Subjects -> LABOR UNIONS (Total: 27 journals)
Showing 1 - 4 of 4 Journals sorted alphabetically
ADR Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Arbeidsrett     Full-text available via subscription  
Arbeit. Zeitschrift für Arbeitsforschung, Arbeitsgestaltung und Arbeitspolitik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arbetsliv i omvandling     Open Access  
Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv     Open Access  
British Journal of Industrial Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Citizenship Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cuadernos de Relaciones Laborales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Labour Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Gaceta Laboral     Open Access  
Global Labour Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Human Resource Development Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Illawarra Unity - Journal of the Illawarra Branch of the Australian Society for the Study of Labour History     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ILR Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Industrial Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Labor and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Labor & Employment Law Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Labour History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
New Labor Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Relations industrielles / Industrial Relations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Social Movement Studies: Journal of Social, Cultural and Political Protest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
South African Journal of Labour Relations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Transfer - European Review of Labour and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Work and Occupations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Similar Journals
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ILR Review
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.455
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 50  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0019-7939 - ISSN (Online) 2162-271X
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1141 journals]
  • New Directions in Employment Relations Theory: Understanding
           Fragmentation, Identity, and Legitimacy
    • Authors: Virginia Doellgast, Matthew Bidwell, Alexander J. S. Colvin
      Pages: 555 - 579
      Abstract: ILR Review, Volume 74, Issue 3, Page 555-579, May 2021.
      This article introduces the special issue on New Theories in Employment Relations. The authors summarize the history of employment relations theory and reflect on the implications of recent disruptive changes in the economy and society for new theory development. Three sets of changes are identified: the growing complexity of actors in the employment relationship, an increased emphasis on identity as a basis for organizing and extending labor protections, and the growing importance of norms and legitimacy as both a constraint on employer action and a mobilizing tool. The articles in this special issue advance new frameworks to analyze these changes and their implications for the future of employment relations.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2021-04-07T09:30:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793921993445
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Commentary on New Theories in Employment Relations
    • Authors: Janice Bellace, Andrew Minster, Karen Scott, Erin L. Kelly, Thomas A. Kochan, Mari Sako, Bruce E. Kaufman
      Pages: 798 - 826
      Abstract: ILR Review, Volume 74, Issue 3, Page 798-826, May 2021.
      ILR Review invited leading scholars to present short comments on paired articles in the preceding Special Issue on New Theories in Employment Relations. They identify key contributions, suggest extensions, and offer broader thoughts on the direction of future theory in employment relations.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2021-04-07T09:28:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793921994081
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Book Review: No Longer Newsworthy: How the Mainstream Media Abandoned the
           Working Class, by Christopher R. Martin
    • Authors: Michael Hillard, Brooke Erin Duffy, Phela Townsend, Steven Greenhouse, Christopher R. Martin
      Pages: 827 - 839
      Abstract: ILR Review, Volume 74, Issue 3, Page 827-839, May 2021.

      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2021-03-15T04:35:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793921997075
      Issue No: Vol. 74, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • How Managerial Openness to Voice Shapes Internal Attraction: Evidence from
           UNITED STATES School Systems
    • Authors: John E. McCarthy, JR Keller
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the authors explore a heretofore unappreciated benefit of managerial openness to employee voice: internal attraction. Previous work has shown that managers who are more open to listening to employees receive valuable information and their units have higher relative retention levels. The authors explain and empirically demonstrate that managers who are more open to employee voice also more effectively attract workers from other units in their organizations. They describe how and why managerial openness to voice likely shapes the information that employees in a focal organizational unit (“employee insiders”) share with employees in other units (“employee outsiders”). They find that units with managers who are perceived as more open to voice are viewed as more attractive places to work. Conducting two field studies in separate US school districts, the authors find that managerial openness to voice positively predicts a work unit’s attractiveness among employees who work in other areas of the organization. They discuss the implications of their findings for organizations in general and school districts specifically.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2021-04-26T05:28:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00197939211008877
       
  • Exuberant Proclivity toward Non-Standard Employment: Evidence from Linked
           Employer–Employee Data
    • Authors: Alessandro Arrighetti, Eleonora Bartoloni, Fabio Landini, Chiara Pollio
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      In most industrialized countries, temporary and non-standard forms of employment have become a pervasive feature of the labor market. At the firm level, however, their diffusion is less uniform than expected. While some firms exhibit high propensity to use non-standard labor, others make no use of it. The most conventional explanations (market uncertainty, production regimes, competitive pressure) fail to account for such heterogeneity. In this article, the authors develop an alternative explanation that links non-standard employment to the firm-specific availability of managerial resources: Whenever the latter are relatively scarce, firms make larger use of non-standard labor to reduce coordination and operating costs. Using a linked employer–employee panel of manufacturing firms from the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy), the authors provide empirical support for this explanation. The result is robust to different estimation strategies and controlling for alternative drivers of non-standard employment. This finding suggests that the use of non-standard labor is motivated by the firm’s needs to compensate for specific managerial scarcities.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2021-04-26T05:28:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00197939211009515
       
  • Trade Unions and the Welfare of Rural-Urban Migrant Workers in China
    • Authors: Alison Booth, Richard Freeman, Xin Meng, Jilu Zhang
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      Using a panel survey, the authors investigate how the welfare of rural-urban migrant workers in China is affected by trade union presence at the workplace. Controlling for individual fixed effects, they find the following. Relative to workers from workplaces without union presence or with inactive unions, both union-covered non-members and union members in workplaces with active unions earn higher monthly income, are more likely to have a written contract, be covered by social insurances, receive fringe benefits, express work-related grievances through official channels, feel more satisfied with their lives, and are less likely to have mental health problems.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2021-04-21T09:14:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00197939211004440
       
