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  Subjects -> MILITARY (Total: 106 journals)
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Armed Forces & Society
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.29
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 22  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0095-327X - ISSN (Online) 1556-0848
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1175 journals]
  • The Parliament and Cooperative Oversight of the Indonesian Armed Forces:
           Why Civil–Military Relations in Indonesia is Stable but Still in
           Transition

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      Authors: Jefferson Ng, Yudha Kurniawan
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Parliamentary oversight is a cornerstone of democratic control of the armed forces, but its influence on civil–military relations (CMR) remains underexplored. We argue that parliaments in transitioning democracies face unique structural challenges in developing robust oversight of the military compared to advanced democracies. We developed a typology of three distinctive types of parliamentary oversight and proposed that cooperative oversight potentially offers a solution to structural challenges faced by parliaments in transitioning democracies. In our case study of Indonesia, cooperative oversight promoted harmonious working relations between the Parliament and the military/executive, stabilizing CMR. However, cooperative oversight also stalled civil–military reforms, eroded democratic management of the defense sector, and reinforced an unhealthy dependence on the military to self-regulate and the President’s appointment power of the armed forces’ commander. Over the longer term, we believe that the Indonesian Parliament needs to incorporate a mix of oversight strategies and raise its institutional capacity to strengthen oversight of the defence sector.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-26T07:47:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221137281
       
  • Putting on the Blitz: Urgency and Department of Defense Communications in
           Times of Budget Shortfall

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      Authors: Leah Matchett
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The existing theories of interaction between Congress and the Department of Defense (DOD) focus on elite-level principle-actor problems. However, the Department, as one of the most popular institutions in the United States, also has significant public appeal and maintains an active public affairs arm. This article builds on theories of bureaucratic reputation to argue that the DOD uses its public communications to advocate for its own budget. I leverage computerized text analysis to examine over 40,000 public facing documents published by the DOD since 2005. I find evidence that the DOD changed both the timing and the content of its public-facing communications to strategically argue for its budget. This is true during large budgetary shifts (like the U.S. budget sequester) and during the period of the year that the budget is under debate.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-15T05:05:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221134323
       
  • Visualizing the Ties That Bind Us: A Cross-Sectional Thematic and Visual
           Analysis of Cohesion Across Three British Military Formations

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      Authors: Stefan Schilling
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Military unit cohesion has been associated with team performance, combat motivation, and positive mental health outcomes. Scholarship of military cohesion has been dominated by the Standard Model of Cohesion and the Task Cohesion Approach. Recent shifts in the character of conflict alongside a range of sociopolitical changes require these models to be reevaluated. This article aims to empirically compare these models using a deductive exploratory approach to assess their utility for present-day military formations. Seven construct variables were operationalized as deductive themes, coded against 26 focus groups with personnel from three military formations. Thematic analysis was supplemented by graph modeling, allowing to visualize interactions of constructs. Findings show that military formations develop cohesion in different ways. Teams low in occupational similarity emphasized leadership and shared experiences, while those with high levels emphasized professional competence. This novel approach provided a powerful tool to analyze, visualize, and model qualitative data about cohesion.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-07T11:15:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221134644
       
  • Civil–Military Relations in the Season of Military Populism: Czechia

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      Authors: Pavol Frič, Bohuslav Pernica
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The influx of populism in Europe revived the values of illiberal, authoritarian government. This affects the democratic character of Civil–Military Relations (CMR) in the post-communist countries in particular. We analyzed the development of CMR in Czechia (1992–2022) under the influence of populism (2010–2022). Applying the CMR concept of the shared-democratic-values-perspective, our study provides empirical evidence that persistent shortcomings in formal institutional and informal socialization of Czech officers by values of democracy open a dangerous back door for spreading the values of military populism in the Czech Armed Forces. We argue that such development in the last 10 years has resulted into a formation of illiberal alliances between populist leaders and the military elite and poses a risk of the army being misused to politically support the authoritarian populist government.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-01T11:24:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221131917
       
  • Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Reproductive Health Outcomes Among Women
           Veterans: A Research Note

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      Authors: Katherine Collison, Jessica P. Naftaly, Kathleen Colangelo
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      There are a growing number of U. S. women veterans. The goal of this study was to examine the frequency of reproductive health conditions, as well as racial/ethnic disparities within reproductive health concerns, among a sample of women veterans who were referred by their primary care providers for a psychiatric evaluation. Cross-sectional data were collected from 701 women veterans in a Women’s Health Clinic at a VA Medical Center. The most commonly reported reproductive health conditions were dyspareunia, pelvic pain, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Other reproductive health conditions reported by women veterans included endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and osteoporosis. Black women veterans had significantly higher rates of endometriosis compared with the other racial/ethnic groups. Prevalence of PCOS, dyspareunia, osteoporosis, STIs, pelvic pain, perinatal loss, and infertility treatment did not differ across race/ethnicity. Health care providers working with women veterans should engage in regular screening of reproductive health conditions for women across all demographic groups.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-01T11:08:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221131357
       
  • Expanding the New Roles of the Military—The Case of Spain’s Military
           Emergency Unit: A Research Note

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      Authors: Virgilio Pérez, Cristina Aybar, Jose M. Pavía
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This note illustrates some of the new roles that armed forces are taking on in developed countries, highlighting the structure, capabilities, and missions developed by the Spanish Military Emergency Unit (UME). The note describes some of these new roles assumed by UME, such as its response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and shows, using official temporal and georeferenced data, the growing use of the military to support civilian authorities in response to natural disasters, man-made disasters, and other emergencies alike. In addition, we also analyze public opinion survey data to argue that this is helping to improve society’s perception of the armed forces even in a country like Spain where, due to its recent history, a significant part of its population is reluctant to the military. In short, the military is taking on more emergency roles as needs arise and these new roles can help to improve its perception by citizens.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-01T11:04:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221130360
       
  • Nomos, Hostis, and War: State-Building Process and Armed Forces in Africa

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      Authors: Bohumil Doboš, Branislav Mičko
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      State-building process in Africa appears in different conditions to those experienced on other continents. It is primarily characterized by the presence of fixed borders. The article repurposes evolutionary and identitarian theories on the development of political communities for the African realities. It highlights the necessity to develop policies creating territorial division between the population of the state and the external environment and utilizing armed forces for the protection of the state against such an environment for the state-building process to succeed. In cases of Eritrea, Senegal, and Burkina Faso, three hypotheses are being tested with an outcome that state-building process connected to the creation of Nomos does not have to be violent but requires a connection of the armed forces to the society. Once the division between the Nomos and the hostis develops inside of the state, such entities are not able to develop power projection capabilities inside their borders.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-01T11:02:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221130136
       
  • Interracial Marriage and the U.S. Military: A Test of Status Exchange and
           Own Race Preferences

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      Authors: Christina A. Houseworth
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      What roles do racial social distance and individual identity play in determining intermarriage among Black and White individuals in the U.S. military' This research uses interracial marriage as a measure of social distance and hypothesizes that the military lessens the social distance between White and Black individuals. More specifically, this article examines the relative education levels of Black and White married individuals in the military to test theories of market and dyadic exchange using the 2015–2019 American Community Survey (ACS) data. Evidence of weaker racial group boundaries is found for Black male and White female pairings where at least one spouse is in the military. There is also evidence of stronger own race preferences among Black women in the military.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-10-08T10:09:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221123811
       
  • Perspectives on Military Culture Among Veterans With a Recent Suicide
           

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      Authors: Kyla J. Tompkins, Brandon Roth, Tiona Y. Wu, Vanessa C. Somohano, Lauren M. Denneson
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article aims to expand our understanding of military culture as it relates to gender and veterans’ mental health, drawing from rich qualitative data. Fifty in-depth interviews (25 men, 25 women) were conducted with veterans who had a recent suicide attempt (within 6 months). Interviews revealed major themes of unequal standards and a hostile environment in the military. Women strived to fit in and experienced differential treatment in their physical training, professional expectations, and family life; men recollected masculine bonds and camaraderie through drinking. Women described the hostile environment of the military through their experiences of sexual violence and both genders described a culture of silence where signs of weakness were shamed. Findings support a cultural shift toward equitable gender norms for military members. Policy should focus on increased transparency institutionally—and between members—as well as improving protection and response to reported abuse.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-17T06:38:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221123375
       
  • Hardships at Home: The Portrayal of Military Families in Traditional,
           Military Community, and Military-Focused News Publications

