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URBAN DESIGN International
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.48
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 12  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1357-5317 - ISSN (Online) 1468-4519
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Squandering the territorial capital in the Balkans' Urban megaprojects
           between global trends and local incentives

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      Abstract: Abstract Throughout its history, but also squeezed between the current challenges of globalisation and sovereignty, the Balkans has been confronted with a number of different political, economic, environmental, and cultural problems. Such a complex social framework inevitably implies spatial degradation, not only in terms of the urban forms as the final planning product, but also in terms of the nature of the planning process and urban governance. Notably, we assume that territorial capital in the Balkans is under serious threat due to the abuse of legal procedures, the neglect of the public interest and the politicisation of planning. To elucidate this, we focus on the megaprojects Belgrade Waterfront (Belgrade) and Hellinikon (Athens) as examples of urban development that require exceptional conditions such as special regulations, additional funding, long-term timeframes, and ad hoc actor networks. Against the conceptual background of multi-level governance and based on in-depth case studies, we examine the nature of vertical cooperation between authorities at different levels (from supranational to local), horizontal cooperation amongst different stakeholders, and the role of planning professionals who are seen as facilitators in this process. Finally, we point out to the most important conditions that enable a democratic social, political and professional framework for urban megaprojects.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • 99FILES, OPERATIVE ATLAS_devices for the contemporary Balkan City

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      Abstract: Abstract In the recent architectural debate, there has been a renewed interest on the topic of brutalist architecture as a sign for a search of a different point of view and a necessity of filling the void in the architectural historiography. Striving to go beyond the conventional opinions on Brutalism, the two researchers presented in this paper are collocated in this context: 99FILES project, an open international call, promoted by the research Laboratory Landscape_inProgress, and OPERATIVE ATLAS of 15 case studies from Skopje. Both of the projects intend to become a device for re-thinking of Brutalism as well as to develop a reflection from which to learn how to deepen into the knowledge of the architectural production of the 60s and the 70s. This different vision becomes fundamental for Skopje, where the architectural and cultural heritage, built after the earthquake in 1963, has always been marginalized and is now in danger to be erased. By overcoming the ideological barriers, it is possible to re-read other modernities that have characterized the Balkan architecture, and reassign what is now perceived as an unloved heritage (Mrduljaš, M., Kulić, V. 2012), a familiarity in the urban physiognomy.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • The emerging community planning in the super-blocks of New Belgrade

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      Abstract: Abstract The development of New Belgrade, initiated in the post-war period, was based on the Modernist concept of urban structure. The planned central zone was never built, but the local community places, as urban hubs for meeting and gathering, have been developed within the initially conceived open public spaces. Considering their importance for establishing and strengthening local communities, the article focuses on the development tendencies detected in emerging urban hubs of the residential Blocks 37 and 38. Unlike many other blocks of New Belgrade, which have been exposed to drastic changes of their original Modernist structure, their authentic setting have remained mostly intact since their construction in the 1970s. Therefore, they are selected as the examples of a new process of community planning which has followed the activities of place making. Triggered both by the changed patterns of use and the specificities of original spatial features, these changes also influence the local neighborhood while shifting the perception of the previously neglected open public spaces. The emerging hubs are analyzed on the level of networks, configuration and places, providing an insight into ongoing transformation of both the space and the local community.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Byzantine revival as national style in Croatian architecture
           1910–1945

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      Abstract: Abstract While the Neo-Byzantine style was in 19th-century architecture in Croatia exclusively used for architectural projects funded by the Serbian Orthodox Church, in the period shortly before the WWI, it also started to be used in the architecture of the Catholic Church. The crucial role in spreading the use of the style was played by the pioneer of Croatian modernist architecture Viktor Kovačić and his design for St Blasius’ Church in Zagreb (1910–1913). Neo-Byzantine appeared primary due to ideological and political reasons, because it served as a reference to the period of Croatian political independence in the early Middle Ages. Croatia was then a province within the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy that was striving for greater autonomy or even independence. During the 1920s the Neo-Byzantine style emerged again in Croatian church architecture, primarily owing to architect Stjepan Podhorsky who applied the style in his numerous church building designs, including the large memorial church in Duvno (present Tomislavgrad in Bosnia-Herzegovina). The church was built in relation to the millennial celebration of the Croatian kingdom (925–1925), sponsored by the Karađorđević dynasty of the newly formed state of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes/Kingdom of Yugoslavia, that Croatia became part of in 1918.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Narrative spatial analytics (NSA) in urban landscape research and design

