A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

              [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

  Subjects -> MILITARY (Total: 106 journals)
Showing 1 - 24 of 24 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Fragata     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acanto     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Africa Conflict Monitor     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Âncoras e Fuzis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Armed Conflict Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Armed Forces & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Arms & Armour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
British Journal for Military History     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Caderno de Ciências Navais     Open Access  
Ciencia y Poder Aéreo     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Civil Wars     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Coleção Meira Mattos : Revista das Ciências Militares     Open Access  
Conflict, Security & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 279)
Critical Military Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CRMA Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Marte     Open Access  
Defence and Peace Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Defence Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Defence Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Defence Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Defense & Security Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Digital War     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Doutrina Militar Terrestre em Revista     Open Access  
Eesti Sõjaajaloo Aastaraamat / Estonian Yearbook of Military History     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Espírito de Corpo     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
EsSEX : Revista Científica     Open Access  
First World War Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Fra Krig og Fred     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gettysburg Magazine     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Factors and Mechanical Engineering for Defense and Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Informativo Marítimo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Bibliography of Military History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Intelligent Defence Support Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Military History and Historiography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Peacekeeping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 260)
Journal for Maritime Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of African Military History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Archives in Military Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Chinese Military History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction     Open Access  
Journal of Defense Analytics and Logistics     Open Access  
Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation : Applications, Methodology, Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Defense Studies & Resource Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Military and Strategic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Military and Veterans Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Military Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Military Experience     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Military History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Military Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of National Security Law & Policy     Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of power institutions in post-soviet societies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Slavic Military Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Terrorism Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal on Baltic Security     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Martial Arts Studies     Open Access  
Media, War & Conflict     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Medical Journal Armed Forces India     Full-text available via subscription  
Medicine, Conflict and Survival     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Military Behavioral Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Military Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Military Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Military Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Modern Information Technologies in the Sphere of Security and Defence     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Naval Research Logistics: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Navigator     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nonproliferation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
O Adjunto : Revista Pedagógica da Escola de Aperfeiçoamento de Sargentos das Armas     Open Access  
O Periscópio     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Perspectives on Terrorism     Open Access   (Followers: 267)
Post-Soviet Armies Newsletter     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Problemy Mechatroniki. Uzbrojenie, lotnictwo, inżynieria bezpieczeństwa / Problems of Mechatronics. Armament, Aviation, Safety Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Agulhas Negras     Open Access  
Revista Babilônia     Open Access  
Revista Científica Fundação Osório     Open Access  
Revista Científica General José María Córdova     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Medicina Militar     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista do Exército     Open Access  
Revista Militar de Ciência e Tecnologia     Open Access  
Revista Naval de Odontologia On Line / Naval Dental Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Política y Estrategia     Open Access  
Sabretache     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sanidad Militar     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Military Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Scientific Journal of Polish Naval Academy     Open Access  
Security and Defence Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Signals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Small Wars & Insurgencies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 256)
Small Wars Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Social Development & Security : Journal of Scientific Papers     Open Access  
Special Operations Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Strategic Comments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
The Military Balance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
The RUSI Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
United Service     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
University of Miami National Security & Armed Conflict Law Review     Open Access  
Vojnotehnički Glasnik     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
War & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
War in History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Whitehall Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Wiedza Obronna     Open Access  
선진국방연구     Open Access  

              [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.303
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0035-8665 - ISSN (Online) 2052-0468
Published by BMJ Publishing Group Homepage  [62 journals]
  • Closing the gender gap in military health and performance: a special issue
           of BMJ Military Health

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Wardle, S; P Greeves, J, Breeze, J.
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T01:00:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1136/military-2023-002345
      Issue No: Vol. 169, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Integrating women into ground close combat roles: an opportunity to
           reflect on universal paradigms of arduous training

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Friedl, K. E; Gifford, R. M.
      Pages: 1 - 2
      Keywords: Open access
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T01:00:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjmilitary-2020-001568
      Issue No: Vol. 169, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Inclusion of women into ground close combat roles: an organisational
           change perspective

