a great improvement in the ductility of the adobe and a decrease in the modulus of elasticity. The optimal mass ratio of the fibers was 2% for the different fibers studied.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • Local Wisdom of Gapura in Sunan Ampel Mosque based on the Place Attachment
           Theory

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Prasetyo Wahyudie   Antariksa   Lisa Dwi Wulandari   and Herry Santosa   Muslims dominate a quarter of the world's population, and Indonesia is one of the most Muslim countries. Java is the island in Indonesia with the most population and is known as the place where Islam is growing. Sunan Ampel, one of Walisongo, succeeds in spreading Islam in Java. Some of the relics of Sunan Ampel, such as the mosque and his neighborhood, become a historical place that many people often visit. The hallmark of his legacy is the gate called Gapura. Many studies have been done about the uniqueness of Gapura; however, none of them focus on the place attachment theory. Thus, this paper proposed the study of the combination between place attachment theory and the uniqueness of Gapura. The data were collected from the survey to the Area of Sunan Ampel. After that, qualitative research with a collaboration of interdisciplinary literature studies has been done to interpret the obtained data. Furthermore, the data will be synthesized and discussed to re-estimating the thought of Sunan Ampel. This study aims to get a holistic understanding of Sunan Ampel and the Gapura in the neighborhood of Sunan Ampel. Thus, the architecture and ornament of Gapura can show the past situation of the neighborhood and the development of Islam in Java. The result shows that the study with place attachment theory gives comprehensive results from the relation between local wisdom and the Gapura. By using the place attachment theory, it can be seen that the ornament during Sunan Ampel Era is similar to the previous Era, which is Majapahit. However, some elements of Islam are added in the Gapura, such as Pillar of Islam or called Rukun Islam. Thus, it can be concluded that there is local wisdom in Gapura of Sunan Ampel mosque related to the place attachment theory, which is believed it becomes a key to the succeed of Sunan Ampel in spreading Islam.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • Application of Mathematical Modeling Methods for Operational Optimization
           of Urban Traffic in an Accident on a Section of the Road Network

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Natalya Alexandrovna Naumova   Simulating traffic flows is an urgent task when choosing the optimal movement scheme of vehicles along the road network. One of the problems affecting the convenience of moving on the road network is road accidents. The article considers the problem of simulating the movement of vehicles when bypassing the scene of a traffic accident. A mathematical model reflecting the movement of motor vehicles in a dense traffic flow has been developed in the case when traffic along one of the lanes is blocked as a result of a traffic accident or repair work. The time intervals between cars in each lane are assumed to be subordinate to Erlang's law. The scene of the incident is presented as a queuing system. Using the method of pseudo-states and Markov chains, the author calculated the movement characteristics of the vehicles near the scene of a traffic accident. Simulating the movement of traffic flows near the accident sites allows predicting the delays caused by vehicles, and adjusting the optimal traffic management schemes.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • Utilization of Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data in Building Information
           Modelling (BIM) for Fire Disaster Evacuation Simulation

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Abdi Sukmono   Farhan Ardianzaf Putra   Nurhadi Bashit   and Arief Laila Nugraha   The development of digital building modeling technology for documentation and spatial planning is growing rapidly. Along with the development of these technologies, the urgency concerning the level of accuracy in the measurement is also increasing. One of the technologies currently being developed to address the urgency is the creation of three-dimensional objects using the Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS). Three-dimensional (3D) imaging sensors, such as TLS, can be used to create a Building Information Model (BIM) of the condition of buildings and other facilities in the field. However, quality control needs to be carried out to ensure that the model accurately describes conditions in the field. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the level of accuracy of the results of the BIM made by utilizing the TLS. In this study, researchers applied a deviation analysis method. This method produced an area with a significant difference between the point cloud data and the reconstructed model. The BIM went through a virtual disaster evacuation simulation process by utilizing the A* search algorithm. The evaluation results of BIM deviation to the average point cloud were dominated by green results. This indicated that the deviation of the distance between the point cloud and the BIM data ranged from 0 to 2 mm. The results of the test of accuracy in the field using a rolling meter showed that the RMSE value of the difference between the distance of the roll meter and the BIM was 0.0139 m with an average distance difference of 0.0102 m. The results of the creation of the evacuation route showed that the maximum distance of the evacuation route in the building was 21.251 m on the ground floor, 17.290 m on the 1st floor, 17.718 m on the 2nd floor, and 17.851 m on the 3rd floor. From the results of the simulation, the disaster evacuation took 89.8 seconds with an average evacuation process of 44 seconds. The length of the path has been in line with the applicable regulations, in which according to Indonesia's Minister of Public Works and Housing Regulation No. 26/2008, the maximum length of the path in educational residential buildings is 62 m.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • Strength Characteristics of Compacted Fly Ash Treated Expansive Soil due
           to Wetting-Drying Cycles Repetition