  • Book Review: Compressed Development: Time and Timing in Economic and
           Social Development, by D. Hugh Whittaker, Timothy J. Sturgeon, Toshie
           Okita, and Tianbiao Zhu
    • Authors: Sarosh Kuruvilla
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2021-04-21T09:14:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00197939211010111
       
  • How Do I Compare' The Effect of Work-Unit Demographics on Reactions to
           Pay Inequality
    • Authors: J. Adam Cobb, JR Keller, Samir Nurmohamed
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      Prior research suggests that individuals react negatively when they perceive they are underpaid. Moreover, individuals frequently select pay referents who share their race and gender, suggesting that demographic similarity affects one’s knowledge of pay differences. Leveraging these insights, the authors examine whether the gender and racial composition of a work unit shapes individuals’ reactions to pay deprivation. Using field data from a large health care organization, they find that pay deprivation resulting from workers receiving less pay than their same-sex and same-race coworkers prompts a significantly stronger response than does pay deprivation arising from workers receiving less pay than their demographically dissimilar colleagues. A supplemental experiment reveals that this relationship likely results from individuals’ propensity to select same-category others as pay referents, shaping workers’ information about their colleagues’ pay. The study’s findings underscore the need to theoretically and empirically account for how demographically driven social comparison processes affect reactions to pay inequality.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2021-04-12T12:27:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00197939211001874
       
  • Book Review: Predatory Value Extraction: How the Looting of the Business
           Corporation Became the U.S. Norm and How Sustainable Prosperity Can Be
           Restored, by William Lazonick and Jang-Sup Shin
    • Authors: Zack Knauss
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2021-03-24T05:13:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793921995792
       
  • Book Review: From the Ground Up: How Frontline Staff Can Save America’s
           Healthcare, by Peter Lazes and Marie Rudden
    • Authors: Justin Vinton
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2021-03-15T04:35:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793921995795
       
  • The Effects of Professor Gender on the Postgraduation Outcomes of Female
           Students
    • Authors: Hani Mansour, Daniel I. Rees, Bryson M. Rintala, Nathan N. Wozny
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      Although women earn approximately 50% of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) bachelor’s degrees, more than 70% of scientists and engineers are men. The authors explore a potential determinant of this STEM gender gap using newly collected data on the career trajectories of United States Air Force Academy students. Specifically, they examine the effects of being assigned female math and science professors on occupation choice and postgraduate education. The results indicate that, among high-ability female students, being assigned a female professor leads to substantial increases in the probability of working in a STEM occupation and the probability of receiving a STEM master’s degree.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T04:54:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793921994832
       
  • Book Review: Despotism on Demand: How Power Operates in the Flexible
           Workplace, by Alex J. Wood
    • Authors: Huw Beynon
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T04:54:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793921995486
       
  • Turning Rules into Resources: Worker Enactment of Labor Standards and Why
           It Matters for Regulatory Federalism
    • Authors: Natasha Iskander, Nichola Lowe
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      Labor standards are not just enforced; they are enacted, and often in ways that are different from their stated intention. This distinction creates an opening to consider the ways that frontline workers extend and repurpose enforcement practices. Drawing on qualitative research in two US cities, the authors focus on Latino immigrant construction workers to identify the strategies they use to rework formal safety mandates to advance technical knowledge, create skill-based alliances across organizational hierarchies, and protect career trajectories. These resourcing strategies were present in both locations, but workers’ ability to affect the quality of their jobs through the collective enactment of labor standards varied significantly by city and depended on the enforcement practices in play. Workers’ attention to these localized resourcing opportunities suggests possibilities for progressive innovation at the multiple levels of government driving emerging research on regulation and federalism.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T04:54:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793921994822
       
  • Book Review: A Precarious Game: The Illusion of Dream Jobs in the Video
           Game Industry, by Ergin Bulut
    • Authors: Dongwoo Park
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T04:54:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793921995796
       
  • The Effect of the Affordable Care Act Dependent Coverage Mandate on Health
           Insurance and Labor Supply: Evidence from Alternative Research Designs
    • Authors: Daeho Kim
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines the effect of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) dependent coverage mandate on health insurance and labor supply. The author applies three research designs—difference-in-differences, regression discontinuity, and regression kink designs—and conducts extensive robustness checks and falsification tests, along with a formal test for the location of discontinuity and kink. The author finds no discernible evidence of the labor supply impact of the ACA dependent coverage mandate during the first three years after its implementation (2011–2013), despite its substantial impact on health insurance coverage for the eligible young adults. The author attributes this finding to the fact that until 2014, grandfathered plans were not required to provide dependent coverage to those young adult workers who obtained insurance through their own employer.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2021-02-01T12:07:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920984413
       
  • Who Has Trouble Hiring' Evidence from a National IT Survey
    • Authors: Andrew Weaver
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      Understanding hiring difficulties and the nature of hiring frictions that employers face is important for the promotion of economic growth and the individual success of both firms and workers. This study sheds light on this issue by presenting evidence from an original, nationally representative survey of information technology (IT) helpdesks that contains detailed measurements of skill requirements, organizational characteristics, and market structure. The results indicate that the incidence of persistent hiring difficulties is modest, and that measures of technology and technical skill demands are not associated with greater hiring problems. Organizational attributes and market structure are generally more predictive of hiring frictions than are skill requirements. Human resource practices, management strategy, and labor-market monopsony power all play key roles. These results cast doubt on simple stories about technology-driven hiring problems and point to the importance of examining a broader range of organizational and market factors when addressing workforce challenges.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2021-01-28T05:26:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920985261
       