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Harvey; J.
      Pages: 3 - 8
      Abstract: IntroductionWomen have formally been excluded from ground close combat (GCC) roles in the UK military until 2018. The opening of the final roles to all genders has been the result of a steady process and progression, gathering pace since the early 1990s. This paper considers the integration of women into GCC roles against a number of influential organisational change management theories.MethodA series of 12 focus groups were conducted in April 2018 with personnel from 4 infantry units, including attached women, to understand the key issues and attitudes surrounding women joining the infantry. A total of 123 personnel took part in the focus groups.ResultsThemes from the focus groups were broken down by dominant groupings as per the discussions. Male personnel were largely concerned with physical and medical issues, infrastructure, potential dual standards and social cohesion. Attached females main concerns were regarding physical and medical issues, team dynamics, potential bias and the need to prove themselves as combat soldiers. Positives were identified by all male and female focus groups, including the benefits of increased diversity, more opportunities and equality for women, improvement of Army fitness levels and an increase in numbers.ConclusionsThese findings helped to inform the Army approach to the integration of women into combat roles. The opportunity to discuss the change in policy was seen as positive by attendees, providing a 'safe space' to air any concerns and was important for the organisation to understand and mitigate any potential barriers.
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T01:00:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1136/military-2022-002247
      Issue No: Vol. 169, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Hormonal contraceptive use, bone density and biochemical markers of bone
           metabolism in British Army recruits

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Coombs, C. V; O'Leary, T. J, Tang, J. C. Y, Fraser, W. D, Greeves, J. P.
      Pages: 9 - 16
      Abstract: IntroductionHormonal contraceptive use might impair bone health and increase the risk of stress fracture by decreasing endogenous oestrogen production, a central regulator of bone metabolism. This cross-sectional study investigated bone density and biochemical markers of bone metabolism in women taking hormonal contraceptives on entry to basic military training.MethodsForty-five female British Army recruits had biochemical markers of bone metabolism, areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and tibial speed of sound (tSOS) measured at the start of basic military training. Participants were compared by their method of hormonal contraception: no hormonal contraception (NONE), combined contraceptive pill (CP) or depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) (20±2.8 years, 1.64±0.63 m, 61.7±6.2 kg).ResultsaBMD was not different between groups (p≥0.204), but tSOS was higher in NONE (3%, p=0.014) when compared with DMPA users. Beta C-terminal telopeptide was higher in NONE (45%, p=0.037) and DMPA users (90%, p=0.003) compared with CP users. Procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide was higher in DMPA users compared with NONE (43%, p=0.045) and CP users (127%, p=0.001), and higher in NONE compared with CP users (59%, p=0.014). Bone alkaline phosphatase was higher in DMPA users compared with CP users (56%, p=0.044).ConclusionsDMPA use was associated with increased bone turnover and decreased cortical bone integrity of the tibia. Lower cortical bone integrity in DMPA users was possibly mediated by increased intracortical remodelling, but trabecular bone was not affected by contraceptive use.
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T01:00:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjmilitary-2020-001745
      Issue No: Vol. 169, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • A fit and function analysis of the UK OSPREY body armour system for female
           users

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Davis, J. I; Lewis, E, Ellett, J. R.
      Pages: 17 - 22
      Abstract: IntroductionOSPREY personal armour has been issued to UK forces since 2005. From 2015, the VIRTUS personal armour and load carriage system have been progressively replacing OSPREY. In 2016, the ban on women in ground close combat roles throughout the UK’s Armed Forces was lifted. In anticipation of this, work has been ongoing to prepare future ballistic protection programmes for a potential increase in the number of female users.MethodA human factors questionnaire was provided to 150 female users of OSPREY body armour to complete while on combat operations in Afghanistan. The questionnaire asked the users to rate the comfort of their OSPREY body armour along with their ability to carry out basic tasks. Other background data such as size of body armour worn and bra size were also collected for the analysis.ResultsThe female participants reported various types of discomfort when wearing their OSPREY body armour, with 135 instances of discomfort experienced in the hip region, for example. Challenges were reported in the ability to carry out basic movements, with the tasks rated on a Likert scale as difficult or very difficult by between 29% and 59% of participants. In addition, a restriction in ability to access personal equipment worn on the person (including pouches, trouser pockets) was commented on by 39% of participants.ConclusionsFemale users reported challenges relating to the fit and function of OSPREY body armour. The VIRTUS body armour system for UK Armed Forces Personnel has already addressed many of the reported issues with OSPREY. Further optimisation for VIRTUS with regard to female users is planned and includes sizing of ballistic hard plates.
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T01:00:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1136/jramc-2019-001248
      Issue No: Vol. 169, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Hormonal contraceptive prescriptions in the UK Armed Forces