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  7  Hasriana   Hamkah   Melly Lukman   and Zubair Saing   Due to high swelling-shrinkage caused by climate change, expansive soil is a significant problem in light construction, road embankments, and slope stability (wet and dry). The physical and mechanical properties of the soil are affected by repeated drying and wetting cycles, particularly changes in volume, negative pore water pressure (suction), and compressive strength. Fly ash is used to increase soil strength and reduce plasticity caused by swelling to address this issue. Because of its chemical properties, fly ash is an excellent choice for low-cost soil improvement. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the static mechanical properties of expansive soil fly ash stabilization under Proctor standard compaction conditions. Mechanical properties were investigated due to changes in soil moisture content, saturation, suction, and compressive strength caused by repeated drying and wetting cycles. The soil's suction was measured using Whatman #42 filter paper, and the soil's compressive strength was tested using a free compression test. According to the findings, the fly ash mixture altered the expansion and shrinkage behavior of expansive soils by lowering the consistency limit. At the same moisture content, the addition of 5% to 15% fly ash increases the compressive strength of the soil significantly. Compressive strength (qu) and stress-strain modulus (Ei) decreased in 1-4 cycle cycles, and after four cycles, changes in compressive strength and stress-strain modulus were very small or insignificant. The proposed method effectively reduces the loss of expansive soil strength caused by environmental changes (wetting-drying). As a result, it contributes significantly to the development of materials to reduce structural damage in expansive soils.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
       
  • Exploration of Housing Adequacy for City Resilience Using Principal
           Component Analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5  Enobong B. Equere   Eziyi O. Ibem   and Oluwole A. Alagbe   Public housing schemes in developing countries like Nigeria have been assessed from different perspectives. In spite of this, housing development strategies are yet to efficiently meet the needs of contemporary urban society, especially those needs associated with rapid influx of human population in countries of the Global South. Rapid population growth impacts on the social, economic and environmental fabrics of the community. In the same vein, housing for resilient city is said to offer characteristics that would enable housing to relate efficiently with the socioeconomic, physical and environmental demands of the city. However, studies on assessment of housing for city resilience are rare. This study aimed to investigate the environmental characteristics of mass housing schemes that will enhance the adequacy of residential neighbourhoods to efficiently absorb the adverse impacts of rapid urban population growth and promote city resilience. A cross sectional survey of 345 residents in seven selected public housing estates in Abuja, Nigeria was carried out using a structured questionnaire designed from the findings of the review of literature. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and principal component analysis. The results revealed that the participants felt that housing units' features were generally adequate, while the neighbourhood environmental features were grossly inadequate for city resilience. The four main dimensions of housing adequacy evaluation were the sizes of service provision, plots for houses, availability of utilities, neighbourhood and maintenance facilities; provision of spaces for study room, guest room, laundry and home-based enterprise in dwelling units; the size of housing units and interior spaces; and the provision of car parks, security and educational facilities in the housing estates. The study highlights the specific areas of priority attention in public housing provision in order to ensure that housing developments promote cities resilient to rapid population growth.
      PubDate: Aug 2021
       
  • Validation of Semi-empirical Models for the Prediction of Swelling Stress
           for Compacted Unsaturated Expansive Soils

