A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

              [Sort alphabetically]   [Restore default list]

  Subjects -> MILITARY (Total: 106 journals)
Showing 1 - 24 of 24 Journals sorted by number of followers
Conflict, Security & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 285)
Small Wars & Insurgencies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 256)
Perspectives on Terrorism     Open Access   (Followers: 252)
International Peacekeeping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 243)
Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
British Journal for Military History     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Military History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
War & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Defence Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Defense & Security Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
War in History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Armed Forces & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Civil Wars     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
A Fragata     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
First World War Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
The RUSI Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Media, War & Conflict     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Small Wars Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Slavic Military Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Defence and Peace Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Armed Conflict Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Arms & Armour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Military Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Military Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Bibliography of Military History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal for Maritime Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Military Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
The Military Balance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Military and Veterans Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Military Behavioral Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Strategic Comments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Nonproliferation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of National Security Law & Policy     Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Military Experience     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Military Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Military History and Historiography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Chinese Military History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Military and Strategic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
O Periscópio     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Medicine, Conflict and Survival     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Intelligent Defence Support Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation : Applications, Methodology, Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Military Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Critical Military Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Informativo Marítimo     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Whitehall Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Signals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Defence Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Archives in Military Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencia y Poder Aéreo     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Special Operations Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of power institutions in post-soviet societies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Modern Information Technologies in the Sphere of Security and Defence     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eesti Sõjaajaloo Aastaraamat / Estonian Yearbook of Military History     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of African Military History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Human Factors and Mechanical Engineering for Defense and Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Digital War     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acanto     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Caderno de Ciências Navais     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Post-Soviet Armies Newsletter     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Cubana de Medicina Militar     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
United Service     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
University of Miami National Security & Armed Conflict Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Vojnotehnički Glasnik     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Defense Analytics and Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CRMA Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista do Exército     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Âncoras e Fuzis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Espírito de Corpo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Navigator     Open Access  
Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction     Open Access  
Revista Militar de Ciência e Tecnologia     Open Access  
Revista Científica Fundação Osório     Open Access  
Revista Babilônia     Open Access  
EsSEX : Revista Científica     Open Access  
O Adjunto : Revista Pedagógica da Escola de Aperfeiçoamento de Sargentos das Armas     Open Access  
Doutrina Militar Terrestre em Revista     Open Access  
Coleção Meira Mattos : Revista das Ciências Militares     Open Access  
Social Development & Security : Journal of Scientific Papers     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Marte     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Polish Naval Academy     Open Access  
Medical Journal Armed Forces India     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Científica General José María Córdova     Open Access  
Gettysburg Magazine     Full-text available via subscription  
Sanidad Militar     Open Access  
Naval Research Logistics: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal  

              [Sort alphabetically]   [Restore default list]

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Human Factors and Mechanical Engineering for Defense and Safety
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2509-8004 - ISSN (Online) 2367-2544
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2468 journals]
  • Physiologic Changes with an Exposure to a New Concept Conducted Electrical
           Weapon (T10™) in Human Volunteers

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Axon Enterprise, Inc. has developed a new concept Conducted Electrical Weapon (CEW), the T10. Instead of the traditional high-voltage, electrically paired 2- or 4-probe design, the new CEW uses a lower-voltage, variable waveform, floating probe polarity, independently targeted 10-probe design. With this design, electrical connections can occur between any probes. With 10 probes independently targeted and deployed, field efficacy is purportedly expected to be higher than the traditional CEW designs. Additionally, the new CEW uses an ignitable primer system to propel the probes instead of the compressed gas in prior weapons. This, along with other incremental design changes such as thinner wires and a redesigned probe, purportedly will afford better accuracy at longer distances and better probe adherence. With the possibility of up to 10 probes on target (the current firmware limits the total connections between probes to 4), the possibility of anterior–posterior transthoracic connections, probes potentially rapidly alternating polarity, a waveform that varies with load, and with higher velocity probes, this new CEW presents new areas for safety study. The authors used their previously published human physiology methodology to study 8-s exposures using different numbers of probes (up to 6; maximum 4 connections between probes) and connection locations. In our study, venous blood was drawn pre-exposure, immediately post-exposure, at 1 h and at 24-h post-exposure. Blood variables studied included potassium, pH, lactate, troponin, CK, and catecholamines. EKGs were done immediately pre- and post-exposure and continuous spirometry was performed. There were 27 subjects in our study. There were no clinically significant blood marker changes except for modest changes in pH and lactate and catecholamines immediately post-exposure consistent with prior weapons and rises in CK which were similar to prior multi-shot weapons. The spirometry data had mixed results. There were no dysrhythmias, ectopy, or ischemic changes on any EKGs although chest exposures were not done.
      PubDate: 2024-07-08
       