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      Authors: Scott Parrott, Nicholas Eckhart, Kirsten Laha-Walsh, David L. Albright
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Scholars have described a divide between military and civilian culture, often focusing on the relationship between civilian communities and the Armed Forces and its veterans. Equally important are the families of military personnel. News media are an important source of information about military society for many U.S. civilians. This study examined how three types of news publications portrayed military families on Twitter between 2010 and 2020. News content was drawn from 21 outlets that cater to (1) general audiences, (2) military communities, and (3) military personnel. News outlets often associated military families with terms related to hardship, including substandard housing, financial problems, and other issues. In 1,052 posts, news outlets used five frames to describe military families: hardship, support, education, honor, and politics. General news outlets focused on politics, covering PR events staged by politicians. News outlets in military communities focused on support and providing readers resources to help navigate life in a military family. News outlets catering to military personnel focused on hardships.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-17T06:34:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221122702
       
  • Vladimir Putin’s Russian World Turned Upside Down

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      Authors: David V. Gioe, William Styles
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      What will the long-term impact of President Vladimir Putin’s decision to invade Ukraine be upon the Russian state' This article assesses the likely outcomes of the Kremlin’s war of aggression in Ukraine across a spectrum of economic, military, political, and social factors to evidence the scale of Russian miscalculation regarding its disastrous decision to invade Ukraine, and argues for the inevitability of Russian strategic decline as a direct consequence of its reckless military adventurism.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-16T07:28:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221121778
       
  • Virtuous Shirking and Social Distance: Concept Measurement in the Context
           of Militarized Response to Nonviolent Revolution

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      Authors: Paul Lorenzo Johnson
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      As a concept-measurement exercise, this article explores social distance in the context of confrontations between soldiers and pro-democracy protesters. While existing work has applied this concept in terms of structural, mostly static factors, this article explores the use of potential dynamic measures for this concept. To show these situational factors at work and highlight their potential contribution as new measures for social distance, this article uses a research design that holds relatively constant the traditional, structural measures while varying the social-distance outcome experienced in each campaign. The cases employed are East Germany 1989, Romania 1989, and South Korea 1980. The article particularly focuses on the protest tactics of fraternization and messaging, as well as regime tactics affecting opportunities for each, confirming both as useful additional measures of the concept of social distance. It also nominates other potential measures based on evidence that emerges inductively in the case reviews.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T12:52:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221120817
       
  • Boko Haram, security architecture and counterinsurgency in North-East,
           Nigeria

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      Authors: Nsemba Edward Lenshie, Chikodiri Nwangwu, Christian Ezeibe, Louie Marie A. Ifem, Godwin O. Okafor
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      While previous studies have interrogated the motivations of Boko Haram and the role of security agencies in counterinsurgency, explanations of the escalation of Boko Haram attacks on Nigerian security agencies have received limited academic attention. This study re-examines the dynamics of counterinsurgency operations in Nigeria within the context of the fragile state thesis. It argues that fragility of relevant state institutions has compromised the military-led counterinsurgency operations by flipping out strategic intelligence to the terrorists, embezzlement of arms procurement funds, sabotage and deplorable welfare condition of combatants, among others. Thus, the relevant state institutions should be strengthened to proactively respond to the maladies bedeviling the military-led counterinsurgency operations in the North-East region.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-13T09:09:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221121656
       
  • Military Competence-in-Use in the Expeditionary Era: A Swedish Example
           From Missions Abroad

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      Authors: Lotta Victor Tillberg, Matti Kaulio, Peter Tillberg, John Haglund
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      In Swedish military policy, the concept of kompetens (competence) describes the skills and capability of military personnel. Furthermore, “competence-in-use,” a multidimensional conceptual tool, has been used for decades in Swedish military instruction and training without having ever been empirically proven. In this pilot study, designed as an exploratory case study, we will try to connect theory to practice by examining the actual situations in which military competence is used. This article has two aims: First, to examine the relevance of the concept of competence-in-use in Swedish military practice abroad, and second, to combine and evaluate two methods in an exploratory case study. To capture firsthand experiences of real combat situations, we selected a sample of 28 firsthand narratives from Swedish service members. Our mapping identifies the blurred transition between combat and noncombat situations. By way of conclusion, we suggest that our analysis tool is further tested, for example, in comparative studies between nations.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-09T06:11:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221118928
       
  • “Tokowa po ya ekolo”: The Military Body Within the Congolese
           Army

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      Authors: Dostin Lakika, Ryan Essex
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores the conceptualization of the body among former Congolese soldiers living as refugees in Johannesburg. The article draws on extensive fieldwork in Johannesburg, South Africa and employs the concept of deterritorialization and reterritorialization to explain the bodies of those who have decided to join the Congolese Army. The article reveals the complex ways in which the army manipulates soldiers’ bodies to generate diverse lines of connection, coalition, and removal (or disconnection). We support that the soldiers’ bodies are not necessarily owned by the country, but that soldiers’ bodies become owned by military institutions, who employ nationalist rhetoric to justify their existence and actions. The act of joining the army could be considered a way of cutting ties with civilian life and joining a new world in which the individual is socialized into military culture. Through initiation, the soldier’s body is reterritorialized; it becomes a national asset. While this study focuses on former Congolese soldiers, it has broader relevance, giving insight into how soldiers perceive their body shifting from individual possession to be reterritorialized as the body of the nation.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-07T05:36:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221120055
       
  • Citizenship, Enmity, and the Normative Theory of Domestic Military Use

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      Authors: Avishay Ben Sasson-Gordis
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Historical and legal accounts of domestic military and militarized use abound, but there is no systematic normative treatment of the issue. This article argues that an important normative principle that governs domestic military use is that citizens ought not to be treated as enemies. Using examples drawn from the United States, it shows that apart from any instrumental considerations such as fears of military coups and excessive violence, domestic military use is prohibited in principle when it relates to citizens as enemies. To treat citizens as enemies undermines their standing as members of the state’s political community, and so violates governments’ duty to not commit expressive harms against them. This principle has implications for current dilemmas regarding domestic military use, as well as militarized domestic law enforcement. The latter gain the normative commitments of militaries as they militarize, and in so doing lose permissions to operate domestically.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-07T05:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221120048
       
  • Income Security for Vietnam-Era Veterans: A Research Note

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      Authors: Elizabeth Bass, Heidi Golding
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Little is known about the financial security of Vietnam-era veterans now that most are over 65 and have left the labor force. Using 2018 survey data, we found that, on average, Vietnam-era veterans aged 63 to 78 had slightly less income than nonveterans of their ages: US$63,500 and US$65,000, respectively. Those veterans received more money from Social Security and retirement plans; nonveterans had more earnings and investment income. About 1.3 million Vietnam-era veterans collected an average of US$17,600 in disability compensation from the Department of Veterans Affairs, lifting their average total income above other veterans’ by about US$5,000. Overall, veterans were less likely to be poor or very wealthy than were nonveterans. Information on income provides insight to Congress and the public about the economic stability and, by extension, overall well-being of Vietnam-era veterans as they age.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-06T06:26:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221118391
       
  • Arrests, Mental Health Outcomes, and Discharge Status in U.S. Military
           Veterans: A Latent Class Analysis

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      Authors: Nicholas Barr, Sara Kintzle, Justin Jaesung Lee, Savannah Mercado, Carl A. Castro
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Most U.S. military service members are discharged routinely, but about 15% receive non-routine discharges. Little is known about how patterns of arrests prior-to and in-service relate to neuropsychological symptoms acquired through military service, or how these symptoms and patterns are associated with discharge type. We investigated latent group differences in post-9/11 era veterans’ patterns of arrests; examined mental health-related predictors of subgroup membership; and modeled associations between latent class structure and non-routine discharge. Veterans with traumatic brain injury, alcohol misuse, and post-traumatic stress disorder, had greater odds of belonging to a high-risk vs. low-risk class with the highest probabilities of arrests in-service. The high-risk class had a 45% chance of non-routine discharge compared with 35% for a stable-risk class and 6% for a low-risk class. Veterans with increased probabilities of arrests in-service compared with pre-service showed the highest odds of mental and behavioral health problems and non-routine discharge.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-02T05:55:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221118065
       
  • Public Attitudes Toward Diversity, Promotion, and Leadership in the U.S.
           Military

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      Authors: Robert Ralston, Jennifer Spindel
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores how the public understands military service and diversity. Using a conjoint survey experiment, we ask respondents to select between two candidates for promotion. We randomly present respondents’ two profiles, which vary the candidates’ gender, race, sexual orientation, marital status, number of years served, number of deployments, combat experience, and branch of the military. We find that respondents do not discount candidates based on their branch of service, gender, race, or marital status. However, respondents do weigh the candidates’ combat experience, number of years served, and number of deployments favorably. Finally, respondents penalize candidates based on their sexual orientation: Homosexual individuals are less likely to be selected for promotion. Furthermore, respondents especially discounted transgender individuals for promotion. Important differences, we show in this article, also exist between conservative and liberal respondents, as well as between male and female respondents.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-01T12:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221117609
       