  • Working Still Harder
    • Authors: Francis Green, Alan Felstead, Duncan Gallie, Golo Henseke
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      The authors use data from the British Skills and Employment Surveys to document and to try to account for sustained work intensification between 2001 and 2017. They estimate the determinants of work intensity, first using four waves of the pooled cross-section data, then using a constructed pseudo-panel of occupation–industry cells. The latter approach suggests biases in cross-section models of work intensity, associated with unobserved fixed effects in specific occupations and industries. The pseudo-panel analysis can account for slightly more than half (51%) of work intensification using variables that measure effort-biased technological change, effort-biased organizational change, the growing requirement for learning new things, and the rise of self-employment. The authors interpret the work intensification and these effects within a power-resources framework.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2021-01-28T05:25:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920977850
       
  • Is It Merely a Labor Supply Shock' Impacts of Syrian Migrants on Local
           Economies in Turkey
    • Authors: Doruk Cengiz, Hasan Tekgüç
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      The authors use the occurrence of a large and geographically varying inflow of more than 2.5 million Syrian migrants to Turkey between 2012 and 2015 to study the effect of migration on local economies. They do not find adverse employment or wage effects for native-born Turkish workers overall or for those without a high school degree. These results are robust to a range of strategies to construct reliable control groups. To explain the findings, the authors document the importance of three migration-induced demand channels: the complementarity between native and migrant labor, housing demand, and increased entrepreneurial activities.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2021-01-06T03:00:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920978365
       
  • Relational Exchange in Non-union Firms: A Configurational Framework for
           Workplace Dispute Resolution and Voice
    • Authors: Ariel C. Avgar
      First page: 607
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      For much of the 20th century, a sizeable proportion of the workforce in the United States had access to a combination of dispute resolution and voice options through the union grievance process. The vast majority of today’s workforce, however, no longer does. The focus of this article is the proliferation of alternative relational exchange models developed in non-union firms. The author develops a theoretical framework proposing variation in the overarching non-union models employed by firms as a function of distinct organizational features and strategies. These models are the product of distinct configurations of voice and dispute-resolution strategies. The author proposes five alternative non-union models, discusses the internal and external characteristics associated with them, and evaluates distinct employer and worker outcomes.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2021-02-25T12:20:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793921989615
       
  • Confronting Race and Other Social Identity Erasures: The Case for Critical
           Industrial Relations Theory
    • Authors: Tamara L. Lee, Maite Tapia
      First page: 637
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      Despite the salience of racism and other “isms” woven into the fabric of US society, there is a dearth of industrial relations (IR) scholarship that engages critical race and intersectional theory (CRT/I) to deeply understand how structural racism and other social identity-based systems of oppression govern labor and employment systems. The authors call for the incorporation of CRT/I into IR to address the erasure of vital counter-narratives and to expand our empirical cases for labor and employment research. Focusing on leading scholarship on worker organizing, the authors confront white dominance in our research questions, methodologies, and analyses to illustrate how traditional “color-blind” and meritocracy-based IR theories lead to the exclusion of relevant knowledge. In an era of heightened public discourse and worker uprisings in response to deep-rooted systemic inequities, critical industrial relations research is vital to the field’s relevance and its expertise in explaining the nature and consequences of contemporary labor contestations and their impact on the future of the labor movement.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2021-02-18T11:01:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793921992080
       
  • Identification and Worker Responses to Workplace Change: Evidence from
           Four Cases in India
    • Authors: Aruna Ranganathan
      First page: 663
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      This article uses ethnographic and interview data about four cases in two work settings in India to examine identification as a factor in workers’ reactions to workplace change. Novel technology and management practices are frequently introduced into work settings as the world of work changes. Workers tend to cooperate more with some workplace changes than with others. The previous employment relations literature has invoked interests, cultural values, and worker power to explain workers’ responses to change. This article introduces an additional factor: whether a change fosters or impairs workers’ identification with their work. The author examines identification at three levels—occupational, organizational, and that of the work itself—and finds that workers are more likely to cooperate with workplace change that protects and fortifies their pre-existing sources of identification.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2021-02-14T08:27:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793921989683
       
  • The Social Organization of Ideas in Employment Relations
    • Authors: Glenn Morgan, Marco Hauptmeier
      First page: 773
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      This article compares how the United States and Germany deregulated labor markets between the 1980s and 2010s in response to the rise of neoliberalism. Building on literature with a focus on ideas and national knowledge regimes, the authors argue that the trajectories of labor market deregulation across the two countries are explained by the distinct social organization of ideas. The latter refers to the actors and institutions involved in the production and dissemination of ideas (including think tanks and public research institutes), their access and ways of communicating to political elites and electorates, levels of shared academic standards across the political divide, and related degrees of competition or cooperation in the production of new knowledge and policy ideas. Moving beyond previous employment relations literature with a focus on institutions and power, the article breaks new theoretical ground by demonstrating how the social organization of ideas is a key intermediary in explaining employment relations change and continuity.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2021-01-28T05:26:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920987518
       
