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  Subjects -> MILITARY (Total: 106 journals)
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Scandinavian Journal of Military Studies
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2596-3856
Published by Scandinavian Military Studies Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Military Muscle-Flexing as Interstate Communication: Russian NOTAM
           Warnings off the Coast of Norway, 2015–2021

    • Abstract: When, where, and why does Russia issue warnings about missile launches and other potentially dangerous military activities in international waters and airspace west and north of Norway' Drawing on information derived from a series of Russian “Notices to Airmen” (NOTAMs), this article examines the pattern of Russia’s live-fire air and naval exercises in and over the Norwegian and Barents Seas between January 2015 and December 2021. It discusses factors that may explain the extent and nature of Russia’s military muscle-flexing in the region. The study suggests that a number of the Russian exercises and missile launches, particularly in areas adjacent to Norway’s west coast, were primarily meant to obstruct Norwegian/NATO exercises such as the Trident Juncture exercise of 2018. On a number of occasions, Russia’s NOTAM warnings appear to have been tailored for the purpose of intimidating Norway and its allies and communicating Russia’s displeasure with the occasional presence of United States and other NATO forces on or outside Norway’s territory. Published on 2022-06-14 12:13:59
  • Military Innovation as the Result of Mental Models of Technology

    • Abstract: Heightened political tensions and advances in technological development have prompted Scandinavian countries to increase investment in military research and capability development. The aim of this study is to gain a better understanding of why actors sharing similar strategic cultures implement new technology for military purposes differently. The research is founded on a cognitive-psychological perspective comparing two cases of innovation processes: Swedish nuclear weapons development during the Cold War and developments in Swedish cyber defence during the first decades of the 21st century. The main finding is that military innovation is better explained through a consideration of shared mental models of new technology than it is through a consideration of strategic cultures. The analysis shows there are implications for capability development. First, military innovation processes are only initiated if and when new technology appears militarily relevant to an actor; thus, the ability to correctly assess the military relevance of technology at an early stage is crucial. Second, the forming of shared mental models can both contribute to and counteract military innovation and, thus, decision-makers need to be aware both that mental models can be shared and that confirmation bias affects actors on a collective level. Third, it is likely that military innovation processes benefit from mental models being challenged and from diverging mental models being made evident. Consequently, it is good practice, also from this study’s perspective, to diversify and welcome different views on the use of new technology. Further studies are solicited in order to develop practical guidelines. Published on 2022-04-14 10:13:32
  • Competitive Strategies in the European High North

    • Abstract: This article studies Russian military strategy, concepts and capabilities as we find them today and as we are projected to find them in 10 to 15 years and explores potential weaknesses in Russian military power. In this light, it scrutinises defence efforts made by NATO and its key allies and makes an assessment of military strategies and concepts to deter and, if needed, to deal with Russian action in the High North of Europe. The article applies a net assessment and competitive strategies approach, entailing study of Russian, Norwegian and NATO ends and concepts. Within this framework, the study discusses Norwegian response options, arguing that Russia’s layered defence in the European High North can be effectively deterred and defeated. This requires investment, firstly, in capabilities which both mitigate Norwegian and NATO weakness and offer the possibility of exploiting Russian weaknesses, and, secondly, in prudent and suitable strategies and operational concepts. Published on 2022-03-01 12:20:05
  • Command and Control in a Fifth Generation Air Force: Coordination
           Requirements of Air Operations with F-35 and the Command and
           Control-System of the Norwegian Armed Forces

