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  Subjects -> MILITARY (Total: 103 journals)
Showing 1 - 24 of 24 Journals sorted alphabetically
Africa Conflict Monitor     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Armed Conflict Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Armed Forces & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Arms & Armour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
British Journal for Military History     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ciencia y Poder Aéreo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Civil Wars     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Coleção Meira Mattos : Revista das Ciências Militares     Open Access  
Conflict, Security & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 427)
Critical Military Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CRMA Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Marte     Open Access  
Defence and Peace Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Defence Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Defence Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Defence Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Defense & Security Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Digital War     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Disaster and Military Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Doutrina Militar Terrestre em Revista     Open Access  
Eesti Sõjaajaloo Aastaraamat / Estonian Yearbook of Military History     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
EsSEX : Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
First World War Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Fra Krig og Fred     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Gettysburg Magazine     Full-text available via subscription  
Great Circle: Journal of the Australian Association for Maritime History, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Headmark     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Human Factors and Mechanical Engineering for Defense and Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Intelligent Defence Support Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Peacekeeping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 474)
Journal for Maritime Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Archives in Military Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Defense Analytics and Logistics     Open Access  
Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation : Applications, Methodology, Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Defense Studies & Resource Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Military and Strategic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Military and Veterans Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Military Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Military Experience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Military History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Military Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of National Security Law & Policy     Free   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of power institutions in post-soviet societies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Slavic Military Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Terrorism Research     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal on Baltic Security     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Martial Arts Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Media, War & Conflict     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Medical Journal Armed Forces India     Full-text available via subscription  
Medicine, Conflict and Survival     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Militärgeschichtliche Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Military Behavioral Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Military Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Military Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Military Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Modern Information Technologies in the Sphere of Security and Defence     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Naval Research Logistics: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Nonproliferation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
O Adjunto : Revista Pedagógica da Escola de Aperfeiçoamento de Sargentos das Armas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Perspectives on Terrorism     Open Access   (Followers: 470)
Post-Soviet Armies Newsletter     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Problemy Mechatroniki. Uzbrojenie, lotnictwo, inżynieria bezpieczeństwa / Problems of Mechatronics. Armament, Aviation, Safety Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Agulhas Negras     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Babilônia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Científica Fundação Osório     Open Access  
Revista Científica General José María Córdova     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Medicina Militar     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista do Exército     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Militar de Ciência e Tecnologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Política y Estrategia     Open Access  
Sabretache     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sanidad Militar     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Military Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Scientific Journal of Polish Naval Academy     Open Access  
Securitologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Security and Defence Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Signals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Small Wars & Insurgencies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 373)
Small Wars Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Social Development & Security : Journal of Scientific Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Special Operations Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Strategic Comments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Military Balance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
The RUSI Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
United Service     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
University of Miami National Security & Armed Conflict Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte. Das zentrale Forum der Zeitgeschichtsforschung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Vojnotehnički Glasnik     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
War & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
War in History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Whitehall Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Wiedza Obronna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Slawistik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
선진국방연구     Open Access  

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Armed Forces & Society
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.29
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 24  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0095-327X - ISSN (Online) 1556-0848
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1144 journals]
  • Troop Crime in Peacetime: Criminality and Accountability of U.S. Troops
           Worldwide During the Cold War
    • Authors: Asif Efrat
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      U.S. forces abroad have often faced complaints about crimes committed by troops, yet we lack systematic quantitative information on such crimes. Based on newly discovered data compiled by the Army, this article presents a comprehensive and detailed picture of American troops’ criminal activity worldwide during the Cold War (1954–1970). The data show that troops engaged in significant criminality, with a particularly high rate of violent crime—homicide, rape, and robbery—and a relatively low rate of property crime. Host countries treated offending troops leniently: Prison sentences were rare, and they averaged less than 2 years in duration. The data presented here hold far-reaching implications for our understanding of the relations between U.S. forces and host countries and the legacy of U.S. military deployments.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2021-05-07T08:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211011578
       
  • Civil–Military Relations and Human Rights
    • Authors: Sam R. Bell, K. Chad Clay, Ghashia Kiyani, Amanda Murdie
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Do civil–military relations influence human rights practices' Building on principal–agent theory, we argue that civilian–military relations, instead of having an effect on mean levels of repression, will be associated with the dispersion in human rights practices. States where there is less control of the military or more conflict between civilian and military leadership will see a wider range of human rights practices. We test our hypotheses quantitatively on a global sample of countries, using updated data on civil–military relations and find evidence that civil–military conflict and lack of control increase the variance in human right practices.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2021-04-28T07:18:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211006835
       
  • “Our One Great Hope”: The Interdependence of the Woman’s Relief
           Corps and the Grand Army of the Republic
    • Authors: Adam Chamberlain, Alixandra B. Yanus
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) played a critical role in the lives of many Union veterans after the Civil War. Its efforts were supported by its women’s auxiliary, the Woman’s Relief Corps (WRC). Yet scholars do not know much about the evolution of the relationship between the rising WRC and the slowly declining GAR, whose members were dying away in the early 20th century. Here, we evaluate state-level membership and local group data for both associations to determine the nature of their connection from 1884 to 1924. The evidence reveals that the WRC’s auxiliary role helped sustain the GAR while providing an organizational structure that allowed women to chart an independent course.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2021-03-22T08:21:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211001536
       
  • The Relevance and Presumed Innocence of Learning: A Reply to Soeters and
           Talbot and Fischer
    • Authors: Hans Hasselbladh, Karl Ydén
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Responding to Soeters and Talbot and Fischer, we clarify our position that learning in military organizations is highly contingent on established organizational frameworks, vocabularies, and understandings and constrained by existing power relations. The danger present in military operations increases the importance of minimizing internal frictions and constrains local experimentation and the application of different solutions. Thus, while there is learning in military organizations, the latter are less prone than large, civilian organizations to venture into the use of new and unproven solutions. The present debate about learning in military organization reflects the different basic assumptions about formal organizations in management studies as opposed to the field of organizational sociology.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2021-03-17T09:09:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X211001572
       
