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  Subjects -> MILITARY (Total: 106 journals)
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Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1022-8136 - ISSN (Online) 2224-0020
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [260 journals]
  • Guest Editorial

    • Authors: Francois Vrey, Denys Reva
      Pages: i - vii
      Abstract: No Abstract
      PubDate: 2024-01-18
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • A Critical Reflection on African Maritime Cybersecurity Frameworks

    • Authors: Tefesehet Hailu Sime
      Pages: 1 - 88
      Abstract: With a coastline of 26,000 nautical miles and 38 out of 55 African states being either coastal or island states, trading activities on the  continent are facilitated by over a hundred port facilities in the region, which make up 90 per cent of African seaborne trade. These factors indicate that the continent is dependent on well-run ports, effective protection of its maritime resources, and regulated shipping.  Regulating the maritime sector requires new technologies that come at the cost of cyber vulnerabilities. However, in Africa, there are very  few legal instruments, both at national and at regional level, specifically addressing the issue of cyberattacks on ships and port  facilities. Given the lack of attention given to maritime security and the lack of collective action from African states, the study on which  this article reports, sought to provide a critical reflection on how cyber technology is affecting is affecting the African maritime domain; and the consequences that could manifest should the cybersecurity of ships, ports, and their critical infrastructure continue to be  ignored. The aim of this study was to broaden the understanding of the maritime cybersecurity legal frameworks in Africa by using the  ‘black letter’ methodology, which is a positivist approach described by academics as being the best avenue by which to assess the  existence, meaning and application of a defined system of legal principles. In engaging with those conventions, policies, laws, and  regulations that are currently guiding the area of maritime cybersecurity, the study sought to identify the gaps in the legal frameworks  on the continent and to provide policy recommendations.     
      PubDate: 2024-01-18
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Investigating the Intersection of Maritime and Cyber Crime in the Gulf of
           Guinea

    • Authors: Elsie Amelia Tachie-Menson
      Pages: 89 - 112
      Abstract: As technology expands and spreads worldwide, the maritime industry and maritime crime are rapidly evolving While the heightened  adoption of digital technologies has positively impacted the efficient and prompt execution of tasks like maritime surveillance, policing,  monitoring, and early warning systems, it has also brought about significant challenges that impact the interconnected network of  maritime actors. This dilemma can be attributed to geographical location, surveillance, and navigation systems of ports, vessels, and  other state intuitions. With the emergence of cyber threats, West Africa is poised to face a dual-pronged threat at its ports and shores,  affecting the broader security environment of coastal states as actors in the maritime domain are increasingly using digital technologies.  Moreover, these threats demonstrate a path for maritime criminals to evolve into maritime cybercriminals. The central theme of this  article is the connection between cybercrime and maritime crimes, and the cybercrimes that have found a lucrative avenue in the  maritime industry. It also discusses cybercrime in maritime criminal activities occurring in West Africa, and the implications for the  maritime and cyber landscape of the region. Finally, the article concludes with approaches for dealing with the risks posed by maritime  cyber risks.  
      PubDate: 2024-01-18
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • The African Shipping Sector, the Need for and Means to Achieve Effective
           Cyber Risk Management

    • Authors: Chris Myers
      Pages: 113 - 132
      Abstract: The African shipping sector is a significant enabler of trade within Africa and trade between Africa and the world. African countries are  sourcing and integrating technical solutions from foreign suppliers and service providers within their maritime domain. Such technologies are embedded within and enable functionality within transportation systems, port and navigation infrastructure,  telecommunications infrastructure, downstream oil and gas infrastructure, and various national defence and security systems.  Unfortunately, while providing the required functionality, these technical solutions create security vulnerabilities that place the African  shipping sector and national interests at risk if security within the maritime cyber domain is taken for granted. The study on which this article is based firstly sought to identify and deconstruct the technology and associated vulnerabilities within the African maritime  domain. Secondly, the research attempted to determine how national strategy and policy could be used to manage these security vulnerabilities to raise awareness of maritime cybersecurity in the context of the African shipping sector and propose pragmatic steps to  achieve it. 
      PubDate: 2024-01-18
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Human Intelligence: Supporting Composite Warfare Operations in Africa

    • Authors: Hussein Solomon
      Pages: 125 - 128
      Abstract: No Abstract
      PubDate: 2024-01-18
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • IOT and IIOT Security for the South African Maritime and Freight Transport
           Sectors

