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Media, War & Conflict
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.585
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 18  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1750-6352 - ISSN (Online) 1750-6360
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1176 journals]
  • The female jihadist narrative: a comparative analysis

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      Authors: Maria Isabel Garcia García
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.
      The research analyses the representation that different jihadist organizations make of women through their official propaganda. The aim is to analyse the construction of the feminine ideal designed by Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), ISIS and Jabhat Al-Nusra through their leading magazines and to identify if there are differences in their representation of women. A content analysis is carried out on the narrative in which females are portrayed by those organizations. The study is also supported by a quantitative analysis of three features, which provide data on prominence of women in jihadism: the number of times they are mentioned, the illustrations targeting females and the existence (or not) of a specific section for women in the magazines of these groups. The research shows that the portrayal of women as victims and weak individuals is recurrent but is not limited to this role. There are differences in the content and subject matter in the official discourse of the three groups, such as with regard to violence perpetrated by women. The strategic and political differences between AQAP, ISIS and Jabhat Al-Nusra affect the construction of female roles in their official propaganda.
      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2024-01-27T10:38:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231225351
       
  • Effectiveness of art therapy in reducing post-traumatic stress disorder
           symptoms and the propensity to quit journalism among journalists covering
           banditry activities in Nigeria

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      Authors: Felix Olajide Talabi, Joshua Kayode Okunade, Joseph Moyinoluwa Talabi, Ishola Kamorudeen Lamidi, Samson Adedapo Bello, Blessing Chinweobo-Onoha, Gever Verlumun Celestine
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.
      The goal of this study was to examine the efficacy of art therapy in the treatment of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and the propensity to quit journalism among Nigerian journalists covering banditry attacks. The researchers utilized a quasi-experiment as the design for the study and sampled 327 journalists. The result of the study showed that at baseline, journalists reported high PTSD symptoms and a propensity to quit journalism, but after the intervention, journalists who received the art therapy intervention reported a significant drop in their PTSD symptoms and the propensity to quit the pen profession. This suggests that art therapy is a cost-effective way of treating PTSD among journalists covering dangerous assignments and reducing high labour turnover in the profession.
      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2024-01-27T10:37:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231225344
       
  • Analysis of coverage of the 11 March 2004 Madrid train bombings in
           Spain’s El País and El Diario Vasco through war and peace journalism
           frames

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      Authors: Melissa R Meade, Richard Pineda
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines the way in which two major Spanish newspapers, El País and El Diario Vasco, framed the 11 March 2004 (11-M) Madrid train bombings through peace journalism or war journalism, based on Peace Studies theorist Johan Galtung’s classification. An analysis of the news articles in the immediate aftermath of the bombings finds both frames present. The incumbent Spanish government initially tried to use the news media as a vehicle to present a premature interpretation that the Basque separatist group ETA perpetrated the attacks, even trying to pass a United Nations resolution. However, some journalistic coverage of the events in the week after the 11-M attacks portrayed the Spanish people’s sentiments regarding Spain’s support of the US in the Iraq war, Spaniards’ engagement with their democracy, including massive street protests, and parallels between the Iraqi people’s suffering and the Spanish train bombing victims. Other journalistic coverage focused on the perspectives of high-level Spanish government officials, emphasized the importance of prevailing in ‘the war on terror’, and provided an ‘us–them’ orientation.
      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2024-01-17T12:19:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231219693
       
  • Investigating responses to US drone strikes in Yemen using Twitter data

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      Authors: Evan Weiss, Violet Ross, Alex Lyford
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.
      As part of the War on Terror, the US conducted at least 378 air and drone strikes in Yemen from 2002 to 2023. While primarily targeting members of al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), these strikes have killed over 1,000 people, including more than 125 civilians. This research aims to understand the broader societal impact of US military action as shown on Twitter, now known as ‘X’. The authors take a mixed-methods approach, using both qualitative and quantitative data to investigate this impact. They perform word- and tweet-level analyses on the content and sentiment of a subset of Yemeni Twitter users and contrast the content of Yemeni users’ tweets about US drone strikes with that of US users’ tweets. Finally, the article quantifies the temporal relationship between the frequency and severity of US drone strikes and Twitter activity levels in Yemen, considering the prevalence of Twitter bots.
      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2024-01-08T09:04:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231219694
       