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5  Aneke Frank Ikechukwu   and Nkwonta Onyeka   Unsaturated swelling soil behaviour is governed by the matric suction, thus the predetermination of swelling stress for expansive unsaturated soil requires rigorous procedures. However, some swelling stress equations assume full saturation of the soil, which leads to the over-design of infrastructure. This study focused on the validation of predictive swelling stress models that correlate suction with other soil properties. Three models were developed, and independent data were used for the validation of the developed models. The predicted swelling stress values were compared to the values predicted by the randomly selected predictive models from the literature. Series of initial studies include the determination of basic soil characterization and swelling stress along with soil mineralogical compositions were conducted to determine their geotechnical properties with their corresponding degree of expansiveness. The replicated expansive soils were also studied for suction, using filter paper techniques to obtain the soil's unsaturated parameters. Based on the obtained experimental results, three models were developed using a mathematical software package (NCSS11). Independent data obtained from a group of final year students working on the swelling stress response of expansive unsaturated soils at the geotechnical engineering Laboratory from the University of Johannesburg were used for the validation. The developed models showed good agreement with the independent data, having a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.858, 0.931, and 0.890 for Eq. 4, 5, and 6, respectively. Compared to models selected from literature, which recorded R2 values of 0.796 and 0.636 with an average variance of 0.097 and 0.257 respectively. The correlation variables showed that the degree of expansion represented by swelling stress demonstrated a proportionality with the moisture capacity along the drying and wetting path of the suction curves. Results suggest that the developed models can reasonably predict the swelling stress of compacted expansive soils at high suction values.
      PubDate: Aug 2021
       
  • Co-design: Tactile Models and Prototype as Common Language Tools between
           Designers and Visually Impaired People

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5  Andréa Quadrado Mussi   Luísa Batista de Oliveira Silva   Luísa Fernanda Nercolino Deon   Thaísa Leal da Silva   and Lauro André Ribeiro   This article presents the use of tactile models and prototype as common language tools among designers, blind and visually impaired (B&VI), inserted in a collaborative design methodology. With the objective of realizing an interior architecture project and an outdoor area, including toys, for an association for visually impaired people in the city of Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil. It describes the process of participation and interaction between Association members, both adults and children, and architects in the development of these projects. It shows results of two co-design actions, which will subsidize a broader objective of a research that aims to define co-design methods, techniques and tools applied to the inclusion of Visually Impaired People in the process of architecture, urbanism, landscaping and interior design. The research related two co-design. The first is the co-design of the waiting / reception room and the external area for socializing and leisure, carried out with the adults of the association, took place in three moments: in the focus group, in the interaction with the tactile model and on the tours accompanied. The second co-design was carried out with the children of the association to develop two toys, the first to be inserted within the proposal of improving reception/ waiting, and the second for placement in the outdoor area of socializing and leisure. The interaction among designers, blind and visually impaired was intensive, allowing modifications and diverse insights about types of floors, layout and better and adequate colors for the best comfort and mobility inside the spaces. It seeks to demonstrate the importance of co-design as a way of including B&VI, as they are able to increase well-being and self-esteem, while effectively participating in the creation of the environment in which they are inserted; they manage to leave the passive zone that they normally find themselves in with regard to the architectural design process. The next steps of the research are to finalize the toy design of the external area and the execution of all spaces.
      PubDate: Aug 2021
       
  • Evaluation of Transit Signal Priority on Arterial Performance - A
           

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5  Taqwa Alhadidi   Transit Signal Priority (TSP) shows capability to improve traffic operations through providing transit vehicles a higher priority to cross intersections. However, implementing TSP could impose extra delays to the adjacent traffic. Specifically, TSP imposes extra delay on turning traffic that could be solved by converting the intersections to unconventional intersection. To do so, this paper models assesses and evaluates the possibility for implementing a TSP in arterial roadway in Amman, capital of Jordan, by using real traffic data under different scenarios including conventional and unconventional intersection designs. The evaluation was done using simulation. Simulation results show that the TSP implementation reduces system travel time and improves the overall system delay. Specifically, implementing the combination of TSP with unconventional intersection design reduces corridor travel time, system delay, and queue length. Moreover, simulation results indicated that applying TSP improves individual movements travel time and delay up to 35% per vehicle.
      PubDate: Aug 2021
       