  • Introduction to the Armed Forces & Society Forum on Military Reserves in
           the “New Wars”
    • Authors: Sergio Catignani, Nir Gazit, Eyal Ben-Ari
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This Armed Forces & Society forum is dedicated to exploring recent trends in the characteristics of military reserves and of the changing character of reserve forces within the armed forces within the military, the civilian sphere, and in between them. To bring new and critical perspectives to the study of reserve forces and civil–military relations, this introduction and the five articles that follow draw on two organizing conceptual models: The first portrays reservists as transmigrants and focuses on the plural membership of reservists in the military and in civilian society and the “travel” between them. The second model focuses on the multiple formal and informal compacts (contracts, agreements, or pacts) between reservists and the military.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2021-03-17T09:09:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X21996220
       
  • Living Liminal Lives: Army Partners’ Spatiotemporal Experiences of
           Deployment
    • Authors: Emma Long
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The emotional cycle of deployment theorized by Logan and adapted by Pincus, House, Christenson, and Alder is often applied by academics and military support agencies to define, explain, and provide advice on the experiences and possible emotional reactions of military families during phases of deployment. Interviews with army partners showed that spatiotemporal experiences and perspectives are more complex than those afforded by the emotional cycle of deployment. This article argues that applying the concept of liminality uncovers some of this complexity, illuminating the in-between times experienced during deployments that are otherwise hidden. Army partners move through and between deployments and deployment phases haunted by specters of past and future deployments. By disrupting seemingly chronological and discrete spatiotemporal narratives, which often frame research on military families and deployment, this article demonstrates how army partners move through and between deployments and deployment stages negotiating past and future deployments. It shows how they continuously adapt and evolve practices while negotiating interpreted pasts and imagined futures in pursuit of becoming “ideal.”
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T10:12:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X21995966
       
  • Maintaining Male Exclusivity: Porcelain Privilege in the Military
    • Authors: Shannon Portillo, Alesha Doan, Ashley Mog
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Current debates about bathrooms and bathroom policy contribute to a long history of how space shapes norms and expectations about privacy and gender equity in the workplace. The military serves as a significant site of discussion, particularly as the Department of Defense moves forward with efforts to integrate women into combat positions. Relying on an analysis of 27 focus groups with a total of 198 participants we collected from Special Operations in the U.S. Army, we examine bathrooms as a site where male soldiers contest and resist female integration. Using Sasson-Levy and Katz’s concept of institutional de-gendering and re-gendering, we argue that men’s resistance to gender-neutral toilets is an effort to re-gender Special Forces and maintain the hegemonic masculine culture that acutely defines it.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2021-02-22T09:17:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X21992369
       
  • Military Organizations Can Walk and Chew Gum at the Same Time
    • Authors: Steven Talbot, Tiffany Fischer
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article is a response to a recent publication by Hasselbladh and Ydén in this journal, entitled “Why Military Organizations Are Cautious About Organizational Learning'” Through their use of dichotomous logic, the authors argue continuous learning poses a threat to the functioning of military organizations. The following commentary argues for a necessary coexistence between the mainstays of the traditional bureaucratic military organization presented by Hasselbladh and Ydén and continuous learning required by military organizations to compete and cope with technological advancements and gray zone challenges afforded by the modern operating environment.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T09:42:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X21991045
       
  • Violence and Moral Exclusion: Legitimizing Domestic Military Operations in
           Brazil
    • Authors: David P. Succi Junior
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Many contemporary security issues entail the domestic military deployment, which is deemed to blur the division between armed forces and police. This argument relies on the theoretical coalescence between territory, political authority, and community. In contrast, I argue the military domestic deployment is largely grounded on the process of defining and redefining the boundaries of the community to be protected, which informs the organization of the instruments of force and is shaped throughout the process of legitimizing a particular kind of violence deployment. This article analyses the parliamentary minutes on three domestic military operations in Brazil—Operation Rio (1994), Operation Arcanjo (2010), and the Operation Rio de Janeiro (2017)—through the moral exclusion framework and shows that the debates about whether or not the armed forces should be deployed are embedded in the struggle of drawing the community’s boundaries.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2021-02-08T08:08:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20988106
       
  • Janowitz and Huntington—Better Together: A Response
    • Authors: Damon Coletta, Thomas Crosbie
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Suzanne Nielsen and Hugh Liebert recently published “The Continuing Relevance of Morris Janowitz’s The Professional Soldier for the Education of Officers” in which they argued that officer education is too enamored with Samuel Huntington’s aging theory of civil–military relations from Soldier and the State. Huntington’s ideal of objective control grants senior military advisors autonomy within their professional sphere, and it best ensures that unvarnished military expertise survives politically charged national security decision making processes intact, regardless of which party controls the White House. While these features explain Huntington’s traditional popularity with the military, Nielsen and Liebert warn that Huntington’s separation between military and civilian matters in theory engenders wishful thinking in practice, so much so that officers neglect, to the detriment of national policy, Morris Janowitz, Huntington’s cofounder of the modern study of civil–military relations. However, the civil–military community should reconsider banishing Huntington in order to appreciate Janowitz.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2021-01-22T09:00:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20988556
       
  • Erratum to The World War II Veteran Advantage' A Lifetime
           Cross-Sectional Study of Social Status Attainment
    • Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2021-01-21T07:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20987644
       
