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  Subjects -> MILITARY (Total: 103 journals)
Showing 1 - 24 of 24 Journals sorted by number of followers
International Peacekeeping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 474)
Perspectives on Terrorism     Open Access   (Followers: 470)
Conflict, Security & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 427)
Small Wars & Insurgencies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 373)
Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Defence Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
British Journal for Military History     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Military History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Defence Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Defense & Security Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
First World War Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
War & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Terrorism Research     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Armed Forces & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
War in History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Defence and Peace Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Civil Wars     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Slavic Military Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
The RUSI Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Small Wars Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Armed Conflict Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Media, War & Conflict     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal for Maritime Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte. Das zentrale Forum der Zeitgeschichtsforschung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Military Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Military Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Arms & Armour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Military and Veterans Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Military Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
The Military Balance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Africa Conflict Monitor     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of National Security Law & Policy     Free   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Military Experience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Great Circle: Journal of the Australian Association for Maritime History, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Security and Defence Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Military Behavioral Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation : Applications, Methodology, Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Militärgeschichtliche Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Strategic Comments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Disaster and Military Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Military Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Military and Strategic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Nonproliferation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Intelligent Defence Support Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Critical Military Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Military Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Defence Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal on Baltic Security     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Medicine, Conflict and Survival     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Naval Research Logistics: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Problemy Mechatroniki. Uzbrojenie, lotnictwo, inżynieria bezpieczeństwa / Problems of Mechatronics. Armament, Aviation, Safety Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Archives in Military Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Whitehall Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Headmark     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Modern Information Technologies in the Sphere of Security and Defence     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of power institutions in post-soviet societies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Digital War     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Signals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
O Adjunto : Revista Pedagógica da Escola de Aperfeiçoamento de Sargentos das Armas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Defense Studies & Resource Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Wiedza Obronna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fra Krig og Fred     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Poder Aéreo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eesti Sõjaajaloo Aastaraamat / Estonian Yearbook of Military History     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Human Factors and Mechanical Engineering for Defense and Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Special Operations Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Revista Agulhas Negras     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Militar de Ciência e Tecnologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EsSEX : Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Babilônia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CRMA Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista do Exército     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scandinavian Journal of Military Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sabretache     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Social Development & Security : Journal of Scientific Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Martial Arts Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Slawistik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Revista Cubana de Medicina Militar     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
University of Miami National Security & Armed Conflict Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Post-Soviet Armies Newsletter     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Securitologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
United Service     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Vojnotehnički Glasnik     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Científica Fundação Osório     Open Access  
Doutrina Militar Terrestre em Revista     Open Access  
Coleção Meira Mattos : Revista das Ciências Militares     Open Access  
선진국방연구     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Marte     Open Access  
Journal of Defense Analytics and Logistics     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Polish Naval Academy     Open Access  
Revista Política y Estrategia     Open Access  
Medical Journal Armed Forces India     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Científica General José María Córdova     Open Access  
Gettysburg Magazine     Full-text available via subscription  
Sanidad Militar     Open Access  

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Journal Cover
Human Factors and Mechanical Engineering for Defense and Safety
Number of Followers: 1  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2509-8004 - ISSN (Online) 2367-2544
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2656 journals]
  • Estimation of Laser Dazzle Effects on Shooting Performance
    • Abstract: The human eye is an indispensable sensor for the execution of many military tasks, and a degraded vision would undoubtedly affect operator task performance. Dazzling the eye with a visible light source is for that reason an obvious countermeasure when trying to affect human vision and possibly degrade human performance. The effects are most often translated into a decrease of the field-of-view of the eye, but the question remains how this translates into human task performance degradation and secondly how accurate this degradation can be predicted. This study will try to quantify the performance degradation of a shooting task in a land environment when being dazzled by a green portable laser system. A measurement campaign has been organized to answer this question; every participant of the test group, composed of 14 persons, was asked to fire 5 shots in the direction of a competition-type target straight ahead, with and without dazzle. The registered time and scoring of the specific tests have been statistically analyzed to determine the significant effects, and the outcome has been compared with a predicted dazzle impact. The results of the shooting test show that the used laser dazzle prediction models quite well the human performance degradation and, at the same time, that there is a need for a specific test protocol to find the correct compromise between environmental validity of a trial and the number of independent variables that can be controlled.