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Double, R. L; Wardle, S. L, O'Leary, T. J, Weaden, N, Bailey, G, Greeves, J. P.
      Pages: 23 - 26
      Abstract: IntroductionThirty four per cent of women use hormonal contraceptives in the UK and the contraceptive pill is the most common method. There are no comparable data in the UK Armed Forces, but servicewomen are often required to complete physically arduous job roles in combat zones and may be more likely to take contraceptives to control or stop menstrual bleeding than the general population. We explored the prevalence of hormonal contraceptive prescriptions in the UK Armed Forces.MethodsThe study used defence medical records (Defence Medical Information Capability Programme) to identify hormonal contraceptive prescriptions for all serving regular UK servicewomen (n=15 738) as of 1 September 2017.ResultsThirty one per cent of servicewomen (Royal Navy, 28%; British Army, 30%; Royal Air Force, 34%) had a current prescription for a hormonal contraceptive. Non-officer ranks were more likely to have a prescription for a hormonal contraceptive (32%) than officers (27%) (p
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T01:00:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjmilitary-2020-001594
      Issue No: Vol. 169, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Compliance compromises an interventional study on iron supplementation in
           female combatants

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Gofrit, S. G; Ohayon-Cohen, S, Tsur, A. M, Rabkin, V, Michael Shapira, M, Finestone, A. S.
      Pages: 27 - 31
      Abstract: IntroductionLow iron levels are related to overuse injuries, poor physical performance and cognitive impairments in female recruits. The aim of this study was to evaluate iron supplement compliance in female combatants during basic training, and its effect on haemoglobin (Hgb), ferritin and injuries.Methods329 female recruits to light infantry units filled induction questionnaires regarding smoking status, previous overuse injuries and iron deficiency. Blood was drawn for Hgb and ferritin. Subjects with ferritin levels below 20 ng/mL were considered iron depleted and were prescribed a ferrous fumarate supplement. After 4 months of basic training, the subjects completed a follow-up questionnaire regarding overuse injuries, reasons for failure to complete basic training and compliance with iron supplementation. Blood tests were repeated.ResultsMean ferritin levels declined during training (from 18.1±18.2 to 15.3±9.6, p=0.01). Compliance with iron supplementation was observed in 26 (26.3%) of the subjects. In compliant subjects, Hgb levels remained constant and ferritin levels increased by 2.9±5.4 (p=0.07). The main reasons for reported non-compliance were forgetfulness, 26 (35.6%), and gastrointestinal side effects, 17 (23.3%). Injuries during training were not found to be associated with iron status. Smokers had a significantly higher rate of reported injuries prior to training (p
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T01:00:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1136/jramc-2019-001245
      Issue No: Vol. 169, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Women in combat roles: themes characterising adjustment in the Israel
           Defense Force--a pilot study

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Berezin Cohen, N; Netzer, I.
      Pages: 32 - 36
      Abstract: BackgroundThe Israel Defense Force is the only military organisation in the world that mandatorily conscripts women since its founding. Despite legislative changes, the percentage of women serving as combat soldiers is low, and the dropout rate is high. Women in these professions experience a complex and unique adaptation process.AimsTo characterise the experiences of female combat soldiers adjusting to combat roles in comparison with male soldiers and non-warfighter female soldiers.MethodA pilot study was undertaken in order to inform further research. Mental health officers in the women’s units conducted group interviews. These were composed of four stages: projection, reflection, processing and formulating solutions.ResultsThe themes apparent in the interviews conform to phenomena appearing in the literature such as tokenism, disruption of gender identity and internalisation of the superiority of male values. In addition, we identified distortion of body image and increased burnout.Discussion and conclusionsThe study points to the significance of gender aspects in the mental adaptation process of women in combat positions. Issues pertaining perceptions of inequality should not be deemed to be purely sociological, but rather as a gateway facilitating adjustment. This should be taken into account in future research and in the formulation of support strategies.
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T01:00:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1136/jramc-2019-001216
      Issue No: Vol. 169, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Cognitive performance of military men and women during prolonged load
           carriage

