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  Subjects -> MILITARY (Total: 106 journals)
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Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1533-9440
Published by James Madison University Homepage  [5 journals]
  • Computer Vision Detection of Explosive Ordnance: A High-Performance
           9N235/9N210 Cluster Submunition Detector

    • Authors: Adam Harvey et al.
      Abstract: The detection of explosive ordnance (EO) objects is experiencing a period of innovation driven by the convergence of new technologies including artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning, open-source intelligence (OSINT) processing, and remote mobility capabilities such as drones and robotics.1 Advances are being made on at least two tracks: in the automated searching of photographic image archives, and in the real-time detection of objects in the field.2 Different technologies are responsive to different types of EO detection challenges, such as objects that are buried, semi-buried, or partially damaged. Computer vision—a type of artificial intelligence (AI) that enables computers and systems to derive meaningful information from digital images, videos, and other visual inputs, and take actions or make recommendations based on that information—is a promising AI technology that can greatly enhance humanitarian mine action (HMA), as well as support evidentiary documentation of the use of EO that are prohibited under international humanitarian law. This article describes a computer vision algorithm creation workflow developed to automate the detection of the 9N235/9N210 cluster submunition, a heavily deployed munition in the Ukraine conflict. The six-step process described here incorporates photography, photogrammetry, 3D-rendering, 3D-printing, and deep convolutional neural networks.3 The resulting high-performance detector can be deployed for searching and filtering images generated as part of OSINT investigations and soon, for real-time field detection objectives.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2023 13:12:17 PDT
  • Land-Grabbing, Tribal Conflict, and Settler-Nomad Disputes: Land Rights in
           Mine Action

    • Authors: Nicholas Ross
      Abstract: Mine action is intrinsically linked to land rights. While mine action creates multi-dimensional positive humanitarian and development impacts, clearance of explosive ordnance (EO) and land release can lead to competition, contestation, and potential conflict over that land. Settled farmers lay claim and block access to lands which nomadic pastoralists traverse or use for grazing. Local strongmen grab and confiscate land. Families returning from displacement find their ancestral lands seized. And governments and citizens may have very different ideas about who should own lands close to communities which, following EO clearance, are now more productive, where resources are more accessible, and with land that has increased value. This is especially the case where land ownership systems, including documentation and enforcement, are not fully transparent. Since mine action often takes place in conflict or post-conflict areas, these factors are heightened further, with a breakdown in clear and just land rights and tenure. The major objective of this article is to help mine action stakeholders identify different land dispute risks and outline key strategies to mitigate those risks. Key strategies include 1) broad and inclusive consultation; 2) centering the principle of do no harm;1 3) employing the lens of conflict sensitivity; 4) linking with the Housing, Land, and Property (HLP) space;2 and 5) exploring the opposing effect of how mine action can help alleviate social tensions through land release. Recognition and mitigation of mine action related land disputes will help curtail negative consequences of clearance while increasing positive impacts as the sector works towards a mine-free world.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2023 13:12:13 PDT
  • How UAV LIDAR Imaging Can Locate and Map Minefield Features: Cuito
           Cuanavale, Angola

    • Authors: Katherine James et al.
      Abstract: In this article we outline how an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) mounted light detection and ranging (Lidar) mapping system has been used for the detection and mapping of minefields in vegetated areas around Cuito Cuanavale, Angola. Work took place as part of The HALO Trust’s (HALO) research into aiding clearance of landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) using drones.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2023 13:12:08 PDT
  • Mine Action and South-South Cooperation: Case of JICA and CMAC

    • Authors: Hayashi Ontoku Akihito
      Abstract: South-South cooperation has been pursued across various fields of international development. However, there has been a paucity of efforts to promote South-South cooperation in mine action. Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and Cambodia Mine Action Centre (CMAC) have been at the forefront of expanding South-South and global cooperation by leveraging CMAC's extensive experience and expertise accumulated over its thirty years’ of operation. This article delves into the motives and mechanisms behind JICA’s and CMAC's joint efforts to foster this collaboration.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2023 13:12:03 PDT
  • Environmental Mainstreaming in Mine Action: A Case Study of Moving Beyond
           "Do No Harm"

    • Authors: Emily Chrystie
      Abstract: Interest within the mine action sector in mainstreaming environmental issues has rocketed in the past few years. The establishment of cross-sector working groups, the investigatory work of organizations such as the Conflict and Environment Observatory (CEOBS), and increased donor interest in directing funds toward environmental projects are arguably the result of broad scientific consensus on the increasingly destructive effects of anthropogenic forces on global ecosystems. The well-established concept of do no harm1 is a framework commonly applied in the broader humanitarian sector and has been put forward as directly applicable to environmental concerns within mine action.2 The concept broadly reflects current approaches of mine action organizations to mitigate and minimize direct (negative) environmental impacts of mine clearance operations. This is reflected in the current International Mine Action Standards (IMAS) on Environmental Management3 (under review), with its focus on avoiding environmental harm through the direct impacts of mine action activities, including through emissions, erosion, residual waste, and harm to wildlife and vegetation. This article posits that, while the do no harm approach remains well suited to mitigation of direct impacts of mine action activities and should continue to be applied, it is necessary to understand it as a single component within a broader framework to take full advantage of the potential for environmental mainstreaming within mine action.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2023 13:11:59 PDT
  • Mine Mark Digital EORE: Being Innovative as a Small NGO in the Mine Action