  • Road Traffic Accident Data Analysis and Its Visualization

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5  Muhammad Babar Ali Rabbani   Muhammad Ali Musarat   Wesam Salah Alaloul   Ahsen Maqsoom   Hamna Bukhari   and Waqas Rafiq   Vehicle accidents take human life all over the world particularly in developing countries like Pakistan. It is estimated that 1.2 million people lose their lives in road accidents every year. Apart from this, 20 to 50 million are injured on a yearly basis. This annual increase in the traffic accidents trend is alarming. To bring improvement in the current road network system, the specialists need to analyze the historical data of road crashes of an area. This research aims to use the visualization technique to have a better understanding of the accident data. This study uses the data of Peshawar, Pakistan, where the raw data were first organized, filtered, pre-processed and finally, visualization was performed to construct a systemic and homogenous data model. Various infographics were produced with the help of different software interface and visualization options. It was revealed that most of the accidents occur in the daytime and with those people who do not have enough traffic education. The 30 to 45 years age group was more active in causing the accidents. Therefore, the behaviour of this age group of drivers needs further investigation. This study will be useful for concerned authorities in devising an efficient mechanism to alleviate road accident cases.
      PubDate: Aug 2021
       
  • Notes on the Architectonics of the Public Will: From the Pedimented
           Primitive Hut to the French Pantheon of Quatremère De Quincy

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5  Yasir M. Sakr   and Naif A. Haddad   This paper highlights the crucial endeavour of the French neoclassical theoretician Quatremère De Quincy (1755–1849) to appropriate the theory of imitation (Mimesis) in architecture peculiar political use towards the end of the 18th century. Quatremère De Quincy, who became the Secretary Perpetual of the Academy of Arts (Académie des Beaux-Arts), was perhaps the most influential and prolific neoclassical architectural thinker of the 19th century. Since his election as a representative of the Commune of Paris to the Legislative Assembly of France at the eve of the French Revolution, Quatremère was active in politics between 1797-1800. The paper argues that Quatremère, preoccupied with the French Revolution's political ideals, upended the notion of architectural representation and its Vitruvian ideal, "the pedimented primitive hut", as was reproduced by Abbe Laugier. The study will show that, driven by a secular political vision, Quatremère equated architecture with the "Public will" (la Volonté Publique). Thus, not only Quatremère redefined architecture in linguistic or socio-political terms, as current scholarship generally contends, more importantly, he also redefined politics and its emerging nation-state, society, and public, all in architectural terms. He dismantled the idealist classical canon of referential "imitation" and replaced it with a "projective abstraction" that became the foundation of a modernist architecture concept. The study correlates the basic constructs of Quatremère's architectural theory (i.e., allegory, architecture, and character), which he articulated in the (Encyclopédie méthodique de l'architecture) during his active political career in the early years of the French Revolution between 1789-1794 with contemporaneous documents of his actual design practice when he was the architect in charge of shaping the French Pantheon as the premier national monument of the Revolution.
      PubDate: Aug 2021
       
  • Algorithm for Determining the Curvature of the Project Line of a Truck
           Haul Road and the Rate of Change in Its Curvature

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5  Anton Olegovich Borovlev   Aleksey Vasilyevich Skrypnikov   Vyacheslav Gennadievich Kozlov   Elena Vladimirovna Teterevleva   Valery Alfeyevich Burmistrov   Marina Aleksandrovna Mikheevskaya   and Yulia Mikhailovna Chemshikova   It is recognized that a visually smooth and clear road, successfully integrated into the landscape, providing a constant or smoothly variable traffic mode, reduces the tension and fatigue of drivers, thereby contributing to their efficiency. That also reduces transport costs by choosing the most optimal traffic mode. These qualities can be achieved through spatial design method, which consists in creating conditions for safe driving at high speeds. Until now, the spatial road design method has been mainly based on the empirical rules of tracing when using visual images or models for the smoothness and clarity of the designed route of a truck haul road. Based on this method, one makes the necessary corrections to the road by evaluating the original images. Therefore, the effectiveness of the methodological foundations of spatial design of truck haul roads is further increased by providing clarity and visually acceptable curvature of spatial curves, which requires significant development and continued search to find new effective solutions. The work aims to develop an algorithm to evaluate the visual smoothness and clarity of the project line curvature of a truck haul road and the rate of change in its curvature. The article reveals a set of quantitative indicators that sufficiently and completely characterize the visual smoothness and clarity of the central projections of elementary spatial and plane curves. The presented algorithm and the indicators determined based on this algorithm; allow estimating both the visual smoothness and clarity of curves of truck haul roads. The proposed recommendations for the design of spatial curves are checked and refined based on the developed algorithm.
      PubDate: Aug 2021
       
