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  Subjects -> MILITARY (Total: 106 journals)
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Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1533-9440
Published by James Madison University Homepage  [5 journals]
  • Reviving Old Mosul: 3D Modeling Aids Safe Clearance in Iraq

    • Authors: Erin Atkinson et al.
      Abstract: Under the 2014–2017 Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) occupation, the Old City of Mosul, Iraq, served as a headquarters for the self-proclaimed caliphate. ISIS produced, stored, and transited money, modern munitions, weapons, and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) through the city's ancient stone streets. To approach the immense and technically challenging task of clearing the Old City efficiently, effectively, and safely—without compromising the city's rich cultural history—Tetra Tech created a 3D model using aerial photogrammetry to quantify and visualize the scope and scale of the project.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Oct 2023 06:35:14 PDT
       
  • Reviving Old Mosul: 3D Modeling Aids Safe Clearance in Iraq

    • Authors: Erin Atkinson et al.
      Abstract: Under the 2014–2017 Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) occupation, the Old City of Mosul, Iraq, served as a headquarters for the self-proclaimed caliphate. ISIS produced, stored, and transited money, modern munitions, weapons, and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) through the city's ancient stone streets. To approach the immense and technically challenging task of clearing the Old City efficiently, effectively, and safely—without compromising the city's rich cultural history—Tetra Tech created a 3D model using aerial photogrammetry to quantify and visualize the scope and scale of the project.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Oct 2023 06:35:14 PDT
       
  • Department of State's Quick Reaction Force: Twenty-Three Years of
           Service

    • Authors: Charlie Holloway
      Abstract: For the past twenty-three years, the United States has provided rapid responses to landmine and munitions/explosives related emergencies in some of the most vulnerable populations around the world. Initiated with a group from Mozambique, the Quick Reaction Demining Force (QRDF) was designed by the U.S. Department of State to rapidly respond to landmine emergencies. Presently, its response capacity has expanded to include experts in battle area clearance (BAC) and physical security and stockpile management (PSSM). These professionals volunteer for deployments on short notice to address emergencies globally. The Department of State Quick Reaction Force (QRF), managed by the Political/Military Bureau Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement (PM/WRA), provides an effective capability to respond in forty-eight hours to any type of request for assistance.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Oct 2023 06:35:09 PDT
       
  • MAG Emergency Response: Digital Explosive Ordnance Risk Education in
           Somalia

    • Authors: Robin Toal
      Abstract: On 9 June 2023, a tragic accident involving unexploded ordnance (UXO) in Qoryoley town in the Lower Shabelle region of Somalia claimed the lives of twenty-seven civilians, including twenty-two children, and left fifty-three others injured. The tragedy was caused when several young children discovered a mortar round on the ground in an open playing field that they started to play with and consequently exploded. In response to the accident, Mines Advisory Group (MAG) mobilized both headquarters and Somalia based staff to develop a rapid response digital explosive ordnance risk education campaign (DEORE) using paid adverts targeting Meta (Facebook & Instagram) users in the Lower Shabelle administrative region. The ads displayed messages reminding civilians of the threat of UXO and how to stay safe.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Oct 2023 06:35:04 PDT
       
  • Mine Action in Lebanon: Innovation, Learning, and Finishing the Job

    • Authors: Mark Wilkinson PhD
      Abstract: Lebanon is a country that has been severely affected by landmines, cluster bombs, and other explosive remnants of war (ERW) through decades of war and civil war. In many cases these legacies of war remain today, intertwined with the complex geopolitics of the region. Yet Lebanon is also a country that exemplifies excellence in mine action—from the strategic to the operational level.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Oct 2023 06:35:00 PDT
       
  • Ammunition Identification Guide for Ukraine: A Collaborative Project
           Amidst War

    • Authors: Lieutenant Perederii et al.
      Abstract: To deal with such a large number of diverse munitions, the US-based nongovernmental organization (NGO) Bomb Techs Without Borders (BTWOB),[1] has co-published the Basic Identification of Ammunition in Ukraine[2] (https://ukr.bulletpicker.com/id-guides.html), which is in its fourth version and is available in Ukrainian and English. Initially, the guide was exclusively available in Ukrainian to cater to the target audience—Ukrainian security services, sappers, and EOD personnel. However, an English version of the 3.0 edition was subsequently published on 22 March 2023.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Oct 2023 06:34:55 PDT
       
