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  Subjects -> MILITARY (Total: 106 journals)
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Scandinavian Journal of Military Studies
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2596-3856
Published by Scandinavian Military Studies Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Integration is the New Black: Thoughts on Future Warfare in Academic and
           Military Discourses

    • Abstract: Western military policy-formation and doctrine seems to be gravitating towards the idea of integration, reflected in concepts such as integrated campaigning, Integrated Operating Concept, and Multi-Domain Integration – among others. Despite the increasing use of the term within military doctrines and concept papers, there is little scholarly writing on what “integration” actually means. This study contributes to the small but growing body of research on joint operations with a novel analysis on how the term “integration,” and its sister term “interoperability,” are used within academic and military discourses. The results show that the terms are given different meanings both across and within discourses. It can be deduced that “integration” is generally understood as the merging of domains and services towards joint goals while “interoperability” is often presented as the ability to combine systems, forces, and planning across services. These findings are used to create a conceptual model which distinguishes between operability, interoperability, and integration as preconditions for the conduct of joint operations. The model is in turn useful for both scholars and practitioners when discussing or assessing capabilities to perform joint operations. Published on 2022-11-16 12:56:35
       
  • What Military Commanders do and how they do it: Executive Decision-Making
           in the Context of Standardised Planning Processes and Doctrine

    • Abstract: In this article, I explore how contemporary military commanders understand command in the context of standardised planning processes, doctrine, and a supporting staff organiation. The article is based on 30 interviews with former and current NATO commanders and senior staff officers. I describe the interplay between commanders and their staff, including its clear division of labour, authority, and responsibility. I argue that commanders make key decisions in the planning process based on professional judgement. Commanders recognise the usefulness and limits of structured decision-making processes and doctrine while acknowledging also the need for surprise, creativity, and risk-taking. Left unattended, the military staff tends to develop mechanical behaviour by following a bureaucratic logic of rationality, control, and optimisation. In this context, command is a distinct and necessary function for the making of key decisions that allow for creative applications of doctrine, while avoiding any succumbing to predictable textbook solutions. Finally, the article points toward the importance of developing future commanders and their staff officers to understand the limits of doctrine and procedural approaches and develop professional judgement. Published on 2022-11-15 12:14:20
       
  • Why Fighter Pilots are Leaving the Swedish Armed Forces – and how to
           Retain them

    • Abstract: The number of fighter pilots in Sweden retiring from service, many prematurely, currently exceeds the number of those being trained to replace them. This article examines the factors and circumstances related to the work motivation of pilots and what the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) can do to retain them. It examines the perspectives of fighter pilots serving today and those who have chosen to leave the SAF since 2013, providing descriptions of different ideal professional types and what might provoke them to leave the profession, or motivate them to stay longer. Four ideal types of pilots are identified. These ideal types are (a) the extrinsically motivated; (b) the high-performing; (c) the family-oriented; and (d) the specialist. This article supports the idea that there is no single inducement for fighter pilots to leave the SAF. Our recommendations for retaining pilots differ depending on type and experience level. While increased salaries and better retirement agreements are essential, local career opportunities, less time away from family, more administrative support to squadrons, long-term career planning, rewarding challenges, and opportunities to study are also important. Some uniquely positive aspects, such as serving a higher purpose, flying experiences, and squadron community, motivate fighter pilots to remain. Published on 2022-11-01 10:54:39
       
  • Swedish Coastal Defence Over Four Centuries: War as a Changing Institution
           of International Society

    • Abstract: This is an article on Swedish coastal defence over four centuries. It seeks to understand the changes in Swedish naval policy over time by exploring how the understanding of the nature of war visible in defence planning varies over time, due to both changing norms and changes in harder factors, such as geography, resources and adversaries’ capabilities. Its primary aim is to account for the development of Sweden’s naval capacities from the mid-seventeenth century onwards. For this, the article draws on sea power concepts. Its secondary aim is to explore the development of war as an institution of international society by studying only one – albeit historically very central – aspect of one state’s warring capacity over time, namely its navy. Published on 2022-10-26 10:46:48
       
  • High Profile, Low Availability: The Emerging US Maritime-Strategic
           Approach to NATO’s Northern Flank

    • Abstract: In the 1990s and early 2000s, the United States held the Northern Flank a low priority in maritime-strategic considerations. Increasing Russian naval power, however, and a deterioration of the relationship between NATO and Russia following the 2014 invasion of Crimea, and the conflict in eastern Ukraine that followed, saw the Northern Flank return to maritime-strategic thinking around 2016. Given that the principal focus of US naval forces remains the Pacific, however, what are the central tenets of the emergent maritime-strategic approach of the United States to the Northern Flank' Describing these tenets, this article introduces the concept of High-Profile, Low-Availability (HIPLA). The core of the concept is twofold. First, the United States signals its enduring maritime interests through isolated operations and exercises sending a strong diplomatic message to all parties involved. This is the ‘high-profile’ aspect. Second, while the decisiveness of the initial phase of operations highlights the importance of swift and substantial reinforcement of the Northern Flank, US naval forces are not available for such a response. This is the ‘low-availability’ aspect. Further, as US naval forces become increasingly occupied in the Pacific, the availability of these forces is likely to continue to dwindle. Ultimately, HIPLA relates to the credibility of extended deterrence on behalf of the United States. This article describes the main characteristics of the HIPLA concept using NATO’s Northern Flank as a case study. Many issues outlined in this article are universal to the US Navy and may therefore be relevant to other regions. Published on 2022-09-26 09:36:39
       