  • Socioecological Model of a Military Family’s Health and Well-Being:
           Inside a Slovenian Military Family

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      Authors: Janja Vuga Beršnak, Bojana Lobe
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this article is to analyze the ecosystem of a military family, focusing on the risk factors that influence their health and well-being on various socioecological levels (individual, micro, meso, and macro). We develop a theoretical model of health outcomes and risk factors and test it empirically using quota sampling of 460 respondents from military families in Slovenia. Thirty-three regression models were calculated to measure the impact of theoretically defined risk factors on the health outcomes of military families. Surprisingly, a long daily commute, one of the most military-specific factors in Slovenian society, is viewed more positively than negatively. Moreover, risk factors related to the family on the micro and individual levels, such as poor financial situation or parental stress, are responsible for the greatest impact on military family health. Meanwhile, spouses report that military work-related stress affects the servicemembers’ overall health and increases the possibility of intimate partner violence.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-08-25T05:37:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221115679
       
  • Conscription and Political Participation: How Conscription Policies Affect
           Voter Turnout

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      Authors: Min Jae Choi, Seung Wook Yoo, Zack Bowersox
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article reports the results of an empirical research design testing the relationship between a state’s use of conscription and the public’s level of political participation. Although few previous studies have investigated conscription’s influence on political levels in times of war, none have yet to analyze conscription’s impact on political participation during peacetime. We, therefore, study the relationship between voter turnout and military conscription using a global sample with the expectation that citizens in states that practice conscription will be more politically engaged during times of no conflict. We perform logistic regression models on a global sample (1982–2008) and find that those states that do practice conscription see their citizens participate in the electoral process at a higher level.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-08-19T06:22:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221112028
       
  • Multinational Military Cooperation in the Global South

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      Authors: Matías Ferreyra Wachholtz, Joseph Soeters
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      In the 21st century, three international military organizations with standing headquarters in the Global South have emerged in the field of military operations. These are the Southern Cross Peace Force in Latin America, the Africa Standby Force, integrating five subregional African forces, and the Peninsula Shield Force in the command structures of the Gulf Cooperation Council countries. This article examines interorganizational differences and similarities in these three important cases, aiming to provide a deeper understanding of their organizational forms within the global diffusion phenomenon of multinational military cooperation. The article uses a novel comparative framework that bridges a gap in systematic studies of multinational military organizations. It aims to provide a gateway for theoretical growth now and for future studies, in the Global South and elsewhere.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-08-12T12:25:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221114928
       
  • Identifying Service-Related Predictors of Community Reintegration
           Difficulties in Northern Irish Military Veterans

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      Authors: Eric Spikol, Jana Ross, Emily McGlinchey, Cherie Armour
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Military-to-civilian community reintegration in Northern Irish (NI) veterans has not been previously examined. The existing reintegration studies indicate that post-military service life can be challenging for many veterans. The current exploratory study aimed to identify service-related predictors of community reintegration difficulties in a sample of 749 NI veterans. Data were collected through a cross-sectional self-report survey of UK Armed Forces veterans residing in NI. Service-related variables were examined as predictors of overall and subdomain-specific reintegration difficulties. Combat exposure, time spent deployed in NI, length of service, being medically discharged, and being physically injured during service were significant predictors of reintegration difficulties. Receiving a mental health diagnosis since discharge and having been medically discharged were the two strongest predictors. Further results and implications are also discussed. Post-service adjustment to civilian life is affected by service variables, with implications for military/post-military interventions aimed at mitigating difficult transition experiences.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-08-12T12:22:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221112963
       
  • The Best They Could Do' Assessing U.S. Military Effectiveness in the
           Afghanistan War

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      Authors: Risa Brooks
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores shortcomings in military effectiveness in the war in Afghanistan. It focuses on three sets of problems: the failure to resolve internal contradictions in the training effort, the failure to integrate political considerations with military activity, and poor strategic and operational/tactical integration.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-08-10T09:48:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221116876
       
  • NATO’s Struggle for Intelligence in Afghanistan

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      Authors: Sebastiaan Rietjens
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      What role did North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the coalition (International Security Assistance Force—ISAF) it led play in the failure of the West in Afghanistan' This essay argues that the ISAF intelligence community’s inability to come to grips with the complex operational environment in Afghanistan contributed to the problem. Using three concepts from the complexity literature, requisite variety, learning, and enactment, I analyze critical flaws in NATO’s approach. ISAF’s weak cross-cultural competence, its inconsistent relationships with international civilian organizations, and its absence of double- and triple-loop learning are identified as key drivers of NATO’s weak intelligence performance.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-08-10T09:47:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221116138
       
  • Who Lost Afghanistan' Samuel Huntington and the Decline of Strategic
           Thinking

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      Authors: Will Atkins
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Numerous reflections exist regarding who should be held accountable and what lessons should be learned from the military withdrawal and political collapse of Afghanistan. This essay argues that the failures in Afghanistan are second- and third-order effects of a failure of strategic thinking on behalf of civilian and military leadership alike. I argue that this failure of strategic thinking is caused, in part, by the overreliance on concepts of civil–military relations espoused by Samuel Huntington. These concepts have been inculcated by a professional military education system that has subsequently developed a generation of officers with an atrophied appreciation for the political aspects of war, and an inability to link operational prowess to the achievement of strategic objectives. This dilemma is aggravated by a similar overreliance on systematic thinking, which further obscures the linkages between the military and political aspects of strategy.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-08-10T09:45:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221116129
       
  • Battling Defense Austerity Cuts With the COVID-19 Crisis Response' The
           Czech Army’s Online Public Perception

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      Authors: Jan Kleiner
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has forced militaries worldwide to join the fight. Numerous (e.g., British or Czech) armed forces seized the opportunity to propagate their domestic pandemic mitigation activities to improve their public image. However, defense budgets are usually cut first in times of crisis. Such cuts, or the mere threat of them, can have severe strategic and national security ramifications. This research, both exploratory and explanatory, investigates how military crisis-relief activities and their online propagation can muster public support against austerity cuts. It employs mixed-methods analyses of more than 160,000 posts and comments from the Czech Army’s Facebook page case study from January 2011 to January 2021. The study concludes that the Army’s propagation of information about its participation in pandemic mitigation induced positive feelings significantly more than the other content. Moreover, despite unpopular measures (e.g., lockdowns and policing), the Army’s efforts mobilized online public opposition to the austerity cuts.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T06:55:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221114654
       
  • Adjudicating Competing Theories: Does Civilian Control Over the Military
           Decrease Conflict'

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      Authors: Edward Gonzalez
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      What explains variation in the propensity for conflict involvement and initiation among states' In the study of international security, a debate remains between those who argue stronger civilian control of the military lowers the likelihood of interstate conflict, and those who argue that states with stronger civilian control over the military will be more conflict-prone. This article adjudicates between these competing theories through the use of a newly published measure of civilian control over the military. The theory is tested via Poisson regression using a large-N country-year data set. Ultimately, the results support theories of military restraint, showing that states with stronger civilian control over the military are more conflict-prone than states with weaker civilian control of the military. The article contributes to our understanding of war and interstate conflict and the study of civil–military relations by showing that increased civilian control increases the likelihood of interstate conflict.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-08-05T05:25:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221112026
       
  • “She Clearly Thought That Something Bad Had Happened to Her”: How
           Military Lawyers Construct Narratives of Victim Legitimacy and Perceived
           Harm in Sexual Assault Cases

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      Authors: Samantha A. Tosto, Stephanie Bonnes
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      It has been well established that survivors of sexual assault are revictimized as they navigate the civilian criminal justice system. Significantly less is known, however, about how sexual violence is navigated within the military justice system. In this study, we use qualitative interviews with military lawyers about sexual assault cases to explore their constructions of victim legitimacy. Lawyers create a distinction between perceived and actual harm done to a victim and perpetuate the notion that victims falsely accuse men of sexual violence. Through these discursive strategies, lawyers suggest that the issue of military sexual violence is inflated. Finally, lawyers blame the institutional structure of the military for teaching victimization to young women. This helps them explain why victims who they do not perceive as legitimate report sexual violence. These findings emphasize the need for further inquiry into how those working in the military justice system perceive and interact with victims.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-30T06:47:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221108526
       
  • Narratives Around Civil–Military Cooperation: How Institutionalized
           Discourses Influence Learning in Peace Operations