  • Veterans and Media: The Effects of News Exposure on Thoughts, Attitudes,
           and Support of Military Veterans
    • Authors: Scott Parrott, David L. Albright, Nicholas Eckhart
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The mass media are an important source of information concerning military service personnel and veterans. Veterans, veterans organizations, and others have criticized the mass media for providing the public shallow representations of veterans and military service in which veterans are heroes traumatized mentally and/or physically by their service. Despite the concern, scant research has empirically examined how exposure to such content affects public perceptions of veterans. Using an experiment, this study examined how exposure to news stories of military veterans informed thoughts, attitudes, and support intentions toward veterans. Results suggest short, one-time exposure to stereotypical news stories can lead readers to perceive an increased likelihood veterans will experience post-traumatic stress disorder and, in turn, feel less desire to be socially close with veterans. However, exposure to a story that challenges stereotypical representations of veterans appears to mitigate the effect. In addition, news exposure can influence support intentions related to veterans.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2021-01-20T10:12:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20986145
       
  • Fear and Pride Among Fighter Pilots: Combat Emotions During a Bombing
           Campaign
    • Authors: Christian Moldjord, Paal Kristian Fredriksen, Larry D. Browning
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article analyzes the combat emotions of Royal Norwegian Air Force Fighter pilots (hereafter RNoAF) during their bombing campaign over Libya in 2011. Using grounded theory in our interviews with them, we identified 12 categories of their emotions and behaviors, with variations in pride and fear emerging as the two key themes. We show how those two emotions thread through the literature of emotions in combat, and show further how our data, and the resulting matrix from an analysis of it, both apply to and extend that literature. We also show how the high and low variations of pride and fear interact to both support and counter each other. Our findings thus make an important contribution to the combat emotions literature on the action and behavior of fighter pilots.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2021-01-20T09:16:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20986925
       
  • A Culture of Organizational Grit From the Perspective of U.S. Military
           Officers: A Qualitative Inquiry
    • Authors: Celeste Raver Luning, Prince A. Attoh, Tao Gong, James T. Fox
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      With the backdrop of the utility of grit at the individual level, speculation has begun to circulate that grit may exist as an organizational level phenomenon. To explore this potential construct, this study used an exploratory, qualitative research design. This study explored grit at the organizational level by interviewing leaders’ perceptions of what may be a culture of organizational grit. Participants included 14 U.S. military officers. Seven themes emerged relative to the research question: “What do U.S. military officers perceive as a culture of organizational grit'” Themes included professional pride, team unity, resilience-determination, mission accomplishment, core values, growth mindset, and deliberate practice. This study indicated that a culture of organizational grit is likely a combination of converging organizational elements. Overall, findings indicate that there may be a culture of organizational grit in the military and at the least, more research examining the concept is warranted.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2021-01-05T09:22:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20985197
       
  • Female Combatants and Wartime Rape: Reconsidering the Role of Women in
           Armed Conflict
    • Authors: Marius Mehrl
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Whereas existing research posits that the presence of female fighters in armed groups decreases their propensity for wartime rape, one recent study tests this claim quantitatively and is unable to detect a statistically significant effect. This leads the author to conclude that female combatants do not decrease rape. Using that study’s original data, this article reexamines the evidence for the relationship between female rebel combatants and wartime sexual violence. Replications of the original models suggest that they make strong functional form assumptions regarding numerous independent variables and time dependence and that relaxing them results in substantively different findings. Namely, women’s participation in armed groups decreases groups’ use of wartime rape. In support of Loken’s organizational theory of rape, results also suggest that this effect is moderated by group norms. These findings contribute to the literature on female participation in rebel groups and beyond.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-12-28T09:56:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20981696
       
  • Social Media as an (Un)Supportive Resource for Military Partners Coping
           With Military Lifestyle Challenges
    • Authors: Kelly R. Rossetto, Jennifer S. Owlett
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The current study explored how romantic partners of active-duty service members perceived social media as (un)supportive when dealing with military lifestyle challenges. This study also explored coping and support paradoxes as they play out when military partners are using social media to help them cope. Twenty-four partners (female, n = 22; male, n = 2) participated in interviews. Participants reported mostly using Facebook (e.g., spouse groups) for dealing with military lifestyle challenges. Supportive functions included seeking and providing support and relational maintenance and development. Unsupportive functions included reinforced boundaries and support breakdowns. Findings are discussed with a focus on communal coping and coping and support paradoxes.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-12-14T11:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20974391
       
  • Toward Strategic Cohesion: A Reply to King’s Criticism of the Call for a
           Broader View of Cohesion
    • Authors: Ilmari Käihkö
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      In October 2018, Armed Forces & Society published a special issue that called for a theoretical and methodological broadening of the study of cohesion. In a response, King accuses me of ignoring his 2013 book The Combat Soldier, which he feels had already made this call redundant. This answer explains why this is not the case. The Combat Soldier ticks the three boxes of modern, Western, and state military that have dominated the study of cohesion. The resulting narrow vantage point affirms problematic assumptions of Western concepts as absolutes with universal validity with little room for other models of sociopolitical interaction. This becomes especially problematic when King defines cohesion as tactical-level combat performance, the be-all and end-all of what makes, and decides, war. The answer concludes with an appeal for truly interdisciplinary future studies of war that a broader understanding of cohesion, among other things, depends on.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-12-11T09:32:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20974768
       
  • The U.S. Marine Corps’ Response to Intimate Partner Sexual Violence: An
           Analysis of the Family Advocacy Program and the Sexual Assault Prevention
           and Response Program
    • Authors: Stephanie Bonnes, Jeffrey H. Palmer
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, we show how the U.S. military treats domestic violence and sexual assault as distinct forms of abuse, which has particular consequences for victims of intimate partner sexual violence. We explore how a specific U.S. military branch, the Marine Corps, complicates these issues further by providing services to intimate partner sexual violence victims from two different programs. Analyzing military orders and documents related to Family Advocacy Program and Sexual Assault Prevention and Response program, interviews with eight military prosecutors, and the experiences of one military lawyer, we examine program and interactional-level factors that shape victim services, advocacy, and processes. We find that there are program differences in specialized services, coordinated services, and potential breaches of confidentiality related to victim’s cases. We recommend that the Marine recognize the intersections of sexual violence and domestic violence and offer more tailored services to victims of intimate partner sexual violence.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-12-03T08:51:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20974397
       
