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  Subjects -> MILITARY (Total: 106 journals)
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British Journal for Military History
Number of Followers: 39  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2057-0422
Published by British Commission for Military History Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Editorial

    • Authors: Richard S Grayson, Erica Wald
      Pages: 1 - 1
      PubDate: 2022-11-20
      DOI: 10.25602/GOLD.bjmh.v8i3.1640
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Looking Forward to the Centenary of the Second World War: Lessons from

    • Authors: Jenny Macleod
      Pages: 2 - 16
      Abstract: This is the text of a keynote presentation to the Second World War Research Group’s Annual Conference in 2019. It reflects on the centenary commemorations for 1914-1918 from the perspective of a First World War historian to suggest some lessons for the forthcoming centenary of the Second World War. As such it discusses the relationship between history, memory and national identity, the role of historians in shaping that relationship, and the actions that need to be taken in anticipation of the centenary. Taking inspiration from Ireland’s Decade of Centenaries 1912-1923 it explores the potential of a similar approach for Britain’s commemoration of the Second World War.
      PubDate: 2022-11-20
      DOI: 10.25602/GOLD.bjmh.v8i3.1641
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • The Importance of River Valleys in the Overall Strategy of the Mercenary
           Companies 1357-1366

    • Authors: Ölbei Tamás
      Pages: 17 - 37
      Abstract: In the middle of the fourteenth century the Great Companies of the Hundred Years' War achieved their goals by occupying bridge-towns and strategically important castles in the river valleys. In this paper, the importance of river valleys will be shown from the point of view of the mercenary companies in the border regions of the Kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire, based on examples gathered in archives from Lyon to Lille. The cases presented show this process from the first appearance of the mercenaries until they reached the total domination of their targeted region.
      PubDate: 2022-11-20
      DOI: 10.25602/GOLD.bjmh.v8i3.1642
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Ties of Service and Military Identity in Sixteenth Century England: The
           Example of the Blount Family

    • Authors: Elizabeth Norton
      Pages: 38 - 56
      Abstract: The sixteenth century is usually considered to be a time of considerable change in the military in England. Through a case study of the Blount family, this article considers the ways in which the landed gentry of the sixteenth century defined themselves through military service, as well as looking at the ways in which they were mustered, with both the retinue system and the militia providing troops for the major conflicts in which the Blounts were involved. It will be demonstrated that personal ties of loyalty remained important to military service in the late sixteenth century.
      PubDate: 2022-11-20
      DOI: 10.25602/GOLD.bjmh.v8i3.1643
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Loyalty and Rebellion: Irish soldiers in the British military during the
           French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars

    • Authors: Ciarán McDonnell
      Pages: 57 - 78
      Abstract: Irish participation in the British Army has a long and complex history. The tradition firmly took hold during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars where Irish soldiers and sailors may have represented roughly one third of Britain’s armed forces. This article examines how this tradition developed from one of Irish emigration to European armies to enlistment in the British military. It explores how internal pressures including Catholic Relief and rising Protestant loyalism, external pressures including the French Revolution and the demands of Britain’s war effort, combined to accelerate Irish enlistment, despite the threat of emerging nationalism, and even separatism, republicanism, and rebellion.
      PubDate: 2022-11-20
      DOI: 10.25602/GOLD.bjmh.v8i3.1644
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Disgraceful Conduct: Parliamentary Regulation of Homosexuality in the
           British Army, 1829-1992

    • Authors: Paul Johnson
      Pages: 79 - 107
      Abstract: The injustices created by the historical criminalisation of consensual same-sex sexual acts between adult men in the UK are now widely recognised and in 2012 and 2017 the UK Parliament enacted legislation with the aim of righting the wrongs of the past. What has been less recognised are the historical injustices suffered by armed forces personnel who were convicted of service discipline offences for engaging in consensual same-sex sexual acts that would today be lawful. This article provides an analysis of how one service discipline offence, the offence of ‘disgraceful conduct’, was used to regulate homosexuality in the British Army. It focuses on the making and maintaining of this aspect of service law by Parliament, from the early nineteenth to the late twentieth century, and examines the attitudes and intentions of the legislators who shaped it. The article explains the significance of legislation enacted in 2022 which, in acknowledgement of the discriminatory use of service discipline offences in the past, provides redress to service personnel who were convicted of such offences for conduct involving same-sex sexual activity that would be lawful today.
      PubDate: 2022-11-20
      DOI: 10.25602/GOLD.bjmh.v8i3.1645
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • ‘The Staff College candidates are not right yet’: The Importance of
           Nomination to British Army Staff College Entry, 1919-1939