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Armstrong, N. C; Smith, S. J. R, Risius, D, Doyle, D, Wardle, S. L, Greeves, J. P, House, J. R, Tipton, M, Lomax, M.
      Pages: 37 - 45
      Abstract: BackgroundThis study evaluated cognitive workload in soldiers undertaking a long duration march wearing different loads.MethodsMilitary participants (n=12 men and n=10 women) performed four 3-hour loaded marches (12.25 km at 4.9 km/hour) wearing either 21 kg, 26 kg, 33 kg or 43 kg. During the march, accuracy and response time were measured using the verbal working memory n-back test (0, 1, 2 and 3) and two bespoke Go/No Go tests (visual/auditory) to assess inhibition of a pre-potent response.ResultsThe physical demands of the march increased with load and march duration but remained at moderate intensity. N-back test accuracy ranged from 74% to 98% in men and 62% to 98% in women. Reduced accuracy was observed as load and time increased. Accuracy during the visual Go/No Go test also reduced with load, accuracy ranged from 69% to 89% in men and 65% to 90% in women. No differences due to load or time were observed during completion of the auditory Go/No Go task; accuracy ranged from 93% to 97% in men and 77% to 95% in women. A number of participants were unable to complete the march due to discomfort. Reports of discomfort were more frequent in women, which may have contributed to the greater reductions in accuracy observed.ConclusionThese data provide further evidence that cognitive performance of military personnel can be affected during long duration loaded marching. Women reported discomfort from equipment more frequently than men, which may make them more susceptible to declines in cognitive performance. These findings highlight important considerations for equipment procurement.
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T01:00:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjmilitary-2021-002000
      Issue No: Vol. 169, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Female UK Army Service personnel are at greater risk of work-related
           morbidity on return to duty postpartum

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Cordell, R. F; Wickes, C. K, Casey, A, Greeves, J. P.
      Pages: 46 - 51
      Abstract: IntroductionThe 2016 Interim Report on the Health Risks to Women in Ground Close Combat Roles highlighted an increased risk of skeletal injury and significant physiological changes, including increased ligament laxity and decreased bone mineral content, during the postpartum period. The report called for further research and a re-evaluation of postpartum policy to optimise the return of female Service personnel to arduous employment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether returning to duty is at greater risk of injury and illness in the first year postpartum than they were prepregnancy.MethodsFifty-five female UK Army Service personnel aged 18–41 years, who had given birth in the previous 4 years, completed a lifestyle questionnaire and gave written consent for a review of their medical records. The number of working days lost (WDL) due to illness, injury and combined illness and injury was obtained from medical records, for 1 year prepregnancy and 1 year postpartum. Female Service personnel returned to duty at different time-points postpartum, so data were expressed as WDL/week.ResultsWDL/week due to illness and combined illness and injury were higher postpartum compared with prepregnancy (p
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T01:00:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1136/jramc-2019-001282
      Issue No: Vol. 169, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Influence of smoking status on acute biomarker responses to successive
           days of arduous military training

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Siddall, A. G; Stokes, K. A, Thompson, D, Izard, R, Greeves, J, Bilzon, J. L. J.
      Pages: 52 - 56
      Abstract: IntroductionHabitual smoking is highly prevalent in military populations despite its association with poorer training outcomes. Smoking imposes challenges on the immune and endocrine systems which could alter how smokers acutely respond to, and recover from, intensive exercise particularly over multiple days of training.MethodsOver a two-day period, 35 male British Army recruits (age 22±3 years; mass 76.9±8.0 kg; height 1.78±0.06 m; 15 smokers) completed a 16.1 km loaded march (19.1 kg additional mass) on the first morning and a best-effort 3.2 km ‘log race’ (carrying a 60 kg log between six and eight people) on the subsequent morning. Blood samples were obtained on waking and immediately postexercise on both days and analysed for C reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), testosterone to cortisol ratio and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1).ResultsIndependent of smoking group, the exercise bouts on both days evoked significant increases in IL-6 (p
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T01:00:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjmilitary-2020-001533
      Issue No: Vol. 169, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Understanding the musculoskeletal injury risk of women in combat: the
           effect of infantry training and sex on musculoskeletal injury incidence
           during British Army basic training