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      Authors: Nicole Jenne
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article is concerned with narratives about the relation between the military and civilians. Narratives, dominant institutionalized discourses, influence how individuals learn by providing frames of reference which moderate the acquisition of new knowledge. Although the importance of narratives for institutional behavior has been recognized in the field of security studies, little attention has been paid to how they influence learning. This article presents a framework to analyze narratives in the context of learning based on the case of peace operations. Using qualitative case studies for theory-building, I argue that narratives on the closeness between the military and “the people” ease pressures to improve the military’s engagement with civilians and render peacekeepers less inclined to learn. All else equal, the absence of entrenched ideas about military–society relations facilitates the acquisition of new knowledge and skills in civil–military cooperation.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-25T10:08:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221108527
       
  • Military Professionalism, Power, and the Division of Labor: The Case of
           the Reintroduction of NCOs in the Swedish Armed Forces

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      Authors: Christopher Dandeker, Karl Ydén
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      While noncommissioned officers (NCOs) are hailed as the “backbone” of the world’s armed forces, relatively little scholarly attention has been paid to them compared with the officer corps. NCOs have been at the margins of social scientific literature, largely because of Huntington’s officer-centric concept of the military profession, which was based on a sharp division of roles and which excluded NCOs as well as reservists and soldiers. This article holds that the officer–NCO relationship is not a functional, timeless universal in military organizations and thus merits scholarly attention. The (re)introduction of NCO-style “Specialist Officers” in the Swedish Armed Forces is used to highlight how organizational and technological factors affect the division of labor between officers and NCOs and the text ends with a call for comparative research efforts on the category of NCOs.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-21T01:03:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221108761
       
  • Power Sharing and Coups d’état in Postconflict Settings: Evidence From
           Burundi and Guinea-Bissau

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      Authors: Erica De Bruin
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      In postconflict settings, peace agreements often include power-sharing provisions that integrate formerly warring parties into the state. The aim of such provisions is to prevent conflict from resuming. At the same time, however, they can inadvertently increase the risk of coups d’état. Existing research identifies a correlation between peace agreements and coups, but the causal mechanisms underlying this association remain underexplored. This article argues that power sharing affects the motives of incumbent elites to intervene in politics via a coup and the opportunity for former rebels to do so successfully. Evidence from coup attempts in Burundi and Guinea-Bissau illustrates the plausibility of these arguments and suggests ways to extend them in future work. While debate remains over whether power sharing prevents civil war recurrence, this article shows how it can create incentives for other forms of political violence.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-18T04:30:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221108370
       
  • Civil–Military Relations: Through a Perilous Lens

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      Authors: Vasabjit Banerjee, Sean P. Webeck
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Since Huntington’s seminal work The Soldier and the State, the scholarship on civil–military relations in the American context has often emphasized the need for a professional military to maintain an apolitical stance and let the civilian principals lead. In this article, we ask, what can we learn about civil-military relations by seeking to better understand the relationship between political institutions and the politicization of the military' We argue that this literature insufficiently accounts for the perils that exist within separation of powers (i.e., presidential) systems. Consequently, the existing scholarship cannot distinguish when politicization happens because of or despite civilian principals. We use long-standing arguments from Comparative Politics to explain why problems of separation of powers systems are endemic to these institutions. We then present five questions and two examples to facilitate a theoretical reframing of the subject. Our argument suggests more work is needed to understand how American political institutions shape civil–military relations.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-18T04:28:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221108198
       
  • The Limit of American Public Support for Military Intervention

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      Authors: Songying Fang, Jared Oestman
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Under what conditions is the American public supportive of U.S. military intervention in foreign crises' We argue that the public assesses three key dimensions of an intervention: the motivation for an intervention, the form an intervention can take, and the tasks an intervention may be mandated to fulfill. Through a survey experiment, we test several hypotheses in the context of a potential U.S. military intervention in a civil war. Comparing different motivations, we find that the strategies (forms and mandates) matter much more for public support. Regardless of motivation, the American public is generally more supportive of multilateral forms of intervention and prefers mandates that focus on the protection of civilians and peaceful conflict resolution.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-18T04:27:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221107700
       
  • Making Ends Meet: Employment, Cash Transfers, and Poverty in Post–9/11
           Era Wounded Military Veterans

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      Authors: Nicholas Barr, Vicky Albert, Amanda Peterson, Lara Berghammer, Sara Kintzle
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Over 36% of post–9/11 era veterans have a disability, but little research has examined wounded veterans’ finances. We investigated main and interaction effects of income sources and demographic, military, and mental health characteristics on household poverty and deep poverty to better understand wounded veterans’ financial outcomes. Data were drawn from the 2018 Wounded Warrior Survey (n = 33,067). Two logistic regression models investigated direct associations between independent variables and poverty outcomes; predictive margins and average marginal effects were calculated for employment and cash transfers on outcomes. 56% of respondents reported full- or part-time employment, and 17% met criteria for household poverty. Of those, 75% met criteria for deep poverty. Cash transfers were negatively associated with poverty and deep poverty, and part-time employment was positively associated with poverty compared with not working. Employment was insufficient protection against poverty in this sample of wounded veterans—transfers were a critical bulwark.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-18T04:25:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221107392
       
  • Air Power, International Organizations, and Civilian Casualties in
           Afghanistan

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      Authors: Susan Allen, Sam R. Bell, Carla Martinez Machain
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Can the presence of international organizations reduce civilian deaths caused by aerial bombing' This commentary examines this question in the specific context of the U.S.-led war in Afghanistan. We evaluate this based on interviews conducted with members of international organizations that were present in Afghanistan during the conflict, existing intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and government reports, and with quantitative data on civilian casualties between 2008 and 2013. We conclude that there is tentative evidence from Afghanistan that international organizations can in fact reduce the severity of civilian killings that result from the use of air power. However, there is much need for greater data sharing to more fully answer this important question.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-14T06:43:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221100780
       
  • Civil–Military Relations During the Trump Administration: Rejection of
           Military Professionalism and the Deterioration of Civil–Military
           Relations

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      Authors: John C. Binkley
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The period of Donald Trump’s term in office was one of the most contentious periods of American civil–military relations. Both active-duty and retired officers rebuffed and castigated the president’s actions, policies, and character. Such public criticism of a sitting president has no real parallel in American history. This breakdown in civil–military relations was caused by the president’s lack of respect and in fact disdain for the contours of military professionalism. Those contours are expressed by the attributes of expertise, corporateness, and responsibility. The military’s notion of commitment to the Constitution, an apolitical ethos, as well as its willingness to sacrifice for the national good were all part of the military’s own sense of professional values. In this case, the sitting president shared none of those values and tried to politicize the military, ignored their expertise, and disparaged their selfless sacrifice.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-14T06:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221106783
       
  • Overturning the “Risk Rule” of 1988, Opting for New Risks: U.S. Women
           Servicemembers and the War in Afghanistan

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      Authors: Connie A. Buscha
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The evolution of the status of American women as warriors between Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm in 1990-1991 and the War in Afghanistan, beginning in 2001 [and simultaneously the Iraq War in 2003] is explored. This era of American civil-military history included rescinding the ‘Risk Rule’ of 1988, the formal ban on women serving in ground combat units. This generation of women’s legitimate military service as warriors began. The Afghanistan War period also exposed, however, the physical and emotional risks military women often face from their own colleagues on a global scale in the form of sexual violence. As a society, we purposefully must eliminate such risks inherent in the contemporary All-Volunteer Force (AVF) and clean up the resulting messes before we even consider taking the risk of conscription and mass mobilization of American women in our next war.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-11T05:47:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221103295
       
  • The Military Covenant, Contractual Relations, and Social Cohesion in
           Democracies: Estonia as an Exploratory Case Study

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      Authors: Kairi Kasearu, Eleri Lillemäe, Eyal Ben-Ari
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The military covenant is a set of morally binding expectations marking the exchange between military, society, and the state. Its base is the military’s duality: like other large public institutions delivering services and its uniqueness in holding the monopoly over the use of legitimate organized state violence. The covenant is a form of relational (not transactional) contract based on trust between, and a long-term orientation of, partners; it both orders and displays these relations thereby offering both prescriptions for action and discursive means to legitimate them. The covenant can be used as an analytical (not normative) concept for theoretical development in three areas: social change and society-military ties, processual aspects of agreements between individuals and groups and the armed forces, and links between society-military ties and the social contract and social cohesion. We use the case of Estonia to illustrate the theoretical potential of the military covenant.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-11T05:45:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221100769
       
