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NEW AGE PUBLICATIONS (8 journals)

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New Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 569)
New Media & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
New Testament Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
New Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aries     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
New Educator     Open Access  
New Perspectives Quarterly     Hybrid Journal  
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Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.519
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 8  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-3270 - ISSN (Online) 1090-0586
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Cardiac Vagal Control Among Community Cigarette Smokers with Low to
           Moderate Depressive Symptoms

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      Abstract: Abstract Impairments in cardiac vagal control (CVC) have been independently linked to smoking status and depression and are implicated in self-regulatory processes that may exacerbate depressive symptoms and maintain smoking behavior. Yet, few studies have examined how depressive symptoms, even at low levels, influence CVC reactivity among individuals who smoke. Investigating these relationships may provide novel insights into how depressive symptoms exacerbate existing regulatory vulnerabilities among smokers. This study investigated how depression symptoms affect CVC reactivity as a function of changing situational demands among a community sample of 60 daily adult cigarette smokers. Participants completed a mildly demanding cognitive task while physiological data was recorded. Growth curve modeling was used to examine the main and interactive effects of self-reported depressive symptoms on CVC reactivity over the course of the task. We hypothesized that greater depressive symptoms would be associated with less CVC reactivity, characterized by smaller initial reductions in CVC values and a flatter slope over time. Participants were daily smokers with mild to moderate levels of depression. Final model results, where time was specified as linear and the slope was fixed, showed no significant main or interactive effects of time and depression symptoms on CVC reactivity. Findings suggest that at low to moderate levels, depressive symptom severity is not related to patterns of CVC reactivity among adults who smoke. This is the first study to examine this relationship in this population. Future investigations that examine patterns of CVC reactivity among smokers and non-smokers with more severe depression are needed.
      PubDate: 2023-02-03
       
  • Changes in Medial Prefrontal Cortex Mediate Effects of Heart Rate
           Variability Biofeedback on Positive Emotional Memory Biases

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      Abstract: Abstract Previous research suggests that implicit automatic emotion regulation relies on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). However, most of the human studies supporting this hypothesis have been correlational in nature. In the current study, we examine how changes in mPFC-left amygdala functional connectivity relate to emotional memory biases. In a randomized clinical trial examining the effects of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback on brain mechanisms of emotion regulation, we randomly assigned participants to increase or decrease heart rate oscillations while receiving biofeedback. After several weeks of daily biofeedback sessions, younger and older participants completed an emotional picture memory task involving encoding, recall, and recognition phases as an additional measure in this clinical trial. Participants assigned to increase HRV (Osc+) (n = 84) showed a relatively higher rate of false alarms for positive than negative images than participants assigned to decrease HRV (Osc−) (n = 81). Osc+ participants also recalled relatively more positive compared with negative items than Osc− participants, but this difference was not significant. However, a summary bias score reflecting positive emotional memory bias across recall and recognition was significantly higher in the Osc+ than Osc− condition. As previously reported, the Osc+ manipulation increased left amygdala-mPFC resting-state functional connectivity significantly more than the Osc− manipulation. This increased functional connectivity significantly mediated the effects of the Osc+ condition on emotional bias. These findings suggest that, by increasing mPFC coordination of emotion-related circuits, daily practice increasing heart rate oscillations can increase implicit emotion regulation.
      PubDate: 2023-01-20
       
  • Does Wearable-Measured Heart Rate Variability During Sleep Predict
           Perceived Morning Mental and Physical Fitness'

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      Abstract: Abstract The emergence of wearable sensor technology may provide opportunities for automated measurement of psychophysiological markers of mental and physical fitness, which can be used for personalized feedback. This study explores to what extent within-subject changes in resting heart rate variability (HRV) during sleep predict the perceived mental and physical fitness of military personnel on the subsequent morning. Participants wore a Garmin wrist-worn wearable and filled in a short morning questionnaire on their perceived mental and physical fitness during a period of up to 46 days. A custom-built smartphone app was used to directly retrieve heart rate and accelerometer data from the wearable, on which open-source algorithms for sleep detection and artefact filtering were applied. A sample of 571 complete observations in 63 participants were analyzed using linear mixed models. Resting HRV during sleep was a small predictor of perceived physical fitness (marginal R2 = .031), but not of mental fitness. The items on perceived mental and physical fitness were strongly correlated (r = .77). Based on the current findings, resting HRV during sleep appears to be more related to the physical component of perceived fitness than its mental component. Recommendations for future studies include improvements in the measurement of sleep and resting HRV, as well as further investigation of the potential impact of resting HRV as a buffer on stress-related outcomes.
      PubDate: 2023-01-09
       