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: O'Leary, T. J; Wardle, S. L, Rawcliffe, A. J, Chapman, S, Mole, J, Greeves, J. P.
      Pages: 57 - 61
      Abstract: IntroductionUntil recently, women were excluded from British combat roles. Their risk for musculoskeletal injury during basic training is two to three times higher than men. To better understand the musculoskeletal injury risk of women in British Army infantry basic training, we compared injury incidence between (1) men in standard entry training and men in infantry training, to assess the risk of infantry training; and (2) men and women in both standard entry and officer basic training, to assess the risk in women compared with men.MethodsThe incidence of musculoskeletal injury was determined from defence medical records for all men entering infantry training, and for all men and women entering standard entry and officer training, between April 2015 and March 2016.Results7390 men (standard entry, n=4229; infantry, n=2683; officer, n=478) and 696 women (standard entry, n=626; officer, n=70) entered basic training. Men in infantry training had a lower incidence of musculoskeletal injury (391 vs 417 per 1000 personnel, OR 0.90 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.99), p=0.028) and a higher incidence of stress fracture (14 vs 5 per 1000 personnel, OR 2.80 (95% CI 1.64 to 4.80), p
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T01:00:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1136/jramc-2019-001347
      Issue No: Vol. 169, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Effect of sex and combat employment on musculoskeletal injuries and
           medical downgrading in trained military personnel: an observational cohort
           study

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Wardle, S. L; O'Leary, T. J, Jackson, S, Greeves, J. P.
      Pages: 62 - 68
      Abstract: IntroductionFollowing the opening of all combat roles to women across the UK Armed Forces, there is a requirement to understand the risk of injury to these female personnel. Women injure at a higher rate than men during basic military training, but fewer data are published from individuals who have passed military training.MethodsA bespoke survey was designed to investigate differences in injury prevalence and medical downgrading between sexes and career employment groups (ie, job roles) in the UK Armed Forces.ResultsQuestionnaire data were evaluated from 847 service personnel (87% men) employed in combat roles (Royal Marines, Infantry, Royal Armoured Corps, Royal Air Force Regiment (all men)) and non-combat roles (Royal Regiment of Artillery, Corps of Royal Engineers, Royal Logistic Corps and Combat Service Support Corps who were attached to one of the participating units (men and women)). Women reported more total (OR 1.64 (95% CI: 1.03 to 2.59), p=0.035), lower limb (OR 1.92 (95% CI: 1.23 to 2.98), p=0.004) and hip (OR 2.99 (95% CI: 1.59 to 5.62), p0.05). There were no differences in 12-month musculoskeletal injury prevalence between men in combat roles and men in non-combat roles (all p>0.05), but men in non-combat roles were more likely to be currently medically downgraded (OR 1.88 (95% CI: 1.27 to 2.78), p=0.001) and medically downgraded during their career (OR 1.49 (95% CI: 1.11 to 2.00), p=0.008) due to musculoskeletal injury than men in combat roles. More time in service and quicker 1.5-mile run times were associated with increased prevalence of total musculoskeletal injuries, and female sex was a predictor of hip injury.ConclusionsAlthough women are at greater risk of injury than men, we have no evidence that combat employment is more injurious than non-combat employment. The prevention of hip injuries should form a specific focus of mitigation efforts for women.
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T01:00:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1136/military-2022-002284
      Issue No: Vol. 169, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Using CT scans to determine the optimal sizes of hard armour plates to
           protect the torso for UK female Armed Forces personnel

