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Armed Forces & Society
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.29
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 21  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0095-327X - ISSN (Online) 1556-0848
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Why Did the Taliban Win'

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      Authors: Anthony King
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      On October 7, 2001, 3 weeks after 9/11, U.S. forces attacked Afghanistan; bombers struck Taliban headquarters and Al Qaeda training sites. By early December, the Taliban and Al Qaeda have been defeated and had fled. However, a war that began so successfully in 2001, eventually ended ignominiously on August 30, 2021, almost exactly 20 years later, with a U.S. withdrawal and a total Taliban victory. The speed of the Taliban’s triumph shocked everyone. The entire campaign, costing US$2.3 trillion and 2,488 U.S. lives, had failed—utterly. The United States had lost its longest-ever war. How is it possible to explain a defeat of that magnitude' This article seeks to address this question. Although numerous factors played a role, this article identifies three principal factors: the environment, the local politics, and the Taliban. Afghanistan is a very difficult place to conduct large-scale military operations. The West never came to terms with the local politics and consequently undermined their own efforts. Finally, although they were not militarily sophisticated, the Taliban were politically astute and very resilient.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T12:59:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221096702
       
  • Gender Disparities in Active Duty Air Force Parents’ Childcare Access:
           Pre-Pandemic Costs, Utilization, and Career Impacts

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      Authors: Erika L. King, Hla Myint, Tawney R. Gardner, Morgan R. Mitchell, Kristin A. Beitz
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Past reports indicate that enduring Department of Defense (DoD) childcare shortfalls may disproportionately affect women, but details regarding gender effects are unknown. This exploratory study sought to uncover the military childcare system’s pre-pandemic state by analyzing two Air Force (AF) survey datasets—the 2017 AF Community Feedback Tool and 2020 AF Childcare Survey—to examine gender gaps in active duty AF parents’ childcare access, cost and utilization, and perceptions of childcare impacts on career progression and retention. Results reveal that women—particularly those in the lowest ranks with less time on station—report more difficulties accessing childcare than male counterparts. Furthermore, fathers paid nothing for childcare and relied on spouses for childcare at higher rates, while mothers paid for care, relied on DoD childcare programs, were on DoD waitlists, reported childcare-related career impacts, and reported childcare affected their retention decisions at higher rates. Policy recommendations to improve childcare across the force are discussed.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T10:59:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221094646
       
  • Veterans Affairs Hospital Productivity Change and the Policy Implications:
           A Research Note

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      Authors: Dongjin Oh, Ahreum Han, Keon-Hyung Lee
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      As a reaction to the Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital scandal in 2014, the Veterans Choice Act of 2014 was enacted to enhance veterans’ access to health care. This study evaluated the productivity change of a panel of 102 VA hospitals from 2011 through 2019 to examine how the Act influenced the overall VA hospital productivity. The results revealed that the overall productivity of VA hospitals declined over the period and VA hospitals were not operating at an optimal scale to produce maximum outputs due to a decrease in the number of veteran patients after the Act was implemented. In addition, the technical change value less than 1 implies that VA hospitals produced fewer outputs with the given input resources over the period due to lagged adoption of innovative health care technology.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T11:13:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221094647
       
  • The Cult of the Irrelevant or Political Narrative'

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      Authors: Rebecca L. Schiff
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This commentary discusses Michael Desch’s book The Cult of the Irrelevant: The Waning Influence of Social Science on National Security. Desch offers a respectable and important overview of the history of national security within the social sciences from World War I through current times. He focuses on the gradual irrelevancy of political science and particularly the field of international security. Desch, however, neglects the recent university activism and political narratives infusing academic writings and classroom discussions. This review argues that what contributes to the irrelevancy of social science and particularly national security is the new “cult” itself: demands placed on academia and students to become political activists, and not social scientists nor theorists who contribute rigorous academic research affecting domestic and foreign policy. It is the political advocacy narrative itself, embraced by university cultures, that pushes social science and the study of national security down the path of irrelevancy.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-05-30T10:20:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221089336
       