  • Developing Rib Bone Surrogates for High Dynamic Impact Assessment with
           Additive Manufacturing and Post-mortem Human Subjects (PMHS)-Based
           Evaluation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The conception of ballistic personal protective equipment requires a comprehensive understanding of the human body’s response to dynamic loads. The objective of this study is to develop rib bone surrogates enhancing new anthropomorphic test devices for personal protective equipment evaluation at high dynamic impacts. These are fabricated with additive manufacturing and compared to post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) data from literature. The 5th rib of the finite element Global Human Body Model Consortium (GHBMC) male 50th percentile (M50) model was extracted and transferred to a CAD model. This CAD model was divided into 30 sections with specific cortical bone thicknesses in all directions (caudal, cranial, cutaneous and pleural) from an equivalent rib of an M50 PMHS. Three different additive manufacturing technologies (direct metal laser melting, fused filament fabrication and multi jet modeling) were used to reproduce the M50 PMHS 5th rib surrogate. A total of 57 specimens were dynamically (500 mm/s) loaded to failure in a bending scenario imitating a frontal thoracic impact. Force, displacement, stiffness, and energy at failure were determined. Also, the strain distribution using 3D digital image correlation was recorded and compared to PMHS data from literature. The rib surrogates show deviations from the PMHS characteristic values. Nevertheless, there are also common characteristics in key variables to certain age groups of the PMHS data, which will facilitate the further development and improvement of adequate surrogates for a more realistic representation of the human body’s response to high dynamic loads.
      PubDate: 2024-04-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-024-00065-y
       
  • Effectiveness of a New-Generation CEW in Human Subjects with a
           Goal-Directed Task

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) have been used by law enforcement agencies worldwide to control and restrain potentially violent persons. As new generations of these weapons are developed, effectiveness and safety need to be evaluated. The new TASER 10 uses an independently targeted probe scheme with floating polarities so that any two probes can form a connection. This is in contrast to older generation weapons, which used paired probes with fixed take-off angles. The expectation is with up to a maximum of 10 shots and independent targeting; the weapon will have a greater effectiveness. In this pilot study, we used our previously published, standardized methodology for measurement of CEW effectiveness on motivated human volunteers for several objectives: (1) to directly compare the effectiveness of the waveform on human subjects to an older generation weapon (the TASER 7), (2) to more broadly compare it to historical controls, and (3) to look at various probe configurations to determine their comparative effectiveness. The task at hand was to reach a suspended martial arts dummy 12 ft (3.65 m) away while being exposed (under power) to the electrical waveform of the TASER devices in various dart configurations. Several intervention groups were examined. We used video review with our standard methodology to rate goal achievement and limb capture. The results demonstrate that the TASER 10 has similar ability to induce neuromuscular incapacitation as the TASER 7. Additionally, the ability of the TASER 10 to place multiple darts on a specific target area to create the desired probe spread is a technological advantage over previous models. This, together with the floating polarity probes, promise to make the TASER 10 potentially more effective and flexible in the field.
      PubDate: 2024-03-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-024-00066-x
       
  • Creating a Prototype for a Bullet-Resistant Implant: Application in Breast
           Prosthetics