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      Abstract: Abstract This research investigates the condition of unbuilt spaces in urban areas that reside in the interim between previous use and not-yet-decided new development. These unbuilt spaces are considered as valuable in the context of urban landscape. In order to acknowledge the character and quality of unbuilt spaces, design and planning procedures need to incorporate new interpretative techniques. The proposed NSA method integrates three research-by-design techniques that enable landscape researchers/designers to broaden the scope of disciplinary research practice. The conducted research is interdisciplinary and stands in the intersection of two research fields in the context of scale—urban planning and architectural design. The aim of this research is to propose the new methodological apparatus, which offers a holistic view on the notion of territory in regard to the notion of scale. The analysis takes the position that small-scale architectural design procedures and methods also apply to the scale of the landscape—territory. The proposed method—Narrative Spatial Analytics (NSA)—is based on simultaneous design procedures in opposing scales, assuming the overall significance of simultaneous understanding of the territory and the site.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Resilient university campus in the city in COVID and post-COVID
           era—recommendations, guidelines, and evidence from research in Italy and
           Poland

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      Abstract: Abstract The pandemic ‘stay at home’ obligations turned our homes from a place to live to a place to live, work, entertain ourselves and to study. Since March 2020, confinement has had a permanent impact on students’ perception of studying and on academic lifestyle. Most universities continue teaching online, and most academic facilities, such as lecture and seminar halls, student halls, and dormitories, have been abandoned. Some of them form vast areas in cities that play a major role in the urban structure. The authors have examined the degree and way of occupation of the academic infrastructure before and in time of the pandemic. Evidence and data have been gathered from different universities in Poland and Italy. From their origins, academic campuses can be considered autonomous communities within or on the city limits. In a post-pandemic perspective, the evidence shows that the growing population of students does not mean campus development and that the campuses that have shown the greatest resilience are “open” campuses which are able to share, integrate, and exchange their spaces and facilities with those of the city. The authors conclude that the pandemic will have an impact on the future urban form of academic facilities.
      PubDate: 2022-11-16
       
  • Correction: Reshaping approaches of architectural heritage devastated
           through bombing: case study of Generalštab, Belgrade

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      PubDate: 2022-11-07
       
  • Single-family courtyard houses in Poland: conditions and perspectives for
           development based on the example of Krakow

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      Abstract: Abstract Single-family courtyard houses, with spaces oriented towards an internal, private patio, became popular in Western Europe in the 1960s and 1970s. In Poland, courtyard developments are infrequent and were mostly built in the 1970s and 1980s. This study aims to improve our understanding of their low popularity. Poles seem to prefer traditional housing solutions, clearly favouring detached houses, considered to provide the most comfort, privacy, and safety. More than half of the country’s population lives in such buildings, considerably more than the European average. This study suggests that planning conditions along with land registry patterns are fundamental barriers to the development of courtyard housing. In practice, they eliminate the potential for building new complexes of this type. In a broader context, planning conditions reinforce the dominance of traditional, less dense forms of single-family development, primarily those of detached development. This paper posits that there are no favourable conditions for new courtyard housing developments if they are to be based on market fundamentals. Courtyard housing could, however, as in the period of its inception and popularity, become part of an extensive housing experiment, for instance, in national or regional pilot projects, and contribute to animation and progression in housing development.
      PubDate: 2022-11-06
       
  • Microenvironments: towards a socio-spatial understanding of territorial
           expression for urban design

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper aims to develop a concept of microenvironments building from research focused on the territorial perceptions of people with learning disabilities. The research highlighted the communicative and interactive significance of an innate territorial awareness in people to distinguish between what is understood as mine, yours, theirs and ours (MYTO). This is found to share aspects of commonality with socio-spatial concepts in urban design discourse, whilst also offering an accessible and inclusive means to communicate territorial experiences in ways that can overcome exclusivity often associated with specialist terminology. MYTO contributes to this wider arena of discourse by providing foundations for developing a concept of microenvironments through integration of social, spatial and material dimensions of human–environment interaction. The microenvironments concept enables the collective sense of MYTO to mediate and attribute territorial significance to particular forms of social and spatial relationship furthering understanding of small-scale human–environment interactions in ways relevant to urban design theory and practice.
      PubDate: 2022-11-02
       