      PubDate: 2019-08-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-019-0028-2
  • Active Denial Technology Computational Human Effects End-To-End Hypermodel
           (ADT CHEETEH)
    • Abstract: We developed the Active Denial Technology Computational Human Effects End-To-End Hypermodel (ADT CHEETEH), a computational model to simulate the response of a human target to Active Denial Technology (ADT), including estimates of ADT’s physical, physiological, cognitive, and behavioral effects. The ADT system is a counter-personnel non-lethal weapon for crowd control, convoy protection, and perimeter security. The target is subjected to pulses of focused 95 GHz electromagnetic energy. The energy diffuses approximately 400 μm into the target’s skin, producing no skin damage. However, the target may still perceive a burning sensation strong enough to repel (i.e., compel the target to immediately move away). We use one model component to estimate the physical output of the ADT system, coupled with three additional components to estimate the ADT’s effect on the target’s physiology, cognition, and behavior. All components passed verification tests. Validation data was available for only the physical component, which passed its validation test. Each run of ADT CHEETEH completes in only a few minutes on a standard laptop computer, beginning with a simulation of the ADT beam formation and concluding with the estimated time at which the target is repelled. This end-to-end approach quantifies the ADT system’s main measure of effectiveness (the probability of repel) as well as its intermediate measures of performance (dose on target, temperature and damage in skin, perceived pain level, etc.) Once fully validated, ADT CHEETEH’s comprehensive results may be able to feed into force-on-force simulations to provide educated estimates of ADT effectiveness in military scenarios.
      PubDate: 2019-08-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-019-0023-7
  • Aerodynamical CFD Study of a Non-Lethal 12-Gauge Fin-Stabilized Projectile
    • Abstract: Nowadays, the trajectory model for a subsonic fin-stabilized projectile at a low angle of attack is typically a point-mass model (PMM), taking only gravity and a constant zero-yaw drag into account. This choice can be qualitatively justified for non-lethal projectiles given the short ranges. The disadvantage of this approach is the lack of prediction on the precision and the attitude of the projectile when hitting the target, because of a possible instability in flight. However, the use of non-lethal projectiles requires that the impact conditions are met, otherwise more serious injuries may occur. Therefore, the consideration of other forces and moments acting on the projectile in flight is mandatory to predict static and dynamic stabilities, already in the body shape design as well as in the controller design process in the field of non-lethal ammunitions. Starting from a geometry in caliber 12-gauge, static coefficients (drag, lift, and pitch) for different angles of attack using steady RANS simulations with a low-order turbulence model were found. Different trajectories were then analyzed using those coefficients and the difference between the PMM and a 3-DOF accounting for drag, lift, and pitch in function of the angle of attack is indeed negligible in height and in range as long as the launch conditions are completely undisturbed. The slightest destabilization makes the PMM completely inappropriate. Knowledge of the pitch damping coefficient then becomes a necessity to optimize stabilization following minor disturbances.
      PubDate: 2019-08-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-019-0020-x
  • Error Budget of Non-lethal Projectiles Using Stochastic Simulations
    • Abstract: The maximum range of non-lethal anti personnel weapons is often limited by the projectile dispersion. Indeed, beyond a given distance, the observed dispersion of projectile on the target becomes too important. Consequently, the increased risk to miss the thorax and hit the head is deemed inadmissible. Therefore, in the development of long-range non-lethal projectiles, it is of importance to identify the primary sources of delivery errors. In this paper, Monte-Carlo simulations are used to predict the projectile dispersion. These simulations are based on ballistic models developed for non-lethal weapons. The quantification of the propagation of uncertainties across the complete ballistic cycle allows for the identification of the parameters which influence the accuracy of non-lethal weapons.