    • Abstract: This article discusses the ways in which the F-35 Lightning aircraft might affect the command and control (C2) of the Royal Norwegian Air Force. It emphasises the importance of coordination answering questions regarding the effect of the implementation of the F-35 on interdependencies with other capabilities. This foundation is further used to discuss possible implications for elements central to C2 such as procedures, personnel, and communication and information systems. Based on the capabilities of the F-35 system, we find a development of interdependencies across domains and C2 levels in the Norwegian armed forces; the complexity of these interdependencies, influenced both by the execution of air operations and by environmental contingencies, means that the organisation needs to be flexible in its use of coordination mechanisms. We find that interdependence, and the coordination necessary if it is to be successful, have implications for command and control of air operations involving F-35 aircraft. We suggest the organisation should adopt a more active use of both hierarchical and horizontal structures to accommodate the sharing of knowledge and information across domains and C2 levels. Procedures need to include methods and systems for the delegation of authority, and personnel require knowledge of interdependencies and multi-domain operations. Finally, communication and information systems need to be available, interoperable, and robust. Published on 2022-02-16 11:24:41
  • Sensemaking og transaktive hukommelsessystemer i strid

    • Abstract: Sensemaking and dynamics concerning transactive memory systems (TMS) were crucial to the outcome of the battle of Kamdesh, which took place in Afghanistan on October 3rd 2009. A small outpost of predominantly American soldiers suffered an attack by a numerically overwhelming enemy force. The Americans came close to being wiped out but managed to turn the battle in their favor.The article looks at both dynamics inside the unit on the ground, as well as within the emerging team constituted by ground force components and air support. A key takeaway is that sensemaking is a critical process, where poor execution can make a group vulnerable to psychological shock, which in turn could threaten to destroy the group. Furthermore, the article looks at how rotating key personnel in combat areas can impact group performance and survival negatively. Finally, different possibilities for how organizing tasks may develop in emerging teams is explored, finding differences in the emphasis on differentiation and integration of knowledge in various team constellations at work in the battle.In conclusion, the article proposes that optimizing for high team performance outweighs the costs this has for handling more common but less complex and critical combat incidents. Published on 2022-02-01 11:39:44
  • Exploring Morale in an Active Warzone: A Study of the Predictors of Morale
           During Deployment to Afghanistan

    • Abstract: Soldiers’ morale is an important determinant for the success of military operations. However, the military morale literature lacks studies that rely on a theoretical background, use comparative data from pre-deployment periods, or specify the factors that affect morale during deployment. This article aims to provide a theoretically-informed analysis of aspects understood to influence the morale of Danish soldiers during deployment in an active warzone. We use an explorative approach to investigate the main determinants of morale in a deployed unit using the following eight factors: cohesion, esprit de corps, leadership, shared purpose/common goal, resilience, preparedness and training, discipline and working conditions. The theoretical background provided by van ‘t Wout and van Dyk provides a multidimensional focus on morale, focusing on cohesion, leadership, discipline, purpose, and work environment. The data were obtained from questionnaires given to the soldiers in the Danish battlegroup prior to and during deployment in the southern part of Afghanistan in 2007; 423 were included in the study. Our results indicate that leadership, cohesion and common purpose are the three most important determinants of forming the perception of morale. Published on 2021-12-29 12:08:32
  • Deployment of Light Infantry Under Air Mobility Doctrine – A Historical
           Study of Helicopter-deployed Light Infantry

    • Abstract: Can the present learn from the past' Moreover, if so, what lessons can we learn'The Danish Parliament instructed the Armed Forces to create a light infantry unit. What resulted is the Slesvig Regiment of Foot, designed to conduct operations using helicopters and/or navy vessels.This article is an analysis of the lessons that can be learned from three historic cases using light infantry in an air mobile capacity and under an air mobility doctrine. The need for such an analysis comes from the fact that this is a new way of conducting military operations for the Danish Army.The cases are the American insertion at Ia Drang Valley in Vietnam 1965, the Rhodesian Bush War 1974–1980 and the British Operation Palliser in Sierra Leone 2000; all three chosen because they illustrate similarities and differences that will give the analysis the broader perspective needed to provide suitable lessons for a future Danish concept of operations for the light infantry unit. All three cases have a doctrinal background that are applicable in a Danish context.The article argues that there are a number of lessons to be learned, such as the adherence to an air mobile doctrine, command and control measures, the level of training, and the experience and mind-set of the commanders. The elements of surprise, fire support, aggression when needed, flexibility, communication and the units’ organization and equipment also provide valuable lessons. Published on 2021-12-27 13:33:53
  • Collective Command: Problems and Perspectives for Military Operational
           Leadership in the 21st Century