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract This research delves into the potential enhancement of body ballistic resistance, with a particular focus on subdermal implants, notably breast implants. The objective of our research is to evaluate the impact of a 9 mm Luger or 9 × 19 mm ammunition on a bullet-resistant prototype implant. Given previous reports on the protective capabilities of silicone implants, their ballistic protective properties were explored. The widespread use of silicone breast implants necessitates a comprehensive assessment of their ballistic capabilities from both protective and forensic perspectives. A prototype implant based on ultra-high molecular weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) was designed and was subjected to a 9 × 19 mm ammunition. Different thicknesses of small surface armour packs with diverse backings were examined to assess potential damage and back face signatures. Additionally, the role of silicone breast implants in ballistic protection was investigated. These experiments were conducted to provide a thorough understanding of the protective and forensic aspects of these materials. The prototype effectively mitigated the threat, causing minimal indentation in the plasticine witness material, measuring less than 44 mm, in accordance with guidelines. Furthermore, standard silicone breast implants offered minimal protection, which challenges existing literature. It is evident that the prototype implant holds promise for enhancing impact resistance, with significant potential for ballistic protection. The observed limited protective effect of standard silicone implants requires further investigation, casting doubt on their efficacy in ballistics. This underscores the importance of ongoing research and a nuanced approach to assessing the role of silicone implants in ballistics.
      PubDate: 2023-12-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-023-00064-5
       
  • NATO standardized method for assessing the thoracic impact of Kinetic
           Energy Non-Lethal Weapons

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Kinetic energy non-lethal weapons (KENLW) systems remain one of the most widespread non-lethal weapons on the field. NATO has recently published four standardized documents to assess the injury potential of such weapons. These documents were written by an international comity composed of a few international experts in the field of non-lethal weapons and Behind Armor Blunt Trauma. Particularly, the STANREC 4744 AEP 99 tackles the evaluation of thoracic impacts. The document focuses on the process to perform an evaluation, with only basic information on the scientific background of the proposed methodology. The process is to shoot the projectile on a target and dynamically measure the injury criterion (VC)max, linked to the level of injuries. It gives the user the choice of the appropriate surrogate as soon as the response of the system, impacted by a specific commercially available non-lethal projectile, remains in a specified range. A numerical evaluation process is also proposed, based on the results of the same references. This article aims at describing the standardized document in the form of a scientific article. Firstly, KENLWs and the typical injuries they provoke are introduced. Secondly, the scientific base of the AEP 99 is presented. Thirdly, the evaluation methodology and its scientific rationale are explained in detail. Fourthly, three different implemented AEP 99 compatible solutions—2 biomechanical surrogates and one numerical model—are introduced, and results are presented. Lastly, an extensive discussion on the reliability of the method and on the implemented solutions is presented. Finally, perspectives are identified. In conclusion, even if limitations and ways of improvements have been identified, both on the methodology and on the solutions, it is the author’s opinion that the AEP 99 remains a unique scientifically validated methodology for assessing KENLW thoracic impacts, providing consistent and reliable results.
      PubDate: 2023-10-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-023-00060-9
       
  • Review of Literature: Behind Helmet Blunt Trauma Mechanisms

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Combat helmets are designed to protect military personnel during impact events by defeating incoming threats (blunt, ballistic, or blast threats) without inflicting serious or fatal injury to the head. Unlike the older generation of metallic helmets, the development of a new generation of helmets made of composite material types with high ballistic performance and low weight, such as UHMWPE, has improved the soldier’s ballistic protection and the ergonomic aspects of the helmets. However, one disadvantage of these light helmets is that they increase the back face deformation (BFD) of the helmet, increasing the risk of blunt trauma, also known as behind helmet blunt trauma (BHBT). BHBT is a type of non-penetrating ballistic injury caused by helmet shell BFD that can impair a soldier’s performance and even endanger his/her life. It is difficult to study BHBT mechanisms due to the highly dynamic nature and complex mechanisms involved during impacts. Closely related fields, such as the studies on non-lethal impacts, where there is more expertise, may provide additional insight for understanding BHBT, despite the fact that very few articles have investigated the link between these two fields. Due to a lack of understanding of BHBT, this article proposes a review of literature on the various mechanisms of blunt head injuries, particularly BHBT, in an effort to improve or design better protection systems to mitigate these injuries.
      PubDate: 2023-10-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-023-00063-6
       