  • Why the U.S. Military Lost Afghanistan

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      Authors: Donald S. Travis
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Why did Afghanistan falter as a U.S. partner' America’s war in Afghanistan was lost for many reasons, but the U.S. military contributed to its downfall in two ways. First, U.S. combat units, trained to fight conventional battles, conducted counterterrorism operations (aka “search and destroy” missions) against guerilla forces that resulted in hardening the resolve of the enemy while causing widespread and senseless civilian casualties. Second, the Afghan military could not exist without U.S. logistical and material support. Because the Afghan Army was trained and equipped to fight a conventional-type war, they were incapable of operating independent of U.S. support, and could not survive on their own against guerrilla forces in a protracted civil war. Therefore, the Afghan security forces were not properly trained and equipped, demonstrating that the U.S. military repeated mistakes of the Vietnam War. It is argued that the United States must temper its conventional warfare mindset and re-direct resources toward improved ways to conduct limited wars against irregular adversaries. The constabulary forces concept described by Morris Janowitz is a feasible way to improve the chances that U.S. forces will succeed in such limited wars.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T11:05:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221100584
       
  • Military Propensity Among Israel Defense Forces’ Potential Conscripts: A
           Re-Examination and Differentiation by Personal Preferences of Enlistment
           Motivation

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      Authors: Anat Waldman, Roni Tiargan-Orr, Reuven Gal
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Israel, a unique case in the Western world, maintains a whole-mandatory military service, thus maintaining a “People’s Army” model. The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) enjoys a law-based compulsory recruitment system. Despite many significant changes occurring in recent decades, the motivation of Israeli youth to fulfill their military service has remained quite high and stable throughout the last decades. To understand the issues affecting the perpetuation of this trend over the years, this study suggests a new perspective of analyzing military motivation and its components. Utilizing a large survey sample of potential candidates for mandatory conscription, we analyzed both conscripts’ general willingness to enlist and their propensities toward and preference for specific types of service. The findings of the present study query Moskos’ original thesis of the Institution/Occupation (I/O) model and show the “coexistence” subsisting among Israeli youth between two seemingly conflicting propensities—the “Self-actualization” and “Contributing to nation’s security.”
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T10:08:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221101331
       
  • The Afghanistan War’s Legacy: The Reimagining of the Outsourcing of
           War and Security

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      Authors: Ori Swed
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The two decades of war in Afghanistan left a mark on the American armed forces and redefined the American ways of war-making. One of this war’s legacies is the reimagining of the role of private military and security contractors in contemporary warfare. Due to the massive involvement of the private sector in the American war machine, this industry transformed from a marginal participant into a central partner. The privatization of military and security functions became a norm, an integral part of security architecture and military operation. In this study, I provide a brief review of this development and its implications.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T09:59:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221101340
       
  • An Exemplary Defeat: The West in Afghanistan, 2001–2021

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      Authors: Jan Willem Honig, Ilmari Käihkö
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The Western defeat in Afghanistan was due to an inadequate process of strategic reflection informed, first, by an overestimation of the attractiveness of the Western political agenda to Afghans and, second, by overconfidence in the effectiveness of its military approach. As a corollary, popular support for the Taliban was underestimated. The insurgents possessed a degree of what we term strategic cohesion—a sociopolitical and military embeddedness within society—that produced a far stronger strategic effectiveness than we could replicate in our Afghan allies. Furthermore, a military-professional mindset underestimated the degree to which political considerations permeated the battlefield. The political effect of military actions was insufficiently integrated into strategic practice. Specifically, the linchpin officer in staff planning and field operations in Western armies struggled to act as what we term strategic colonels. In both respects, the war continues to offer important lessons for Western involvement in future conflict, including with Russia and China.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T09:50:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221101364
       
  • Reflecting on America’s Withdrawal from Afghanistan: The View From
           Southeast Asia

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      Authors: Terence Lee
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This essay reflects on the broad contours of the war in Afghanistan from Southeast Asia’s perspective. While the United States’ withdrawal from Kabul was calamitous, the pessimism about America’s role in Southeast Asia has been overstated. The United States’ withdrawal from Afghanistan was largely inconsequential for the region. Southeast Asian states deftly mixed their support for America’s campaign in Afghanistan and the broader war on terror without being seen as too sympathetic, including, in some instances, condemnation of America’s attacks on Islam. Regional governments balanced their domestic political interests with their foreign policy objectives. The abrupt Afghan withdrawal may instead have positive outcomes, as the United States boosted its courtship with countries of Southeast Asia and the broader Indo-Pacific region through new security arrangements such as the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad) and the Australian, U.K., and U.S. trilateral pact (AUKUS).
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T07:57:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221102475
       
  • Civil–Military Relations and Education of Military Elites in Türkiye:
           Lessons Learned From the Past

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      Authors: Barış Ateş
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article analyzes the relationship between civil–military relations and professional military education (PME) in Türkiye before the 2016 coup attempt. Its main argument is that an effective PME system could not be realized due to the problematic nature of civil–military relations. The dominant role of the military in politics turned PME into a domain reserved solely for soldiers; however, this autonomy did not help the officer corps to create an effective PME system. Based on historical analyses, this article concludes that civil–military cooperation is necessary for developing a successful PME system, and it endorses Mukherjee’s integrated model. Moreover, it shows that civil–military cooperation for the development of PME is a requirement regardless of the nature of civil–military relations.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T04:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221103294
       
  • American Civil–Military Relations and Presidential Power of Removal

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      Authors: Neil Snyder
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Under what conditions are presidents more likely to remove senior defense officials from office' Using a novel data set of all senior U.S. defense officials, both civilian and uniformed military from 1947 to 2021, this article explores whether anticipated support in Congress, partisan factors, or institutional protections for the military affect observed patterns of removal for defense officials. The results suggest that presidents are more likely to remove their own appointees (or their co-partisans’ appointees), but provide little evidence that presidents premise removal on anticipated partisan support for a replacement nominee in Congress. Moreover, the results suggest that military officials may have some insulation from politicization by strong forms of removal, though that protection may weaken an important aspect of civilian control of the military, the threat of punishment by removal, raising profound questions for how civilian control endures.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-05T05:21:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221100270
       
  • LGB Service Members’ Relationship Status, Satisfaction, and
           Well-Being: A Brief Report

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      Authors: Elizabeth N. Savarese, Jessica Collazo, Wyatt R. Evans, Kimberly F. Balsam
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Recently, the legal landscape for sexual minorities in the United States has changed dramatically, prompting empirical research on lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) couples and LGB service members. This study examined the relationship characteristics and mental health of LGB service members in couple relationships and compared partnered and single LGB service members. A total of 238 LGB service members completed an anonymous survey, including questions about demographics, identity, military experiences, and mental health symptoms. Results of descriptive and exploratory analyses revealed no significant differences in mental health between partnered and single participants. However, partnered individuals reported higher outness and lower internalized homophobia compared with their single counterparts. Analyses also revealed negative associations between relationship satisfaction and mental health symptoms among partnered participants. Among the first to examine LGB service members’ romantic relationships, the results of this study have important clinical and policy implications and inform next steps in researching this population.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T12:46:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221098455
       
  • Why Did the Taliban Win'

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      Authors: Anthony King
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      On October 7, 2001, 3 weeks after 9/11, U.S. forces attacked Afghanistan; bombers struck Taliban headquarters and Al Qaeda training sites. By early December, the Taliban and Al Qaeda have been defeated and had fled. However, a war that began so successfully in 2001, eventually ended ignominiously on August 30, 2021, almost exactly 20 years later, with a U.S. withdrawal and a total Taliban victory. The speed of the Taliban’s triumph shocked everyone. The entire campaign, costing US$2.3 trillion and 2,488 U.S. lives, had failed—utterly. The United States had lost its longest-ever war. How is it possible to explain a defeat of that magnitude' This article seeks to address this question. Although numerous factors played a role, this article identifies three principal factors: the environment, the local politics, and the Taliban. Afghanistan is a very difficult place to conduct large-scale military operations. The West never came to terms with the local politics and consequently undermined their own efforts. Finally, although they were not militarily sophisticated, the Taliban were politically astute and very resilient.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T12:59:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221096702
       
  • Gender Disparities in Active Duty Air Force Parents’ Childcare Access:
           Pre-Pandemic Costs, Utilization, and Career Impacts