    • Authors: Barend Pretorius
      Pages: 133 - 160
      Abstract: The advent of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) has seen a rapid increase in connected smart devices known as the Internet of Things  (IoT). While this ‘revolution’ is most noticeable in commercial devices, there has also been an evolution in industrial devices, known as the Industrial Internet of Things. As Africa – and in particular South Africa – is racing to compete in the 4IR, various sectors,  including the transport sector, are introducing innovative projects. However, the Internet of Things and the Industrial Internet of Things present cybersecurity risks. Cybersecurity itself is also considered a key component of the 4IR; yet, organisations often neglect to  consider the security implications of the Internet of Things. The current research aimed to evaluate and prioritise cyber threats, vulnerabilities, and risk related to the Internet of Things and the  Industrial Internet of Things in the South African physical transport sector. This article focuses on the responses to a questionnaire to  obtain quantitative data from those with experience in the related fields. The threats and vulnerabilities of concern are illustrated, and  the risks are evaluated based on the perceived impact of such risks and the likelihood of the Internet of Things and the Industrial Internet of Things being compromised. While no clear leaders of risk were found, the top three risks based on the perceived severity and   ikelihood are unavailability of Internet of Things and Industrial Internet of Things devices and/or networks, damage to reputation, and  cyberespionage.
      PubDate: 2024-01-18
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Vulnerability of South African Commodity Value Chains to Cyber Incidents

    • Authors: Brett van Niekerk
      Pages: 161 - 186
      Abstract: A commodity value chain can be considered the ‘route’ from the source (provider) to the destination (client), including the various modes  of transportation. This will often include some form of road or rail to a port for export to a destination country. Due to the rise in  cybercrime and state-backed cyber operations, these commodity value chains may be disrupted, having a cascading effect down the  value chain. Previous research has considered this a form of economic information warfare, and has indicated that statesponsored cyber  operations to disrupt a commodity intentionally will most likely fall below the threshold of a ‘use of force’ or ‘attack’ under international  law. Subsequently, two pertinent instances of cyber incidents at ports have occurred: the disruption of a major Iranian port, and a   ansomware incident at a major South African freight and logistics state-owned enterprise.     Following the disruption resulting from the ransomware incident affecting South  African freight organisations, there is a need to analyse  the vulnerabilities of the freight transportation sector further, in particular the ports and associated railways in terms of   malicious cyber interference. Expanding previous research, this article provides a  specific view of the major commodity value chains in  South Africa that are supported by the freight transportation infrastructure, their possible vulnerability to cyber incidents, and the  potential implications thereof. In addition, publicly available information on the responses to the ransomware incident will be discussed  to gauge national readiness in terms of crisis management of a major disruption to the primary trade mechanisms in the country. The  article focuses on identifying single points of failure within the commodity value chain, and employs hypothetical scenarios to illustrate  possible ramifications of a major incident. The port of Durban is shown to the most critical single point of failure overall.  Recommendations include the introduction of a sector-specific computer security incident response team for the freight transportation  sector.
      PubDate: 2024-01-18
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Fighting the Fleet: Operational Art and Modern Fleet Combat

    • Authors: Dries Putter
      Pages: 187 - 190
      Abstract: No Abstract
      PubDate: 2024-01-18
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • The Naval War in South African Waters, 1939–1945

    • Authors: Andre Wessels
      Pages: 191 - 194
      Abstract: No Abstract
      PubDate: 2024-01-18
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • President Mandela’s Admiral: The South African Navy’s Story of the
           1990s: Challenging Politics, Radical Transformation, Ambitious Voyages and
           the Quest for New Ships and Submarines

    • Authors: Leon Steyn
      Pages: 195 - 198
      Abstract: No Abstract
      PubDate: 2024-01-18
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • A Century of South African Naval History: The South African Navy and its
           Predecessors, 1922–2022

    • Authors: Allan du Toit
      Pages: 199 - 202
      Abstract: No Abstract
      PubDate: 2024-01-18
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Die Affäre Patzig: Ein Kriegsverbrechen für das Kaiserreich'

    • Authors: Tilman Dedering
      Pages: 203 - 206
      Abstract: No Abstract
      PubDate: 2024-01-18
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2024)
       
 
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  Subjects -> MILITARY (Total: 106 journals)
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