  • NATO Standardized Method for Assessing the Skin Penetration of Kinetic
           Energy Non-Lethal Weapons

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Kinetic energy non-lethal weapon (KENLW) systems remain one of the most widespread types of non-lethal weapons on the field. NATO has released four standardized documents in order to assess the injury potential of such weapons. These documents have been written by an international team of experts in the field of non-lethal weapons. Particularly, the AEP 94 from the STANREC 4744 focuses on the evaluation of the skin penetration of non-lethal projectiles based on a specific test validated using post mortem human subject (PMHS) tests. The proposed methodology is to shoot a projectile on a surrogate composed of three layers (chamois skin layer, a specific closed-cell foam and ballistic gelatine). The topic of this article consists in describing the standardized document in the form of a scientific article. Firstly, KENLWs and the resulting injuries are described through a literature study. Secondly, the assessment methodology and its scientific rationale are explained in detail. Thirdly, interlaboratory tests are conducted for validating the procedure, and ultimately AEP 94 implementations are presented. After that, the evaluation of commercially available KENLW is performed and results are compared to case reports from the literature. While correspondence is achieved, limitations and way ahead are identified and discussed.
      PubDate: 2023-10-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-023-00059-2
       
  • Human collateral damage assessment of a pellet C-UAS system using a
           gelatine-based standardized surrogate

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Unmanned aerial vehicles can be deemed a threat for a wide range of disastrous scenarios in urban contexts, regarding critical infrastructures or in civil environments. Various countermeasures exist based on different technologies. One of the possibilities is a cloud of pellets that has a relatively short range. The objective of this approach is to maximize the covered area in order to increase the probability of hitting the target. A specific pellet-based C-UAS system has been identified for the purposes of this study. The present work assesses a single pellet and its critical range for collateral damage. The assessment was performed through the determination of a specific ballistic limit, in particular, the velocity at which 50 percent of the pellets fired perforate the test object. This limit is determined by following a NATO standard assessment of skin penetration of non-lethal projectiles on a gelatine skin surrogate. Previously published work has modeled the trajectory of the dedicated Counter-UAS projectile and has determined the ballistic limit for the intended target. With the addition of this study, the value of the collateral damage range can be determined in the trajectory model. Additionally, the obtained ballistic limits and inferred energy densities are contrasted to ballistic limits from comparable research campaigns by use of sectional densities.
      PubDate: 2023-09-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-023-00061-8
       
  • Literature Review of Case Reports Regarding NLW Thoracic Impacts

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract During the last decades, there has been an increase in the development and use of kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles, mainly because of their ability to neutralise without inflicting serious injuries. Even though these are intended to temporarily incapacitate individuals, it is often encountered that kinetic impact projectiles can cause penetration, severe injuries, permanent disabilities and even mortality. The injury level is highly related to the shot distance and the body region that is impacted. Because the thoracic region is the dominant impact region and because it hosts vital organs, it is considered to be one of the most sensitive areas of the human body. Therefore, all injuries to the chest should be regarded as potentially life threatening. The objective of this study is to review case reports and case studies of kinetic energy projectiles’ impacts on the thoracic region available in open literature. The ballistic and operational conditions and also medical outcome of each case are described. The study includes penetrative and non-penetrative impacts of different kinds of projectiles (rubber bullet, plastic bullet, bean bag, flashball, FN303) in order to be able to comprehend the injury potential of these projectiles and to provide an insight into real shooting conditions. The difficulties and limitations of the literature study are presented.
      PubDate: 2023-09-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-023-00062-7
       