  • Integrated Cooperation in Implementing Firearm Deactivation Capabilities:
           Bosnia and Herzegovina

    • Authors: Colonel Geir P. Novik
      Abstract: Many of the illegal firearms used for terrorist and criminal activities throughout Europe originate from the Balkan region and have previously been legally exported and sold as deactivated firearms. However, due to variations in the quality of deactivation standards and verification processes, many deactivated firearms can easily be reactivated into fully functional military weapons. To prevent the illegal reactivation of additional weapons, new guidelines regarding deactivation standards and techniques have been introduced, thus ensuring that deactivated firearms are rendered irreversibly inoperable. Within the framework of the European Union Force Bosnia and Herzegovina (EUFOR), a training program regarding the deactivation of firearms has been developed and implemented by the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (AFBiH).
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Oct 2023 06:34:50 PDT
       
  • Empowering Host Nation Counter-IED and Counter-Insurgency Efforts:
           Innovative Application of Ordnance Recycling

    • Authors: Lynna Banach et al.
      Abstract: As the United States works to grow its defense partnership with the Philippines, the country continues to fight instability and insecurity amidst a lengthy battle against insurgent and terrorist groups.[i],[ii],[iii] As the overlap between urban areas and conflict zones increases, and with violent groups’ use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) against government forces, the danger to civilians escalates.[iv] This paper provides a deeper understanding of how the prevalence of unexploded ordnance (UXO) and the use of IEDs in the Philippines fuel the realities of insurgency and humanitarian danger in the country. Furthermore, using Golden West Humanitarian Foundation’s (GWHF) program in Cambodia as a framework, this paper examines how the innovative application of GWHF’s ordnance recycling technology in the Philippines would impact the host nation’s ability to counter the enduring challenges posed by insurgency groups use of UXO and IEDs. Employing GWHF’s technology in a way that uses deteriorating ordnance stockpiles, surplus ordnance, and explosive remnants of war (ERW) to produce water disruptors for use as a successful, efficient, and affordable method of handling explosive hazards offers a unique approach to supporting the Philippines in its counterinsurgency battle.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Oct 2023 06:34:46 PDT
       
  • An Accessible Seeded Field for Humanitarian Mine Action Research

    • Authors: Jasper Baur et al.
      Abstract: The detection of buried and surface explosive remnants of war (ERW) is a critical task in the land release process.[1] The goal of this project is to create a long-term study site and benchmark to accelerate humanitarian mine action (HMA) research for the detection of buried ERW, including unexploded ordnance (UXO), landmines, and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). A crucial step in transitioning experimental detection techniques from the lab to the field is conducting rigorous field testing in a realistic and safe environment.[2],[3],[4] With most academic institutions lacking access to stockpiles of inert ERW to conduct testing and prioritizing scientific publications over real-world field applicability, this step is too often neglected. The result is that most HMA studies lack sufficient benchmarking among detection variables such as depth of burial, size and diversity of ERW, and environmental context, making it nearly impossible to objectively compare the effectiveness of different instruments and sensors. Consequently, the humanitarian demining community is less willing to accept novel methods and instead relies largely on traditional approaches. To address this issue, the Demining Research Community, (a US-based non-profit organization whose mission is to advance the field of HMA though bridging academic research in accordance with demining organizations), in partnership with the Global Consortium for Explosive Hazard Mitigation at Oklahoma State University (OSU), have seeded a comprehensive field with 143 diverse items including landmines, submunitions, UXO, and IEDs located at OSU’s Center for Fire and Explosives, Forensic Investigation, Training and Research (CENFEX) range in Pawnee, Oklahoma.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Oct 2023 06:34:41 PDT
       
  • The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

    • Authors: CISR JMU
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Oct 2023 06:34:36 PDT
       