    • Abstract: Anthony King’s Command: The Twenty-First-Century General claims to present a new perspective on command, in which a radical change of command from an “individualistic” to a “collective” practice has taken place since the 20th century. In this article, we critically assess two key ideas in King’s work, namely “collective command” and “complexity”. These are issues which are mirrored in contemporary collective leadership literature and complexity management discourse. We argue that this engagement with collective leadership and complexity has some unfortunate consequences for King’s assessment of military organization and how command practices have changed. The outset for our critique is what we perceive to be a “surreptitious slide” – namely a slide from analytical insights about the present and past to generalizations and prescriptions about the future of command and the organizational context in which it unfolds. The slide is reflected in a lack of specificity concerning what is and what ought to be. We suggest that scholars and practitioners attend to the diversity of actions within timeframes, specific situations, and contextual settings rather than evoke wishful thinking and legitimize specific visions of future realities. This would, among other things, shed light on how concrete issues of power, conflict, and tensions co-exist in divisional headquarters and beyond. Published on 2021-12-21 15:01:56
  • Joining Forces Over Afghanistan: The EPAF “Experiment”

    • Abstract: From 2002 to 2003, F-16s of the Royal Netherlands Air Force, the Royal Norwegian Air Force and the Royal Danish Air Force flew side by side in the hostile skies over Afghanistan. United under the wings of the European Participating Air Forces (EPAF), a unique, trinational alliance, they represented their countries’ flying contribution to the American-led Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). Each country deployed six F-16 fighter-bombers, together forming one squadron-sized detachment. In theory at least, the EPAF enabled the smaller European air forces to make a proportionally greater contribution to OEF than they could have done individually. By joining forces, the participating air forces made optimal use of their limited resources – a typical small powers strategy enacted by the three countries to overcome the structural limitations of their military capabilities in a long-standing allied arrangement. This article is a comparative study of the experiences gained concerning the cooperation between the three air forces and the interoperability of the EPAF detachment within the larger OEF coalition; its conclusion is that, although working within the trinational framework revealed differences on the political, military-operational, tactical-technical and personnel level, most of these problems were eventually overcome. All things considered, the EPAF did offer these smaller countries an instrument to demonstrate their solidarity with the United States and provide a significant contribution to the Global War on Terror, making it a prime “operational” example of effective small or middle power strategy to mitigate (combat) limitations in an asymmetrical multinational relationship vis-à-vis the United States. Published on 2021-11-15 11:33:02
  • Juggling Risks: Towards a Safe and Inclusive Work Environment for Pregnant
           Soldiers in the Danish Army

    • Abstract: This article investigates the negative experience of pregnant soldiers. Drawing on seven interviews with female officers pregnant during their service in the Danish army, the article shows how, obliged to prioritise between the welfare of their unborn child and themselves on one hand and, on the other, the physically demanding performance of the military role model leading by example in the successful execution of their duties, these officers find it difficult reconciling the role of mother-to-be and the role of soldier. The pregnant body offers a challenge to the pregnant officer’s performance as a disciplined and physically able soldier, it is argued; this, in turn, challenges the pregnant officer’s social identity as soldier and leader. The article offers evidence that prevailing gender biases present difficulties for pregnant soldiers seeking to successfully navigate the demands of their work life. As leaders in the army seem to overlook these challenges, the two principal purposed of the article are as follows: First, to spell out the need to better support serving mothers-to-be through the enforcement of a pregnancy policy intented to secure a healthy work environment. Second, that if we are to secure equal opportunities for men and women in the armed forces, equity must be achieved through strategies of gender mainstreaming. However, a change in the work culture of the army is needed to make equity socially acceptable. These purposes will be supported by reference to the case study of pregnant soldiers. Published on 2021-10-25 10:16:11
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