  • Numerical Analysis of Thorax Injury Caused by the Blunt Impact of SIR-X
           Sponge Grenade

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract To effectively assess the injury risk of the blunt impact of the SIR-X sponge grenade on the human thorax, in this paper, we used a numerical simulation technique to test the non-lethal kinetic energy projectiles that blunt impact on the Hybrid III 50th dummy model. By simulating the effect of the L5 projectile on the thorax of the Hybrid III 50th dummy model, about NATO standard AEP-99 (2021 edition), the thoracic displacement curves of the dummy model in three testing conditions were obtained in the validation corridors. The idea of replacing the finite element model of the human body with the Hybrid III 50th dummy finite element model was proposed. We considered the difficulty in obtaining data due to the large deformation of the contact position when the SIR-X sponge grenade impacts the dummy’s thorax. We proposed a mathematical model to predict the impact injury of the human thorax using the rib displacement measured by the rib displacement sensor of the Hybrid III 50th dummy. We simulated the SIR-X sponge grenade blunt impacting the dummy model’s thorax. The measured rib displacement was used to predict and analyze the injury risk of the human thorax, providing a specific data reference for practical application.
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-023-00057-4
       
  • Numerical Modeling of Kerf Generation in Abrasive Waterjet Machining of
           Military Grade Armor Steel

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The widespread usage of abrasive waterjet machining is owing to its adaptability, yet the absence of dynamic analysis throughout the kerf forming process is difficult to ensure cutting precision. The present work has proposed a linked SPH-DEA-FEM approach for predicting the cutting characteristics of abrasive water jet machining over a range of process parameters as well as for elucidating the underlying mechanism of kerf generation. Compared to the previous methods, the new simulation approach enhances the simulations of long term water jet cutting. The performance of computations is enhanced by the continuous creation of abrasive and waterjet particles, which help to keep the model short. The flow of abrasive particles that has a Gaussian distribution is described by the discrete element approach (DEA). The friction factors are concerned with the interactions of quasi particles. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) approach is used to represent the water flow with large deformation. In between the particles and the target, the erosion contact is created. Finally, the simulation model validity is verified through experiments. Understanding the mechanism of abrasive waterjet cutting and optimizing the operating parameters would be beneficial.
      PubDate: 2023-02-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-023-00056-5
       
  • Counterfeit Pepper Spray: A Case Report

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract   Pepper spray is one of the less lethal instruments used by law enforcement agencies around the world. Basically, pepper spray is composed of the active ingredient, a carrier solvent and a propellant. The purpose of pepper spray, a non-lethal weapon, is to briefly incapacitate and restrain an individual, without causing permanent damage. Therefore, the presence of hazardous substances is undesirable. Pepper sprays confiscated by the Brazilian Federal Police were analyzed to identify their ingredients. Chemical analyses were performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The most surprising outcome was the identification of methanol (highly toxic and flammable) as a carrier solvent in the analyzed products, a great concern. Flammable gases (used as propellants) and discrepancies related to active ingredients on product labels were also noted. Therefore, this investigation revealed the serious risk of low quality pepper spray causing damage to both users and other people subjected to its effects.
      PubDate: 2022-12-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-022-00055-y
       
  • Hardness and Impact Fracture Behavior of Armor Weldment Using Austenitic
           Stainless Steel Filler

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Welding of high-carbon armor steel is a complex procedure, and there is a possibility of welding flaws in the weld zone as cracks and pores. When welding armor steel, austenitic filler material is commonly utilized to reduce the dangerous effects of hydrogen content spread into the fusion line. The heavy structural engineering is similar to an armored military vehicle, which is routinely subjected to impact and dynamic stresses. In this condition, the fusion zone is critical to understand the dynamic features of the welded joints. On Charpy V specimens, impact testing was conducted and the impact energy was achieved at 110 J in the weld joint. The multi-pass welding attained different hardness values in the weld zone. These different hardness values were changed by microstructures with weld thermal cycles. The austenite with a delta ferrite matrix in the fusion zone has a lower hardness value as compared to the martensite with retained austenite in the base metal. Microstructural features are very important to analyze the crack growth on the fracture surface. Optical microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were utilized to analyze the microstructure characteristics of the armor weldments.
      PubDate: 2022-11-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-022-00054-z
       