  • Foreword to the Special Issue on Military Exercises and Wargaming In
           Professional Military Education

    • Abstract: This foreword provides the context for introducing the 11 articles constituting this Scandinavian Journal of Military Studies’ special issue on the topic of military exercises and educational wargaming. It does so by describing the subject matter and the research project that made this publication possible. It also brings to the fore two assumptions that underpin the project. First, how critical officer competence is to national defense; without it even the most well-equipped armed forces will crumble when put to the test. Second, it illustrates the educational value that military exercises and wargames provide in developing officer competence by situating military students within a professionally relevant, engaging and challenging learning environment that mirrors realistic scenarios they will encounter, but without the risk associated. Published on 2022-09-19 11:29:53
       
  • Wargaming and The Cycle of Research and Learning

    • Abstract: Some thirty years ago, I coined the concept of the Cycle of Research, which described how wargaming, exercises and analysis, coupled with real-world operations and history, have worked together in concert to help the national-security community to understand better political-military reality and its past and future evolutions. When first proposed, I had in mind the uses of Wargaming in the analytical context, or what the community of professional wargamers most often calls research wargaming. Over the years, however, I began to recognize how much the same integration of tools and techniques can—and should—influence education and training for national-security professionals, both uniform and civilian: In essence, a Cycle of Learning. In this paper I explore these ideas more fully. I hope these musings can be of some help and inspiration for future researchers to probe deeper into the application of all our tools in the critically important task of educating future leaders. That task can be made more successful by using wargaming to help structure a framework for PME that integrates the inspiration, instruction, and application of the key knowledge and habits of mind—the mental muscle memory—required to operate effectively in the real world and to demonstrate those characteristics in the game, whatever form that may take. Published on 2022-09-19 11:06:29
       
  • The Use and Misuse of Wargames

    • Abstract: Since 2015, there has been a resurgence in the use of wargaming in NATO states. But countries with smaller wargaming communities have not seen a corresponding revitalization of the technique. If the interest is there, the capability often lacks. The paper argues that a critical first step in stimulating the role of wargaming in these countries is ensuring that local practitioners know of each other, so they can exchange experiences on gaming results and practices; further, they need an understanding of what wargaming might (and might not) be, and the steps necessary to make the technique work in practice. The paper offers experiences from wargames conducted by analysts and researchers at the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI), for the most part games on the strategic and operational level. The experiences are structured as eight broad lessons on “dos and don’ts” to consider when planning and running wargames, based on recurring practical issues in past games. While the lessons are drawn from experiences within a small wargaming community, many of the issues discussed are universal for wargaming at large. Published on 2022-09-19 11:00:55
       
  • Wargaming Dos and Don’ts – Eight Lessons for Planning and
           Conducting Wargames

    • Abstract: Since 2015, there has been a resurgence in the use of wargaming in NATO states. But countries with smaller wargaming communities have not seen a corresponding revitalization of the technique. If the interest is there, the capability often lacks. The paper argues that a critical first step in stimulating the role of wargaming in these countries is ensuring that local practitioners know of each other, so they can exchange experiences on gaming results and practices; further, they need an understanding of what wargaming might (and might not) be, and the steps necessary to make the technique work in practice. The paper offers experiences from wargames conducted by analysts and researchers at the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI), for the most part games on the strategic and operational level. The experiences are structured as eight broad lessons on “dos and don’ts” to consider when planning and running wargames, based on recurring practical issues in past games. While the lessons are drawn from experiences within a small wargaming community, many of the issues discussed are universal for wargaming at large. Published on 2022-09-19 10:55:56
       
  • Professional Knowledge through Wargames and Exercises

    • Abstract: In professional military education (PME), wargames and field-training exercises are among the pedagogical tools used to teach students to be professional officers. It is generally accepted that wargames are important sources of insight – even if, as Peter Perla (2012, p. 157) points out, they are “not real.” Notwithstanding the truism that there exists a gap between the game and reality, the wargame is a tool designed to provide the learner something to aid them in the real world. There are discussions in the literature concerning which aspects of the experience and practice of gameplaying are relevant to the player’s understanding of the aspect of reality their game is about; here, Perla’s discussion of the categorization of wargaming analysis is useful (2012, pp. 231–239), as is the report Wargame Pathologies (Weuve et al., 2004). While, with a few exceptions, the literature on wargaming does not engage with the fundamental epistemological questions of wargaming, there is a tendency to demarcate the relevance of wargaming for professional competence to specific aspects or domains of knowledge. In this article I argue that wargaming and field-training exercises in PME shape the future officer’s understanding and professional practices in much more profound ways than commonly assumed. Starting from Wittgenstein’s philosophy of language and his discussions of what learning means and how meaning arises, I will show that, as far as learning to become an officer is concerned, wargames and exercises are intrinsically educative: learning inevitably takes place, and this learning shapes, in fundamental ways, how the officer understands and responds to situations they might face as a professional practitioner. The article proceeds in three steps. First, the theoretical basis for the argument, a Wittgensteinian view of learning and of professional knowledge, is presented; second, the nature of wargames and exercises, and their nature as sources for knowledge, are discussed; and in the final section, the implications for our understanding of wargames and exercises in professional military education of the preceding two sections are suggested. Published on 2022-09-19 10:51:44
       
 
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