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Breeze, J; Fryer, R, Bowley, D, Gibb, I, Lewis, E.
      Pages: 69 - 74
      Abstract: IntroductionHard armour plates provide coverage to essential anatomical structures in the torso that, if injured, would likely be responsible for death before damage control surgery can be undertaken. Existing front and rear OSPREY plates in conjunction with Mark 2 plates used at the sides in current UK Armed Forces personal armour systems are provided in a single size, used by both female and male users.MethodsCT scans of 45 female UK military personnel were analysed. Distances between anatomical structures representing threshold (absolute minimum) and objective (the maximum level of coverage beyond which there is limited further benefit) coverage of the torso were determined and compared with OSPREY and Mark 2 plate dimensions. Sample characteristics were compared with the 2006/2007 UK Armed Forces Anthropometric Survey.ResultsNo statistical difference was found between sample means for stature (p=0.131) and mass (p=0.853) from those of the anthropometric survey in this sample. The height of both the front OSPREY plates exceeded the threshold coverage (suprasternal notch to lower border of the 10th rib) for all women studied. The height of the Mark 2 plate exceeds the objective coverage from the side for all women studied.ConclusionsBased on a plate height providing threshold coverage of all women up to the 50th percentile, the height of the front and rear OSPREY plates could be reduced by 36mm and 31mm respectively. Based on a presumption that a side plate should cover up to the 95th percentile, the Mark 2 plate achieves the objective height and width for the female population studied. Strong evidence was found to support the UK Ministry of Defence requirement for procurement of new front and rear plates of multiple heights for both female and male users.
      Keywords: Editor''s choice
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T01:00:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1136/military-2022-002238
      Issue No: Vol. 169, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Sex, gender or occupational psychology: what matters most to preventing
           heat-related illnesses and improving outcomes for women in ground close
           combat'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Gifford, R. M; Taylor, N, Stacey, M, Woods, D. R.
      Pages: 75 - 77
      Abstract: Since the advent of women in ground close combat (WGCC) roles, the impact on women of the attendant risk of heat stress and heat illness has been considered. Much emphasis has been placed on sex differences in thermal physiology. This article considers the application of evidence of sex-associated thermoregulatory variation to the occupational and environmental setting of WGCC, and weighs the relative importance of physiological differences arising from biological sex, and behaviour associated with gender normatives. Quantifying the risk of heat illness to WGCC should draw on data from their real-world occupational context.
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T01:00:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjmilitary-2020-001480
      Issue No: Vol. 169, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Integrating women into combat roles: comparing the UK Armed Forces and
           Israeli Defense Forces to understand where lessons can be learnt

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Fieldhouse, A; O'Leary, T. J.
      Pages: 78 - 80
      Abstract: In October 2018, women became eligible to serve in all roles in the UK Armed Forces. The Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) have employed women in limited ground close combat (GCC) roles since 1995. Integration of women into some IDF combat units has improved our understanding of injury risk for servicewomen. While the research findings from physiological studies on women in IDF GCC roles helped inform the integration of women into UK GCC roles, the applicability of the data is limited by the differences between Israeli and UK approaches to recruitment, training and operational deployability of servicewomen. Women in IDF combat roles do, therefore, not provide a good model on the health and performance implications for women in UK Armed Forces combat roles. Further original research to better understand and develop mitigations against any health risks facing UK servicewomen in GCC roles is warranted.
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T01:00:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjmilitary-2020-001500
      Issue No: Vol. 169, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Personalised digital technology for mental health in the armed forces: the
           potential, the hype and the dangers

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Leightley, D; Murphy, D.
      Pages: 81 - 83
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a digital technology revolution which included widespread use in remote healthcare settings, remote working and use of technology to support friends and family to stay in touch. The armed forces have also increased its use of digital technology, but not at the same rate, and it is important that they do not fall behind in the revolution. One area where digital technology could be helpful is the treatment and management of mental health conditions. In a civilian setting, digital technology adoption has been found to be acceptable and feasible yet there is little use in the armed forces. In this personal view, we explore the potential use of personalised digital technology for mental health, the hype surrounding it and the dangers.This paper forms part of the special issue of BMJ Military Health dedicated to personalised digital technology for mental health in the armed forces.
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T01:00:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1136/military-2022-002279
      Issue No: Vol. 169, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Gender data gap in military research: a review of the participation of men
           and women in military musculoskeletal injury studies