      PubDate: 2019-08-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-019-0029-1
  • Evaluation of Natural Capsaicin (N.Cap) in Pepper Spray by GC-MS/FID, NMR
           and HPLC as an Alternative to the Use of Oleoresin Capsicum (OC)
    • Abstract: GC-FID/MS, NMR and HPLC were used to study natural capsaicin (N.Cap) in pepper sprays in order to show the capsaicinoids in raw material as well as a solution in a spray canister. Natural capsaicin was used instead of Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) while maintaining the usual effect with the advantage of better chemical control. In addition, the non-flammability safety characteristics have been increased since N.Cap does not contain the flammable substances present in OC. GC-FID/MS, NMR and HPLC results showed 2:1 ratio of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, respectively, agreeing with a typical ratio expected. Other capsaicinoids were detected in lower concentrations. Substances such as oils and resins, which are normally found in OC, were not detected in significant concentrations. The HPLC alternative method was evaluated regarding resolution and capsaicinoids ratio measurement. The dilution of raw materials (N.Cap) in dichloromethane avoids the intermediary processes of extraction or concentration of an analyte. It was possible to carry out an analysis with a solution directly collected from a spray by only one dilution step. Contaminants such as PAVA and others could be observed in the same analysis by GC-MS/FID without changes in the methodology. A review of the literature was carried out comparing the usual aspects regarding capsaicinoids contents in OC spray solutions, where findings reported between 1 and 40% of capsaicinoids in the solutions showing a large range of active substance concentration in commercial products. The method allows controlling the production and safety evaluation of the product by the user.
      PubDate: 2019-07-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-019-0024-6
  • Police Use of Non-lethal Weapons: Analysis of Real Cases
    • Abstract: The PAB or “Peloton Anti-Banditisme” has been created in 1976 on the same model as the Los Angeles Police Department SWAT. The PAB is the local special police unit of the Liège Police Zone. In terms of non-lethal equipment, the unit is equipped with the FN303 rifle, OC spray, and batons. This article provides a comprehensive presentation of case reports where non-lethal weapons have been used. Eighteen cases of FN303 uses (more than 200 impacts) combined with baton and OC spray populate the database today. These cases are described and ballistically defined, and a medical outcome is given. The article helps to better define the potential limits (injuries) of non-lethal impacts. It gives some insights about the consistency between standardized laboratory tests and the real-world experience. Ultimately, the effectiveness of these systems is portrayed and discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-07-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-019-0025-5
  • Target Behavioral Response Analyses for the Development of Delay
           Munitions: Obscuring Fog for Non-lethal Anti-personnel Landmines
    • Abstract: This experiment explores the utility of visual obscuration as a method for creating non-lethal munitions that can delay an adversary’s removal of anti-vehicle mines. Visual obscuration was achieved using controlled levels of artificial fog. Twenty-four subjects searched for mines under laboratory conditions of baseline no fog, low-lying fog, and immersive fog. A .52 or greater obscuration was associated with an 85% suppression mine detection. Under fog, subjects detected most mines by accidental kicking and found them in an average of 5 min compared with under 3 s with no fog. The fog created a condition of heightened stress, as reflected by evidence of increased sympathetic activity indexed by increased heart rate and increased electrodermal activity. Immersive fog showed greater sympathetic activation in subjects as indexed by more frequent electrodermal responses and twice the number of instances of giving up compared with the low-lying fog.