  • The Benefits and Liabilities of Risk-Taking Propensity and Confidence at
           the U.S. Military Academy
    • Authors: Hillary S. Schaefer, Andrew G. Farina, Dave I. Cotting, Eliot S. Proctor, Cheveso L. Cook, Richard M. Lerner
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The military environment presents an intersection between a setting featuring unavoidable risk and individual risk-taking propensity; prior work suggests risk-takers have positive and negative outcomes here, and messaging about risk-taking in the military is mixed. The current study used social identity theory to examine how self-reported risk propensity related to three identities/outcomes among cadets at the U.S. Military Academy: attributes of an archetypal “Model Soldier” (physical and military excellence), “Model Student” (grade point average, service positions, and behavior), and Military Values (bravery, duty, and resilience). Structural equation modeling demonstrated that risk-taking was positively related to our Model Soldier and Military Values identities but negatively associated with being a Model Student. Additionally, high-risk-taking cadets were viewed by peers and instructors as confident but prone to judgment, self-discipline, and insight difficulties, suggesting overconfidence among risk-takers. Quantified as a difference between confidence and self-discipline, judgment, and insight, overconfidence mediated the relationship between risk-taking and the three identities, suggesting overconfidence drives both positive and negative associations with risk-taking. Military and leadership implications are presented.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-11-27T06:05:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20973373
       
  • Huntington in Canada: The Triumph of Subjective Control
    • Authors: Peter Kasurak
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Samuel Huntington theorized in The Soldier and the State that rather than make the military in the image of society (subjective control), both superior civilian control and military outcomes would result if the military was allowed its own sphere and culture, shaped by military requirements (objective control). Since 1963, the Canadian Armed Forces have argued for objective control, while political leadership and the country have largely paid little attention to military demands for greater social independence. An examination of defense policy, the “civilianization” crisis, the Somalia Inquiry, and diversity legislation and programs demonstrate the triumph of subjective control. This article concludes that subjective control has had costs to civilians in military shirking and to the military in alienation from its parent society. Huntington remains useful, but it is time to consider modern alternatives to understand civil-military relationships.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-11-24T08:52:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20970535
       
  • Democratization and Troop Contributions to United Nations Peacekeeping
    • Authors: Timothy J. A. Passmore
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      What explains the post–Cold War surge in peacekeeping contributions from the developing world' I argue that, amid a wave of democratization and expanded peacekeeping activity, such countries use peacekeeping deployments to reduce the threat of the military to nascent democratic institutions. Peacekeeping participation serves to placate the military in the short term with resources and continued activity, while socializing and professionalizing it to pro-democracy behaviors in the long term. Assessing troop contributions from 1990 to 2011, I find evidence that new democracies make larger contributions than other states, where the effect diminishes as democracy becomes consolidated. Moreover, the effect is amplified in countries with a greater military legacy. I supplement this with a study of Argentina to further support the proposed mechanism. These findings help explain the shift in state peacekeeping contributions in recent years, the role of democracy in peacekeeping efforts, and the impact of international actors in supporting democratization.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-11-23T09:20:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20968197
       
  • Do International Interventions Prolong Civil Conflicts' The Effect of
           Ex Ante Expectations
    • Authors: Tsukasa Watanabe
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Many studies have found that third-party intervention tends to prolong the duration of civil conflict. However, some studies have suggested that mere expectations of external intervention can prolong conflict duration even in the absence of actual intervention. Therefore, the effects of external interventions in prolonging the duration of civil conflicts remain unclear. This study examines the direct effect of third-party intervention on the duration of civil conflict by controlling for the indirect effect of expectations of external intervention. The probabilities of intervention were estimated, and the direct effect of interventions was tested by controlling for the effect of ex ante expectations. The empirical findings were as follows: (1) Third-party intervention has no direct effect of prolonging the duration of a conflict when expectations are controlled for, and (2) Third-party intervention may have an indirect effect of shortening conflict duration, which contradicts the findings of previous studies.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-11-12T07:13:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20967658
       
  • Why It Is Important to Be Cautious in the Analysis of Military
           Organizations: A Reply to Hasselbladh and Ydén
    • Authors: Joseph Soeters
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article is a reply to a recent publication by Hasselbladh and Yden in this journal, entitled “Why Military Organizations Are Cautious About Learning'” They argue that there is good reason for military organizations not being very successful in organizational learning. Based on historical experiences related to the military’s bureaucratic character and specific task environment, they argue that military organization’s hesitation to learn is not necessarily dysfunctional. This reply refutes this assertion as it is not based on sufficient knowledge of organizational learning in general, but more importantly because it “scholarly” legitimizes the impeding of attempts to improve military performance in the broad sense of the word.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-11-06T09:25:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20970248
       
  • The Continuing Relevance of Morris Janowitz’s The Professional Soldier
           for the Education of Officers
    • Authors: Suzanne C. Nielsen, Hugh Liebert
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      In the current strategic environment, Morris Janowitz’s The Professional Soldier deserves renewed emphasis, especially from the military’s senior leaders who are responsible for the education and development of the country’s officer corps. Janowitz’s work is an especially valuable guide to the education of officers today because of his focus on the need for military officers to understand the political impact of military posture and military operations. The education of U.S. military officers to meet the country’s national security needs in the 21st century must go beyond Huntington’s formulation of expertise to an appreciation, in Janowitz’s terms, of “the political and social impact of the military establishment on international security affairs” across the spectrum of conflict. Janowitz’s formulation is the better guide because military means serve political purposes, and ultimately, a country’s strategic success will be judged in political terms.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-10-09T10:33:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20960480
       