  • A war foretold: How Western mainstream news media omitted NATO eastward
           expansion as a contributing factor to Russia’s 2022 invasion of the
           Ukraine

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      Authors: Florian Zollmann
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.
      This article assesses how Western mainstream news media framed causal factors of Russia’s 2022 invasion of the Ukraine. The article is based on a synthesis and integration of scholarly studies as well as a primary data analysis of Western mainstream newspaper reporting. The research firstly conducts an integrative literature review investigating how Western mainstream news media have reported on Russia and the new Cold War more broadly. Using this as a backdrop, a quantitative and qualitative content study investigates how causes of the 2022 invasion of Ukraine were framed in the US, the UK and the German press. To contextualize news media framing, the second section critically assesses the Western diplomatic and historical record of NATO expansion. The article identifies two competing explanatory frameworks: the dominant Western news media narrative assumes that Russia/Putin’s imperial ambitions and nefarious traits have caused the war, and a second narrative, advanced by several scholars, former diplomats and selected journalists, asserts that NATO’s eastward expansion created the context for Russia’s invasion. The article concludes that the second narrative has been de-emphasized in the news. Such framing is contrary to the historical and documentary record, and links to a marginalization of non-military solutions to solve the conflict.
      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-12-30T03:32:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231216908
       
  • Book Review: Sport and the Pursuit of War and Peace from the Nineteenth
           Century to the Present: War Minus the Shooting'

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      Authors: Matthew Taylor
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-12-19T09:56:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231216892
       
  • Deserted myths and nuclear realities: Revisiting the symbolism of nuclear
           weapons in contemporary popular culture through Oppenheimer (2023)

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      Authors: Emily Faux
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.
      This article makes a necessary intervention in Critical Nuclear Studies which thus far lacks engagement with popular culture since the Cold War. There is a significant gap in our knowledge about contemporary representations of nuclear weapons and their significance for nuclear politics in the current moment. Using Oppenheimer (2023) as a catalyst, this article navigates a setting central to the origin story of nuclear weapons: the desert. The desert is shown to have a complex literal and symbolic history that is intertwined with nuclear politics and contributes to nuclear weapons’ continued mythological status in an age defined by an increasingly partisan trust and distrust in science. The desert setting in popular culture exemplifies the paradoxical and contradictory meanings of nuclear weapons and war. The desert is both the symbolic frontier to the land of opportunity and freedom, and a land of isolation and nothingness. In a retelling of the story of the Manhattan Project – the ‘origin story’ of nuclear weapons – Oppenheimer (2023) offers an opportunity to navigate these tropes in the current moment. Navigating competing representations of nuclear weapons and war reveals some of the hidden logics and relations of power that remain at the foundations of nuclear knowledge – from high politics to popular culture.
      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-12-16T09:16:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231216901
       
  • A self-fulfilling prophecy: Constructing Russia as an imagined enemy

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      Authors: Chang Zhang, Ting Zhou
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-12-08T11:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231216893
       
  • Far away but close at heart' German and Israeli consumption of news
           concerning the 2022 Russian–Ukrainian war

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      Authors: Yaron Ariel, Julian Unkel, Dana Weimann Saks, Vered Elishar Malka
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.
      This study, conducted in Germany and Israel in May 2021, compares German and Israeli news media consumption concerning the Russian–Ukrainian war using a structured online questionnaire. A total of 1,310 and 509 valid questionnaires were completed in Germany and Israel, respectively, examining differences in how news consumers used media to access information. Specifically, objective and subjective proximity to Ukraine and Ukrainians, interest in politics and media perceptions were examined as potential predictors of use patterns of various media. For most variables, Germans and Israelis similarly sought news about the war, especially in mainstream news media. In Israel, objective and subjective proximities to Ukraine were the most significant predictors for consuming mainstream news media, with interest in politics and media trust being less important. In Germany, the latter factors predicted mainstream news media consumption more strongly than ties and subjective proximity, while trust in the mainstream media was not a significant predictor. Finally, the authors found that the lower the trust in mainstream media, the larger the volume of social media consumption about the war.
      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-11-24T09:54:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231212415
       
  • Book review: Managing Meaning in Ukraine: Information, Communication and
           Narration since the Euromaidan Revolution

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      Authors: Joanna Szostek
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-11-22T08:38:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231212409
       