  • Altruism and Burnout: Long Hours in the Teaching Profession
    • Authors: Dora Gicheva
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores why many public school teachers work substantially more hours than required by contract, given that the elasticity of their earnings with respect to their hours is close to zero. The author introduces a theoretical framework for public-sector employees in which high levels of effort can indicate either altruism (for intrinsically motivated employees) or low productivity (for low-ability employees). Because intrinsically motivated employees derive higher utility from working in the public sector, they are less likely to exit it. Over time, selection makes high levels of effort more strongly predictive of altruism than of low ability. Findings show that teachers with very low levels of experience exhibit little or no relationship between weekly hours and the probability of remaining in teaching. This correlation becomes more positive as teaching experience increases. Similarly, the level of work hours is positively related to self-reported burnout at low levels of experience, but the relationship is reversed for teachers who have been in the profession longer.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-12-28T06:26:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920981055
       
  • How and Why Does Franchise Ownership Affect Human Resource Practices'
           Evidence from the US Hotel Industry
    • Authors: Tashlin Lakhani
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigates the relationship between ownership form and human resource (HR) practices in a franchise system. Using data from a unique establishment-level survey of a US-based limited service hotel chain, the author examines how HR practices vary between franchisee- and company-owned hotels, and among franchisees with diverse ownership structures. Consistent with agency theory predictions of franchisee profit motives and free-riding behavior, franchisee-owned hotels are associated with lower investments in HR practices compared to company-owned hotels. The results of this study suggest that ownership structures influence HR investments.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-12-23T12:31:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920972661
       
  • The Perils of Laundering Control through Customers: A Study of Control and
           Resistance in the Ride-hail Industry
    • Authors: Michael David Maffie
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      Customer abuse of frontline service workers is widespread. Yet despite growing recognition of this problem, we know very little about the role that service companies play in potentially enabling customers’ abusive behaviors. This phenomenon deserves attention because one of the recent trends in service management is giving customers a direct role in managing and evaluating workers’ performance. In this article, the author explores how granting customers direct access to organizational power over workers, what the author develops conceptually as “laundering control through customers,” explains how customer abuse emerges. Drawing on a sample of 486 Uber and Lyft drivers, the author examines how the companies’ use of the “five-star” evaluation system enables customers to engage in a range of different forms of abuse and how workers resist this configuration of control. This study contributes to the customer triangle literature by bringing in evidence from the gig economy and uncovers new implications for the “dark side” of customer service work.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-12-07T08:33:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920972679
       
  • Misclassification in Construction: The Original Gig Economy
    • Authors: Mark Erlich
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      The misclassification of employees as independent contractors has been the focus of recent attention as a result of the implementation of that employment model by ride-share and other gig employers. But the practice long predates the emergence of the gig economy, particularly in the construction industry. This article traces the history of misclassification in construction and the subsequent emergence of a cash-based underground system of compensation, which have lowered standards and been among the major causes of the decline of union density in the industry. In addition, the author examines the regulatory environment at the federal level, which has largely enabled misclassification as well as attempts by state agencies to adopt more aggressive enforcement policies.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-11-26T12:18:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920972321
       
  • The Future of Labor Localism in an Age of Preemption
    • Authors: Olatunde C. A. Johnson
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, labor and civil rights groups have successfully pushed for local regulation raising the minimum wage, creating new parenting and sick leave policies, and broadening anti-discrimination protections to address sexual orientation and gender identity discrimination. This article examines the viability of this worker-protective regulation at the local level in the face of current legal and political challenges. In particular, it considers the rise of state preemption laws that overturn local ordinances, which is the product of anti-regulatory mobilization at the state legislative level. The article provides case studies of state preemption and offers potential legal arguments for challenging preemption and safeguarding labor and civil rights localism. The author concludes, however, that given the uncertainty of whether these legal arguments will prevail in court, civil rights and labor advocates will need to engage politics at the state level to preserve and expand local innovations.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-11-19T07:49:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920970932
       
  • Female Leadership and Gender Gap within Firms: Evidence from an Italian
           Board Reform
    • Authors: Agata Maida, Andrea Weber
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      The authors evaluate a 2011 Italian law that installed a step-wise increase in gender quota that remains effective for three consecutive board renewals of listed limited liability firms. They link firm-level information on board membership and board election dates with detailed employment and earnings records from the Social Security registers. Exploiting the staggered introduction of the gender quota regulation and variation in board renewal years across firms, the authors evaluate the effect of the board gender composition on measures of gender diversity in top positions over a period of four years. While the reform substantially raised the female membership on corporate boards, results show only moderate and imprecisely estimated spillover effects on the representation of women in top executive or top earnings positions.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-10-05T07:27:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920961995
       
  • What Do Workers and the Public Want' Unions’ Social Value
    • Authors: Jack Fiorito, Irene Padavic
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      Using data from a national sample of American workers, the authors develop measures for “prosocial unionism”—the belief that unions contribute to the common good—and use regression analysis to determine its impact on public support for unions and on workers’ likelihood of supporting a union in a representation election in their workplace. Results show that the public’s support for unions is stronger when the public believes that unions act in the interests of all working people instead of just their members. The analyses also show that workers who believe unions have social benefits are significantly more likely to say they would vote “yes” in a union election than those who do not hold this belief. These findings imply that if unions address political and social justice goals that transcend the workplace, their legitimacy and their success in attracting public support and members may be enhanced and help stem the tide of shrinking union density.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-09-25T10:54:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920954848
       