    • Authors: Iain Farquharson
      Pages: 108 - 127
      Abstract: Between 1919 and 1939, entry to the British Army Staff College was via a dual process of competitive examination or nomination by a panel of senior officers. Recent historiography has scorned the latter, arguing that by allowing entry to the less academically gifted the Staff College's place as an elite institution was undermined, calling into question the belief that the Staff College represented the most academically rigorous educational institution within the Army. This article contends such an interpretation of the process of nomination to the Staff College is incorrect. Using fresh analysis and underutilised sources, it argues that officers obtaining vacancies via nomination often performed better than those entering on competitive vacancies. Furthermore, it will argue that, far from being a flaw in the system of entry, the process of nomination represented a means to achieve a balanced staff, not only in terms of representation by arm of service but also in terms of the type of personality required.
      PubDate: 2022-11-20
      DOI: 10.25602/GOLD.bjmh.v8i3.1646
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • The Evolution of Czechoslovak Defence Planning, 1918-1992

    • Authors: Stanislav Polnar
      Pages: 128 - 151
      Abstract: Throughout its existence (1918–1992), Czechoslovakia had to fight to maintain its state sovereignty and independence. This struggle owed much to its geographical location in the heart of Europe, where the superpower interests of the main actors in global politics regularly clashed. As a rule, Czechoslovak operational plans did not reflect national interests. Nor did war plans, in many cases, correspond to real Czechoslovak economic and military capabilities, and the often offensive nature of such plans is somewhat surprising. On the other hand, the content of operational documents does reveal many features specific to Czechoslovakia – considerations regarding the shape of the state territory, the small depth of defence, and the factor of the German presence. Despite these strong foreign influences, Czechoslovak war plans still express a wealth of domestic military thought and military science.
      PubDate: 2022-11-20
      DOI: 10.25602/GOLD.bjmh.v8i3.1647
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • The Royal Fleet Auxiliary and Post-War Change

    • Authors: George Wilton
      Pages: 152 - 183
      Abstract: In 1945 the Admiralty owned a large number of Royal Fleet Auxiliaries, most of which were oil tankers with the larger freighting tankers transporting oil to naval bases, and the smaller attendant tankers issuing it to the Royal Navy in harbour or at sheltered anchorages. During the war a new requirement had emerged for replenishment at sea, and in the post-war period this became the main activity for the Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA). This article describes how the post-war RFA met that demand by changing its ships and organisation away from its mainstream British Merchant Navy roots towards the Royal Navy it supports.
      PubDate: 2022-11-20
      DOI: 10.25602/GOLD.bjmh.v8i3.1648
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Towards a ‘Forward Defence’ for Singapore: Revisiting the Strategy of
           the Singapore Armed Forces, 1971-1978

    • Authors: Abdul Rahman Yaacob
      Pages: 184 - 201
      Abstract: Conventional narratives emphasise Singapore’s defence policy from 1965 to the early 1980s as defensive-oriented. Drawing on previously under used research materials from Australia, Britain and the United States, this article examines Singapore’s defence strategy during the 1970s and argues that during that period Singapore’s Armed Forces (SAF) focused on acquiring the capability to conduct an offensive military campaign within Malaysia in the event of threats to Singapore’s security or the continuity of  its water supply from Malaysia. The United States termed this strategy forward defence. The article also discusses Australian, British, and the United States’ contributions towards Singapore’s ‘forward defence’ strategy.
      PubDate: 2022-11-20
      DOI: 10.25602/GOLD.bjmh.v8i3.1650
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • The Technological Need: Abel & Dewar’s Primary Motive for
           Inventing Cordite in 1889