  • Book review: Strategic Conspiracy Narratives: A Semiotic Approach

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      Authors: Jacopo Castaldi
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-11-22T08:37:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231212406
       
  • The Lernaean Hydra on the internet: Deplatformization-resistant media
           ecosystem of the Islamic State

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      Authors: Attila Gulyás, Márton Demeter, Janos Besenyő
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.
      While certain areas of the Islamic State’s activities (propaganda, recruitment, etc.) are well researched, there have been few studies covering the efforts of the organization to neutralize deplatformization, even though its inclusion in a unified system makes it possible to successfully fight against the organization. The present study investigated the Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTPs) applied by the Islamic State to maintain its online presence against the deplatforming efforts of law enforcement agencies and social media stakeholders. A closely related topic, namely the key components of the organization’s successful internet activity, is also examined in this article. During the research, authors mapped and plotted one part of the Islamic State’s internet ecosystem to discover the pattern in this interconnected network. Furthermore, the authors elaborated on a volunteer computing based recommendation for paralysing Islamic State-linked websites.
      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-11-08T12:40:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231206306
       
  • Solidarity with Ukrainian war refugees in Polanders’ epistolary
           

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      Authors: Artur Fabiś, Dorota Gierszewski, Liliya Morska
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.
      Bordering Ukraine, Poland has become the main escape channel for refugees fleeing from the disastrous war since its inception on 24 February 2022. The results of the study prove that the future of societies can be determined by the importance currently assigned to solidarity. The scale of support and assistance provided spontaneously by individuals and social movements in Poland over the last year has exceeded expectations and confirmed the feasibility of a tremendous potential of solidarity being dormant in Polish society as well as a readiness for selfless and effective actions. This research objective is to gain an insight into Poles’ understanding of the hardships of the war, as well as the motives and emotional involvement driving their support for Ukrainian citizens. In parallel to that, the article examines the issue of bottom-up initiatives of solidarity from the perspective of the refugee influx. This research, which is qualitative in nature, is grounded on the technique of an epistolary narrative analysis of 43 letters written by Poles to unknown Ukrainians. Such qualitative methodology is characterized by typical limitations of this type of research (for example, little generalization is possible due to the size of the sample). However, the findings show that, through spontaneous solidarity and support, disapproval of the aggressor, admiration and gratitude to Ukrainian soldiers, the potential of the messages has boosted the rapprochement of the bonds between the two nations and alleviated the historical conflicts. The solidarity identified stands out and should be distinguished from any other crisis related to refugee phenomena as well as deserving further research from various perspectives.
      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-10-11T10:12:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231203642
       
  • YouTube discourse of the Oting massacre in Nagaland: investigating
           affiliations, sentiments and Naga identity negotiation in YouTube comments
           

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      Authors: A Blessing Muinao, V Ratnamala
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.
      Personae identification and understanding the social bonds shared in online interactions are found to be key to combating misinformation and conspiratorial discourse as well as aiding in developing solutions for specific communities. The 2021 Oting massacre in Nagaland that killed 14 civilians sparked public outrage and widespread protests calling for justice and the repeal of the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act in northeast India. The massacre received a lot of attention, including YouTube videos, and reignited discussion on militarization, Naga identity and a backlash over the botched operation. A close qualitative analysis of 500 randomly extracted comments from 10 selected YouTube videos identified 15 personae with unique linguistic patterns that reveal specific ideational targets and their affiliation strategies in the discourse. A sentiment analysis of 11,294 comments shows a higher negative score linked to condemnation, hate speech and conspiracy than a positive score linked to solidarity and empathy. ‘Nagaism’ as being a Naga is reimagined and reinforced via YouTube, countering misconceptions about Naga identity.
      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-10-11T10:06:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231203632
       
  • Vertical interference: video, drone witnessing, and the myth of precision
           targeting

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      Authors: Hugo Ljungbäck
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.
      Artists and filmmakers frequently problematize drone warfare through their creative practices, contesting military surveillance and violence by appropriating, parodying, and turning the drone’s gaze back at itself. Challenging and subverting the myth of ‘precision targeting’ – the military’s claim to perfect accuracy in aiming their weapons only at ‘bad guys’ – is central to artists’ engagement with drone warfare. By looking at recent work by Nicolas Brynolfson, George Barber, and eteam, the author argues that these artists pose drone vision – how and what drones see and look at – as a site of compromised looking, where the indexical and objective is rarely just that, but always layered by and interpreted through discourse, ideology, compression, and noise. By performing ‘drone witnessing’, these artists tease out the connective tissue between state surveillance and remote warfare, raising key questions about sovereignty and autonomy in the age of operational images.
      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-10-11T10:00:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231201742
       