  • Finite Element Analysis of High-Strength Concrete Flat Slab with Openings

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5  Aravindan K   and Viswanathan T. S.   Reinforced concrete slabs are an important component of high-rise buildings as they are designed to withstand the loads they are subjected to. Concrete slabs, on the other hand, may fail due to punching shear, which is one of the most serious risks in the slab column connection. This kind of failure, which is difficult to predict, occurs almost instantaneously and can have disastrous consequences. This research aims to examine how high-strength flat slabs act under vertical loads, as well as how openings affect flat slab punching shear strength. To do so, ABAQUS uses a series of non-linear numerical models to simulate the punching shear effect on reinforced concrete flat slabs and to investigate the effects of the various sizes and locations of the openings and the constitutive modeling of concrete on the punching shear stress of the connections. To begin with, the experimental results of Marzouk and Chen were used to perform the initial calibration of the finite element model. The effect of the openings presents in a flat slab with different positions and sizes and distances of 0d, 1d, 2d, 3d, 4d, and 5d far from the column in parallel position was determined by the analysis of 42 internal connections under incremental vertical load, while the connection without opening was used as a reference in each case. The shear strength was reduced by up to 9.6 percent as a result of an opening located at 2d distance from the column. This result is unaffected by the number of openings. The experimental and numerical results are also used to evaluate the accuracy of the various code equations available for predicting flat slab punching shear capacity. Eurocode prediction is more accurate than Canadian standard.
      PubDate: Aug 2021
       
  • Response Surface Methodology and Statistical Investigation of the Strength
           of Bituminous Sandcrete Blocks

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5  Atoyebi O. D.   Awolusi T. F.   Odeyemi S. O.   Aladegboye O. J.   Gana A. J.   and Popoola A. B.   Spalling is a serviceability related defect in buildings that degrades their appearance and if unchecked, could be a threat to building sustainability and lead to structural failures. It is associated with the effect of moisture on the building especially the blockwall. This research focuses on the production of low water-absorption Sandcrete blocks. The water absorption and compressive strength of blocks using bitumen as a coat and as part of the sandcrete mix are investigated. In assessing the outcome, eight (8) different sets of Sandcrete blocks with varying bitumen contents were defined and nine (9) samples of standard six (6) inches blocks were produced for each set, with three (3) samples per set being tested at 7,14 and 28 days for water absorption and compressive strength respectively. The water sprinkling curing method was used at 24 hours intervals. The results acquired showed that the sets that contained bitumen showed reduced water absorption rates up to 4.06% at 28 days relative to the control samples. The analysis of the experimental result was done using response surface methodology, the percentage of bitumen replacement with sand and curing days was used as the independent variable. Multiple regression equation was obtained to predict investigated properties. Further analysis of the data shows that Sandcrete blocks coated externally with bitumen give the optimum performance in terms of compressive strength and water absorption.
      PubDate: Aug 2021
       
  • Energy Efficiency of Radiant Heating Systems Based on Water-Based Radiant
           Profiles

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5  Mikhail Bodrov   Aleksandr Smykov   Maksim Morozov   Anatoly Shapoval   and Victor Mironov   It is repeatedly proved that the application of the radiant heating system is cost-effective. The most energy-efficient solution is the use of gas infrared emitters. In this case, there is no intermediate heating medium, and the heat of combustion of the gas enters the premises. However, this solution has a number of restrictions on the availability of natural gas, comfort, and fire hazard. Also, a highly efficient solution is the use of water infrared emitters, which can be radiant panels or radiant profiles that use an intermediate heating medium but do not have many of the limitations inherent in gas systems. A common problem for all types of radiant heating is the lack of a scientifically grounded and generally accepted engineering methodology for its design. Most of the regulatory documents simply do not take into account the peculiarities of the operation of radiant heating systems and, thus, do not allow a number of its advantages to be realized. This research was carried out based on NNGASU Radiant Heating Laboratory, unique in Russia, and is devoted to the peculiarities of the formation of the temperature regime in the premises heated by water infrared emitters, as well as the thermal regime of external enclosing structures in these premises.
      PubDate: Aug 2021
       
  • Construction System and Environment Adaptation of Traditional Architecture
           in Moluccas Island