  • Multidimensional analyses of walkability in city centres by using mobile
           methodologies: Beşiktaş and Delft experiences

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      Abstract: Abstract This study is seeking an answer to the main research question of how the walkability of urban space can be analysed with a multidimensional approach considering spatial, phenomenological and perception dimensions. “Mobile Methodologies” has been the base of this research and within this scope, “Go-Along” walks with participants were conducted in the city centres of Beşiktaş of Istanbul, Turkey, and Delft of Netherlands as part of case studies. Based on the urban comparable studies approach, spatial and temporal comparisons of the city centres of Beşiktaş and Delft were made by using “replication logic”. Within the framework of this research, walkability studies in the literature were studied and six indicators as security, traffic safety, accessibility, comfort, pleasure and mixed-use were identified. These main indicators were used in the evaluation phase of case studies. According to the findings, it was concluded that walkability should be studied with a multidimensional approach and a relational perspective. In addition to this major conclusion, the necessity to use mobile methods for walkability analyses was described as the second significant result of the study.
      PubDate: 2022-10-26
       
  • Extracting a local pattern language: a case study of Khartoum’s City
           Centre

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper conceptualises a method for exploring existing places and their architecture. Khartoum’s city centre (KCC), Sudan, has been selected as a case study for this exploration. The research adopts the Pattern Language Theory as a theoretical tool to extract KCC’s existing local pattern language. Thereafter, it suggests an empirical way to evaluate this pattern language by adding the role of the place users in interpreting it based on their experiences. This has been conducted through participatory focus group discussions with different categories of participants through which it was possible to evaluate, classify and prioritise the extracted patterns. The findings of this paper are threefold. Firstly, extracting a place’s local pattern language, coupled with meanings that place users perceive about these patterns, that conveys a deep and systematic understanding of the place’s character. Secondly, this finding contributes theoretically to the Pattern Language Theory by emphasising the potential of each place’s local pattern language compared to the allegedly universal one. Thirdly, the proposed empirical pattern-based and participatory method of analysis of a place promises to help architects, planners and urban designers in shaping future built environments.
      PubDate: 2022-10-21
       
  • Introduction to the UDI special issue—Reflections on Balkan urbanism

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      PubDate: 2022-10-20
       
  • Mapping a framework for social–ecological resilience in reimaging of
           abandoned spaces

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      Abstract: Abstract Vacant spaces present affluent areas for the urban landscape. Considering these spaces from a resilience perspective is an effective strategy. This research seeks to assist decision-makers in assessing landscape resilience and drawing on landscape selection process requirements for changes. The current research investigates the review of previous studies and develops a contextual relationship-based model to analyze critical aspects through experts' opinions. The investigation approach was inspired by interpretive structural modeling (ISM) and MICMAC software. MICMAC analysis considered the direct and possible relationships of variables in the future, while the ISM technique discovered the hierarchy of these variables and their relationship with the main areas. Flexibility has the most effectiveness, while Activity has been affected by the most properties. Furthermore, even though it is significant, urban systems lose their flexibility and adaptability in the long run by focusing entirely on engineering measures.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Digital intervention in the city: a conceptual framework for digital
           placemaking

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      Abstract: Abstract From the early 2000s onwards, the emergence of digital technology and social media has motived to a questioning of the value of public space, as the relevance of physical places is eroded in the digital age. In recent years, the development of concepts such as media architecture, digital placemaking and the playable city has reignited interest in physical places and opened a discussion about the future, harmonious symbiosis amid the public space and virtual space. Plenty of digital placemaking interventions in public spaces proves how digital interventions can have significant potential for future urban design. Currently, literature on placemaking and human–computer interaction (HCI) showcases the need for a new interdisciplinary approach to evaluate how digital and mobile technologies can be used to enhance the sense of place in a locale. This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate digital placemaking, supporting the review of basic attributes of public spaces and the potential of mobile technologies in augmenting places. Further, it reveals how digital placemaking provides an opportunity to generate tension and meaning.
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
       
  • Correction to: Measuring age-friendliness based on the walkability
           indices of older people to urban facilities

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      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.1057/s41289-022-00201-0
       
  • Commentary: beauty in urban design - oppression or
           emancipation'