  • Ideology and cognitive stereotypes in media representation of the
           Russia–Ukraine conflict

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      Authors: Charles Ononiwu
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigates the representation of the Russia–Ukraine conflict by two state-owned Russian news media and two state-owned Ukrainian news media, namely Izvestia, Russia Today, Ukrinform and Dzerkalo Tyzhnia. The aim of this investigation is to determine the ideologies embedded in the news reports and discourse structures, and strategies deployed in portraying the conflict actors and their actions. Van Dijk’s socio-cognitive model of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) (see Ideology: A Multidisciplinary Approach, 1998; New(s) racism: A discourse analytical approach, 2000; and Politics, ideology, and discourse, 2006) and Martin and White’s Appraisal Framework of attitude and graduation (see The Language of Evaluation: Appraisal in English, 2005) served as the theoretical frameworks. Using Critical Discourse Analysis as the analytical framework, the study examines how attitudinal and evaluative language use are employed to enact ideologies and to portray biased presentations of conflict actors. The findings reveal that the media reports of the Russia–Ukraine conflict are laden with militarism and nationalism. Discourse structures and strategies of emotive verbs, evaluative adjectives, positive self-presentation, negative other-presentation, national self-glorification, actor description, comparison and number games are powerful tools for enacting ideologies. The media representation of the Russia–Ukraine conflict lacked conflict resolution embedded linguistic frames and is rather distorted, stereotypic and conflict-inciting.
      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-09-28T07:27:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231201743
       
  • Depicting conflict in Kosovo and Rwanda: comparative analysis of child
           victims of ethnic genocide in the Associated Press, 1990

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      Authors: Sadaf Siddiqui-Ali, Jehoon Jeon
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.
      When images of children in conflict situations are selected for a Western audience, what roles do the images fulfill for the audience' A content analysis of photographs provided by the Associated Press of children in Rwanda and Kosovo suggests that news agencies frame children of conflicts differently, as passive agents or success stories, in accordance with ideological and organizational guidelines. The findings of this study show that the Associated Press depicts children in Rwanda in racially stereotypical ways in comparison to their Kosovar counterparts. The current research examines the ways that news media depict children of color in the context of war and conflict.
      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-09-19T09:37:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231196799
       
  • Book review: Human Rights Journalism and Its Nexus to Responsibility to
           Protect How and Why the International Press Failed in Sri Lanka’s
           Humanitarian Crisis

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      Authors: Rahime Özgün Kehya
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-08-01T05:34:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231191350
       
  • Pakistani military’s rhetorical construction of an Indigenous civil
           rights movement

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      Authors: Faizullah Jan, Azmat Khan
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.
      For the last four decades, Pakistan’s northwestern Pashtun tribal areas have been in a constant state of imperialist wars. In reaction to this organized violence, a local civil rights movement, the PTM, emerged in 2014 which powerfully challenged the military’s discursive regime that legitimates these US-led wars. However, the military challenged the movement’s call for justice by launching a concerted discursive drive to construct an enemy image of the PTM. This study aims to discover how the military constructs the identity, as well as the cultural and political meanings of the movement. The authors found that the military strategically organizes its discourse to first build a symbolic order in which an enemy other, less than human, is created, and then its oppression is normalized and made invisible. They hope that the article contributes to the current critical scholarship on the increasing militarization of contemporary public spaces and democratic cultures, particularly in the context of South Asia.
      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-07-11T05:58:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231186293
       
  • #Azovsteel: Comparing qualitative and quantitative approaches for studying
           framing of the siege of Mariupol on Twitter

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      Authors: Michael Tschirky, Mykola Makhortykh
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.
      Social media platforms play a major role in shaping how the public around the world perceives contemporary wars, including the ongoing Russian invasion of Ukraine. However, there are multiple challenges in studying how exactly these platforms represent violence and what aspects of it are made more salient by their users. One of these challenges concerns the broad range of qualitative and quantitative approaches used to study platform-based war framing and their different capabilities in tackling the large volume of available data. To address this challenge, the authors compare the performance of qualitative and quantitative approaches – i.e. qualitative content analysis and topic modelling – for studying how one of the key episodes of the Russian–Ukrainian war, the siege of Mariupol in 2022 was framed on Twitter over time. Their findings demonstrate that both approaches show the prevalence of human interest and conflict frames that aligns with earlier research on war framing in journalistic media. At the same time, they observe differences in the estimated visibility of less common frames, such as morality and responsibility frames, depending on what method is used.
      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-07-06T10:25:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231184163
       