  • What Forms of Representation Do American Workers Want' Implications
           for Theory, Policy, and Practice
    • Authors: Alexander Hertel-Fernandez, William Kimball, Thomas Kochan
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      Recent evidence documents an increased interest among American workers in joining a union. At the same time, there is revived debate among labor scholars, union leaders, politicians, and activists over what forms of labor representation are best suited to meet the needs of the contemporary workforce. Yet little is known about what contemporary workers have to say about these debates. This article draws on a conjoint survey experiment fielded on a nationally representative sample of more than 4,000 employees to explore the forms of representation workers want and are willing to support by paying dues. The authors compare interest in the forms of labor representation that are currently being debated. Results show that while workers value traditional collective bargaining, they would be even more willing to join and financially support organizations currently unavailable under US law and practice. The authors use these results to draw implications for the labor movement, worker advocacy groups, and the future of labor law.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-09-24T09:24:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920959049
       
  • Labor Unions and Workplace Safety
    • Authors: Ling Li, Shawn Rohlin, Perry Singleton
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      The authors examine the effect of labor unions on workplace safety. For identification, they exploit the timing and outcome of union elections, using establishments in which elections narrowly fail as a comparison group for establishments in which elections narrowly pass. Data on elections come from the National Labor Relations Board, and data on workplace safety come from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The results indicate that unionization had no detectable effect on accident case rates at the mean, but shifted downward the case-rate distribution below 2 cases per 100 full-time equivalent workers annually. The downward shift is most evident among larger bargaining units and manufacturing establishments. Results at the higher end of case-rate distribution are inconclusive.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-09-24T05:08:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920958417
       
  • Effects of Union Certification on Workplace-Safety Enforcement:
           Regression-Discontinuity Evidence
    • Authors: Aaron Sojourner, Jooyoung Yang
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      The authors study how union certification affects the enforcement of workplace-safety laws. To generate credible causal estimates, a regression discontinuity design compares outcomes in establishments in which unions barely won representation elections to outcomes in establishments in which unions barely lost such elections. The study combines two main data sets: the census of National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) representation elections and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) enforcement database since 1985. Evidence shows positive effects of union certification on establishment’s rate of OSHA inspection, the share of inspections carried out in the presence of a union representative, violations cited, and penalties assessed.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-09-03T11:59:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920953089
       
  • Who Needs a Fracking Education' The Educational Response to
           Low-Skill-Biased Technological Change
    • Authors: Elizabeth U. Cascio, Ayushi Narayan
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      The authors explore the educational response to fracking—a recent technological breakthrough in the oil and gas industry—by taking advantage of the timing of its diffusion and spatial variation in shale reserves. They show that fracking has significantly increased relative demand for less-educated male labor and increased high school dropout rates of male teens, both overall and relative to females. Estimates imply that, absent fracking, the teen male dropout rate would have been 1 percentage point lower over the period 2011–15 in the average labor market with shale reserves, implying an elasticity of school enrollment with respect to earnings below historical estimates. Fracking increased earnings and job opportunities more among young men than male teenagers, suggesting that educational decisions respond to improved earnings prospects, not just opportunity costs. Other explanations for the findings, such as changes in school quality, migration, or demographics, receive less empirical support.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-08-27T08:39:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920947422
       
  • Labor’s Legacy: The Construction of Subnational Work Regulation
    • Authors: Daniel J. Galvin
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      In recent decades, much of the authority to regulate the workplace has shifted from national-level labor law to state-level employment law. What contributions, if any, did labor unions make to this historic shift in workplace governance' The author uses quantitative and qualitative analyses to test hypotheses and move incrementally closer toward drawing causal inferences. In the first part, he finds a strong statistical relationship between union density and state employment law enactments. Next, analyzing the cases the model identifies as “deviant” (Pennsylvania and Maine), he uses systematic process tracing to test the hypothesis that labor unions were integral players in legislative campaigns for stronger employment laws. Strong evidence supports the hypothesis that labor unions, even as they declined, contributed to the construction of this new system of subnational work regulation—arguably one of their most significant and durable legacies.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-08-06T04:16:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920943831
       
  • State Actor Orchestration for Achieving Workforce Development at Scale:
           Evidence from Four US States
    • Authors: Jenna E. Myers, Katherine C. Kellogg
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      Using a 20-month qualitative study of four US states that implemented career pathways spanning from high schools to colleges to employers, the authors illustrate the potential for state government actors to facilitate coordination of workforce development systems across geographies and industries. As a complement to explanations situated in workforce intermediary practices or formal state policies, the authors show that state actors can address barriers to coordination by using state actor orchestration—structuring provisional goal setting and revision, encouraging experimentation, and framing coordination to inspire collective action. This approach involves three types of practices: structural (building statewide governance structures and modifying governance processes), political (providing initial direction and piloting and broadening the set of stakeholders), and cultural (identifying key problems and collective action solutions and building social accountability for new roles). These practices vary according to states’ institutional environments: Where governance is more centralized, state actors gain latitude to guide regional workforce development.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-07-28T08:58:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920942767
       
  • Market Transition and Network-Based Job Matching in China: The Referrer
           Perspective
    • Authors: Elena Obukhova, Brian Rubineau
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      To better understand how network-based job matching responds to market development, the authors investigate network matching in China. They examine this question from the perspective of referrers, those who share information about job opportunities with potential job candidates. Using unique data from a population survey and leveraging interprovincial differences in market development, the authors show that market development has a negative association with individuals’ propensity to share job information. People who work at firms that offer a referral bonus and people who work at private firms, however, are more likely to share information and share it with more people, and the number of such employers increases with market transition. This increase can produce a positive association between market development and overall prevalence of job information-sharing. Results clarify the role employer-side processes play in job information-sharing and carry important implications for understanding network matching.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-07-28T08:58:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920937234
       