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      Authors: Erika L. King, Hla Myint, Tawney R. Gardner, Morgan R. Mitchell, Kristin A. Beitz
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Past reports indicate that enduring Department of Defense (DoD) childcare shortfalls may disproportionately affect women, but details regarding gender effects are unknown. This exploratory study sought to uncover the military childcare system’s pre-pandemic state by analyzing two Air Force (AF) survey datasets—the 2017 AF Community Feedback Tool and 2020 AF Childcare Survey—to examine gender gaps in active duty AF parents’ childcare access, cost and utilization, and perceptions of childcare impacts on career progression and retention. Results reveal that women—particularly those in the lowest ranks with less time on station—report more difficulties accessing childcare than male counterparts. Furthermore, fathers paid nothing for childcare and relied on spouses for childcare at higher rates, while mothers paid for care, relied on DoD childcare programs, were on DoD waitlists, reported childcare-related career impacts, and reported childcare affected their retention decisions at higher rates. Policy recommendations to improve childcare across the force are discussed.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T10:59:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221094646
       
  • Veterans Affairs Hospital Productivity Change and the Policy Implications:
           A Research Note

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      Authors: Dongjin Oh, Ahreum Han, Keon-Hyung Lee
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      As a reaction to the Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital scandal in 2014, the Veterans Choice Act of 2014 was enacted to enhance veterans’ access to health care. This study evaluated the productivity change of a panel of 102 VA hospitals from 2011 through 2019 to examine how the Act influenced the overall VA hospital productivity. The results revealed that the overall productivity of VA hospitals declined over the period and VA hospitals were not operating at an optimal scale to produce maximum outputs due to a decrease in the number of veteran patients after the Act was implemented. In addition, the technical change value less than 1 implies that VA hospitals produced fewer outputs with the given input resources over the period due to lagged adoption of innovative health care technology.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T11:13:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221094647
       
  • State-Building 101: Hard Lessons From Afghanistan

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      Authors: Michael Miklaucic
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The American war in Afghanistan was originally an act of retaliation and retribution. Over time it assumed the moral burden of state-building. The state-building effort however was undermined by inadequate planning, inadequate knowledge, and inadequate understanding of the complexity and difficulty of the state-building process. Ultimately, the Afghanistan state-building effort failed. The commentary assumes the premise that even in an era of great power competition, the West cannot escape the challenge of state-building as fragile and failing states will continue to threaten global security. The commentary suggests a set of considerations for those responsible for the inevitable state-building challenges of the future.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T11:38:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221088873
       
  • How Afghanistan Influenced the Content of Armed Forces & Society: An
           Editor’s Reflection

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      Authors: Patricia M. Shields
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This commentary examines the influence of the Afghanistan war on the content of Armed Forces & Society. My 20-year tenure as editor of Armed Forces & Society overlaps completely with the war. Using the lenses of the postmodern or post-Cold War military, I reflect on how the articles of this journal were influenced by the war. The postmodern military relies more heavily on volunteers, is more likely to engage in unconventional missions, and more likely to use multinational forces. I found an increase in articles devoted to reserve forces and contractors. In addition, many articles investigated the unique management challenges of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). The multiple deployments and brutal nature of the war led to a large increase in health/mental health articles and also contributed to changes in the scope of the military family and veterans’ literature. The limited civil–military relations literature was affected indirectly.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T10:20:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221088024
       
  • My Commander in Chief is Black! The Mental Health Significance of Barack
           Obama’s 2008 Presidential Election for Military Veterans

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      Authors: Quintin Gorman, Tony N. Brown, Julian Culver
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated the mental health significance of Barack Obama’s 2008 presidential election for military veterans. Many believed his election signaled a progressive shift in race relations and crucial challenge to White supremacy. Furthermore, many argued his election generated hope, especially among Blacks. We therefore hypothesized Black and Hispanic veterans would experience improved mental health after installment of the nation’s first Black commander in chief. We also hypothesized White veterans would experience no change in their mental health. With nationally representative survey data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), we tested these hypotheses by predicting poor mental health days self-identified Black, Hispanic, and White veterans experienced preelection and postelection in fall 2008. Net of established social determinants of health, we estimated Black and Hispanic veterans, respectively, experienced approximately 2.01 and 2.17 fewer poor mental health days postelection, whereas White veterans experienced no significant postelection change. Sensitivity analyses seemed to corroborate these findings.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T03:53:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221082211
       
  • Psychological and Sociological Profile of Women Who Have Completed Elite
           Military Combat Training

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      Authors: William J. Tharion, Karl E. Friedl, Elizabeth M. Lavoie, Leila A. Walker, Susan M. McGraw, Holly L. McClung
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      More than 75 women have successfully graduated from the U.S. Army Ranger Course since the integration of women into elite military combat training. This study sought to identify the psychological characteristics and sociological variables that contributed to their motivation and success. A guided interview and demographic and psychological questionnaires were used to assess characteristics of 13 women who successfully completed elite military combat training. Collectively, these women were college graduates and had well educated fathers, possessed high levels of grit and resiliency, and described themselves as self-competitive challenge seekers. These women all had a strong male influence in their lives. The characteristics of these pioneer women may be unique from subsequent cohorts as female participation in elite military combat training becomes the norm and as attitudes and experiences change for graduates of female combat training over time.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T01:54:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221076555
       
  • Examination of the Relationship between Self and Choice of Coping
           Strategies among U.S. Active Duty Military Wives

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      Authors: Amy P. Page, Abigail M. Ross, Phyllis Solomon
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research indicates that one’s identity relates to one’s use of specific coping strategies. Exploring the relationship between self and coping in military wives is crucial to understanding how they manage military lifestyle-related stressors. The researchers hypothesized that identity status, self-concept clarity, self-monitoring, mastery, and role conflict will be related to choice of emotion-focused coping or problem-focused coping strategies. Two hundred two participants completed an anonymous online survey containing standardized scales. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analyses revealed that emotion-focused coping had positive relationships with achieved identity status and role conflict. Problem-focused coping had positive relationships with moratorium status, self-concept clarity, self-monitoring, and mastery. Findings provide preliminary support that sense of self is important in understanding how military wives choose to cope with particular challenges.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T09:47:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221081222
       
  • Training for Heat-of-the-Moment Thinking: Ethics Training to Prepare for
           Operations

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      Authors: Deanna L. Messervey, Jennifer M. Peach, Waylon H. Dean, Elizabeth A. Nelson
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Military ethics training has tended to focus on imparting ethical attitudes and on improving deliberative moral decision-making through classroom instruction. However, military personnel can be exposed to extreme conditions on operations, which can lead to heat-of-the-moment thinking. Under stress, individuals are more likely to engage in automatic processing than deliberative processing, and visceral states such as anger and disgust can increase a person’s risk of behaving unethically. We propose that military ethics training could be improved by reinforcing classroom ethics training with interventions to counteract these risk factors. As training interventions, we recommend incorporating affect-labeling, goal-setting, and perspective-taking into realistic, pre-deployment training to make moral decision-making more robust against stress and other emotional experiences typical in combat. We outline steps researchers and trainers can take to test whether these interventions have the desired impact on ethical behavior.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T12:47:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221088325
       
  • Engagement of Military Peacekeepers in Brazilian Politics
           (2011–2021)

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      Authors: Rafael Duarte Villa, Anais M. Passos
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Peacekeepers are seen as a UN tool for promoting domestic changes in host countries, but little is known about the political consequences when officers return home. During the last 10 years, Brazilian presidents appointed a significant number of former peacekeepers to key political functions. How and why do former peacekeepers end up so involved in government affairs' To answer this question, this paper focuses on the array of skills acquired by peacekeepers in domestic missions and reinforced abroad. Drawing on a set of semi-structured interviews and questionnaires to military, former political decision-makers, and researchers, as well as other primary and secondary sources, this paper details how political articulation, experience in conflict management, and prestige empowered Brazilian military officers to resume their tradition of intervention in politics. This paper also shows that peace operations can produce deleterious outcomes for troop-contributing countries in the Global South.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-22T11:29:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221087254
       
  • “Leaning In” or “Taking a Knee”: Career Trajectories of Senior
           Leaders in the Canadian Armed Forces

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      Authors: Julie Coulthard, Justin Wright
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Less research has examined the extent to which external contexts and factors that influence an organizational member’s life choices also influence their career trajectories within the military, and particularly among those who advance to leadership positions at the General Officer/Flag Officer level. Interviews were conducted with 20 select General Officer/Flag Officers in the Canadian Armed Forces. As part of a secondary analysis of an exploratory qualitative study, we applied a Life Course Theory lens to better understand the intersections between the sociohistorical and cultural context of senior leader development, and the individual choices that the participants made that led to their ascent to their rank. This study provides insight into how the historical time and place, the timing in their lives, the linked lives they share with family, and the degree of agency they maintained over their life choices led participants to “lean in” rather than “take a knee.”
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-19T12:45:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221078331
       
  • “We Don’t Negotiate with Terrorists”—Afghanistan, Bargaining, and
           American Civil–Military Relations