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      Abstract: Abstract In this commentary, I respond to Cozzolino’s (URBAN Des Int 27(1):43–52, 2022) recent paper titled ‘On the spontaneous beauty of cities: neither design nor chaos’ published in URBAN DESIGN International. In the last few years, the concept of beauty has been used widely in urban planning and design. Cozzolino’s notable contribution is a call for more diverse processes of creating grown/spontaneous order in planning and designing cities. He proposes this as a definition of beauty that can enable people to better express themselves. Here, I use debates from cultural studies to situate the notion of beauty within a broader critical context. Reasons why urban design research must take into consideration the ways in which beauty disproportionately affects different groups of people (particularly marginalised groups) are then explained. The aim is to highlight the potential discriminatory consequences of seemingly apolitical approaches taken to create beauty. This is in line with broader movements of the decolonisation of knowledge.
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
      DOI: 10.1057/s41289-022-00202-z
       
  • Following the process: unfolding how form-based code—as a travelling
           concept—has been adapted within the social, cultural, and architectural
           context of Riyadh

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      Abstract: Abstract The urban form of cities plays a key role in achieving high-quality urban environments. Recently, Form-Based Code has been gaining popularity and has become a travelling and universal concept. This paper explores the adaptability of FBC as a universal concept to the local socio-cultural context by analysing the Wadi Hanifa Urban Code. Three methods were used to triangulate the sources of data include review of policy documents, semi-structured interviews, and thematic analysis. This paper identifies four key socio-cultural factors that play a significant role in urban and social context of Riyadh: privacy, safety and security, sociability, and architectural character. They play a key role in forming the code at multiple layers, including the transect zoning, regulating plan, and code standards. The process of drafting the code was conducted through a top-down approach with no ‘public engagement’ process, which represents the planning culture and practices in Saudi Arabia. Hence, the adaptation of FBC to the socio-cultural context relied on municipal stakeholders’ and experts’ opinions during workshops and charrettes. However, the paper shows that a hybrid approach to seek public feedback was practiced through the Code Studio, which functioned as a testing phase at a later stage of the code development.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41289-021-00163-9
       
  • A typological approach to maintain character in historic urban areas

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      Abstract: Abstract The typological approach has been used as a method to study urban forms and their change through time. Despite its wide use for theoretical analysis in the western world, empirical applications of typological approach are still limited for both developed and developing countries. In Cairo, several historic areas have been under pressures of drastic change. Through consultation of archival documents and field-based cartographic surveys, this paper illustrates a typological analysis of Bulaq Abul-Ela, a historic port-quarter of Cairo. Findings reveal a stratification of types over time, and highlight drastic changes threatening the urban character of Bulaq Abul-Ela’s historic core. The study shows that the dialectic of continuity and change between old and new types is missing, and supports the argument that typological applications can be used to inform development control regulations so that new built forms adapt to aspirations and changing demands of communities while retaining much-valued character of the context.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41289-022-00181-1
       
  • Assessing walkability in hot arid regions: the case of downtown Abu Dhabi

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      Abstract: Abstract Regarded as critical infrastructure for a city’s planning and design, pedestrian facilities are considered to be crucial to the health and economic well-being of a city’s inhabitants. This study assesses the walkable environment of two urban neighborhoods in Abu Dhabi’s main island. The research aims at providing the primary data required to facilitate the development of policies, design strategies, and systems that will support sustainable walking environments throughout the Emirate. Specifically, the study examines the walking behavior of the users of two neighborhoods in Abu Dhabi. The following questions were explored: (1) What patterns of walking behavior are observable in the street, and what are their diurnal and seasonal rhythms' (2) What potential reasons could explain the observed walking behavior' (3) To what extent do the built environment and climate affect walking in Abu Dhabi' (4) What particular strategies could be adopted to encourage walking in Abu Dhabi' Data collection and analysis tools include the following: (1) Geographic Information Systems (GIS), (2) fieldwork, and (3) qualitative data assembled from a survey questionnaire. Survey results presented walking as a widely used form of non-motorized transportation for both leisure and utilitarian purposes among blue-collar employees working in the service and retail sectors. Transportation, entertainment, physical fitness, and health were reported as major reasons for walking. Although participants’ walking patterns were not significantly affected by climate, respondents reported that weather was the main source of discomfort while walking. Policy and design changes, infrastructure enhancement, and potential shading methods are proposed to enhance the walking experience.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41289-021-00150-0
       
  • Social and cultural transformation of urban form: some insights from the
           MENA region

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      PubDate: 2022-08-06
      DOI: 10.1057/s41289-022-00198-6
       
 
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