  • The Dependency Structure of Bad Jobs: How Market Constraint Undermines Job
           Quality
    • Authors: Richard A. Benton, Ki-Jung Kim
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      Power and dependence in economic exchange shape industry structure. When a focal industry faces powerful suppliers or buyers, this can reduce industry rents. The authors argue that these dynamics also affect job quality by reducing the economic surplus available to be shared with workers. Drawing on ideas from power-dependency theory, this article explains industry earnings and job quality differences by examining inter-industry exchange patterns. The authors build on Ronald Burt’s seminal analysis of structural constraint in economic exchange using industry input-output tables. They calculate market constraint measures for recent years in the United States and link these with CPS data on wages and benefits. Analyses reveal that workers in more buyer-constrained industries (dependence on powerful buyers) experience lower wages and benefits. Findings also show that market constraint reduces the economic surplus available for union bargaining. Theory and results suggest that market concentration reduces suppliers’ economic rents, harming job quality.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-07-06T02:48:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920936250
       
  • Determinants of Gender Differences in Change in Pay among Job-Switching
           Executives
    • Authors: Boris Groysberg, Paul Healy, Eric Lin
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      The authors investigate what determines differences in change in pay between men and women executives who move to new employers. Using proprietary data of 2,034 executive placements from a global search firm, the authors observe narrower pay differences between men and women after job moves. The unconditional gap shrinks from 21.5% in the prior employer to 15% in the new employer. After controlling for typical explanatory factors, the residual gap falls by almost 30%, from 8.5% at the prior employer to 6.1% in the new placement. This change reflects a relative increase in performance-based compensation for women and a lower level of unexplained pay inequality generally in external placements. Controlling for individual fixed effects, observed women have higher pay raises than do men. Finally, the authors find suggestive evidence that pay differences may also be moderated by differences in the supply and demand for women executives.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-06-15T05:53:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920930712
       
  • Workplace Safety and Worker Productivity: Evidence from the MINER Act
    • Authors: Ling Li
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines the effect of safety enforcement on workplace injuries and worker productivity in coal mines. The author exploits the introduction of a “flagrant” violation standard—with penalties of up to 0.22 million dollars per violation—established by the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response (MINER) Act of 2006. Using an event-study model, the author finds that after the issuance of a flagrant violation, the workplace injuries decreased significantly by 20% and miner productivity decreased by 6%. The results suggest that the monetary value of the productivity loss is 1.3 times the costs saved from fewer injuries, which highlights the costs of workplace safety regulations.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-06-15T05:53:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920931495
       
  • More and Better Jobs, But Not for Everyone: Effects of Innovation in
           French Firms
    • Authors: Richard Duhautois, Christine Erhel, Mathilde Guergoat-Larivière, Malo Mofakhami
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      The authors analyze the effect of technological innovation on employment and job quality using a difference-in-differences matching model and a unique matched data set of French firms (the Community Innovation Survey with administrative and fiscal data). Overall, they find evidence that product innovation increases employment and certain dimensions of job quality, such as the number of permanent contracts and working hours. The authors consider this virtuous circle between innovation, employment, and job quality to be nuanced, however, for two reasons. First, not all social groups benefit from firm innovation, as lower-skilled workers are less positively affected in terms of employment and are sometimes negatively affected in terms of wages. Second, the positive effects of innovation appear mainly in manufacturing and not in services. Public policy should pay attention, then, to the consequences of innovation across individuals and sectors to ensure that innovation is beneficial to all.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-06-10T07:49:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920925806
       
  • Impacts of Public Health Insurance on Occupational Upgrading
    • Authors: Ammar Farooq, Adriana Kugler
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      Using data from the Current Population Survey’s Merged Outgoing Rotation Groups, the authors examine whether greater Medicaid generosity encourages people to switch toward better quality occupations. Exploiting variation in Medicaid eligibility expansions for children across states during the 1990s and early 2000s, they find that a one standard deviation increase in Medicaid infant income thresholds increased the likelihood that working parents move to a new occupation by 1.6 percentage points or 3.3%. Findings show that these effects are larger for those below 150% of the poverty line and for married parents who were not benefiting from Medicaid prior to the expansions. In addition, findings indicate that Medicaid generosity also increased mobility toward occupations with higher average wages and higher educational requirements. This article contributes to the literature on job lock by showing that access to public health insurance not only increases employment and job switches but also encourages occupational upgrading.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-06-05T10:10:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920928066
       
  • Wage Differentials, Bargaining Protocols, and Trade Unionism in
           Mid-Twentieth-Century American Labor Markets
    • Authors: John Pencavel
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      Income inequality in the United States has been lower in periods when trade unionism has been strong. Using observations on wages by occupation, by geography, and by gender in collective bargaining contracts from the 1940s to the 1970s, patterns in movements of wage differentials are revealed. As wages increased, some contracts maintained relative wage differentials constant, some maintained absolute differences in wages constant, others combined these two patterns, and some did not reveal an obvious pattern. The patterns persisted even as price inflation increased in the 1970s. The dominant pattern implies a reduction in inequality as usually measured.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-06-01T11:28:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920928962
       