  • State-Building 101: Hard Lessons From Afghanistan

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      Authors: Michael Miklaucic
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The American war in Afghanistan was originally an act of retaliation and retribution. Over time it assumed the moral burden of state-building. The state-building effort however was undermined by inadequate planning, inadequate knowledge, and inadequate understanding of the complexity and difficulty of the state-building process. Ultimately, the Afghanistan state-building effort failed. The commentary assumes the premise that even in an era of great power competition, the West cannot escape the challenge of state-building as fragile and failing states will continue to threaten global security. The commentary suggests a set of considerations for those responsible for the inevitable state-building challenges of the future.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T11:38:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221088873
       
  • How Afghanistan Influenced the Content of Armed Forces & Society: An
           Editor’s Reflection

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      Authors: Patricia M. Shields
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This commentary examines the influence of the Afghanistan war on the content of Armed Forces & Society. My 20-year tenure as editor of Armed Forces & Society overlaps completely with the war. Using the lenses of the postmodern or post-Cold War military, I reflect on how the articles of this journal were influenced by the war. The postmodern military relies more heavily on volunteers, is more likely to engage in unconventional missions, and more likely to use multinational forces. I found an increase in articles devoted to reserve forces and contractors. In addition, many articles investigated the unique management challenges of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). The multiple deployments and brutal nature of the war led to a large increase in health/mental health articles and also contributed to changes in the scope of the military family and veterans’ literature. The limited civil–military relations literature was affected indirectly.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T10:20:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221088024
       
  • My Commander in Chief is Black! The Mental Health Significance of Barack
           Obama’s 2008 Presidential Election for Military Veterans

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      Authors: Quintin Gorman, Tony N. Brown, Julian Culver
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated the mental health significance of Barack Obama’s 2008 presidential election for military veterans. Many believed his election signaled a progressive shift in race relations and crucial challenge to White supremacy. Furthermore, many argued his election generated hope, especially among Blacks. We therefore hypothesized Black and Hispanic veterans would experience improved mental health after installment of the nation’s first Black commander in chief. We also hypothesized White veterans would experience no change in their mental health. With nationally representative survey data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), we tested these hypotheses by predicting poor mental health days self-identified Black, Hispanic, and White veterans experienced preelection and postelection in fall 2008. Net of established social determinants of health, we estimated Black and Hispanic veterans, respectively, experienced approximately 2.01 and 2.17 fewer poor mental health days postelection, whereas White veterans experienced no significant postelection change. Sensitivity analyses seemed to corroborate these findings.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T03:53:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221082211
       
  • Psychological and Sociological Profile of Women Who Have Completed Elite
           Military Combat Training

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      Authors: William J. Tharion, Karl E. Friedl, Elizabeth M. Lavoie, Leila A. Walker, Susan M. McGraw, Holly L. McClung
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      More than 75 women have successfully graduated from the U.S. Army Ranger Course since the integration of women into elite military combat training. This study sought to identify the psychological characteristics and sociological variables that contributed to their motivation and success. A guided interview and demographic and psychological questionnaires were used to assess characteristics of 13 women who successfully completed elite military combat training. Collectively, these women were college graduates and had well educated fathers, possessed high levels of grit and resiliency, and described themselves as self-competitive challenge seekers. These women all had a strong male influence in their lives. The characteristics of these pioneer women may be unique from subsequent cohorts as female participation in elite military combat training becomes the norm and as attitudes and experiences change for graduates of female combat training over time.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T01:54:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221076555
       
  • Examination of the Relationship between Self and Choice of Coping
           Strategies among U.S. Active Duty Military Wives