      PubDate: 2019-07-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-019-0019-3
  • Benefits, Risks, and Myths of TASER® Handheld Electrical Weapons
    • Abstract: Handheld conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) have been used 3.9 million times in the field in 107 countries. Prospective studies (including over 40 k uses of force) find a 65% reduction in subject injuries versus batons, manual control, and “pepper” spray. There is a 2/3 reduction in fatal shootings when CEW usage is not overly restricted. USA-derived data suggest that the temporal subject fatality rate with resistant arrest is ≈ 1:1000 without a CEW and ≈ 1:3000 with the CEW. UK data suggest 85% compliance with simply the threat of a CEW. There have been 18 deaths from falls (16 brain injuries and 2 cervical fractures) and 8 deaths from fume ignition. These 26 deaths provide a fatality risk of 6.7 per million [95% CI 4.5–9.8]. There are 20 cases of unilateral blindness from a probe eye penetration. There were also 4 cases of non-fatal major burns and 1 of permanent brain damage from a fall. These 25 injuries provide a risk of 6.4 per million [(95% CI 4.3–9.5]. The risk of electrocution is very low since present CEWs satisfy the IEC 60335 electric fence limit of 2.5 W and the ANSI-CPLSO-17 limits of 125 μC per pulse with a normalized aggregate current of 2.2 mA. Arrest-related death anecdotes alleging an electrocution all fail several diagnostic tests for an electrocution. While reducing subject injury and death by about 2/3, CEW usage has an overall major complication rate of 13.1 per million field uses [95% CI 9.9–17.2], primarily from falls, fires, and eye injuries.
      PubDate: 2019-07-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-019-0021-9
  • Numerical Recreation of Field Cases on a Biofidelic Human FE Model
           Involving Deformable Less-Lethal Projectiles
    • Abstract: Since the 1970s, there has been an increased interest in the use and development of less lethal kinetic energy (LLKE) projectiles. These weapons are mainly used by law enforcement officers worldwide in cases of riot and crowd control. Even if such projectiles are designed to incapacitate an individual with a low risk of serious injuries, the literature indicates a risk of thorax injuries like rib fractures and lung and heart contusions when a projectile strikes the body. Among published articles discussing the wounding potential of LLKE projectiles, two are particularly well documented describing two field cases involving deformable projectiles (eXact iMpact™ and Flash-Ball®). However, one question remains: how to properly exploit field cases in order to find both injury thresholds and guidelines for the design of LLKE projectiles' Hence, the authors focus their research on the use of numerical tools as the finite element (FE) method to recreate the real impact conditions on a biofidelic human torso FE model. It requires the accurate modeling of the deformable projectiles at dynamic strain rates. To address that issue, the study begins by several ballistic experiments on a rigid wall equipped with a load sensor and a high-speed camera. The impact force measured and high-speed images are directly used in an inverse procedure to optimize model parameters of the concerned projectile to correlate impact experiments and modeling. Finally, this is followed by the impact modeling on the human torso FE model and the identification of model-dependent numerical metrics suitable to predict lung and heart contusions. While efforts need to be pursued, this present research provides an interesting step towards designing effective and reliable LLKE projectiles.
      PubDate: 2019-07-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-019-0022-8
  • Toward a Reference Non-Lethal Projectile to Validate Blunt Trauma Injury
           Evaluation Models
    • Abstract: Kinetic energy non-lethal weapon (KENLW) systems remain one of the most widespread type of non-lethal weapons on the field. NATO has recently published four standardized documents in order to assess the injury potential of such projectiles. The area of interest of this article is the documents standardizing the thoracic and the head non-penetrative impacts (STANREC 4744: AEP 99 and AEP 103). The proposed process is to shoot the projectile on a target and dynamically measure physical parameters, linked to the level of injuries. They give the user the choice of the appropriate target, as soon as the response of the system, impacted by a specific non-lethal projectile, remains in a specified range. So far, this process is performed using a commercially available projectile. This solution has two main drawbacks. On the one hand, the projectiles are rather expensive and expandable. On the other hand, the community has no control over the mechanical properties and behavior of the projectile. If the manufacturer modifies some characteristics of its projectile, the effect on the reproducibility of the test will be dramatic. The objective of this study is to propose an alternate projectile, easy to develop, called “Bullet Simulating Non-Lethal Projectiles” (BSNLP), in which the purpose is to replace the reference projectile in the standard. This projectile must be representative of the projectiles on the market, easy to produce with off-the-shelf components, and fully characterized, in order to allow the user to choose its own way to implement it. This article is focused on 40-mm projectiles. Components, characteristics, and building methodologies are presented. Then, an experimental setup is proposed and results are presented in order to compare them with other KENLW projectiles. Finally, conclusions and way ahead are presented.