  • Brain–Computer Interface Training of mu EEG Rhythms in Intellectually
           Impaired Children with Autism: A Feasibility Case Series

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      Abstract: Abstract Prior studies show that neurofeedback training (NFT) of mu rhythms improves behavior and EEG mu rhythm suppression during action observation in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, intellectually impaired persons were excluded because of their behavioral challenges. We aimed to determine if intellectually impaired children with ASD, who were behaviorally prepared to take part in a mu-NFT study using conditioned auditory reinforcers, would show improvements in symptoms and mu suppression following mu-NFT. Seven children with ASD (ages 6–8; mean IQ 70.6 ± 7.5) successfully took part in mu-NFT. Four cases demonstrated positive learning trends (hit rates) during mu-NFT (learners), and three cases did not (non-learners). Artifact-creating behaviors were present during tests of mu suppression for all cases, but were more frequent in non-learners. Following NFT, learners showed behavioral improvements and were more likely to show evidence of a short-term increase in mu suppression relative to non-learners who showed little to no EEG or behavior improvements. Results support mu-NFT’s application in some children who otherwise may not have been able to take part without enhanced behavioral preparations. Children who have more limitations in demonstrating learning during NFT, or in providing data with relatively low artifact during task-dependent EEG tests, may have less chance of benefiting from mu-NFT. Improving the identification of ideal mu-NFT candidates, mu-NFT learning rates, source analyses, EEG outcome task performance, population-specific artifact-rejection methods, and the theoretical bases of NFT protocols, could aid future BCI-based, neurorehabilitation efforts.
      PubDate: 2023-01-06
       
  • Correction: For Which Children with ADHD is TBR Neurofeedback
           Effective' Comorbidity as a Moderator

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      PubDate: 2022-12-26
       
  • Reliability of the Heartbeat Tracking Task to Assess Interoception

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      Abstract: Abstract Interoception refers to the competence in perceiving and interpreting internal sensations emerging from the body. The most common approach to assess interoception is through cardiac interoceptive tests like the heartbeat tracking task (HTT), which measures the accuracy on perceive and counting heartbeats during a period. However, the literature is scarce in providing adequate reliability evidence for this measure so that the interoception assessment may be threaten. In addition to HTT accuracy, it is possible to determine sensibility (self-reported confidence) and interoceptive awareness (correspondence between accuracy and sensibility). Thus, we measured the test–retest reliability of HTT and also investigated the behavior of HTT outcomes along the task. Therefore, 31 healthy adults (16 males) with 27.8 (9.4) years old performed two consecutive HTT interspersed by one day. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable difference (MD) analyzes showed 'Good' relative reliability for interoceptive accuracy (ICC = 0.880; SEM = 0.263; MD = 0.728; p < 0.001) and 'Moderate' for sensibility (ICC = 0.617; SEM = 0.648; MD = 1.797; p < 0.001) and awareness (ICC = 0.593; SEM = 0.227; MD = 0.628; p < 0.001). The absolute reliability shows low threshold values for observing true effects in HTT outcomes. The results also showed that reducing the number of HTT blocks did not impact the outcomes. The HTT showed to be reliable in determine the interoceptive competences in healthy adults.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
       
  • For Which Children with ADHD is TBR Neurofeedback Effective'
           Comorbidity as a Moderator

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      Abstract: Abstract We examined psychiatric comorbidities moderation of a 2-site double-blind randomized clinical trial of theta/beta-ratio (TBR) neurofeedback (NF) for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Seven-to-ten-year-olds with ADHD received either NF (n = 84) or Control (n = 58) for 38 treatments. Outcome was change in parent-/teacher-rated inattention from baseline to end-of-treatment (acute effect), and 13-month-follow-up. Seventy percent had at least one comorbidity: oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (50%), specific phobias (27%), generalized anxiety (23%), separation anxiety (16%). Comorbidities were grouped into anxiety alone (20%), ODD alone (23%), neither (30%), or both (27%). Comorbidity (p = 0.043) moderated acute effect; those with anxiety-alone responded better to Control than to TBR NF (d = − 0.79, CI − 1.55– − 0.04), and the other groups showed a slightly better response to TBR NF than to Control (d = 0.22 ~ 0.31, CI − 0.3–0.98). At 13-months, ODD-alone group responded better to NF than Control (d = 0.74, CI 0.05–1.43). TBR NF is not indicated for ADHD with comorbid anxiety but may benefit ADHD with ODD. Clinical Trials Identifier: NCT02251743, date of registration: 09/17/2014
      PubDate: 2022-12-16
       