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      Authors: Amy P. Page, Abigail M. Ross, Phyllis Solomon
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research indicates that one’s identity relates to one’s use of specific coping strategies. Exploring the relationship between self and coping in military wives is crucial to understanding how they manage military lifestyle-related stressors. The researchers hypothesized that identity status, self-concept clarity, self-monitoring, mastery, and role conflict will be related to choice of emotion-focused coping or problem-focused coping strategies. Two hundred two participants completed an anonymous online survey containing standardized scales. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analyses revealed that emotion-focused coping had positive relationships with achieved identity status and role conflict. Problem-focused coping had positive relationships with moratorium status, self-concept clarity, self-monitoring, and mastery. Findings provide preliminary support that sense of self is important in understanding how military wives choose to cope with particular challenges.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T09:47:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221081222
       
  • Training for Heat-of-the-Moment Thinking: Ethics Training to Prepare for
           Operations

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      Authors: Deanna L. Messervey, Jennifer M. Peach, Waylon H. Dean, Elizabeth A. Nelson
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Military ethics training has tended to focus on imparting ethical attitudes and on improving deliberative moral decision-making through classroom instruction. However, military personnel can be exposed to extreme conditions on operations, which can lead to heat-of-the-moment thinking. Under stress, individuals are more likely to engage in automatic processing than deliberative processing, and visceral states such as anger and disgust can increase a person’s risk of behaving unethically. We propose that military ethics training could be improved by reinforcing classroom ethics training with interventions to counteract these risk factors. As training interventions, we recommend incorporating affect-labeling, goal-setting, and perspective-taking into realistic, pre-deployment training to make moral decision-making more robust against stress and other emotional experiences typical in combat. We outline steps researchers and trainers can take to test whether these interventions have the desired impact on ethical behavior.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T12:47:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221088325
       
  • Engagement of Military Peacekeepers in Brazilian Politics
           (2011–2021)

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      Authors: Rafael Duarte Villa, Anais M. Passos
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Peacekeepers are seen as a UN tool for promoting domestic changes in host countries, but little is known about the political consequences when officers return home. During the last 10 years, Brazilian presidents appointed a significant number of former peacekeepers to key political functions. How and why do former peacekeepers end up so involved in government affairs' To answer this question, this paper focuses on the array of skills acquired by peacekeepers in domestic missions and reinforced abroad. Drawing on a set of semi-structured interviews and questionnaires to military, former political decision-makers, and researchers, as well as other primary and secondary sources, this paper details how political articulation, experience in conflict management, and prestige empowered Brazilian military officers to resume their tradition of intervention in politics. This paper also shows that peace operations can produce deleterious outcomes for troop-contributing countries in the Global South.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-22T11:29:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221087254
       
  • “Leaning In” or “Taking a Knee”: Career Trajectories of Senior
           Leaders in the Canadian Armed Forces

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      Authors: Julie Coulthard, Justin Wright
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Less research has examined the extent to which external contexts and factors that influence an organizational member’s life choices also influence their career trajectories within the military, and particularly among those who advance to leadership positions at the General Officer/Flag Officer level. Interviews were conducted with 20 select General Officer/Flag Officers in the Canadian Armed Forces. As part of a secondary analysis of an exploratory qualitative study, we applied a Life Course Theory lens to better understand the intersections between the sociohistorical and cultural context of senior leader development, and the individual choices that the participants made that led to their ascent to their rank. This study provides insight into how the historical time and place, the timing in their lives, the linked lives they share with family, and the degree of agency they maintained over their life choices led participants to “lean in” rather than “take a knee.”
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-19T12:45:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221078331
       
  • “We Don’t Negotiate with Terrorists”—Afghanistan, Bargaining, and
           American Civil–Military Relations

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      Authors: Adam Barsuhn
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The United States government’s inability to view the conflict with the Taliban through the lens of the bargaining model of war was a fundamental element of its failure in Afghanistan. This problem was reinforced by a dysfunctional civil–military relations shaped by Samuel Huntington’s theory of objective control, resulting in the military pursuing campaigns of attrition that fit its organizational preferences but did not advance civilian political goals. These issues are evident in three different moments during the War in Afghanistan where the U.S. failed to seize an opportunity that could have changed the result of the conflict.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T10:49:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221077299
       