  • Technical Support or Symbolic Threat' French Military Technicians
           Versus Private Providers
    • Authors: Hadrien Clouet
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Since the mid-2000s, French military telecommunications have been partially outsourced to private companies. This was justified by an intent for budgetary savings and efficiency. However, an interview survey conducted among military technicians shows that this transfer weighs upon their work and expectations. Outsourcing damages the profession’s appeal, deprives staff of strategic resources, and places their time under the control of private providers. This represents a symbolic cost for the personnel committed to the institution but also grants symbolic benefits to officers who are hostile to the process. Although they were not designed for this purpose, market procedures closely regulate the activity of frontline military technicians.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-09-30T09:09:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20958682
       
  • Gender Mainstreaming in the Canadian Armed Forces and the Department of
           National Defence: Lessons on the Implementation of Gender-Based Analysis
           Plus (GBA+)
    • Authors: Rachael Johnstone, Bessma Momani
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article uses the Canadian military’s gender-mainstreaming strategy—gender-based analysis plus (or GBA+)—as a case study to explore the implementation of gender mainstreaming in militaries. Utilizing a mixed method approach, including group interviews and surveys, we employ Jahan’s model of gender mainstreaming to understand how GBA+ has been operationalized. We argue that the implementation of GBA+ in the Defense Torce constitutes a more superficial integrationist approach to the implementation of gender mainstreaming rather than a transformative, agenda-setting approach, despite the internalization of messaging to the contrary by many in the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) and the Department of National Defence (DND). While not ideal, we suggest that an integrationist approach does not necessarily mean a GBA+ agenda will fail in a male-dominated organization like the CAF; rather, we contend that it could constitute a valuable starting point for progressive, large-scale change.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-09-18T10:36:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20956722
       
  • “Even If the Policy Changes, the Culture Remains the Same”: A Mixed
           Methods Analysis of LGBT Service Members’ Outness Patterns
    • Authors: Kathleen A. McNamara, Carrie L. Lucas, Jeremy T. Goldbach, Carl A. Castro, Ian W. Holloway
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Despite repeal of the Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell policy in 2011 and the ban on open transgender service from 2016 to 2019, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) service members may be reluctant to disclose their identities to fellow military personnel. This study used data collected through the Department of Defense–funded mixed methods research study conducted from 2016 to 2018. A sample of 248 active duty LGBT service members completed a survey, while a sample of 42 LGBT active duty service members participated in an in-depth interview. Regression analyses tested for differences in outness by demographic and military traits; a thematic analysis of qualitative data contextualizes these findings. Outness to fellow service members varied greatly by rank, military branch, education level, sexual orientation, gender identity, and marital status. The lowest outness was to chaplains (38%), while the highest outness was to LGBT unit friends (93%). Implications for military leadership and service providers are discussed.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-09-17T07:50:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20952136
       
  • The Power of Experience' Innovative and Authoritative Leadership
           Values Among Danish Army Cadets
    • Authors: Morten Brænder, Vilhelm Stefan Holsting
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Traditionally, the military is seen as an unequivocally authoritarian organization. With survey data collected at the Royal Danish Military Academy, this study shows that that is a qualified truth. Thus, cadets enrolled directly from the noncommissioned officer corps—those most acquainted with the norms of the armed forces—do not weigh authoritarian leadership values over nonauthoritarian ones. Instead, their view reflects that for the experienced leader, the context, and not overt ideals, enables them to choose the leadership tools they expect will prove most effective. On the contrary, cadets enrolled based on their civilian merits clearly prioritize authoritarian values. This is particularly true among cadets returning to the military after a break, former professionals, and former draftees alike. Their view also reflects experience, but a different kind of experience, as they have primarily encountered the military hierarchy from the receiving end.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-09-03T07:36:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20951435
       
  • Military Service, Combat Experience, and Civic Participation
    • Authors: Sven E. Wilson, William Ruger
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Military service is a highly social—and potentially socializing—experience. However, the long-term social effect of military service is a little-studied topic, and some have dismissed any direct impact of service on civic participation. Using data from a large, national survey, our estimates show, in contrast, that the likelihood and intensity of group participation is higher among veterans than other men and that combat veterans have the highest level of participation. Mettler argued that education funded through the GI Bill gave veterans both resources (“civic capacity”) and a desire to reciprocate to society (“civic predisposition”) for the generous benefits they received, but she did not allow for the possibility that service itself could also increase both civic capacity and predisposition. Furthermore, our estimates confirm that education is strongly associated with higher civic participation and that the association between military service and participation is largely independent of education.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-08-27T10:10:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20934885
       
  • Understanding and Explaining the Marginalization of Part-Time British Army
           Reservists
    • Authors: Vincent Connelly
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Recent changes in the British Army mean part-time reservists and full-time regulars need to become better integrated. However, there has been a long history of workplace tensions between the full-time and part-time elements in the British Army. This mirrors those found in many civilian workplaces. Focus group data with 105 full-time regular British Army soldiers confirmed that time and emotional commitment are strongly linked in a full-time professional workplace that has strong, definite, and enduring boundaries. This, alongside demands for conformity and stratification by rank explained the high risk of marginalization of part-time reservists. The legitimacy of part-time reservists, especially in the combat arms, was often challenged. Using this explanatory framework, some implications and practical ways that tensions may be reduced between full-time and part-time members of the British Army, and other armed forces facing similar tensions, were highlighted.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-08-26T11:48:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20948591
       
  • Book Review: The strategist: Brent Scowcroft and the call of national
           security
    • Authors: Doyle Hodges
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-08-26T11:48:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20950487
       