  • Computer Vision Detection of Explosive Ordnance: A High-Performance
           9N235/9N210 Cluster Submunition Detector

    • Authors: Adam Harvey et al.
      Abstract: The detection of explosive ordnance (EO) objects is experiencing a period of innovation driven by the convergence of new technologies including artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning, open-source intelligence (OSINT) processing, and remote mobility capabilities such as drones and robotics.1 Advances are being made on at least two tracks: in the automated searching of photographic image archives, and in the real-time detection of objects in the field.2 Different technologies are responsive to different types of EO detection challenges, such as objects that are buried, semi-buried, or partially damaged. Computer vision—a type of artificial intelligence (AI) that enables computers and systems to derive meaningful information from digital images, videos, and other visual inputs, and take actions or make recommendations based on that information—is a promising AI technology that can greatly enhance humanitarian mine action (HMA), as well as support evidentiary documentation of the use of EO that are prohibited under international humanitarian law. This article describes a computer vision algorithm creation workflow developed to automate the detection of the 9N235/9N210 cluster submunition, a heavily deployed munition in the Ukraine conflict. The six-step process described here incorporates photography, photogrammetry, 3D-rendering, 3D-printing, and deep convolutional neural networks.3 The resulting high-performance detector can be deployed for searching and filtering images generated as part of OSINT investigations and soon, for real-time field detection objectives.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2023 13:12:17 PDT
       
  • Land-Grabbing, Tribal Conflict, and Settler-Nomad Disputes: Land Rights in
           Mine Action

    • Authors: Nicholas Ross
      Abstract: Mine action is intrinsically linked to land rights. While mine action creates multi-dimensional positive humanitarian and development impacts, clearance of explosive ordnance (EO) and land release can lead to competition, contestation, and potential conflict over that land. Settled farmers lay claim and block access to lands which nomadic pastoralists traverse or use for grazing. Local strongmen grab and confiscate land. Families returning from displacement find their ancestral lands seized. And governments and citizens may have very different ideas about who should own lands close to communities which, following EO clearance, are now more productive, where resources are more accessible, and with land that has increased value. This is especially the case where land ownership systems, including documentation and enforcement, are not fully transparent. Since mine action often takes place in conflict or post-conflict areas, these factors are heightened further, with a breakdown in clear and just land rights and tenure. The major objective of this article is to help mine action stakeholders identify different land dispute risks and outline key strategies to mitigate those risks. Key strategies include 1) broad and inclusive consultation; 2) centering the principle of do no harm;1 3) employing the lens of conflict sensitivity; 4) linking with the Housing, Land, and Property (HLP) space;2 and 5) exploring the opposing effect of how mine action can help alleviate social tensions through land release. Recognition and mitigation of mine action related land disputes will help curtail negative consequences of clearance while increasing positive impacts as the sector works towards a mine-free world.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2023 13:12:13 PDT
       
  • How UAV LIDAR Imaging Can Locate and Map Minefield Features: Cuito
           Cuanavale, Angola

    • Authors: Katherine James et al.
      Abstract: In this article we outline how an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) mounted light detection and ranging (Lidar) mapping system has been used for the detection and mapping of minefields in vegetated areas around Cuito Cuanavale, Angola. Work took place as part of The HALO Trust’s (HALO) research into aiding clearance of landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) using drones.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2023 13:12:08 PDT
       
  • Mine Action and South-South Cooperation: Case of JICA and CMAC

    • Authors: Hayashi Ontoku Akihito
      Abstract: South-South cooperation has been pursued across various fields of international development. However, there has been a paucity of efforts to promote South-South cooperation in mine action. Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and Cambodia Mine Action Centre (CMAC) have been at the forefront of expanding South-South and global cooperation by leveraging CMAC's extensive experience and expertise accumulated over its thirty years’ of operation. This article delves into the motives and mechanisms behind JICA’s and CMAC's joint efforts to foster this collaboration.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2023 13:12:03 PDT
       
  • Environmental Mainstreaming in Mine Action: A Case Study of Moving Beyond
           "Do No Harm"