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: O'Leary, T. J; Young, C. D, Wardle, S. L, Greeves, J. P.
      Pages: 84 - 88
      Abstract: Servicewomen are at increased risk of musculoskeletal injuries compared with their male counterparts, but women are under-represented in sports medicine research. The aim of this review was to assess the representation of women in military musculoskeletal injury studies. PubMed was searched for human original research studies using the terms Military OR Army OR Navy OR ‘Air Force’ AND ‘musculoskeletal injury’. Each study was categorised as epidemiology (basic training), epidemiology (trained personnel), risk factors, interventions and other. The number of male and female participants was retrieved from each study. A total of 262 studies were included: 98 (37%) studies only included men, 17 (6%) studies only included women and 147 (56%) studies included both men and women. A total of 8 051 778 participants were included in these studies (men: 6 711 082, 83%; women: 1 340 696, 17%). The study theme with the greatest proportion of women was musculoskeletal injury epidemiology studies in a basic training population (20% of participants) with the lowest proportion of women in intervention trials (6% of participants). These data suggest women are not under-represented in military musculoskeletal injury studies when considering the gender representation of most militaries. Our data are, however, biased by large epidemiological trials and women were under-represented in intervention trials. The under-representation of women in intervention trials could be due to difficulties in controlling for the effects of female sex steroids on musculoskeletal outcomes, or a focus on interventions in the most arduous military roles where injury risk is highest and women have been previously excluded.
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T01:00:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjmilitary-2021-002015
      Issue No: Vol. 169, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Role of sex and stature on the biomechanics of normal and loaded walking:
           implications for injury risk in the military

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Gill, N; Roberts, A, O'Leary, T. J, Liu, A, Hollands, K, Walker, D, Greeves, J. P, Jones, R.
      Pages: 89 - 93
      Abstract: Load carriage and marching ‘in-step’ are routine military activities associated with lower limb injury risk in service personnel. The fixed pace and stride length of marching typically vary from the preferred walking gait and may result in overstriding. Overstriding increases ground reaction forces and muscle forces. Women are more likely to overstride than men due to their shorter stature. These biomechanical responses to overstriding may be most pronounced when marching close to the preferred walk-to-run transition speed. Load carriage also affects walking gait and increases ground reaction forces, joint moments and the demands on the muscles. Few studies have examined the effects of sex and stature on the biomechanics of marching and load carriage; this evidence is required to inform injury prevention strategies, particularly with the full integration of women in some defence forces. This narrative review explores the effects of sex and stature on the biomechanics of unloaded and loaded marching at a fixed pace and evaluates the implications for injury risk. The knowledge gaps in the literature, and distinct lack of studies on women, are highlighted, and areas that need more research to support evidence-based injury prevention measures, especially for women in arduous military roles, are identified.
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T01:00:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1136/bmjmilitary-2020-001645
      Issue No: Vol. 169, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Sex differences in response to exercise heat stress in the context of the
           military environment

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Corbett, J; Wright, J, Tipton, M. J.
      Pages: 94 - 101
      Abstract: Women can now serve in ground close combat (GCC) roles, where they may be required to operate alongside men in hot environments. However, relative to the average male soldier, female soldiers are less aerobically fit, with a smaller surface area (A D), lower mass (m) with higher body fat and a larger A D/m ratio. This increases cardiovascular strain, reduces heat exchange with the environment and causes a greater body temperature increase for a given heat storage, although a large A D/m ratio can be advantageous. Physical employment standards for GCC roles might lessen the magnitude of fitness and anthropometric differences, yet even when studies control for these factors, women sweat less than men at high work rates. Therefore, the average female soldier in a GCC role is likely to be at a degree of disadvantage in many hot environments and particularly during intense physical activity in hot-arid conditions, although heat acclimation may mitigate some of this effect. Any thermoregulatory disadvantage may be exacerbated during the mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, although the data are equivocal. Likewise, sex differences in behavioural thermoregulation and cognition in the heat are not well understood. Interestingly, there is often lower reported heat illness incidence in women, although the extent to which this is influenced by behavioural factors or historic differences in role allocation is unclear. Indeed, much of the extant literature lacks ecological validity and more work is required to fully understand sex differences to exercise heat stress in a GCC context.
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T01:00:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1136/jramc-2019-001253
      Issue No: Vol. 169, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Call of duty: the ethical imperative to increase the participation of
           women in UK military research

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kolstoe, S. E; Affleck, P, Cons, J, Davis, M. C.
      Pages: 102 - 102
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T01:00:27-08:00
      DOI: 10.1136/military-2022-002168
      Issue No: Vol. 169, No. 1 (2023)
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 35.172.230.154
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-