    • Authors: Nils Hegel et al.
      Abstract: Children account for approximately one-third of all civilian casualties caused by unexploded ordnance (UXO), yet explosive ordnance risk education (EORE) for young people is often outdated, dry, or too technical.1 In this article, the Mine Mark Foundation outlines the promising potential for digital EORE, the challenges and opportunities faced by smaller nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and the benefits they can offer the global mine action community.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2023 13:11:54 PDT
  • Mine Action and Food Security: The Complexities of Clearing Ukraine's
           Agricultural Lands

    • Authors: Markus Schindler et al.
      Abstract: Over the past decade, peace has eluded Ukraine. The annexation of Crimea and a separatist insurgency—sufficiently concerning in their own right—proved to be a mere prelude to Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine in February 2022. The largest land-war that Europe has seen since the Second World War is causing immense human suffering, devastating destruction, and extensive explosive remnants of war (ERW) contamination. Mines, submunitions, and unexploded ordnance (UXO) continue to cost the lives of countless civilians and the death toll is rising by the day. Mine action organizations such as Fondation suisse de déminage (FSD) are working in Ukraine to clear these hazardous remnants of war and to prevent and mitigate their impact on Ukraine’s people and infrastructure. This article provides an overview of FSD’s operations in Ukraine, both prior to and during the war. It particularly emphasizes FSD’s work to clear Ukraine’s vital agricultural areas, highlighting the intricate link between mine action and food security. The article also underscores some of the key challenges that FSD has encountered while working in war-torn Ukraine.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2023 13:11:50 PDT
  • IMAS: An Overview of New and Amended Standards

    • Authors: Abigail Hartley et al.
      Abstract: New and existing International Mine Action Standards (IMAS) doctrine (including standards, technical notes for mine action, and test and evaluation protocols) are developed and regularly updated to ensure that IMAS remain fit for purpose to support mine action programs in reducing the risk of explosive ordnance (EO) to affected populations. This article provides a summary of the most recent IMAS publications to enable mine action organizations and authorities to stay up to date with the latest IMAS developments.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2023 13:11:45 PDT
  • The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction Issue 27.2

    • Authors: The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction
      Updates on recent enhancements to IMAS.
      Food security and its connection to mine action as it applies to Ukraine.
      Digital EORE as a small NGO in mine action.
      A case study on moving beyond "do no harm" in environmental mainstreaming in mine action.
      Efforts of JICA and CMAC in fostering South-South cooperation in mine action.
      UAV Lidar imaging in mine action to detect and map minefields in Angola.
      Land disputes and rights in mine action.
      Computer vision detection of explosive ordnance.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2023 13:11:40 PDT
  • 27.1 Endnotes

    • PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2023 13:08:56 PST
  • The Road Ahead: Clearance Toward Sustainability in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    • Authors: Sean Sutton
      Abstract: The 1992-1995 Yugoslav wars resulted in landmines and explosive remnants of war that continue to contaminate the Balkans. In 2021—over 25 years after the end of the wars—the Landmine & Cluster Munition Monitor considered Bosnia and Herzegovina to be the most explosive ordnance-contaminated country in Europe, and characterized the landmine contamination alone as "massive." As of March 2022, The Landmine Monitor reported that Bosnia and Herzegovina had more than 945 km2 of suspected hazardous areas (SHA) and more than 20 km2 of confirmed hazardous areas.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2023 13:08:51 PST
  • Gender and Diversity Mainstreaming in Mine Action: Where Are We in

    • Authors: Salomé Valencia Aguirre MD et al.
      Abstract: Women, girls, boys, and men are affected differently by landmines and explosive remnants of war (ERW) and hold different views on the challenges presented by them. Gender and other diversity factors, such as ethnicity and disability, condition individual views on vulnerability, needs, and coping capacities. This paper aims to identify the progress made by the humanitarian mine action (HMA) sector in Colombia toward gender equity and diversity through various methodological approaches and indicates that gender and diversity gaps persist. The greatest progress has been made in terms of policies and data disaggregation. We understand that public and organizational internal policies can contribute to equality; however, these should be reflected in both recruitment processes and differentiated approaches to mine action operations.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2023 13:08:47 PST
  • The Bigger Picture: Considerations Toward the Sustainable Localization of
           Mine Action

    • Authors: Mark Wilkinson Ph.D. et al.
      Abstract: DanChurchAid (DCA) is an international nongovernmental organization (INGO) at the forefront of mine action interventions globally. Currently working in nine countries around the world through projects that have a specific focus on the pillars of mine action, DCA supports a plethora of activities seeking to promote the delivery of an integrated programming approach across the triple nexus, bringing humanitarian interventions, development work, peacebuilding, and advocacy initiatives closer together. This approach is used to bridge the gap between policy and practice at all levels and ensure long-term impact and sustainability.[1] A key element of the DCA global strategy for 2023–2026 is the promotion of locally-led solutions to a range of humanitarian concerns via partnerships with local civil society actors. [1] See: DCA Global Strategy 2023-2026, pg. 10.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2023 13:08:42 PST
  • IMAS Levels of EOD & IEDD Qualifications