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5  Mustamin Rahim   Maulana Ibrahim   and Firdawati Marasabessy   Traditional architecture has a variety of original and smart techniques to meet various needs according to the cultural context and natural conditions. Moluccas Islands is a natural disaster-prone area that has several unique traditional houses and was formed based on local wisdom, climatic, and topography conditions since the 13th century. This study aims to explore the traditional architecture in North Maluku Island by literature study and field observation to understand the design principles and building construction systems in response to extreme environmental conditions and to find out the sustainable features of traditional architecture in the past. Research focuses on five traditional houses located in different locations and topographical conditions by observing and analyzing site conditions, building orientation, construction techniques, building materials, ornaments, typology, and philosophy buildings. Study results show that sustainable features can be found on traditional houses in North Moluccas Island. Traditional houses of North Maluku were built using limited resources by passive design strategies and response to extreme conditions to achieve occupant comfort with the basic concept of "spiritual-human-nature". The characteristics of buildings differ in each region according to topographic conditions and local wisdom but in the same strategy: "harmony with nature" so that the traditional architecture of North Maluku can provide a comfortable living environment for occupants over the centuries according to the resources available at that time. The success of the traditional architecture of North Maluku in adapting to extreme environmental conditions can inspire sustainable building designs in the future, especially for the archipelago context.
      PubDate: Aug 2021
       
  • Using Epoxy Resin as Partial Cement Replacement in Concrete with Silica
           Sand as Fine Aggregate

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5  Gul Ahmed Jokhio   Yasmeen Gul   and Abid Abu-Tair   Plain concrete has low tensile strength, therefore, it is reinforced with steel for structural use. Both the production of concrete and the manufacture of steel adversely affect the environment. Moreover, there is a new developing technology of 3D printing complex structural shapes, which makes it difficult to provide conventional steel reinforcement. This can be addressed partially by increasing the efficiency of concrete with respect to its properties; specifically, the tensile strength. Traditionally, silica fume is used for this purpose. This research is exploratory in nature in that it is breaking new ground by incorporating epoxy resin to partially replace cement in concrete with the fine aggregate partially replaced by silica. It was hypothesized that an increase, especially in the strength of concrete in tension, by the incorporation of epoxy resin will reduce the requirement of reinforcing steel, and thus making it a more suitable material for 3D printing of complex structural shapes. To test this hypothesis, a total of 144 concrete cubes and cylinders were made with the cement substituted by epoxy resin at the levels from 0 to 30% with 10% increments. The mechanical properties of these samples were measured after 3, 7, and 28 days. For lower values of cement replacement with epoxy, both the compressive and the tensile strength were reduced. However, when the epoxy proportion was increased, a positive change was noticed in the mechanical properties, especially the tensile strength. While the results obtained in the present study are not comprehensive, this research is a significant step towards further exploration in this area.
      PubDate: Aug 2021
       
  • Influence of Grade of Parent Concrete on Recycled Aggregate Concrete Made
           with Pozzolanic Materials

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5  Usha Annaluru   Malasani Potharaju   and Kode Venkata Ramesh   Reducing, recycling and reuse is becoming a world renowned proverb nowadays. The waste from construction industry is increasing day by day. Two major kinds of waste produced from construction industry are concrete waste and brick waste. The concrete waste produced from different buildings will have different strengths. The purpose of this study is to look into the reuse of concrete waste collected from various buildings in the production of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC). RAC 30 is produced by replacing the natural aggregates with recycled aggregates (RA) derived from granite aggregate concretes GAC30 (RA30), GAC35 (RA35) and GAC40 (RA40) grades of parent concrete. In order to produce sustainable concrete, pozzolanic materials such as fly ash (FA) and silica fume (SF) are used in conjunction with cement at a rate of 20% and 10% respectively, in addition to cement. The influence of strength of different grades of parent concrete (GAC) on production of RAC of grade 30 (RAC 30) is studied. The experimental results show that RA derived from parent concrete grades GAC30 (RA 30) can be substituted fully in place of normal aggregate. The use of 20% FA and 10% SF in place of cement also contributed to the enhanced compressive strength, leading to sustainable concrete in field of architectural construction.
      PubDate: Aug 2021
       
  • Bases of Increasing Operational Characteristics of the Equipment for
           Cement Production