      PubDate: 2019-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-019-0026-4
  • Rubber Batons and Ricochets: a Case Report
    • Abstract: This paper is actually a case report from an “accident” during SWAT team training, resulting in injuries by Fiocchi rubber baton bullets. Two people were injured in this incident, one suffering multiple finger bone fractures and the other had a 3-cm-wide and 3-cm-deep open wound in the inner thigh, with kind of distant traumas around this wound. Two versions of the incident were in dispute. The prosecutor hypothesis supposed direct shots on the victims from a distance between 5 and 10 m. The defendant version claimed that injuries resulted from uncontrolled ricochets on a concrete floor at a distance between 3 and 5 m from the victims. We had then to assess the behavior of such bullets after ricochets (angles of departure and stability after ricochet, kinetic energy retained) and the wounding ability of such bullets. Our protocol included high-speed video tracking, test shots on simulants, and Doppler radar tracking. The results showed clear support to the prosecutor version, since after a ricochet, the angle of departure never exceeded 5°, the mean loss of velocity was 39 m/s, and the flight was clearly unstable for at least 3 m. Direct shots on simulants appeared positively correlated to the wound, even though this model showed limits in its validity. This case may then be of interest for professionals in the non-lethal weapons area and those involved in army or law enforcement doctrine conception.
      PubDate: 2019-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-019-0027-3
  • Scaled WHA Long Rod Projectile Impact Against an Armour Steel
    • Abstract: Ballistic performance of an armour steel against a scaled-down tungsten heavy alloy projectile having an L/D ratio of 14 was investigated. The depth of penetration in the steel target plate was measured for different impact velocities (900–1400 m/s) using scaled-down experimental tests. Penetration velocities were calculated from the measured depth of penetration data using a steady-state relationship, and it is found to have a linear relationship with impact velocity. Using the linear relationship, penetration velocity at a higher impact velocity (1600 m/s) was calculated and was found to be in agreement with the full-scale experimental results for the projectiles with L/D = 16. The relative strength of the target and penetrator (Rt–Yp) was calculated and found to increase initially and then decrease to zero as the impact velocity approaches the hydrodynamic range. Maximum Rt–Yp was observed at a velocity of around 1000 m/s which is close to the critical velocity for commencement of eroding steady-state penetration. Microstructural observations on impacted target and projectiles have shown that both the target as well as penetrator materials undergo erosion during the penetration.
      PubDate: 2019-06-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-019-0018-4
  • Human Effects Assessment of 40-mm Nonlethal Impact Munitions
    • Abstract: An extensive human effects study was conducted on 40-mm nonlethal impact munitions having two different projectile nose configurations: a compliant sponge nose and a frangible foam nose carrying a powder payload. The study included an initial characterization of the rounds using the blunt criterion (BC). Injury risk assessment was done using two previously validated surrogates; thoracic blunt impact assessment utilized the 3-rib ballistic impact dummy (3RBID), and penetrating trauma assessment utilized a biomechanical surrogate consisting of ordnance gelatin and a specific combination of layers to simulate skin and underlying soft tissue. Production impact munitions were manufactured to produce a range of energy levels on impact by adjusting the propellant charge in the smokeless propulsion system, resulting in different projectile muzzle velocities. Twenty-three impacts were performed on the 3RBID biomechanical surrogate at kinetic energy levels in the range of 148–257 J to generate viscous criterion (VCmax) levels for injury assessment. The production configurations of the sponge and frangible-nose munitions were compared to the acceptable values for blunt trauma (VCmax ≤ 0.8). Thirty-nine impacts were done on a skin penetration surrogate at kinetic energy levels in the range of 170–305 J and the impact energies corresponding to penetrations were identified and compared with the production configurations for these munitions and with the expected energy density values for a 50% risk of penetration for specific areas of the body.