    • Authors: Yoel Bergman
      Pages: 202 - 219
      Abstract: By the 1880s, smokeless military propellants greatly outperformed traditional black gun powders, as first shown in France in late 1884. In early 1889, the British version of a smokeless propellant for the military, Cordite, was developed by Sir Frederick Abel, a renowned War Office chemist and by Professor James Dewar from the University of Cambridge. They tested Alfred Nobel’s 1888 British patented smokeless Ballistite but rejected it for a major flaw, while upgrading it to obtain Cordite in 1889. At first glance, the motive for rejecting Ballistite might be seen as driven by personal profit, but considerations of monetary gain, were actually of secondary importance. Abel and Dewar’s primary motive for rejection was technical and was ultimately proven valid: Nobel made major corrections to his Ballistite patents including his correction of the flaw Dewar and Abel had noted.
      PubDate: 2022-11-20
      DOI: 10.25602/GOLD.bjmh.v8i3.1651
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • The Women Who Watched the Waves: The Women’s Air Raid Defense
           Organisation in World War II Hawaii

    • Authors: Sarah-Louise Miller
      Pages: 220 - 227
      Abstract: Following the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, a small group of women in Honolulu formed the WARD, the Women’s Air Raid Defense organisation. The WARD by working with the US military and dedicating itself to the aerial defence of the Hawaiian Islands released men for combat duty in the Pacific. Using primary source material held by the War Depository Archives at the University of Hawaii, this note seeks to highlight this largely unknown organisation and examine the contributions of American and Hawaiian women to the military defence of Hawaii – an aspect of American history that has been all-but-forgotten.
      PubDate: 2022-11-20
      DOI: 10.25602/GOLD.bjmh.v8i3.1652
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Barry Strauss, The War that made the Roman Empire: Antony, Cleopatra, and
           Octavian at Actium

    • Authors: Tim Fallon
      Pages: 228 - 229
      PubDate: 2022-11-20
      DOI: 10.25602/GOLD.bjmh.v8i3.1653
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Anne Curry and Rémy Ambühl, A Soldier’s Chronicle of the Hundred Years
           War: College of Arms Manuscript M9

    • Authors: Simon Egan
      Pages: 230 - 231
      PubDate: 2022-11-20
      DOI: 10.25602/GOLD.bjmh.v8i3.1654
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Marc Van Alphen, Jan Hoffenaar, Alen Lemmers, and Christiaan Van Der Spek,
           Military Power and the Dutch Republic: War, Trade and the Balance of Power
           in Europe 1648-1813, translated by Paul Arblaster & Lee Preedy

    • Authors: Mark Shearwood
      Pages: 231 - 233
      PubDate: 2022-11-20
      DOI: 10.25602/GOLD.bjmh.v8i3.1655
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Heather Jones, For King and Country: The British Monarchy and the First
           World War

    • Authors: Samuel Clark
      Pages: 233 - 236
      PubDate: 2022-11-20
      DOI: 10.25602/GOLD.bjmh.v8i3.1656
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Ronan McGreevy, Great Hatred: The Assassination of Field Marshal Sir Henry
           Wilson MP

    • Authors: Brian Hughes
      Pages: 236 - 238
      PubDate: 2022-11-20
      DOI: 10.25602/GOLD.bjmh.v8i3.1657
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Bastiaan Willems, Violence in Defeat: The Wehrmacht on German Soil,

    • Authors: Jordan Chapman
      Pages: 238 - 240
      PubDate: 2022-11-20
      DOI: 10.25602/GOLD.bjmh.v8i3.1658
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Peter Caddick-Adams, Fire and Steel: The End of World War Two in the West

    • Authors: G H Bennett
      Pages: 240 - 242
      PubDate: 2022-11-20
      DOI: 10.25602/GOLD.bjmh.v8i3.1659
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Serhii Plokhy, Nuclear Folly: A New History of the Cuban Missile Crisis

    • Authors: Phil Curme
      Pages: 242 - 244
      PubDate: 2022-11-20
      DOI: 10.25602/GOLD.bjmh.v8i3.1660
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
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