    • Authors: Drew Prater
      Abstract: Explosive hazards have caused more than 238,000 civilian casualties over the past decade, which only increases the need for these hazards to be cleared.[1] Clearance takes time, thoroughness, and personnel properly trained and qualified to detect, identify, render safe, and/or dispose of these deadly devices. The International Mine Action Standards (IMAS) were written to provide basic standards for not only explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) and improvised explosive device disposal (IEDD) operations, but also the required training competencies for each level of both disciplines. The different levels delineate the competencies and responsibilities, while allowing for additional subjects as an agency may see fit. [1] “Explosive Weapons in Populated Areas,” OCHA, https://bit.ly/3GZjjW8.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2023 13:08:37 PST
  • Inspiring the Next Generation of Humanitarian Mine Action Researchers

    • Authors: Madison Tuohy et al.
      Abstract: Humanitarian mine action (HMA) is a critically under-researched field when compared to other hazards fields of similar societal impact. A potential solution to this problem is early exposure to and engagement in the HMA field in undergraduate education. Early undergraduate education emphasizing technical and social aspects of HMA can help protect lives by building a robust pipeline of passionate researchers who will find new solutions to the global explosive ordnance (EO) crisis. Early engagement of the next generation of HMA researchers and policy makers can occur through various classroom experiences, undergraduate research projects, and public outreach events. These include but are not limited to course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs); presenting research results at local, national, and international conferences; dissemination in edited and peer-reviewed publications; local community events; and through social media outreach. Early engagement, active guidance, and mentorship of such students by mid-career and experienced HMA scholars and practitioners could dramatically reduce the learning curve associated with entry into the HMA sector and allow for more fruitful long-term collaboration between academic institutions, private industry, and leading nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) operating across different facets of HMA.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2023 13:08:32 PST
  • Mine Action and the Triple Nexus

    • Authors: Markus Schindler
      Abstract: In less than a decade, the term “triple nexus” has matured from the technical parlance of donor agencies’ policy papers to a widely recognized concept among aid workers. It advocates for closer integration of humanitarian aid, development, and peacebuilding efforts to produce combined effects. The five pillars of humanitarian mine action (HMA) are widely considered to contribute to each of the sectors that make up the triple nexus. However, there are many approaches on how to conceptualize HMA within the humanitarian, development, and peacebuilding nexus. This article explores three approaches and highlights their respective caveats before developing suggestions on how to improve triple nexus sensitive HMA programming.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2023 13:08:28 PST
  • When a Safety Measure Becomes a Risk Accelerant: Removing the Option to
           Blast-in-Place When Clearing Explosive Remnants of War

    • Authors: Lieutenant Colonel Geir P. Novik
      Abstract: The legacy of unexploded ordnance (UXO) and abandoned ammunition following armed conflict will, in many cases, have a severe impact on society and daily life, even for years or decades after hostilities end. These explosive remnants of war (ERW) represent a grave threat in many aspects, and the human, societal, and environmental impact can be severe. These explosive objects must therefore be located and disposed of—a job in itself that involves serious risks. Therefore, various safety measures are implemented to mitigate these risks. Some safety measures, however, could prove to have less than the desired effect, and in the worst cases, could even increase the risk.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2023 13:08:23 PST
  • Safer Stockpiles: Developing Regional PSSM Instructor Cadres

    • Authors: David Häfner et al.
      Abstract: This paper outlines the approaches of regional organizations and bodies in Africa, in particular the Regional Centre of Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region, Horn of Africa (RECSA) and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and their partners in developing regional physical security and stockpile management (PSSM) expert and instructor rosters based on a train-the-trainer program developed by the Multinational Small Arms and Ammunition Group (MSAG). This training has been designed to provide a baseline of best practices across participating states based on international standards, as well as a cadre of instructors able to design and deliver training across the African continent in an attempt to reduce the reliance on outside expertise. The information in this paper highlights the process of developing these programs and calls on national governments, as well as regional bodies, both in Africa and globally, to commit to supporting the continued development and deployment of the regional PSSM program and instructor rosters.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2023 13:08:19 PST
  • Mine Action in Support of Yemen's Peace Process

    • Authors: Josh Ridley
      Abstract: Between April and October 2022, the two major parties of Yemen’s ongoing conflict, the internationally recognized government (IRG) and the de facto authorities (DFA), agreed to a truce brokered by the UN’s Office of the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for Yemen (OSESGY). A central component of the UN-brokered truce included the re-opening of roads around Yemen’s third largest city, Ta’iz, which all parties agreed to in principle. While an expected extension of the truce did not extend beyond October 2, there has not been a significant escalation in violence since the truce expired. The re-opening of roads in Ta’iz is likely to remain a key aspect of any future agreement.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2023 13:08:14 PST
  • Director's Letter

    • Authors: Suzanne Fiederlein
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2023 13:08:10 PST
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