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5  A. N. Sekisov   G. V. Serga   D. A. Gura   I. G. Vyrodova   and V. P. Danko   To reduce the size and weight, increase productivity, simplify operation, reduce energy consumption in the cement production, the body is screwed and mounted horizontally. The technical solutions protected by patents of the Russian Federation are offered. Designs of body of the rotating furnaces, which, in comparison with known designs of similar purpose, are executed screw with internal screw surfaces, are shown. Technologies of assembly of screw bodies for single and serial production are offered. Over the past ten years, we have not only proposed design solutions to solve this problem, but also offered the opportunity to implement them into production. The development of technology of assembly of the screw body of rotary screw systems is presented in the article. Studies aimed to optimize the design parameters of the number of curved surfaces of the rotary kiln body are of particular scientific and practical importance. At the same time, the features of the proposed screw bodies include: (1) the area and shape of the cross-section of the screw bodies are different along the entire length from loading to unloading, which changes the speed and trajectory of the particles of the raw cement mass, expands the technological capabilities, increases productivity; (2) the design of the screw bodies allows providing for consistent discharge of raw cement mass particle flows during the transition from one section to the next as the flows move from the cold end of the furnace to the hot end, increase productivity and expand technological capabilities; (3) due to the mutually directed broken and smooth helical lines, the velocity vectors of the particles of the raw cement mass during transportation from loading to unloading change, which expands the technological capabilities; (4) along the inner perimeter of the screw bodies, broken or smooth screw surfaces are formed along their entire length, which provides a violation of the stationarity of the particle flows of the raw cement mass, increasing productivity and expanding technological capabilities.
      PubDate: Aug 2021
       
  • Effectiveness of Rice Straw Fiber as Land Cover for Soil Erosion Control

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5  Abdul Rivai Suleman   Sugiarto Badaruddin   Zulvyah Faisal   and Muhammad Taufik Iqbal   For the first time, this experimental research analyzed the efficacy of rice straw fiber as soil cover in controlling slope erosion using a physical model. Three variations of rainfall intensity, soil slope degree, and rice straw fiber were conducted in this research. The results showed that rice straw fiber in the physical model had reduced the amount of erosion significantly. In general, a higher erosion rate was obtained with the increases of rainfall intensity and soil slope degree. The experiment was conducted with the percentage 30%, 60%, and 90% of soil cover using rice fiber straw, reducing erosion rates by 92.09%, 95.55%, and 98.21 %, respectively. Therefore, the higher the percentage of rice straw fiber used as soil cover, the smaller the ground will be affected by erosion. The ratio from the soil affected by erosion was 7.91%, 4.45%, and 1.79%, respectively. The result reveals that there is a significant decrease in erosion due to the increase of fiber used in the experiments. Meanwhile, the amount of erosion in the physical model without soil cover was 98.21% for the same rainfall severity and soil slope degree. This research showed that the application of rice straw fiber as a soil surface shield is highly effective in controlling slope erosion.
      PubDate: Aug 2021
       
  • Analysis of Time Efficiency with CCPM Method and BIM in Construction
           Projects Construction of High-Rise Residential Building Basement

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  9  Number  5  Truman Sinaga   and Albert Eddy Husin   Development in Indonesia is experiencing a rapid increase, a lot of vacant land is used by investors to construct buildings. The implementation of the construction must pay attention to the project schedule, work delays often occur. The factors that cause work delays are usually from weather disturbances, delivery and supplies of materials and tools that are not in accordance with the plan, changes in design and other external, internal factors. For this reason, this study will discuss about controlling project time using the critical chain project management (CCPM) method and 4D building information modeling in high-rise residential building projects, especially in 5-layer basement work. The critical chain project management method eliminates safe time and replaces buffer time. Adding buffer time using the cut and paste method, namely adding a project buffer half the duration of the critical chain (critical chain) at the end of the chain and placing the feeding buffer with half the activity duration to activities on the non-critical chain. Delays in the construction of a 5-layer basement usually include changes in the level of soil surface conditions, the stability of the excavated soil during the secant pile excavation period as a retaining wall as deep as -17,350 m below the ground level. The results of this study can optimize the duration of the implementation with the final completion time of the structural work faster than 432 working days to 293 work days of implementation so that the time efficiency is 32,17%.
      PubDate: Aug 2021
       
  • The Similarity in Orientation for Ancient Construction at Mesoamerica and
           Three World Cases

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volu