  • Exploring the Victimization of British Veterans: Comparing British Beliefs
           About Veterans With Beliefs About Soldiers
    • Authors: Rita Helena Phillips, Vincent Connelly, Mark Burgess
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Evidence suggests that most of the UK public appreciate currently serving UK Armed Forces personnel but are less positive in their beliefs about veterans. This research examined the social representations held by civilian participants of UK veterans and serving soldiers to understand why veterans may be seen more negatively. An open-ended word association task was completed by 234 UK participants where they were asked to provide three initial responses to the words “veteran” and “soldier” and to evaluate their responses in accordance to prototypicality. The 1,404 resultant associations were grouped into 14 thematic clusters. Using the hierarchical evocation method, the results suggest “heroizing associations” to be a defining core element for “soldier” and “veteran” but “victimizing associations” to be an element only for “veteran.” Principal component analyses suggest victimizing associations are related to war and deindividuated associations; “heroizing associations” are related to characterizations of the veteran’s personality. Implications and future directions are discussed.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-08-24T10:39:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20942244
       
  • Broadening the Perspective on Military Cohesion' A Reply
    • Authors: Anthony King
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      In 2018, Ilmari Käikhö published a special collection in Armed Forces & Society on the debate about small unit cohesion. Later, in reaction to a response by Guy Siebold, he published a further intervention with Peter Haldén. Focusing on my 2006 article in the journal and my subsequent debate, Käikhö has claimed that the cohesion debate is too narrow. It ignores organizational factors in the armed forces and wider political factors, including nationalism and state policy. Consequently, it is incapable of analyzing non-Western state or irregular forces and is only relevant for the 20th and 21st centuries. This response shows that while Käikhö’s extension of the empirical archive to non-Western armed groups is to be welcomed, none of his theoretical claims are sustainable.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-08-18T08:44:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20947150
       
  • Military and Civilian Field–Related Factors in Estonian Reservists’
           Military Service Readiness
    • Authors: Taavi Laanepere, Kairi Kasearu
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The military service readiness of reserve soldiers is an essential question for countries that rely mostly on reserve units for their defense or other operational needs. This study examines how forms of capital related to the military and civilian fields are associated with the military service readiness of reservists. Survey data were obtained from 396 Estonian reservists during the 2018 Hedgehog exercise. Reservists’ military service readiness (RMSR) was studied first with respect to military field–related factors, and in the next phase civilian field linked factors are included. In a military field, cultural, social, and symbolic capital have a positive influence on RMSR. However, if civilian field–related social and economic capital is included, some military capitals would lose their effect. Study outcomes are discussed considering Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of the forms of capital.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-08-05T09:15:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20944093
       
  • Contractors in Iraq: Exploited Class or Exclusive Club'
    • Authors: Ori Swed, Daniel Burland
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Corporate privatization of security has generated a neoliberal iteration of an old profession: the private military contractor. This development has revolutionized security policies across the globe while reviving old patterns of inequality. Following neoliberal logic, outsourcing fosters two types of employment: the exploitative and the exclusive. The first refers to low-status individuals hired en masse to perform menial labor; the second refers to experts who perform functions central to the employer’s mission. We contribute to this discussion by focusing on the qualifications of a different subsample of this industry: American contractors who died while performing military and security functions in Iraq. We assert that such American employees directly engaged in mission-essential combat and security functions better fit the employment category of an exclusive, expert sector at the core of the private military industry.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-06-04T09:41:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20927471
       
  • Tunnel Operations in the Israel Defense Forces: Adapting the Warrior Ethos
           to Post-Heroic Conflict
    • Authors: Nehemia Stern, Uzi Ben-Shalom, Niv Gold, Corinne Berger, Avishai Antonovsky, Dvir Peleg
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study presents an empirically grounded account of tunnel combat operations in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) within the context of “post-heroic” warfare. Current scholarship on “post-heroism” has viewed the technological and professional standards of contemporary military conflicts as distancing the individual combatant from the modern battlefield. Little attention has been given however to the ways in which soldiers themselves experience and adapt to post-heroic conditions. Findings based on in-depth semistructured interviews with 17 IDF tunnel combatants show these soldiers actively reinterpreting the strategic importance placed on distancing the warrior from the battlefield. This exploratory article suggests that an individual “warrior ethos” still resonates amid the professional and technological contours of post-heroic (underground) conflicts. By presenting a novel account of contemporary tunnel warfare from the perspective of the combatants themselves, this research sheds new light on the different personal dimensions that impact post-heroic military operations.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-06-02T09:35:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20924040
       
  • Military Covenants and Contracts in Motion: Reservists as Transmigrants 10
           Years Later
    • Authors: Nir Gazit, Edna Lomsky-Feder, Eyal Ben Ari
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article reexamines and develops the analytical metaphor of “Reserve Soldiers as Transmigrants” in three directions. First, we advance the notion of transmigration by linking it to the explicit and implicit “contracts” or agreements struck between the military and individuals and groups within and outside of it. Second, we show that the “management” model of reserve forces is not just an administrative matter but that “negotiating” with reservists involves wider issues that include managing identity, commitment, and the meaning attached to military service. Third, we examine the institutional and political meaning of the reserves at the macro sociological level. The juxtaposition and interplay of two models—transmigration and multiple contracts—allows us to introduce structural elements into the movement of soldiers between the military and civilian society, and add a dynamic dimension to the contents of the implicit contracts that organize reservists’ relations with the state and military.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-05-22T09:47:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20924034
       