  • Lower Limb Response to Anti-personnel Landmine Blast Explosions: Injury
           Assessment and Mitigation Strategies

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Injuries in lower extremities due to anti-personnel (AP) landmine blasts have been a major cause of amputation in soldiers. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the mechanism of these injuries for designing advanced personnel protective equipment and superior medical interventions. Various attempts have been made to correlate lower limb cadaveric mine blast test data using surrogate models, but till date, no study has been reported to validate it using numerical methods. In this work, a finite element computational framework was developed for landmine blasts using a biofidelic human body lower limb model for validating in situ tibia forces and injury patterns with PMHS (post mortem human subjects) test data. Based on the reliability of the validated numerical analysis model, efforts were made to elucidate landmine blast physics, blast wave intensity for various mine threats, pathophysiology of lower extremity trauma, and effectiveness of various blast mitigation strategies. Numerical simulations were performed to assess the level of protection offered by a standard army combat boot to the lower limb for an M-14 mine blast. Furthermore, for attenuating the load transmission to the lower limb, aluminum foam sandwich panel has been proposed as a potential shoe insert material due to its high-energy absorption capabilities. Compared to the bare foot scenario, aluminum foam shoe insert in double-core configuration was effective in minimizing severity of M-14 mine blast injuries by reducing the peak tibia force by 34% with a significant delay in time of arrival of the peak. Additionally, the proposed mine protective shoe concept offers 25.2% more reduction in peak tibia force compared to the standard military combat boot for a charge triggered by victim’s heel.
      PubDate: 2022-11-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-022-00053-0
       
  • The Critical Role of a Backing Material in Assessing the Performance of
           Soft Ballistic Protection

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Penetrating trauma by energised fragments is the most common injury from an explosive event. Fragment penetrations to the truncal region can result in lethal haemorrhage. Personal armour is used to mitigate ballistic threats; it comprises hard armour to protect from high-velocity bullets and soft armour to protect against energised fragments and other ballistic threats (such as from a hand gun) with low impact velocities. Current testing standards for soft armour do not focus on realistic boundary conditions, and a backing material is not always recommended. This study provides a comprehensive set of evidence to support the inclusion of a backing used in testing of soft body armour. Experiments were performed with a gas-gun system using fragment-simulating projectiles (FSPs) of different shapes and sizes to impact on a woven aramid and a knitted high-performance polyethylene ballistic fabric, with and without the ballistic gelatine soft tissue simulant as the backing material. The results showed statistically significant differences in the impact velocities at 50% risk (V50) of fabric perforation across all test configurations when the gelatine backing was used. Furthermore, the backing material enabled the collection of injury-related metrics such as V50 of tissue-simulant penetrations as well as depth of penetration against impact velocity. The normalised energy absorbed by the fabric could also be calculated when the backing material was present. This study confirms that a backing material is essential, particularly when assessing the performance of single layer fabrics against FSPs of low mass. It also demonstrates the additional benefits provided by the backing for predicting injury outcomes.
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-022-00052-1
       
  • Protective Clothing Reduces Lower Limb Injury Severity Against Propelled
           Sand Debris in a Laboratory Setting