  • A Tale of Two Forums: Employment Discrimination Outcomes in Arbitration
           and Litigation
    • Authors: Mark Gough
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      This article presents data from a novel survey of 1,256 employment plaintiff attorneys to test whether employee rights and remedies are affected by mandatory employment arbitration. By surveying attorneys directly about their most recent employment discrimination cases taken to verdict in arbitration and civil litigation, the author presents a systematic empirical comparison of outcomes between civil courts and arbitration with robust controls. The ability to control for the legal basis of the claim, defendant size, use of summary judgment, and attorney and plaintiff characteristics significantly improves on previous empirical research studies. Consistent with previous research, employee win rates in arbitration are lower than those found in state and federal court. In addition, monetary award amounts and percentage of claim amount awarded to employees who prevail in their cases are significantly lower in arbitration compared to outcomes in state and federal jury trials.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-04-24T10:29:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920915876
       
  • Revisiting Union Wage and Job Loss Effects Using the Displaced Worker
           Surveys
    • Authors: Abhir Kulkarni, Barry T. Hirsch
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      Estimates of union wage effects have been challenged by concerns regarding unobserved worker heterogeneity and endogenous job changes. Many economists believe that union wage premiums lead to business failures and other forms of worker displacement. In this article, the authors examine displacement rates and union wage gaps using the 1994–2018 biennial Displaced Worker Survey (DWS) supplements to the monthly Current Population Surveys. For more than two decades, displacement rates among union and non-union workers have been remarkably similar. The authors observe changes in earnings resulting from transitions between union and non-union jobs following exogenous job changes. Consistent with prior evidence from the 1994 and 1996 DWS, findings show longitudinal estimates of average union wage effects close to 15%, which are similar to standard cross-section estimates and suggestive of minimal ability bias. Wage losses moving from union to non-union jobs exceed gains from non-union to union transitions.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-04-15T02:56:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920912728
       
  • The Effect of Intensive Margin Changes to Task Content on Employment
           Dynamics over the Business Cycle
    • Authors: Matthew Ross
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      Previous empirical studies investigating the employment impact of technological change have relied on cross-sectional measures of occupational tasks. Here, the author links microdata on individual workers to panel data on occupational tasks while controlling for individual unobservables. In examining the association between routine and abstract tasks and employment transitions, he finds new and economically important evidence that changes to tasks within occupations are strongly related to variation in the transition rates to non-employment and to different occupations. Consistent with recent work focused on technological change during the Great Recession, within-occupation increases in routine tasks are found to increase outgoing transition rates but these effects are concentrated during periods of economic turmoil. The results also show that increases in abstract tasks are associated with decreases in the outgoing transition rates, but this relationship is relatively invariant to business cycle conditions.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-03-20T04:39:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920910747
       
  • From Insurgency to Movement: An Embryonic Labor Movement Undermining
           Hegemony in South China
    • Authors: Chunyun Li
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      This article provides a new analysis of Chinese labor politics. Most scholars suggest that China has no labor movement because Chinese labor protests are apolitical, cellular, and short-lived, and thus inconsistent with the properties of social movements identified in the political process model. By contrast, the author draws on Antonio Gramsci’s ideas regarding movements undermining hegemony and on ethnographic and archival research to demonstrate that the activities of movement-oriented labor nongovernmental organizations (MLNGOs) coupled with associated labor protests since 2011 constitute the embryo of a counterhegemonic labor movement. MLNGOs have reworked the hegemonic labor law system to undermine the regime’s legal fragmentation of workers, nurtured worker leaders who speak for and represent migrant workers to temporarily substitute for impotent workplace unions, and developed alternative organizational networks of labor organizing that challenged the union’s monopoly. This incipient counterhegemonic movement persisted several years after state repression in late 2015 but was curtailed by another wave of repression in January 2019. The very severity of state repression suggests that a movement countering hegemony has been formed.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-03-05T12:31:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920906401
       
  • Prevalence of Long Work Hours by Spouse’s Degree Field and the Labor
           Market Outcomes of Skilled Women
    • Authors: Terra McKinnish
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      Using 2009 to 2015 American Community Survey (ACS) data, this article estimates the effect of the prevalence of long hours and short hours of work in a husband’s field of work, as defined by his undergraduate degree field, on the labor market outcomes of skilled married women. When individuals work in fields that require longer hours of work, their spouses experience spillover effects. The labor market outcomes of female spouses are more negatively affected than are those of male spouses. Specifically, female spouses face lower total earnings, hourly wages, employment options, and hours of work for married women with children relative to married men with children or married women without children. Little evidence supports the idea that the rate of short hours of work in a spouse’s degree field differentially affects married women with children.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-02-06T07:36:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920901703
       
  • How Do Online Degrees Affect Labor Market Prospects' Evidence from a
           Correspondence Audit Study
    • Authors: Conor Lennon
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      This article reports the findings of a correspondence audit study that examines how online bachelor’s degrees affect labor market outcomes. The study involves sending 1,891 applications for real job openings using 100 fictitious applicant profiles. The applicant profiles are designed to be representative of recent college graduates from established universities. Using random assignment to degree type, applicant profiles that indicate a traditional (in-person) degree receive nearly twice as many callbacks as those that indicate an online degree. Findings suggest that, at least currently, completing an online degree program would significantly limit the labor market prospects of typical college students.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-02-03T07:37:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793919899943
       