    • Authors: Emily Chrystie
      Abstract: Interest within the mine action sector in mainstreaming environmental issues has rocketed in the past few years. The establishment of cross-sector working groups, the investigatory work of organizations such as the Conflict and Environment Observatory (CEOBS), and increased donor interest in directing funds toward environmental projects are arguably the result of broad scientific consensus on the increasingly destructive effects of anthropogenic forces on global ecosystems. The well-established concept of do no harm1 is a framework commonly applied in the broader humanitarian sector and has been put forward as directly applicable to environmental concerns within mine action.2 The concept broadly reflects current approaches of mine action organizations to mitigate and minimize direct (negative) environmental impacts of mine clearance operations. This is reflected in the current International Mine Action Standards (IMAS) on Environmental Management3 (under review), with its focus on avoiding environmental harm through the direct impacts of mine action activities, including through emissions, erosion, residual waste, and harm to wildlife and vegetation. This article posits that, while the do no harm approach remains well suited to mitigation of direct impacts of mine action activities and should continue to be applied, it is necessary to understand it as a single component within a broader framework to take full advantage of the potential for environmental mainstreaming within mine action.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2023 13:11:59 PDT
       
  • Mine Mark Digital EORE: Being Innovative as a Small NGO in the Mine Action
           Sector

    • Authors: Nils Hegel et al.
      Abstract: Children account for approximately one-third of all civilian casualties caused by unexploded ordnance (UXO), yet explosive ordnance risk education (EORE) for young people is often outdated, dry, or too technical.1 In this article, the Mine Mark Foundation outlines the promising potential for digital EORE, the challenges and opportunities faced by smaller nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and the benefits they can offer the global mine action community.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2023 13:11:54 PDT
       
  • Mine Action and Food Security: The Complexities of Clearing Ukraine's
           Agricultural Lands

    • Authors: Markus Schindler et al.
      Abstract: Over the past decade, peace has eluded Ukraine. The annexation of Crimea and a separatist insurgency—sufficiently concerning in their own right—proved to be a mere prelude to Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine in February 2022. The largest land-war that Europe has seen since the Second World War is causing immense human suffering, devastating destruction, and extensive explosive remnants of war (ERW) contamination. Mines, submunitions, and unexploded ordnance (UXO) continue to cost the lives of countless civilians and the death toll is rising by the day. Mine action organizations such as Fondation suisse de déminage (FSD) are working in Ukraine to clear these hazardous remnants of war and to prevent and mitigate their impact on Ukraine’s people and infrastructure. This article provides an overview of FSD’s operations in Ukraine, both prior to and during the war. It particularly emphasizes FSD’s work to clear Ukraine’s vital agricultural areas, highlighting the intricate link between mine action and food security. The article also underscores some of the key challenges that FSD has encountered while working in war-torn Ukraine.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2023 13:11:50 PDT
       
  • IMAS: An Overview of New and Amended Standards

    • Authors: Abigail Hartley et al.
      Abstract: New and existing International Mine Action Standards (IMAS) doctrine (including standards, technical notes for mine action, and test and evaluation protocols) are developed and regularly updated to ensure that IMAS remain fit for purpose to support mine action programs in reducing the risk of explosive ordnance (EO) to affected populations. This article provides a summary of the most recent IMAS publications to enable mine action organizations and authorities to stay up to date with the latest IMAS developments.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2023 13:11:45 PDT
       
  • The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction Issue 27.2

    • Authors: The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction
      Abstract:
      Updates on recent enhancements to IMAS.
      Food security and its connection to mine action as it applies to Ukraine.
      Digital EORE as a small NGO in mine action.
      A case study on moving beyond "do no harm" in environmental mainstreaming in mine action.
      Efforts of JICA and CMAC in fostering South-South cooperation in mine action.
      UAV Lidar imaging in mine action to detect and map minefields in Angola.
      Land disputes and rights in mine action.
      Computer vision detection of explosive ordnance.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2023 13:11:40 PDT
       
  • 27.1 Endnotes

    • PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2023 13:08:56 PST
       
 
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