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The contribution of energised environmental debris to injury patterns of the blast casualty is not known. The extent to which personal protective equipment (PPE) limits the injuries sustained by energised environmental debris following an explosive event is also not known. In this study, a cadaveric model exposed to a gas-gun mediated sand blast was utilised which reproduced soft-tissue injuries representative of those seen clinically following blast. Mean sand velocity across experiments was 506 ± 80 ms−1. Cadaveric samples wearing standard-issue PPE were shown to have a reduced injury severity to sand blast compared to control: a statistically significant reduction was seen in the total surface area (143 mm2 vs. 658 mm2, p = 0.004) and depth of injuries (0 vs. 23 deep injuries, odds ratio = 0.0074, 95% confidence intervals 0.0004–0.1379). This study is the first to recreate wounds from propelled sand in a human cadaveric model. These findings implicate environmental debris, such as sand ejected from a blast event, as a critical mechanism of injury in the blast casualty. Tier 1 pelvic PPE was shown to reduce markedly the severity of injury. This injury mechanism should be a key focus of future research and mitigation strategies.
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-022-00050-3
       
  • Reliability Assessment by Factor of Safety on the Tensile Failure
           Behaviour on Military Grade Armour Steel Weldment

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Welding armour steel plate is a crucial task in the construction of combat vehicle structures. The shield metal arc welding (SMAW) with austenitic stainless steel (ASS) filler is used to prepare the defect free weld joints under suitable welding parameters. Tensile property enhancement in the fusion zone of the weld joint inhibits bullet penetration in a combat environment. An examination has also been conducted into the effect of microstructures in base metal, weldments, and the influence on tensile fractured surfaces. Tensile failure occurs in the weld centreline due to the reduced tensile strength of the filler material. When compared to the relevant literature, these welds demonstrated 48% joint efficiency and good tensile strength. This present work was development of a finite element analysis (FEA) model to analyse the tensile failure of base metal and weld joints with different factors of safety (FOS) such as FOS 0, FOS 1.5, and FOS 3. The FEA was carried out to predict the load-carrying capacity under tensile load. The simulation and experimental findings concur, implying that the suggested approaches were utilized effectively for structural analysis of armour weld joint using typical FEA techniques.
      PubDate: 2022-05-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-022-00051-2
       
  • Not Non-Lethal Weapons: the Counter-Personnel Behavioral Effects Weapons
           Framework for Armament Engineers

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Behavioral effects weapons (BEW) are devices that are intended to change the behavior of their human target. The article describes the critical considerations and a framework to guide the development of BEW. Human physiology is the fundamental basis for the theoretical framework of BEW engineering. Effectiveness of BEW starts with the physiological effects induced by stimuli or energy generated by a weapon. These physiological effects, in turn, affect target behavior. Behaviors are altered by (1) changing the motivation of the targeted individual(s) to perform the behavior and (2) changing the ability of the targeted individual(s) to perform the behavior. In addition to the thresholds for effectiveness of BEW, the limitations due to risk of signification injury (RSI) define the solution space for armament engineers. Finally, ethical considerations for the armaments developer are presented. It is hoped that the information in this article will serve as a guide for the armaments engineering community in order to fill a critical weapon capability gap.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-022-00047-y
       
  • Safety Assessment of Soil-Filled HESCO® Bastion Wall Concept for
           Modular Munition Storage

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The use of modular munition storage systems for military purposes has grown significantly in the recent years. They have improved the flexibility and decreased the logistical burden of both domestic and international missions. This study aims at developing a modernized, economic, and effective way of using modular systems to temporarily store munitions in an operational environment. This design had to ensure that (1) no sympathetic detonation of munition stored in adjacent cells would occur, (2) the danger radii due to the fragmentation and the blast overpressure could be reduced, and (3) the proposed solution would be practical. Based on recent events, the use of the HESCO® Bastion, a commonly found modular hardening system in modern operations, will be considered in this research. The combined effects of blast and fragments were both taken into consideration to properly develop and model the loading scenario on the system. Calculations based on analytical models and experimental data were then performed to properly characterize and quantify the system response.
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-022-00049-w
       
  • Geometrical Characteristics of a 50th Anthropometric Head Finite Element
           Model: Literature Review