  • U.S. Veterans and Civilians Describe Military News Coverage as Mediocre,
           Think Stories Affect Others More Than Themselves

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      Authors: Scott Parrott, David L. Albright, Nicholas Eckhart, Kirsten Laha-Walsh
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The news media often portray military veterans in stereotypical ways, providing audiences narrow representations in which veterans are traumatized heroes. What happens when a veteran sees these storylines and assumes they affect how the public thinks about veterans' This question informs this study, which used a two-prong approach (online, telephone) to survey 1,047 American adults about news media and veterans. Respondents, including veterans and civilians, were asked to recall news stories about veterans, assess the quality of news coverage of veterans, and offer opinions concerning whether news coverage affects themselves and other people. When respondents could recall a news story about veterans, they described stereotypical stories related to victimization/harm, heroism, charity/social support, mental illness, and violence. Respondents, both civilian and veteran, described news coverage as mediocre and felt the news affects other people more than themselves.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T10:43:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221080944
       
  • How to Handle Offending Troops Overseas: The U.S. Military’s Legal
           Strategy During the Cold War

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      Authors: Asif Efrat
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The peacetime deployment of U.S. forces in foreign countries goes against traditional notions of sovereignty. How did such deployment become legitimate following World War II' This article examines the legal strategy that the U.S. military employed to make American troop presence more palatable to foreign publics and to critics at home: granting certain legal authority over offending troops to host countries, while seeking to shield troops from trials in host-country courts. The military also used local, informal ties with hosts to guarantee fair legal treatment for troops and worked to convince skeptics that U.S. troops faced no legal threat. The mitigating of legal tensions helped the military create conducive political conditions for its presence abroad and likely contributed to the durability of U.S. deployments. The Cold-War practice contrasts sharply with the contemporary desire of the United States to maintain complete jurisdiction over its troops.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-09T09:20:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211061423
       
  • The Link Between Conscription Experience and Conscripts’ Attitude Toward
           

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      Authors: Merle Parmak, David A. Tyfa
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between the experience of conscripts in their training period and their subsequent attitude toward national military service immediately after training. Self-report questionnaire is used to measure the experiences of Estonian conscripts (n = 518) in three categories: perceived stress, applied coping strategies, and evaluation of training as important. Attitude toward national military service is measured as a critical versus neutral/positive answer to an open-ended question. We found that a perceived reduction in general quality of life, concerns about what is happening at home, and experiencing/expressing negative emotions were associated with a critical attitude. In contrast, taking a proactive outlook toward training and finding military-specific aspects personally important were associated with a more neutral/positive attitude. Our findings emphasize the importance of improving the conscription training experience in order to foster less critical attitudes toward service and are discussed from a person-environment perspective.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-06T11:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221078883
       
  • Which Gap' – What Bridge'

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      Authors: Alan Okros, Rebecca Jensen
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The discourse around the bridging the gap debate is seen to a unique sub-set of the social sciences in the United States as applied to a unique American approach to security. This article looks beyond US National Security and the practices of the discipline of political science at US universities to address, and expand on, some specific ideas in Michael Desch’s volume The Cult of the Irrelevant. We offer that an integrative assessment of how scholarly work can best inform security policies and practices requires more critical examination in four domains: consideration of how different disciplines frame key issues and speak to each other; understanding the dynamics of the policy marketplace; assessments to alternate ways to frame security and national security; and requirements to critical challenge the privilege academics have awarded themselves as the purveyors (and gatekeepers) of ‘knowledge’ and the ‘truth’.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T03:01:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211035820
       