      PubDate: 2019-04-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-019-0017-5
  • Energetic Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials for Future Defense Applications
    • Abstract: The integration of nanostructured materials in defense systems is expected to improve their performance in terms of power, safety, and reliability. That is why considerable research effort has been undertaken by major military powers worldwide in this domain. The first important step was to develop the production capacities of organic explosives in the state of fine powders with submicron to nanosized particle size distributions. The Spray Flash Evaporation (SFE) process, which is a unique method for producing such materials, was developed at industrial scale. Explosive nanopowders obtained by this process were subsequently mixed with nanosized pyrotechnic compositions such as nanothermites, to prepare hybrid detonating materials able to replace lead-based primary explosives. Composite propellants can also be prepared by SFE which allows mixing their components in a single step with better homogeneity. The ultimate challenge is to move from powder to object, in order to integrate energetic nanomaterials in operational systems. Although the research in this last domain is still in its infancy, several ways of preparation of objects from nanothermites have been recently reported in scientific literature. The focus will be on two examples studied in our laboratory. The first one is the preparation of nanothermites in the state of solid, porous foams; the second one is the use of nanothermites for coating grains of propulsive powder to change their combustion properties.
      PubDate: 2019-02-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-019-0016-6
  • The Simulation of the Whole-Body Vibration Experienced During Military
           Land Transit
    • Abstract: The simulation of field-based exposures, such as the random whole-body vibration (WBV) experienced during periods of military land transit, in a laboratory setting, allows for greater control over potentially confounding factors. This paper describes a method used to simulate the WBV experienced during military land transit. Acceleration data were collected during military transit. These data were used as the command signal to control a 6 degree-of-freedom Stewart platform. The accelerations of the Stewart platform were then compared to the measured military transit accelerations to validate the approach. Our analysis identified moderate accuracy in the 0–3 Hz frequency range for both simulations. The sealed road simulation demonstrated 17, 25, and 8% error and the cross-country simulation, 4, 7, and 4% error in the x, y, and z-axes, respectively. Outside of this frequency range, the error was ≤ 2%. The accurate simulation of the mechanical WBV experienced during periods of motorised military land transit will allow future laboratory-based studies to explore the impact of these forces on Australian Defence Force personnel.
      PubDate: 2018-10-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-018-0015-z
  • Non-lethal Projectile Characterisation Method: Application to 40-mm SIR-X
           and Condor NT901 Projectiles
    • Abstract: The growing market of kinetic energy non-lethal weapons (KENLW) using deformable projectiles has increased the need of numerically assessing the impacts of KENLW projectiles on the human body in terms of injury risk and consequently the determination of the effective distance of use of these weapons. In the context of simulations of non-lethal impacts on the human body using finite element method, a method of characterisation and validation of deformable non-lethal projectiles is investigated due to the practical difficulty of characterising the projectile deformable part with conventional tests. This method combines in one step the characterisation of the projectile deformable part and the validation of the projectile. It is based on the results of real projectile shots on the rigid wall equipped with a force sensor. To apply the method, two projectiles are used: the 40-mm B&T SIR-X sponge grenade and the CONDOR NT901 projectile. Good correspondence is obtained between the numerical results and the experimental results.
      PubDate: 2018-07-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-018-0014-0
  • Injury Risk of the Human Leg Under High Rate Axial Loading
    • Abstract: This paper proposes a new risk function for lower limb fractures from high rate axial loading, such as that expected in under vehicle explosions. The aim is to improve the prediction of such fractures based on the loads measured by an Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) during blast testing. This function has been created by combining data from six different peer-reviewed post mortem human subjects (PMHS) studies. The work, which led to the risk function, considered proximal tibia force as the primary indicator of fracture, with age, sex and body mass considered as covariates. Previous studies considered age as a linear covariate to allow the elderly PMHS population results to be mapped onto a younger population. The literature review as part of this study found, however, that bone strength varies non-linearly with age. Extrapolating bone strength linearly may therefore overestimate the strength of younger populations’ lower limbs. This study uses a non-linear variation of bone strength with age and optimised parameters within this function to produce a Weibull risk curve with a minimum spread. The function described is for loads on the human; for it to be applicable in vehicle testing, there is a need to account for the response of the ATD.