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      Authors: Adam Barsuhn
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The United States government’s inability to view the conflict with the Taliban through the lens of the bargaining model of war was a fundamental element of its failure in Afghanistan. This problem was reinforced by a dysfunctional civil–military relations shaped by Samuel Huntington’s theory of objective control, resulting in the military pursuing campaigns of attrition that fit its organizational preferences but did not advance civilian political goals. These issues are evident in three different moments during the War in Afghanistan where the U.S. failed to seize an opportunity that could have changed the result of the conflict.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T10:49:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221077299
       
  • U.S. Veterans and Civilians Describe Military News Coverage as Mediocre,
           Think Stories Affect Others More Than Themselves

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      Authors: Scott Parrott, David L. Albright, Nicholas Eckhart, Kirsten Laha-Walsh
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The news media often portray military veterans in stereotypical ways, providing audiences narrow representations in which veterans are traumatized heroes. What happens when a veteran sees these storylines and assumes they affect how the public thinks about veterans' This question informs this study, which used a two-prong approach (online, telephone) to survey 1,047 American adults about news media and veterans. Respondents, including veterans and civilians, were asked to recall news stories about veterans, assess the quality of news coverage of veterans, and offer opinions concerning whether news coverage affects themselves and other people. When respondents could recall a news story about veterans, they described stereotypical stories related to victimization/harm, heroism, charity/social support, mental illness, and violence. Respondents, both civilian and veteran, described news coverage as mediocre and felt the news affects other people more than themselves.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T10:43:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221080944
       
  • How to Handle Offending Troops Overseas: The U.S. Military’s Legal
           Strategy During the Cold War

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      Authors: Asif Efrat
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The peacetime deployment of U.S. forces in foreign countries goes against traditional notions of sovereignty. How did such deployment become legitimate following World War II' This article examines the legal strategy that the U.S. military employed to make American troop presence more palatable to foreign publics and to critics at home: granting certain legal authority over offending troops to host countries, while seeking to shield troops from trials in host-country courts. The military also used local, informal ties with hosts to guarantee fair legal treatment for troops and worked to convince skeptics that U.S. troops faced no legal threat. The mitigating of legal tensions helped the military create conducive political conditions for its presence abroad and likely contributed to the durability of U.S. deployments. The Cold-War practice contrasts sharply with the contemporary desire of the United States to maintain complete jurisdiction over its troops.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-09T09:20:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211061423
       
  • The Link Between Conscription Experience and Conscripts’ Attitude Toward
           

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      Authors: Merle Parmak, David A. Tyfa
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between the experience of conscripts in their training period and their subsequent attitude toward national military service immediately after training. Self-report questionnaire is used to measure the experiences of Estonian conscripts (n = 518) in three categories: perceived stress, applied coping strategies, and evaluation of training as important. Attitude toward national military service is measured as a critical versus neutral/positive answer to an open-ended question. We found that a perceived reduction in general quality of life, concerns about what is happening at home, and experiencing/expressing negative emotions were associated with a critical attitude. In contrast, taking a proactive outlook toward training and finding military-specific aspects personally important were associated with a more neutral/positive attitude. Our findings emphasize the importance of improving the conscription training experience in order to foster less critical attitudes toward service and are discussed from a person-environment perspective.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-06T11:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221078883
       
  • Domestic Military Deployments in Response to COVID-19

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      Authors: Peter Erickson, Marko Kljajić, Nadav Shelef
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Militaries are commonly deployed in response to domestic disasters. However, our understanding of this phenomenon remains incomplete, partly because the particulars of disasters make it hard to generalize about deployments used in response. This article leverages the COVID-19 pandemic’s global reach to systematically evaluate common hypotheses about when and how militaries are used to respond to domestic disasters. It presents original global data about domestic military deployments in pandemic response and uses it to assess common theoretical expectations about what shapes whether and how militaries are used in such contexts. The results suggest that decisions about whether to deploy militaries stem from the securitization of domestic disaster relief rather than being responses to specific disaster-related features, state capacity shortcomings, or other social or political factors, even as some of these elements shaped how militaries were used. The article concludes by outlining some hypotheses for future research about the impact of this securitization on civil–military relations.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-03-26T12:46:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211072890
       
  • Military Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic Crisis in Latin America:
           Military Presence, Autonomy, and Human Rights Violations

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      Authors: Igor Acacio, Anaís M. Passos, David Pion-Berlin
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The military in Latin America has been extensively involved in pandemic relief operations. This paper analyses the impact of militarization of pandemic relief operations on human rights. It argues that not all militarization is equally harmful to individuals in the region. When troops assume responsibilities regarding medical care and logistical support, human rights violations do not follow. When involved in policing the stay-at-home orders, the extent of human rights violations is explained by the level of operational autonomy the military has in public security operations. The more autonomous the military, more likely abuses are to occur. Additionally, military exposure to judicial prosecution for human rights offenses contributes to the explanation. After gathering original empirical evidence from 14 Latin American democracies on military presence in pandemic relief, we draw our inferences from process tracing on four comparative case studies of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and El Salvador.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-11T11:56:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211070035
       
  • Just Paying Lip Service' Public Trust and Public Support for Armed
           Forces in Germany

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      Authors: Heiko Biehl
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The article presents an empirical analysis of whether, how, and why people are active to either support or protest against the Bundeswehr. Public opinion polls consistently report high levels of trust in the military. According to the social-psychological approach of participation theory, this trust should lead to corresponding actions. However, the literature on civil–military gaps claims that the majority of people pay mere lip service to soldiers rather than actively support the armed forces. No active support despite high levels of trust' In an effort to empirically test the level and the determinants of the public’s support for and protest against the military, an activity scale was included in a representative opinion poll in Germany. The analyses show that a fairly large part of the German population engages in activities that support the Bundeswehr and that public trust in the military predicts that supportive behavior. Importantly, trust in the armed forces remains a strong predictor of citizens’ activities related to the armed forces even when controlling for numerous other factors. Taken together, these findings contradict the widely shared view of a civil–military gap and instead provide empirical evidence for the social-psychological approach of participation theory.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-05T08:16:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211043917
       
  • The Culture of Alcohol in the U.S. Military: Correlations With Problematic
           Drinking Behaviors and Negative Consequences of Alcohol Use

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      Authors: Sarah O. Meadows, Robin Beckman, Charles C. Engel, Diana D. Jeffery
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Excessive alcohol use, especially binge and heavy drinking, represents a serious threat to force readiness across the Department of Defense. Though these behaviors are a matter of individual service member choice, they are influenced by perceptions of the culture of alcohol use in the military. This paper uses data from the 2018 Health Related Behaviors Survey of Active Duty service members to explore associations between perceived alcohol culture and excessive alcohol use, any serious drinking consequences, risky driving behaviors, productivity loss due to drinking, absenteeism, and presenteeism. Results from multivariate logistic regression reveal a strong, positive correlation between positive perceptions of drinking culture in the military and all outcomes. Targeting perceptions of the drinking culture is one way the military can reduce excessive and unhealthy use of alcohol and negative sequelae.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-05T08:01:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211069162
       
  • Nigerian Troops in the War Against Boko Haram: The Civilian–Military
           Leadership Interest Convergence Thesis

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      Authors: Temitope B. Oriola
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study interrogates the experiences of Nigerian troops in the war against Boko Haram. The paper’s contribution is bi-dimensional. First, it adds to the empirical literature on Boko Haram by analyzing the perspectives of rank-and-file troops. The study finds 10 forms of corruption affecting troops. These have contributed to the inability to defeat Boko Haram. Second, the paper adds to theoretical scholarship on civil–military relations and persistence of small wars. It challenges the bureaucratic-organizational model and the focus of civil–military relations theory on civilian control of the military. The study emphasizes the need to focus on the texture of the relationship between civilian and military leaders. The paper argues that the bureaucratic-organizational model has limited relevance to militaries in the postcolony and proposes a civilian–military leadership interest convergence thesis. The findings are relevant for understanding the spread of terrorism in sub-Saharan Africa and the persistence of small wars in non-Western, illiberal quasi-democratic societies.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-29T10:39:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211072894
       
  • How do Sociodemographic Characteristics Influence UK Civilian Opinions of
           UK Armed Forces Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans' A Mixed-Method Approach
           