  • Domestic Military Deployments in Response to COVID-19

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      Authors: Peter Erickson, Marko Kljajić, Nadav Shelef
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Militaries are commonly deployed in response to domestic disasters. However, our understanding of this phenomenon remains incomplete, partly because the particulars of disasters make it hard to generalize about deployments used in response. This article leverages the COVID-19 pandemic’s global reach to systematically evaluate common hypotheses about when and how militaries are used to respond to domestic disasters. It presents original global data about domestic military deployments in pandemic response and uses it to assess common theoretical expectations about what shapes whether and how militaries are used in such contexts. The results suggest that decisions about whether to deploy militaries stem from the securitization of domestic disaster relief rather than being responses to specific disaster-related features, state capacity shortcomings, or other social or political factors, even as some of these elements shaped how militaries were used. The article concludes by outlining some hypotheses for future research about the impact of this securitization on civil–military relations.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-03-26T12:46:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211072890
       
  • Military Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic Crisis in Latin America:
           Military Presence, Autonomy, and Human Rights Violations

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      Authors: Igor Acacio, Anaís M. Passos, David Pion-Berlin
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The military in Latin America has been extensively involved in pandemic relief operations. This paper analyses the impact of militarization of pandemic relief operations on human rights. It argues that not all militarization is equally harmful to individuals in the region. When troops assume responsibilities regarding medical care and logistical support, human rights violations do not follow. When involved in policing the stay-at-home orders, the extent of human rights violations is explained by the level of operational autonomy the military has in public security operations. The more autonomous the military, more likely abuses are to occur. Additionally, military exposure to judicial prosecution for human rights offenses contributes to the explanation. After gathering original empirical evidence from 14 Latin American democracies on military presence in pandemic relief, we draw our inferences from process tracing on four comparative case studies of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and El Salvador.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-11T11:56:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211070035
       
  • Unpacking “Stacking”: Researching Political Identity and
           Regime Security in Armed Forces

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      Authors: Nathaniel Allen, Risa Brooks
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article unpacks the phenomenon of identity-based stacking in armed forces to lay the groundwork for a next generation of scholarship, proposing three sets of extensions with examples from regimes in Africa and the Middle East. First, we argue that scholars might treat the concept of stacking with greater nuance by considering variation in stacking’s modal forms, incorporating identities beyond ethnicity, considering how the salience of stacking varies within armed forces, and treating the identities on which stacking is based as malleable. Second, we argue for a more attention to the mechanisms through which stacking operates, such that it can involve layering of multiple bases of identity, be used to manipulate and manufacture identity, and be used to induce in-group competition and rivalry. Finally, stacking scholarship should consider more the costs to a leader’s control over policy and distributional matters and emphasize the trade-offs that various forms of stacking generate among regime security imperatives.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T05:03:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211058765
       
  • Just Paying Lip Service' Public Trust and Public Support for Armed
           Forces in Germany

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      Authors: Heiko Biehl
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The article presents an empirical analysis of whether, how, and why people are active to either support or protest against the Bundeswehr. Public opinion polls consistently report high levels of trust in the military. According to the social-psychological approach of participation theory, this trust should lead to corresponding actions. However, the literature on civil–military gaps claims that the majority of people pay mere lip service to soldiers rather than actively support the armed forces. No active support despite high levels of trust' In an effort to empirically test the level and the determinants of the public’s support for and protest against the military, an activity scale was included in a representative opinion poll in Germany. The analyses show that a fairly large part of the German population engages in activities that support the Bundeswehr and that public trust in the military predicts that supportive behavior. Importantly, trust in the armed forces remains a strong predictor of citizens’ activities related to the armed forces even when controlling for numerous other factors. Taken together, these findings contradict the widely shared view of a civil–military gap and instead provide empirical evidence for the social-psychological approach of participation theory.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-05T08:16:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211043917
       
  • The Culture of Alcohol in the U.S. Military: Correlations With Problematic
           Drinking Behaviors and Negative Consequences of Alcohol Use