  • Impact of Perceived Social Support on Mental Health, Quality of Life, and
           Disability in Post–9/11 U.S. Military Veterans
    • Authors: Eric Proescher, Darrin M. Aase, Holly M. Passi, Justin E. Greenstein, Christopher Schroth, K. Luan Phan
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined the impact of perceived social support on mental health and psychosocial functioning in combat veterans after military deployment, including veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and veterans with comorbid PTSD and alcohol use disorder. Veterans (n = 139; female = 23) completed self-report and clinician-administered measures of social support, mental and physical health, functional impairment, and quality of life. The cohort was divided into high, medium, and low perceived social support based on averages of the total score from the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Relative to the low perceived social support group, the high perceived social support group reported fewer symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression. The high perceived social support group also reported a more diverse and embedded social network, less disability, and better quality of life. Of note, the high and low perceived social support groups did not differ on age, gender, education, race ethnicity, or combat trauma exposure. These findings highlight that perceived social support may play an important role in the treatment of postwar veterans as they transition back to civilian life.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-05-15T09:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20919922
       
  • Reserve Military Service: A Social Constructionist Perspective
    • Authors: James Griffith, Eyal Ben-Ari
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines reserve military service from a perspective of social construction—the ways in which the reservist’s conscious experiences are constructed to give meaning to military service. Content descriptions of conscious experiences of reserve military service are identified in past studies. Constructions fell into four broad categories: (1) complementary to life—reserve military service providing wanted satisfaction not otherwise achieved, material gain, or ideological commitment; (2) equitable arrangement—understood compensation for self-sacrifice; (3) discordant identity—requirements of military life blatantly or surreptitiously conflicting with established identity and civilian life; and (4) self-definition—reserve military service understood as an aspect of self-identity. Directions for integrating these constructions as a basis for future research are identified and discussed.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-05-12T09:26:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20917165
       
  • The Israel Reserve Law: The Duality of Reservists and Transformed Military
           Autonomy
    • Authors: Yonat Rein-Sapir, Eyal Ben-Ari
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Enacted in 2008, 60 years after Israel Defense Forces was established, the Israeli Reserves Law is a striking expression of the decline of military autonomy in a democratic country. While not aimed at reducing the military’s discretion in regard to the training, deployment, and compensation for reservists, the formal enactment of the Law in effect did so. The legislative process was preceded by a crisis between reservists and the military and was led by several reservists’ organizations who tried to improve the standing and resources allocated to the reserve forces. The article analyzes the impact of these organizations and the coalitions they created with politicians serving in the national parliament, the Knesset. By choosing the legislative option to improve the conditions of service for reservists, they de facto reduced military autonomy since the new Law mandated supervision and monitoring (by civilian institutions) of the service of reservists and extended into the core area of military action, the operational use of force. Thus, the actions of reservists’ organizations turned a bilateral tie between the military and its (reserve) soldiers into a trilateral one, comprising the military, reserve soldiers, and state institutions.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-04-23T10:45:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20918391
       
  • When OK is Not OK: Public Concern About White Nationalism in the U.S.
           Military
    • Authors: Robert Ralston, Matthew Motta, Jennifer Spindel
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Are Americans aware and concerned about White nationalism in the U.S. Military' Our large and demographically representative survey suggests that while most Americans suspect at least some presence of White nationalism in the military, many do not view it as a serious problem; particularly self-identified conservatives and respondents who hold highly favorable views toward military service members. However, in a between-/within-subjects experiment embedded in our survey, we show that providing information about the issue of White nationalism in the U.S. Military increases the public’s overall concern about White nationalism in the U.S. Military.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-04-21T09:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20918394
       
  • What Is the Social Responsibility of Social Scientists to Influence
           National Security Affairs'
    • Authors: Yagil Levy
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Mainstream scholars of IR favor policy-relevant research, that is the agenda to influence government policymakers by offering policy recommendations. In this article, I offer a different perspective by presenting alternative arguments about social scientists’ responsibility to influence. By drawing on themes of public sociology and critical sociology, security studies and public policy, I argue that the core of this responsibility is to seek to influence policy via engagement with the public rather than with policymakers.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-04-21T09:25:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20917183
       
  • Patriotism or Paychecks: Who Believes What About Why Soldiers Serve
    • Authors: Ronald R. Krebs, Robert Ralston
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Although voluntary recruitment to the military is today the Western norm, we know little about citizens’ beliefs regarding service members’ reasons for joining. This article, reporting and analyzing the results of a nationally representative U.S. survey, rectifies this gap. We find that, despite the reality of market-based recruitment, many Americans continue to subscribe to an idealized image of service members as moved by self-sacrificing patriotism. This belief is most heavily concentrated among conservative Americans. Liberal Americans are more likely to believe that service members join primarily for economic reasons. Those furthest to the left are more inclined to aver that service members join chiefly to escape desperate circumstances. Perhaps most surprising, we discover a disconnect between respondents with military experience and their families: The former are more likely to acknowledge that pay and benefits are a primary motivation for service, whereas their families are more likely to embrace a patriotic service narrative.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-04-16T05:29:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20917166
       
  • Peace Processes and the Integration of Pro-Government Militias: The Case
           of Village Guards in Turkey
    • Authors: Evren Balta, Murat Yüksel, Yasemin Gülsüm Acar
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Militia groups have only recently started to attract scholarly attention in the literature on internal conflicts. This attention is mostly focused on either the causes of their emergence or their functions and performance during the conflict. The role of militia groups in post-conflict processes, however, has not been adequately addressed. This article intends to fill this gap by analyzing the case of village guards, a type of pro-government militia system in Turkey, based on qualitative evidence from field research. While the dominant narrative in the literature identifies militia groups as spoilers in peace processes, the article shows that militias do not act as spoilers under certain conditions. In the case of the village guard system in Turkey, the permanent integration of militias into the state’s regular military apparatus prevented militia groups from acting as spoilers. It then argues that the permanent integration of wartime militia systems is a consequence of two factors: militia networking and a lack of comprehensive peace-building structures.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-03-18T10:11:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20910769
       
