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  Subjects -> MILITARY (Total: 106 journals)
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Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1022-8136 - ISSN (Online) 2224-0020
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Editorial

    • Authors: Evert Kleynhans
      Abstract: No Abstract.
      PubDate: 2021-11-26
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The South African security predicament: Making sense of the objective
           realities

    • Authors: Abel Esterhuyse
      Pages: 1 - 22
      Abstract: This article reflects an effort to make sense of the objective realities of the South African security predicament. The objective realities on the security agenda are rooted in the practical reality of experience and are open for public discussion, debate and speculation. These realities are informed by the threats facing South Africans on a daily basis. Government provides security with subjective content to the extent that political power demarcates the threat agenda, prioritises the items on the threat agenda, and foots the security bill. Since the creation of the Union in 1910, South Africa has had to find a balance between the security realities emanating from three key security domains – irrespective of the ruling entity: security threats from outside Africa, those threats facing the country from within Africa, and security threats from within the borders of South Africa. The article aims at a scholarly demarcation of some of the most critical, important, and key features of the South African security agenda using these three domains as a framework for discussion. On a secondary level, the discussion also critically reflects on the ability of the human security paradigm to address the South African security predicament.
      PubDate: 2021-11-26
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Promoting psychological adaptation among navy sailors

    • Authors: Charles H. Van Wijk, Jarred H. Martin
      Pages: 23 - 34
      Abstract: The mandate of the Institute for Maritime Medicine (IMM) is to support and enhance the operational performance of sailors of the South African Navy during maritime operations, while also ensuring positive long-term mental health outcomes of sailors who serve their country at sea. To achieve this, the IMM proposes to re-orientate the mobilisation and demobilisation programmes used for ship-based maritime operations towards  predict-and-promote (P&P) approach, to enhance the psychological adaptation of sailors to the emotional demands of deployment as well as to support more adaptive forms of mental health resilience, both before and after sea-going operations. First, this article aims to present the proposed P&P approach for enhancing psychological adaptation during and after seaward deployments, with a specific focus on assessing personal emotional regulation (ER). For effective implementation, this approach is contingent on several clinical assumptions about ER in the operational environment, namely: the absence of significant psychopathology; the stability of the ER measure; the role of dispositional factors in operational adaptation; and the availability of population-specific normative data, which act as an interpretative guide of ER profiles for sailors. The second aim is to consider support for these assumptions, using previous experience during the mobilisation and/or demobilisation of ships involved in maritime operations. Support was found for all four assumptions, indicating the clinical and operational utility of the P&P approach at the IMM broadly, and the assessment of ER for sailors in particular.
      PubDate: 2021-11-26
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Hypersonic weapons and the future of nuclear deterrence

    • Authors: Eben Coetzee
      Pages: 35 - 56
      Abstract: It is widely accepted today that hypersonic weapons pose insurmountable challenges to nuclear deterrence. Although speed has always been a critical factor in warfare, the development of hypersonics provides unprecedented advantages in terms of the speed and agility of missiles. The increase in the speed and agility of hypersonic missiles drastically reduces the response time of nuclear states, encouraging the pre-emptive use of force. Two arguments inform the latter claim. The first holds that the speed and agility of hypersonic missiles are likely to render existing and future missile defences obsolete. The second contends that the failure of missile defences coupled with the reduction of the response time of nuclear states encourages the pre-emptive use of force. Where nuclear states are unable to field survivable second-strike forces, the stability of nuclear deterrence becomes highly problematic. Besides these arguments, the dual-use nature of hypersonic weapons ostensibly increases the risk of nuclear escalation. Against this bleak assessment, in this article, the author questions the destabilising effects of hypersonic weapons on deterrence stability, arguing that nuclear deterrence is – and is likely to remain – deeply stable. A thoroughgoing consideration of the strategic implications of nuclear weapons provides optimism about the stability of nuclear deterrence in the face of the development of hypersonic weapons. Two arguments are advanced in support of the continuing stability of nuclear deterrence. First, missile defences have and are likely to remain) inefficacious, with the development of hypersonic weapons merely reinforcing (rather than establishing) this fact. Second, a would-be aggressor contemplating the pre-emptive use of force would have to believe that it could destroy all of an adversary’s nuclear force before any can be launched.
      PubDate: 2021-11-26
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The German Attack on the Witboois at Hornkranz, Namibia, April 1893

    • Authors: Piet van Rooyen
      Pages: 57 - 73
      Abstract: For many, when the Namibian struggle for liberation is mentioned, the struggle for liberation by the South West Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO) comes to mind. For others to the south of Namibia, it recalls images of a border war and incursions into Angola to ‘stop SWAPO’, the latter seen as a communist pawn directed and armed by the Soviet Union and Cuba. More than that is seldom asked about or seen in terms of the bigger historical collage. The brutal era of German colonisation is habitually overlooked. The Namibians’ struggle for liberation lasted nearly a century. It started through, for example, the massacre or battle, depending on your view, in April 1893. This previously poorly researched story about which little is written is told in this article.
      PubDate: 2021-11-26
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The South African National War College military history staff ride as a
           deep learning experience