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Military forces are confronted with an increasing threat of small caliber rounds and fragments (HE projectile, IEDs, etc.) in current operational theatres. This had led to the development of adapted body armour solutions. But, these solutions when impacted may lead to head blunt injuries (behind helmet blunt trauma (BHBT)) that can be severe, even fatal. Apart from the conventional missions, military forces are more and more called to intervene in homeland or abroad in policing missions in which the Kinetic Energy Non-Lethal Weapon (KENLW) solutions are widely used to avoid severe injuries to the targeted people. In both cases, there is a need to make an injury risk assessment in order to prevent or avoid severe or life-threatening injuries. For that purpose, one of the tools that are used is head biofidelic finite element models. The first step in developing a head model is to generate the head geometry. Most of the developed head models are based on the geometry of one specific subject derived from MRI or CT imaging, and the baseline model that is generally considered is the 50th percentile adult male corresponding to an average adult male. Therefore, it is important before any modelling to gather information on the human head characteristics like organ’s size and shape. The basic geometric characteristics that are mostly taken into account to build the models are the head external dimensions. In this paper, the goal is to gather information on head organs of an average adult male by taking into account not only the external dimensions but also mean geometric characteristics of the head (size of different head organs, skull thickness, etc.) in order to build an averaged geometry of the head.
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-022-00043-2
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 3.235.182.206
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-
JournalTOCs
 
 

 A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

              [Sort alphabetically]   [Restore default list]

  Subjects -> MILITARY (Total: 106 journals)
Showing 1 - 24 of 24 Journals sorted by number of followers
Conflict, Security & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 285)
Small Wars & Insurgencies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 256)
Perspectives on Terrorism     Open Access   (Followers: 252)
International Peacekeeping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 243)
Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
British Journal for Military History     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Military History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
War & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Defence Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Defense & Security Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
War in History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Armed Forces & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Civil Wars     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
A Fragata     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
First World War Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
The RUSI Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Media, War & Conflict     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Small Wars Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Slavic Military Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Defence and Peace Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Armed Conflict Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Arms & Armour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Military Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Military Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Bibliography of Military History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal for Maritime Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Military Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
The Military Balance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Military and Veterans Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Military Behavioral Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Strategic Comments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Nonproliferation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of National Security Law & Policy     Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Military Experience     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Military Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Military History and Historiography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Chinese Military History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Military and Strategic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
O Periscópio     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Medicine, Conflict and Survival     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Intelligent Defence Support Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation : Applications, Methodology, Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Military Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Critical Military Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Informativo Marítimo     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Whitehall Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Signals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Defence Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Archives in Military Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencia y Poder Aéreo     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Special Operations Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of power institutions in post-soviet societies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Modern Information Technologies in the Sphere of Security and Defence     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eesti Sõjaajaloo Aastaraamat / Estonian Yearbook of Military History     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of African Military History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Human Factors and Mechanical Engineering for Defense and Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Digital War     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acanto     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Caderno de Ciências Navais     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Post-Soviet Armies Newsletter     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Cubana de Medicina Militar     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
United Service     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
University of Miami National Security & Armed Conflict Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Vojnotehnički Glasnik     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Defense Analytics and Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CRMA Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista do Exército     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Âncoras e Fuzis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Espírito de Corpo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Navigator     Open Access  
Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction     Open Access  
Revista Militar de Ciência e Tecnologia     Open Access  
Revista Científica Fundação Osório     Open Access  
Revista Babilônia     Open Access  
EsSEX : Revista Científica     Open Access  
O Adjunto : Revista Pedagógica da Escola de Aperfeiçoamento de Sargentos das Armas     Open Access  
Doutrina Militar Terrestre em Revista     Open Access  
Coleção Meira Mattos : Revista das Ciências Militares     Open Access  
Social Development & Security : Journal of Scientific Papers     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Marte     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Polish Naval Academy     Open Access  
Medical Journal Armed Forces India     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Científica General José María Córdova     Open Access  
Gettysburg Magazine     Full-text available via subscription  
Sanidad Militar     Open Access  
Naval Research Logistics: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal  

              [Sort alphabetically]   [Restore default list]

Similar Journals
Similar Journals
HOME > Browse the 73 Subjects covered by JournalTOCs  
SubjectTotal Journals
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 3.235.182.206
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-