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      Authors: Sarah O. Meadows, Robin Beckman, Charles C. Engel, Diana D. Jeffery
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Excessive alcohol use, especially binge and heavy drinking, represents a serious threat to force readiness across the Department of Defense. Though these behaviors are a matter of individual service member choice, they are influenced by perceptions of the culture of alcohol use in the military. This paper uses data from the 2018 Health Related Behaviors Survey of Active Duty service members to explore associations between perceived alcohol culture and excessive alcohol use, any serious drinking consequences, risky driving behaviors, productivity loss due to drinking, absenteeism, and presenteeism. Results from multivariate logistic regression reveal a strong, positive correlation between positive perceptions of drinking culture in the military and all outcomes. Targeting perceptions of the drinking culture is one way the military can reduce excessive and unhealthy use of alcohol and negative sequelae.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-05T08:01:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211069162
       
  • Nigerian Troops in the War Against Boko Haram: The Civilian–Military
           Leadership Interest Convergence Thesis

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      Authors: Temitope B. Oriola
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study interrogates the experiences of Nigerian troops in the war against Boko Haram. The paper’s contribution is bi-dimensional. First, it adds to the empirical literature on Boko Haram by analyzing the perspectives of rank-and-file troops. The study finds 10 forms of corruption affecting troops. These have contributed to the inability to defeat Boko Haram. Second, the paper adds to theoretical scholarship on civil–military relations and persistence of small wars. It challenges the bureaucratic-organizational model and the focus of civil–military relations theory on civilian control of the military. The study emphasizes the need to focus on the texture of the relationship between civilian and military leaders. The paper argues that the bureaucratic-organizational model has limited relevance to militaries in the postcolony and proposes a civilian–military leadership interest convergence thesis. The findings are relevant for understanding the spread of terrorism in sub-Saharan Africa and the persistence of small wars in non-Western, illiberal quasi-democratic societies.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-29T10:39:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211072894
       
  • How do Sociodemographic Characteristics Influence UK Civilian Opinions of
           UK Armed Forces Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans' A Mixed-Method Approach
           

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      Authors: Rita H. Phillips, Vincent Connelly, Mark Burgess
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Evidence suggests that UK veterans are seen as victims with concern for their perceived mental health needs. This study examined sociodemographic factors that contribute to victimizing conceptualizations of British Army Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. UK participants (N = 234) provided three word associations to “British Army Iraq Veteran” and “British Army Afghanistan Veteran” and answered sociodemographic questions. A multiple linear regression outlines that low national pride, mission opposition and higher levels of education predict elevated victimizing word associations. Narrative accounts from UK interviews (N = 21) suggest that participants who perceived the recent conflicts as illegitimate conceptualize veterans as passive, naïve actors who had to submit to the agency of the anthropomorphic described government. This allowed holding overtly appreciative though belittling attitudes toward veterans, while opposing the missions. To dissociate veterans from victimizing perceptions, better knowledge about service and justifications for deployments need to be provided. Study limitations, including over sampling of young adult females, are discussed.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T11:23:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211070321
       
  • Factors Related to Exclusion in the U.S. Army

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      Authors: Sara Kintzle, Eva Alday, Adrianne Clomax, Michàlle Mor Barak, Carl A. Castro
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The promotion of inclusion in the U.S. Army requires an understanding of how and why exclusion occurs. As exclusion can have deleterious impacts at both and individual and organizational level, reducing exclusive behaviors can have positive effects on Soldiers and the Army. To explore exclusion in the Army, 19 focus groups were conducted with 120 active-duty enlisted Soldiers. Two rounds of thematic analysis revealed four themes related to exclusion. Participants indicated exclusion to be often based on low or bad performance, personality factors that were identified as different or toxic, cliques within the Army unwilling to welcome others, and gender, with both men and women identifying exclusionary behaviors toward women within and outside of the work environment. Research findings offer insight into how and why exclusion occurs and how such behaviors can be addressed in the U.S. Army including training and addressing cultural and systemic barriers to inclusion.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T09:06:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211068875
       