    • Authors: James Jacobs, Johan Wassermann
      Pages: 75 - 89
      Abstract: In this article, based on a study rooted in interpretivism, the South African National War College military history staff ride, as an education and training method related to the curriculum of the senior staff programmes since 2002, is discussed. The education and training process, with specific reference to the staff ride to military battle sites and the associated application of the theory of operational art, were researched according to the tenets of the theory of deep learning. While using the historical–comparative method during the staff ride enabled the majority of the students to determine which viable options were available to the commander, not all students were necessarily able to relate deep learning to critical thinking. Consequently, in certain instances, surface learning tended to dominate simply because that was the educational world into which the students had been socialised. Furthermore, the facilitation process did not always fully serve the students by completely weaning them off learning habits associated with surface learning. Consequently, while being able to claim some deep learning successes using the staff ride, continuous reflection and educational interventions are needed to maintain the successes achieved and to use these as a building platform for deep learning during future staff rides.
      PubDate: 2021-11-26
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A reassessment of the tank battle between 4th Armoured Brigade and
           Panzerregiment 5 during Operation Crusader in North Africa on 19 November
           1941

    • Authors: Andreas Biermann
      Pages: 91 - 114
      Abstract: Operation Crusader took place in the wide context of an integrated, multi-service theatre-level offensive operation in the Western Desert and the Mediterranean from October 1941 through to January 1942. Seen through this lens, Operation Crusader was simply the Army and the Royal Air Force component of a multi-service theatre-level offensive conducted by Allied forces. The operation ended with an almost complete defeat of the Axis troops, the lifting of the seven-month siege of Tobruk and the retreat of the surviving Axis forces to a position on the border of the colonial provinces of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica, in central Libya. Operation Crusader was the first army-level offensive undertaken by the Allied forces in World War II, lasting from 17 November 1941 to 15 January 1942.355 The aim of Operation Crusader was to trigger a large-scale tank battle with Axis tank forces outside the besieged desert port of Tobruk in Libya, to destroy the Axis armoured forces, and to pave the way to lift the siege of Tobruk, which had been conducted by the Axis forces since April 1941. Operation Crusader was the first step in a set of three operations expected to lead to the clearing of the North African coast from Axis forces and subsequently allow an invasion of Sicily in 1942. The battle was the largest tank offensive conducted by Allied forces in either World War I or World War II until the second Battle of El Alamein in late October 1942. It was characterised by a number of tank battles between the Axis forces under the command of General der Panzertruppen Erwin Rommel and Allied infantry and armoured forces under Lieutenant-General Alan Cunningham and then Lieutenant-General Neil Ritchie, who fought under the overall direction of General Claude Auchinleck, the Commander-in-Chief Middle East. 356 357 The conduct of the battle showed weaknesses in the doctrine of British armoured forces, but it ultimately ended in a victory for the Allied forces. This article analyses the first clash of British and German tanks during Operation Crusader and provides a new perspective on the performance of an experienced British cruiser tank regiment, which calls into question the overall assessment of how British armour performed during the battle. The re-assessment provided in this article is in particular related to the performance of both sides in the battle and the performance of both sides against their tactical objectives on the day, as well as the comparative losses in tanks. The article covers the first engagement of British 4th Armoured Brigade with German armour during the opening stage of Operation Crusader between 17 and 20 November in which it managed to thwart a German counterattack. Utilising primary documents, such as war diaries, messages and reports, this article provides a new perspective on the established view of the battle that also affects our view of the performance of British armoured units at regimental level during this period of the Desert War. The article presents a reassessment of comparative tank combat performance in the early phase of Operation Crusader by analysing the first engagement between Allied and German armour with a view to correcting misconceptions that have until now clouded the historical record, such as the one expressed in General Auchinleck’s despatch on the period, “But our tanks and anti-tank guns were no match for the German, although they were fought with great gallantry:”.358 It also considers hitherto unused primary evidence to shed new light on the losses in tanks suffered by both sides during the battle, and considers how the opposing forces performed in the context of their operational
      objectives.
      PubDate: 2021-11-26
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The opportunist: The political life of Oswald Pirow, 1915-1959

    • Authors: Alex Mouton, David Katz
      Pages: 123 - 126
      Abstract: No Abstract.
      PubDate: 2021-11-26
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Gunship Over Angola : The Story of a Maverick Pilot

    • Authors: Steve Joubert, Anri Delport
      Pages: 127 - 132
      Abstract: No Abstract.
      PubDate: 2021-11-26
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The Battle of Bangui: The inside story of South Africa‚Äôs worst military
           scandal since Apartheid

    • Authors: Evert Kleynhans
      Pages: 133 - 135
      Abstract: No Abstract.
      PubDate: 2021-11-26
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 1 (2021)
       
 
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