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      Authors: Rita H. Phillips, Vincent Connelly, Mark Burgess
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Evidence suggests that UK veterans are seen as victims with concern for their perceived mental health needs. This study examined sociodemographic factors that contribute to victimizing conceptualizations of British Army Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. UK participants (N = 234) provided three word associations to “British Army Iraq Veteran” and “British Army Afghanistan Veteran” and answered sociodemographic questions. A multiple linear regression outlines that low national pride, mission opposition and higher levels of education predict elevated victimizing word associations. Narrative accounts from UK interviews (N = 21) suggest that participants who perceived the recent conflicts as illegitimate conceptualize veterans as passive, naïve actors who had to submit to the agency of the anthropomorphic described government. This allowed holding overtly appreciative though belittling attitudes toward veterans, while opposing the missions. To dissociate veterans from victimizing perceptions, better knowledge about service and justifications for deployments need to be provided. Study limitations, including over sampling of young adult females, are discussed.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T11:23:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211070321
       
  • Factors Related to Exclusion in the U.S. Army

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      Authors: Sara Kintzle, Eva Alday, Adrianne Clomax, Michàlle Mor Barak, Carl A. Castro
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The promotion of inclusion in the U.S. Army requires an understanding of how and why exclusion occurs. As exclusion can have deleterious impacts at both and individual and organizational level, reducing exclusive behaviors can have positive effects on Soldiers and the Army. To explore exclusion in the Army, 19 focus groups were conducted with 120 active-duty enlisted Soldiers. Two rounds of thematic analysis revealed four themes related to exclusion. Participants indicated exclusion to be often based on low or bad performance, personality factors that were identified as different or toxic, cliques within the Army unwilling to welcome others, and gender, with both men and women identifying exclusionary behaviors toward women within and outside of the work environment. Research findings offer insight into how and why exclusion occurs and how such behaviors can be addressed in the U.S. Army including training and addressing cultural and systemic barriers to inclusion.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T09:06:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211068875
       
  • Are the U.S. Military’s Nonpartisan Norms Eroding'

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      Authors: Trent J. Lythgoe
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The U.S. military’s nonpartisan norms are an important part of healthy civil–military relations. Some research, however, suggest these norms are weakening. This study examines the evidence for eroding nonpartisan norms by analyzing U.S. military servicemembers’ partisan affiliations and political activism levels from 2008 to 2018. It finds that since 2008, military servicemembers have become more likely to identify as partisans. Servicemembers have also become more politically active than civilians, although this is due to decreasing activism among the American public. It also finds that longer-serving service members have stronger nonpartisan norms, but that newer servicemembers are more politically active than both longer-serving servicemembers and civilians. These findings provide a firmer empirical foundation for previous claims of eroding norms and suggest more research is needed to understand how increased partisanship and political activism impacts military readiness and civil–military relations.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-25T09:47:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211072892
       
  • Book Review: Urban Warfare in the Twenty-First Century

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      Authors: Rene Moelker
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-21T06:56:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221074330
       
  • Band of Brothers or Band of Others': Rhetoric, Veterans, and Civil
           Rights Fights in Germany and the United States

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      Authors: Joseph Paul Vasquez, Walter W. Napier
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Research suggests that marginalized groups can use military service to win greater governmental and social acceptance by using civic republican rhetoric, however, conditions in which claims-making rhetoric is coercive are underspecified. Because rhetorical effectiveness requires sympathetic ears, we examine the influence of (1) expectations and political efforts of marginalized group members seeking greater acceptance, (2) whether majority group economic status is outpacing marginalized groups seeking improved treatment, and (3) whether marginalized groups have influential military veterans from majority groups as allies. We apply these factors to explain the claims-making failure of German Jews following the First World War and the success of African Americans after the Second World War. From the African American case, we also conclude that military service led to greater socio-political inclusion and rights based on development of future political actors through leadership development processes and inter-group contact, especially regarding Presidents Truman and Eisenhower.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-08T08:58:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211065490
       
  • The “Supermen” Club: Organizational Secrecy and Masculine Identity in
           an Israeli National Security Organization

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      Authors: Aluma Kepten
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      How does secrecy shape narratives of militarized hegemonic masculinity' This article assesses a gap at the intersection between theories of masculinities and organizational secrecy. Supported by 15 interviews with current and former male workers of a covert section of an Israeli national security organization, it argues that secrecy is experienced as both an external hurdle and a central component to the way that men internalize masculinity. Unable to access social capital outside the security organization, the respondents of the study construct a social field inside it through which they can assert their masculinity. They do so by conceptualizing their jobs, themselves, and the organization through a prism of sacrificial warriorhood, and actively incorporate secrecy’s constraints into a narrative of “super-men”. This study thus examines secrecy in the context of a militarized environment, showing the experience of masculinity and a perceived lack of power-access among members of a dominant group.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-08T04:49:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211064917
       
  • The Missing Piece of the Puzzle: The EMASYA Protocol and Civil-Military
           Relations in Turkey

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      Authors: Ayfer Genç Yılmaz
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The civil-military relations literature on Turkey focuses predominantly on the guardianship role of the Turkish military, its interventions, and the role of the National Security Council as the main institutional mechanism of military tutelage. Yet, the existing studies lack a much-needed focus on the law enforcement or policing missions of the Turkish military. To fill this gap, this study discusses the EMASYA Protocol (Emniyet Asayiş Yardımlaşma or Security and Public Order Assistance), a secret protocol signed in 1997. Emerging in the context of political instability and military tutelage of the 1990s, the Protocol enabled the military to conduct internal security operations without permission from the civilian authorities. This paper argues that the EMASYA Protocol provided a sphere of “reformulated new professionalism” for the Turkish military, enabled it to specialize in the war against rising internal threats such as reactionary Islam and Kurdish separatism, and created anomalies in civil-military relations in Turkey.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T03:18:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211066570
       
  • Introduction to the Symposium on National Security and Social Science

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      Authors: Donald Stuart Travis, Patricia M. Shields
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This Symposium on the role of social science in security policy responds to Michael Desch’s 2019 book Cult of the Irrelevant: The Waning Influence of Social Science on National Security. Four articles consider Desch’s position that the social sciences are becoming increasingly irrelevant in security policy. Yagil Levy and Peter Feaver challenge Desch’s perspective. Alan Okros and Rebecca Jensen largely concur with Desch’s perspective. Rebecca Schiff asserts that Desch’s analysis fell short by overlooking the divisive role of university activism and political narratives in his discourse.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-13T09:06:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221115068
       
  • Which Gap' – What Bridge'

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      Authors: Alan Okros, Rebecca Jensen
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The discourse around the bridging the gap debate is seen to a unique sub-set of the social sciences in the United States as applied to a unique American approach to security. This article looks beyond US National Security and the practices of the discipline of political science at US universities to address, and expand on, some specific ideas in Michael Desch’s volume The Cult of the Irrelevant. We offer that an integrative assessment of how scholarly work can best inform security policies and practices requires more critical examination in four domains: consideration of how different disciplines frame key issues and speak to each other; understanding the dynamics of the policy marketplace; assessments to alternate ways to frame security and national security; and requirements to critical challenge the privilege academics have awarded themselves as the purveyors (and gatekeepers) of ‘knowledge’ and the ‘truth’.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T03:01:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211035820
       
  • The Cult of the Irrelevant or Political Narrative'

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      Authors: Rebecca L. Schiff
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This commentary discusses Michael Desch’s book The Cult of the Irrelevant: The Waning Influence of Social Science on National Security. Desch offers a respectable and important overview of the history of national security within the social sciences from World War I through current times. He focuses on the gradual irrelevancy of political science and particularly the field of international security. Desch, however, neglects the recent university activism and political narratives infusing academic writings and classroom discussions. This review argues that what contributes to the irrelevancy of social science and particularly national security is the new “cult” itself: demands placed on academia and students to become political activists, and not social scientists nor theorists who contribute rigorous academic research affecting domestic and foreign policy. It is the political advocacy narrative itself, embraced by university cultures, that pushes social science and the study of national security down the path of irrelevancy.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-05-30T10:20:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X221089336
       
  • Unpacking “Stacking”: Researching Political Identity and
           Regime Security in Armed Forces

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      Authors: Nathaniel Allen, Risa Brooks
      First page: 207
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article unpacks the phenomenon of identity-based stacking in armed forces to lay the groundwork for a next generation of scholarship, proposing three sets of extensions with examples from regimes in Africa and the Middle East. First, we argue that scholars might treat the concept of stacking with greater nuance by considering variation in stacking’s modal forms, incorporating identities beyond ethnicity, considering how the salience of stacking varies within armed forces, and treating the identities on which stacking is based as malleable. Second, we argue for a more attention to the mechanisms through which stacking operates, such that it can involve layering of multiple bases of identity, be used to manipulate and manufacture identity, and be used to induce in-group competition and rivalry. Finally, stacking scholarship should consider more the costs to a leader’s control over policy and distributional matters and emphasize the trade-offs that various forms of stacking generate among regime security imperatives.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T05:03:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211058765
       
 
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