  • Are the U.S. Military’s Nonpartisan Norms Eroding'

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      Authors: Trent J. Lythgoe
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The U.S. military’s nonpartisan norms are an important part of healthy civil–military relations. Some research, however, suggest these norms are weakening. This study examines the evidence for eroding nonpartisan norms by analyzing U.S. military servicemembers’ partisan affiliations and political activism levels from 2008 to 2018. It finds that since 2008, military servicemembers have become more likely to identify as partisans. Servicemembers have also become more politically active than civilians, although this is due to decreasing activism among the American public. It also finds that longer-serving service members have stronger nonpartisan norms, but that newer servicemembers are more politically active than both longer-serving servicemembers and civilians. These findings provide a firmer empirical foundation for previous claims of eroding norms and suggest more research is needed to understand how increased partisanship and political activism impacts military readiness and civil–military relations.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-25T09:47:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211072892
       
  • Book Review: Urban Warfare in the Twenty-First Century

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      Authors: Rene Moelker
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-21T06:56:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221074330
       
  • Band of Brothers or Band of Others': Rhetoric, Veterans, and Civil
           Rights Fights in Germany and the United States

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Joseph Paul Vasquez, Walter W. Napier
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Research suggests that marginalized groups can use military service to win greater governmental and social acceptance by using civic republican rhetoric, however, conditions in which claims-making rhetoric is coercive are underspecified. Because rhetorical effectiveness requires sympathetic ears, we examine the influence of (1) expectations and political efforts of marginalized group members seeking greater acceptance, (2) whether majority group economic status is outpacing marginalized groups seeking improved treatment, and (3) whether marginalized groups have influential military veterans from majority groups as allies. We apply these factors to explain the claims-making failure of German Jews following the First World War and the success of African Americans after the Second World War. From the African American case, we also conclude that military service led to greater socio-political inclusion and rights based on development of future political actors through leadership development processes and inter-group contact, especially regarding Presidents Truman and Eisenhower.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-08T08:58:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211065490
       
  • The “Supermen” Club: Organizational Secrecy and Masculine Identity in
           an Israeli National Security Organization

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      Authors: Aluma Kepten
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      How does secrecy shape narratives of militarized hegemonic masculinity' This article assesses a gap at the intersection between theories of masculinities and organizational secrecy. Supported by 15 interviews with current and former male workers of a covert section of an Israeli national security organization, it argues that secrecy is experienced as both an external hurdle and a central component to the way that men internalize masculinity. Unable to access social capital outside the security organization, the respondents of the study construct a social field inside it through which they can assert their masculinity. They do so by conceptualizing their jobs, themselves, and the organization through a prism of sacrificial warriorhood, and actively incorporate secrecy’s constraints into a narrative of “super-men”. This study thus examines secrecy in the context of a militarized environment, showing the experience of masculinity and a perceived lack of power-access among members of a dominant group.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-08T04:49:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211064917
       
  • The Missing Piece of the Puzzle: The EMASYA Protocol and Civil-Military
           Relations in Turkey

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      Authors: Ayfer Genç Yılmaz
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The civil-military relations literature on Turkey focuses predominantly on the guardianship role of the Turkish military, its interventions, and the role of the National Security Council as the main institutional mechanism of military tutelage. Yet, the existing studies lack a much-needed focus on the law enforcement or policing missions of the Turkish military. To fill this gap, this study discusses the EMASYA Protocol (Emniyet Asayiş Yardımlaşma or Security and Public Order Assistance), a secret protocol signed in 1997. Emerging in the context of political instability and military tutelage of the 1990s, the Protocol enabled the military to conduct internal security operations without permission from the civilian authorities. This paper argues that the EMASYA Protocol provided a sphere of “reformulated new professionalism” for the Turkish military, enabled it to specialize in the war against rising internal threats such as reactionary Islam and Kurdish separatism, and created anomalies in civil-military relations in Turkey.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T03:18:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211066570
       
 
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