  • Hiring Your Friends: Evidence from the Market for Financial Economists
    • Authors: Charles J. Hadlock, Joshua R. Pierce
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      The authors study connections in academic hiring in a sample of finance doctoral graduates. Departments hire PhD graduates with school connections to other recently hired faculty at a significantly greater rate than models predict. Similarly, schools exhibit an elevated propensity to hire individuals with names that indicate a similar ethnic background to incumbent department members. School-connected hires tend to publish at significantly elevated rates, a finding that is robust to a large number of model modifications and is stronger in more research-intensive departments. The evidence on school connections appears highly consistent with an employer information benefit from hiring based on school connections. Ethnic-connected hires tend to publish at lower-than-predicted rates when controlling for hiring-school characteristics, but this finding is not robust to the inclusion of hiring-school fixed effects. This evidence suggests that the possible information benefits of school-connected hiring do not immediately extend to other types of connections.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T12:12:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793919896755
       
  • Happy Birthday, You’re Fired! Effects of an Age-Dependent Minimum Wage
           on Youth Employment Flows in the Netherlands
    • Authors: Jan Kabátek
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      The Dutch minimum wage for workers aged 15 to 23 is defined as a stepwise increasing function of a worker’s calendar age. Using Dutch administrative records, the author shows that the birthday discontinuities of age-dependent minimum wage rates affect both labor market entry (job accessions) and labor market exit (job separations) of minimum wage workers. The job separations spike in the three months that precede workers’ birthdays, suggesting that firms are dismissing workers whose costs are about to go up. The frequency of job accessions increases immediately after the birthdays and the increase is sustained throughout the following months. The resulting effect on employment levels is dynamic, with the employment rate being subject to an initial drop that is gradually compensated for by the higher rates of post-birthday labor market entry.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T12:12:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793919897914
       
  • From Bread and Roses to #MeToo: Multiplicity, Distance, and the Changing
           Dynamics of Conflict in IR Theory
    • Authors: Christine A. Riordan, Alexander M. Kowalski
      First page: 580
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      A central assumption in industrial relations theory is that conflict is rooted in an enduring difference between the interests of labor and management. In recent years, the reality of work has changed for many, and scholarship has called attention to overlooked dimensions of conflict that depart from this assumption. The authors account for these developments with the concepts of multiplicity and distance. Multiplicity means that a broad range of actors bring diverse goals, tied to identities and values in addition to interests, to the employment relationship. The competing and fluid motivations that stem from these goals alter how actors individually and collectively name conflict. Distance reflects a growing rift between those who control work and those who labor, rooted in prevailing organizational forms and practices and the transformation of institutions. Distance alters actors’ interdependence and their perceived and actual power in addressing conflict. From these observations, the authors derive propositions suggesting directions for research and theory regarding conflict and the institutions through which actors balance goals.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-11-19T07:49:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920970868
       
  • Fissured Employment and Network Bargaining: Emerging Employment Relations
           Dynamics in a Contingent World of Work
    • Authors: Mark Anner, Matthew Fischer-Daly, Michael Maffie
      First page: 689
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      For decades, direct employment relationships have been increasingly displaced by indirect employment relationships through networks of firms and layers of managerial control. The firm strategies driving these changes are organizational, geographic, and technological in nature and are facilitated by state policies. The resulting weakening of traditional forms of collective bargaining and worker power have led workers to counter by organizing broader alliances and complementing structural and associational power with symbolic power and state-oriented strategies through what the authors term “network bargaining.” These dynamics point to the limitations of dominant theories and frameworks for understanding employment relations and suggest a new approach that focuses on a range of direct and indirect work relationships, evolving forms of worker power, and networked patterns of worker–employer interactions.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-10-14T10:21:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920964180
       
  • How Do Employers Choose between Types of Contingent Work' Costs,
           Control, and Institutional Toying
    • Authors: Chiara Benassi, Andreas Kornelakis
      First page: 715
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      The increasing variety of contingent work raises the question of how employers choose between various types of contractual arrangements. The authors review relevant Employment Relations and Strategic HRM literature and distinguish four types of contingent contracts along the dimensions of costs and control. They argue that employers are making choices based on cost and control constraints but are able to reshape these constraints through “institutional toying.” Their case study of a German manufacturing plant and R&D center illustrates the mechanisms of institutional toying, which are consistent with the literature on institutional loopholes and exit options. The article develops propositions that explain the diversity of contingent work arrangements and show how toying strategies enlarge the range of options available to employers.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-08-06T04:16:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920944910
       
  • Rethinking the Role of the State in Employment Relations for a Neoliberal
           Era
    • Authors: Chris Howell
      First page: 739
      Abstract: ILR Review, Ahead of Print.
      Over the past 30 years, state intervention to reshape employment relations has become a generalized feature of contemporary capitalism. A broad neoliberal reconstruction of the market order has gone hand in hand with a more active state. In this article the author argues that liberalization in the sphere of employment relations could not have taken place without a more active state. Building on a regulation theory framework and an elaboration of the concept of neoliberalism as the regulatory infrastructure of emergent growth models, the author examines how the widespread shift from wage-led growth to other forms of growth across the advanced capitalist world has encouraged changes in the role of the state in the regulation of employment relations. These roles include market making, individual employment regulation in place of collective regulation, state-directed social pacts, and redrawing the boundaries between work and non-work. The article concludes with an explanation for continuing variations in employment relations.
      Citation: ILR Review
      PubDate: 2020-02-25T07:05:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0019793920904663
       
 
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