  • Politicalization or Professionalism' A Case Study of the
           Military’s Discourse in China
    • Authors: Zhifan Luo
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      After decades of military reform, how does the Chinese military justify its persistent role in politics and social life' This mixed-methods study examines the discursive strategies used by military deputies to understand how a semi-professional military speak to its relations to the Party, its own organizational missions and goals, and potential conflicts between them. Computer-assisted text analysis is combined with targeted deep reading to identify and examine latent topics in comments made by military deputies between 2001 and 2017. The findings show that the military deputies simultaneously mobilize a political discourse and a discourse of professionalism. This duality of discourse constitutes a source of legitimacy for the military’s pursuit of corporate interests.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-03-05T10:48:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20906848
       
  • Presidents and Generals: Systems of Government and the Selection of
           Defense Ministers
    • Authors: Octavio Amorim Neto, Pedro Accorsi
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Defense ministers are among the most central players in democracies’ civil–military relations. This article aims to identify the determinants of the selection criteria of defense ministers in democracies and semi-democracies. More specifically, it attempts to measure the effects of systems of government on decisions to appoint civilians or military officers to head the defense ministry. We argue that some characteristics of presidentialized regimes lead to the appointment of military defense ministers. This is a novel contribution, one that connects the literature on civil–military relations and that on systems of government. To assess our hypothesis and its mechanisms, we use comprehensive cross-national data in 1975–2015. Our tests indicate a robust association between presidentialized systems of government and the appointment of military ministers. We also show that military defense ministers are associated with some relevant outcomes. These findings have important implications for the study of civil–military relations, defense policy, and democracy.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-02-27T06:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X19900368
       
  • Experiences of Officer Cadets in Canadian Military Colleges and Civilian
           Universities: A Gender Perspective
    • Authors: Grazia Scoppio, Nancy Otis, Yan (Lizzie) Yan, Sawyer Hogenkamp
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined gender differences in the experiences of 923 officer cadets attending Canadian Military Colleges and 135 officer cadets attending civilian universities who completed a survey. Overall, the findings revealed that the experience of officer cadets in civilian universities was more positive, gender neutral, and their institutions’ values and culture were a better fit for them compared to their peers in Canadian Military Colleges. For officer cadets in Canadian Military Colleges, the results revealed that women were less likely to perceive gender equality in the way they were treated, the fairness of complaint mechanisms, and being treated with respect compared to men. Men in Canadian Military Collegess were less likely to perceive gender equality in performance standards than women. There were no gender differences in experiences for officer cadets in civilian universities.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-02-18T09:30:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20905121
       
  • Social Mobility and Promotion of Officers to Senior Ranks in the Royal
           Navy: Meritocracy or Class Ceiling'
    • Authors: Stephen M. Clark, Dieu Hack-Polay, P. Matthijs Bal
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines the extent to which socioeconomic background affects the chances of promotion to senior ranks within the Royal Navy and how the upwardly mobile often face a “class ceiling.” The researchers collected quantitative data within the Royal Navy. The research found a disproportionate overrepresentation of officers from socioeconomically advantaged backgrounds, creating a homogenous upper echelon and self-selecting elite hierarchy. The authors argue for the systematic collection of socioeconomic background data and longitudinal analysis to focus efforts toward engendering the conditions for social mobility and the ability to quantitatively assess the impact of policy changes on future social mobility outcomes. The research contributes to understand contemporary social mobility issues and is the first quantitative analysis of Royal Navy officers’ socioeconomic backgrounds. The research provides perspectives on which other Armed Forces (including the United States) that face diversity issues could reflect. The article repositions military issues in mainstream academic discourse.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-02-18T09:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20905118
       
  • Does Foreign Development Aid Trigger Ethnic War in Developing States'
    • Authors: Demet Yalcin Mousseau
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Can foreign aid trigger ethnic war' The quantitative conflict literature has produced mixed findings on the effect of foreign aid on civil war in developing states. One reason for the mixed results is that a subset of civil wars, ethnic wars, are more likely than other kinds of civil wars to be triggered by foreign aid. This is because large amounts of foreign aid can cause the state to become a prize worth fighting over, mobilizing ethnic identity and group-related rebellion. This article investigates this question by testing the separate impacts of total, bilateral, and multilateral aid given by state and nonstate actors on the onset of ethnic war, using a cross-national time-series dataset of 147 countries from 1961 to 2008. The findings show a very strong association of foreign aid with ethnic war, whether measured as total aid, bilateral aid, or multilateral aid.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-02-18T09:25:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20902180
       
  • Beyond the Conventional Civil–Military “Gap”: Cleavages
           and Convergences in Israel
    • Authors: Amichai Cohen, Stuart Alan Cohen
      Abstract: Armed Forces & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article modifies the framework for the analysis of civil–military “gaps” proposed in Armed Forces & Society (Vol. 38, 2012) by Rahbek-Clemmensen, Archer, Barr, Belkin, Guerro, Hall, and Swain, who depicted a continuum of four binary fissures (“gap dimensions”) dividing two hypothetically homogeneous communities: civilians versus military personnel. Extrapolating from Israel’s experience, this article instead visualizes a more dynamic and fissured landscape, inhabited by several heterogeneous clusters of population groups, each comprising impromptu coalitions drawn from both the armed forces and civilian society. That environment, we argue, although certainly influenced by the traditional penetrability of Israel’s civil–military boundaries, more directly reflects current technological and cultural processes, which are transforming encounters between civilians and military personnel in other countries too. We therefore suggest replacing the predominantly dichotomous taxonomies that generally characterize studies of civil–military relations in contemporary democratic societies with the fractured format observed in the Israeli case.
      Citation: Armed Forces & Society
      PubDate: 2020-02-12T03:08:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0095327X20903072
       
 
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