  • Saints and witnesses: Virtue and vocation in the memorialization of the
           Western conflict journalist

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      Authors: Richart Stupart, Rob Sharp
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.
      How are Western journalists who are killed in the course of their work remembered' Using the biographies of journalists killed covering conflict, this article investigates the discursive repertoires through which the memorialization of journalists killed while reporting conflict is accomplished. The authors argue that such journalists are consistently constructed as humanitarian, cosmopolitan witnesses engaged in supererogatory moral projects involving justice and voice for those outside of these journalists’ geopolitical home communities. This particular articulation appears to herald a recent shift in the memorialization of the journalistic dead, although it is continuous with longer discourses in fields such as photojournalism and its idea of the ‘concerned photographer’. We speculate that this shift is consistent with material changes in the field – in particular, the precaritization of conflict reporting driving journalists into the material and social world of professional humanitarianism, whose discourses around the moral worth and cosmopolitan nature of the work have colonized the subfield of conflict reporting.
      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-07-04T05:24:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231184154
       
  • Pak–India relations: A comparative analysis of political cartoons

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      Authors: Fraz Bakhtiar, Muhammad Ismail, Fawad Baig
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.
      A picture is worth than a thousand words. Political cartoons are an important genre in media content and can be used as a tool for propaganda in peace and war times. Permanent hostilities and rising media outlets in the region between India and Pakistan increased the importance of media to cool down hostilities. This study attempts to explore the role of political cartoons in escalated tensions between India and Pakistan, due to the Uri base and Pathankot terrorist attacks in 2016. Therefore, two daily newspapers – DAWN from Pakistan and Times of India from India – published from 1 July 2016 to 31 December 2016 were selected for frame analysis. Findings revealed that both newspapers published 82 cartoons relevant to the study, 29 in DAWN and 53 in Times of India. Analysis of the data reveals that five themes are present in the cartoon content: blame game, Kashmir conflict, role of international actors, peace efforts and dialogue, and water dispute. Blaming the other is dominant in the Times of India and peace efforts and dialogue in DAWN. The Times of India mostly supported Indian government and DAWN rejected the Pakistani stance in cartoon coverage regarding Pak–India relations.
      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-07-01T07:01:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231184156
       
  • The New York Times distorts the Palestinian struggle: A case study of
           anti-Palestinian bias in US news coverage of the First and Second
           Palestinian Intifadas

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      Authors: Holly M Jackson
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.
      This article provides a methodologically novel, large-scale proof of historical bias against Palestine in a newspaper of international importance – The New York Times (NYT) – during the First and Second Palestinian Intifadas. Using state-of-the-art natural language processing toolkits as well as a regression model with over 90 percent accuracy based on a carefully validated word bank, the author analyzes over 33,000 NYT articles for (1) their use of active/passive voice, and (2) the objectivity, tone, and violent sentiment of the language used. She follows up her quantitative analysis with a qualitative validation step, analyzing biased articles in each period. In conjunction with historical context, the article shows that anti-Palestinian bias persisted disproportionately in the NYT during both periods and, in fact, worsened from the First Intifada to the Second. This work builds on a history of qualitative research on anti-Palestinian bias in the US media and attempts to provide a methodological contribution that encourages conversation between quantitative and qualitative metrics of bias.
      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-06-07T05:43:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231178148
       
  • War and ‘museum front’ in a digital era: The Ukrainian War Museum
           during the Russian invasion of Ukraine

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      Authors: Elżbieta Olzacka
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.
      Based on the extensive literature on the digital transformation of museums, this article explores how war museums can effectively use online media to fulfil their functions related to remembering, interpreting and debating war. The author focuses primarily on the context of ongoing armed conflict as war museums engage in a struggle, shaping, mobilizing and unifying narrative to support the war effort. The main part of the article is an analysis of the online activities of the Kyiv Museum of the History of Ukraine in the Second World War during the first months of the Russian full-scale invasion of Ukraine. The author analyses the online exhibitions, online projects and content of the official Museum’s Facebook profile in order to explain how the War Museum uses its digital online resources to inform the local population and the international communities about the Russian aggression against Ukraine, and mobilize them to support the war effort.
      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-06-03T10:14:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231175077
       