      PubDate: 2018-06-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-018-0009-x
  • Initial Adaption of the Injury Risk of the Human Leg Under High Rate Axial
           Loading for Use with a Hybrid III
    • Abstract: Hybrid III Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) are widely used in testing of military vehicles against Under Body Blast. The relationship, however, between the axial load through the lower leg of the Hybrid III and that through the human tibia has not been quantified. This paper describes a transfer function that relates the measurement from the lower tibia load cell of a booted Hybrid III to the axial force in a post mortem human subject (PMHS). By incorporating this transfer function into an existing injury risk function, a prediction of the likelihood of fracture within the human leg can be obtained from the Hybrid III data. By changing the values of the coefficients within the transfer function to those derived using the maximum error, rather than the average, conservative predictions of probability of fracture can also be obtained. The transfer function is based on a combination of published experimental data, new experiments, and computational modelling. This imposes limitations on the applicability of this prediction process and its accuracy: the time to peak axial force must be less than 10 ms; the accuracy of the prediction depends on the veracity of the PMHS lumped-parameter model used, and the predictions are only truly applicable to the specific boot used in this study. This tentative prediction process indicates that the 10% probability of fracture for a 55 kg female under 40 years old and for an 85 kg male under 40 years old wearing a desert combat boot is related to forces measured by the lower tibial load cell of a Hybrid III wearing the same boot of 7.2 and 11.7 kN, respectively. The transfer function suggested here is the best tool to date for interpreting Hybrid III leg forces into risk of injury to the human leg.
      PubDate: 2018-06-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-018-0011-3
  • Ballistic Impacts on Bone: Effect of Preloading
    • Abstract: An experiment to investigate the effect of preloading on bone impacts by projectiles was undertaken. During this experiment, a total of 59 bones were impacted. Red deer tibias were used, with impacts to the shaft under three different loading conditions. The purpose of the trial was to provide an indication on whether preloading a bone has an effect on chance of perforation, or type and level of fracture sustained. This is important because the United Kingdom (UK) Ministry of Defence (MOD) requires accurate injury models to aid with decision-making and risk analyses.
      PubDate: 2018-05-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-018-0010-4
  • Interspecies Scaling in Blast Pulmonary Trauma
    • Abstract: The increased frequency of blast exposure from improvised explosive devices in military settings and terrorist bombings in civilian settings has led to extensive investigation of blast trauma. Thousands of tests have been conducted in animal models of blast trauma across a large range of body size. Experimental results are often compared without consideration of interspecies scaling. A dataset of published fatality data from 4193 tests using 5 different large and small blast trauma model species was compiled to assess interspecies scaling and pulmonary fatality risk. Simultaneously, an overpressure duration interspecies scaling based on allometric principles was optimized to create a common fatality risk model scaled for species. A two-variable nonlinear logistic regression model was used to describe fatality risk. Minimization of the loglikelihood was used to optimize the fit. A large portion of existing blast trauma data was excluded due to incomplete reporting of methodology or blast dosage. The most common species used was mice with 1828 tests followed by sheep with 1309. A nonlinear regression model with an optimized duration interspecies scaling model was used to fit the experimental data from all species. Long duration peak pressure tolerance for small and large animals was found to be approximately 90 and 145 kPa, respectively. Using a body mass ratio scaling model for overpressure duration, the duration interspecies scaling exponent was found to be α = 0.351. This study shows the importance and strong effect of interspecies scaling for blast research, especially when extrapolating the human equivalent dose from the small species commonly used.
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s41314-018-0013-1
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