  • The perceived credibility of the Ethiopian private, federal and regional
           television channels

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      Authors: Amanuel Gebru Woldearegay, Bereket Wondimu Wolde
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.
      The detaining, arresting and holding of journalists for more than half a year without formal charges in addition to the war and conflict in Ethiopia between different ethnicities and regional states motivated these authors to explore rising issues of perceptions of media credibility in Ethiopia. The main focus of this study was to assess the audiences’ perceived credibility of the Ethiopian federal, regional and private television channels. The participants of this study were people living in two regional states and one capital city of Ethiopia (i.e. Amhara, Oromia and Addis Ababa). A total of 600 participants were chosen from the three places included in the survey, using snowball and convenience sampling techniques. The data were collected through the survey and analysed using non parametric statistics (Mann Whitney U Test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, Kruskal Wallis Test and Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test) using SPSS version 26. Results indicated that the federal and private television channels enjoy more news and medium credibility than the regional television channels. However, the audiences’ perception of the credibility of journalists from the television channels of the federal, private and regional states showed no statistically significant difference. The results of the study suggest that the television organizations, journalists and policy designers need to work harder to bring credibility to the regional states television channels in addition to ensuring credibility to the federal and private television channels.
      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-05-25T11:02:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231175082
       
  • US news media’s framing of the ‘North Korean crisis’ under the Trump
           administration: The new ideological foreign affairs paradigm

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      Authors: Brett Labbe, SangHee Park
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.
      On 11 February 2017, North Korea launched its first intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) test of the Trump administration. Over the ensuing year the North Korean government continued to defy international pressures through the intensification of its ballistic missile and nuclear programs. During this time frame, an escalation of adversarial rhetoric between the Trump administration and the Kim Jong-un military government gained widespread media attention for its potential to escalate into military aggression. This study analyzes USA Today coverage of the ‘North Korean crisis’, and its subsequent de-escalation following the announcements of diplomatic talks in March 2018 in order to gain insight into the nature of mainstream US media framing of the issue. The study found that US news media appropriates ingroup/outgroup dichotomies in the service of US interests. Analysis also revealed that the coverage embraced an ideologically-based narrative predicated on the rejection of an international system based on the moral imperatives of democracy and human rights in favor of a realpolitik interpretation of the international system in which actors compete for advantage.
      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-04-26T08:49:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231162280
       
  • War on frames: Text mining of conflict in Russian and Ukrainian news
           agency coverage on Telegram during the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022
           

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      Authors: Grzegorz Ptaszek, Bohdan Yuskiv, Sergii Khomych
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.
      This article discusses the results of verbal framing analysis of the conflict in news published on Telegram channels by the Russian news agency RIA Novosti (RIAN) and the Ukrainian news agency (UNIAN) during the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022. The analysis, using the text mining method, shows differences between how a more authoritarian and more competitive regime uses social media to construct strategic narratives. RIAN benefits from a technical frame that has not changed throughout the war although the reality on the ground has been evolving dramatically. It focuses on military issues and international rivalry (e.g. sanctions) because the Kremlin focuses on it. UNIAN, on the other hand, uses the moralizing frame of conflict which is more flexible and has been developed in response to changes on the ground – from discussions about the possibility of the invasion to humanitarian tragedy to war crimes, and to creating a more essentialized image of the enemy (‘rashists’).
      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-04-21T06:11:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231166327
       
  • Open-source intelligence and research on online terrorist communication:
           Identifying ethical and security dilemmas

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      Authors: Miron Lakomy
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores key ethical and security challenges related to exploitation of open-source intelligence (OSINT) in research on online terrorist propaganda. In order to reach this objective, the most common approaches to OSINT-based projects are analysed through the lens of some of the most recognized ethical guidelines in science, which allowed several core dilemmas to be identified. First of all, this study discusses how personal data protection rules are applicable to investigations of potentially dangerous subjects, such as members and followers of Violent Extremist Organizations (VEOs). In addition, the author examines potential threats to the safety of researchers and the scientific infrastructure used in OSINT-based projects. He also discusses the risks of incidental findings and malevolent use of research results. Finally, drawing from existing legal regulations and good practices in other fields, as well as the author’s previous experience in OSINT-based analyses of online terrorist activities, this article explores basic means of tackling these dilemmas.
      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-04-05T10:39:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231166322
       
  • Peace is possible: The role of strategic narratives in peacebuilding

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      Authors: Tiffany Fairey
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.
      In Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), scholars and practitioners often cite the lack of shared narrative as a primary challenge to long-term peace. A study of the multi-ethnic, collaborative story-telling work of the Post Conflict Research Centre (PCRC), a Bosnian peacebuilding organization, however, tells a different story. Instead of aiming to forge a singular narrative, PCRC weaves together multiple stories that express complex positions while driving narrative frames that show peace is possible. In a context where actors might not be ready for a joint narrative, the organization demonstrates how plural stories can co-exist, and be strategically mobilized and disseminated through diverse formats to actively engage others in peace-building processes. Identifying key narrative principles, tactics and frames employed by PCRC, this article proposes more attention is paid to how narrative can be strategically harnessed to de-stabilize the stories that drive entrenched division and to foster and cultivate a culture of peace.
      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-03-28T10:32:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231160360
       
  • Popular media, war propaganda and retroactive continuity: The construction
           of the enemy in Marvel comics (1942–1981)

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      Authors: Antonio Pineda, Jesús Jiménez-Varea
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.
      The construction of the enemy is a technique whose potential effects are of outmost consequence for the relationships between the media, war and propaganda. In World War II, in addition to the official media, psychological warfare also relied on non-official propaganda conveyed through comic books whose levels of hatred for the enemy are hardly matched. This article aims to shed light on how superhero and war comic books mirror the construction and depiction of World War II enemies in American culture. The authors’ research compares the original wartime comics published by Marvel Comics with the representation of the war enemy conveyed by Marvel between the 1960s and the early 1980s. To test whether changes occurred, the authors conduct a diachronic content analysis of comic-book covers from both periods.
      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-02-14T12:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352231151871
       
  • Media framing of the Intifada of the Knives

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      Authors: Dalia Attar, Gretchen King
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.
      Research examining coverage of Western media on the Palestinian–Israeli conflict shows an imbalance in reporting the news and favoritism towards an Israeli government interpretation of the story. This article aims to examine how the so-called Intifada of the Knives (IK) was framed in Western print newspapers. The research also examines the representation of Palestinians and Israelis during that period. Media Framing Analysis (MFA) is deployed to present a detailed examination of 16 articles that appeared in prominent British, American, Canadian, and Australian print newspapers during that period. Findings show that negative frames were more dominant than positive frames. Overall, the articles framed the Intifada as a religious dispute and empathized more with Israelis who were described as victims while Palestinians were framed as terrorists or anti-Semitic. Little or no background was given as to why Palestinians opted for such actions against Israelis.
      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-01-28T11:14:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352221149554
       
  • Finding peace journalism: An analysis of Pakistani media discourse on
           Afghan refugees and their forced repatriation from Pakistan

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      Authors: Ayesha Jehangir
      Abstract: Media, War & Conflict, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigates media coverage of Afghan refugees by English-language media in Pakistan and explores how coverage is shaped by a shift in the political stance of the Pakistani state and establishment towards Afghanistan. The author examines how Afghan refugees, their forced repatriation from Pakistan, and the subsequent conflict between Pakistan and Afghanistan were framed in both long-form and short-form media coverage over three years. Using Galtung’s Peace and War Journalism Model to inform the Critical Discourse Analysis, this study finds that conflict-escalatory frames dominated media coverage, and media stance changed over time to reflect state policy on the forced repatriation of over three million Afghan refugees in Pakistan. Findings reveal that the coverage in all four publications was highly politicized and inflammatory, the voice of Afghan refugees was significantly missing from coverage, while the Pakistani government and military elite were predominantly used as news sources. Based on the findings, the author argues that pressures from the Pakistani state and military establishment are key reasons why media coverage of Afghan refugees frequently contained negative frames of terrorism and ethnonationalism. Sporadic employment of limited peace-oriented framing was, however, observed in some of the coverage.
      Citation: Media, War & Conflict
      PubDate: 2023-01-28T09:11:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17506352221149559
       
 
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School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
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