  • End-Tidal CO2 in Patients with Panic Disorder, Stress-Related or
           Functional Syndromes, Versus Healthy Controls

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      Abstract: Abstract A dysregulated autonomic stress physiology is hypothesized to play an important role in the etiology and perpetuation of somatic symptoms that cannot be (fully) explained by an organic disease. The aim of this study was to focus on the role of the respiratory system. We examined end-tidal CO2 concentration (PetCO2) in healthy controls (n = 30), patients with panic disorder (n = 36), and patients with stress-related (overstrain; n = 35, burnout; n = 44) or functional syndromes [fibromyalgia (FM) and/or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS); n = 36]. Participants went through a rest period and a respiratory challenge with recovery, whilst PetCO2 was continuously monitored by a capnograph. Taken together, our results suggest: (1) an overactive respiratory system to be a possible transdiagnostic underlying factor of overstrain, burnout, and panic disorder, and (2) the presence of a less active respiratory fight-flight response in the more chronic and severe functional syndromes (FM/CFS).
      PubDate: 2022-12-08
       
  • Adding Core Muscle Contraction to Wrist-Ankle Rhythmical Skeletal Muscle
           Tension Increases Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia and Low-Frequency Power

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      Abstract: Abstract Paced breathing and rhythmical skeletal muscle tension (RSMT) at an individual’s resonance frequency [~ 6 breaths or contractions per min (cpm)] can stimulate the arterial and vascular tone baroreflexes. Lehrer (Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 1–10, 2022, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10484-022-09535-5) has explained that the stimulation rate is important, not the modality. Early RSMT protocols differed in the muscles recruited and whether legs were crossed or uncrossed (in France et al. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 26: 21–25, 2006, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-097X.2005.00642.x; Leher et al. Biol Psychol 81: 24–30, 2009, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2009.01.003; Vaschillo et al. Psychophysiology, 48: 927–936, 2011, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.2010.01156.x). Whereas core muscle RSMT with crossed legs and wrist-ankle RSMT with uncrossed legs produced resonance effects, researchers have not directly compared the effect of these exercises on respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and low-frequency (LF) power. The current within-subjects experiment investigated whether crossing the legs and recruiting core muscles enhances wrist-ankle RSMT effects on RSA and LF power. We trained 35 participants to complete 6-cpm wrist-ankle RSMT (ankles uncrossed), 6-cpm wrist-core-ankle RSMT (ankles crossed), and a control condition in which participants sat quietly (ankles uncrossed) without performing RSMT. We predicted that 6-cpm wrist-core-ankle RSMT would produce greater heart rate (HR), HR Max-HR Min, and LF power than the other conditions. The experimental findings supported our predictions. Both RSMT conditions produced greater HR, HR Max-HR Min, and LF power than the control condition. Wrist-core-ankle yielded greater HR and HR Max-HR Min than wrist-ankle RSMT. Future research should compare wrist-ankle and wrist-core-ankle RSMT with legs crossed. The practical implication for HRV biofeedback training is that wrist-core-ankle RSMT with legs crossed may more powerfully stimulate the baroreflex than wrist-ankle RSMT with legs uncrossed.
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
       
  • EEG Connectivity in ADHD Compared to a Normative Database: A Cohort
           Analysis of 120 Subjects from the ICAN Study

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      Abstract: Abstract This study explores how EEG connectivity measures in children with ADHD ages 7–10 (n = 140) differ from an age-matched nonclinical database. We differentiated connectivity in networks, Brodmann area pairs, and frequencies. Subjects were in the International Collaborative ADHD Neurofeedback study, which explored neurofeedback for ADHD. Inclusion criteria were mainly rigorously diagnosed ADHD and a theta/beta power ratio (TBR) ≤ 4.5. Using statistical and machine learning algorithms, connectivity values were extracted in coherence, phase, and lag coherence at all Brodmann, subcortical, and cerebellar areas within the main networks in all EEG frequencies and then compared with a normative database. There is a higher rate of dysregulation (more than ± 1.97SD), in some cases as much as 75%, of the Brodmann pairs observed in coherence and phase between BAs 7, 10, and 11 with secondary connections from these areas to BAs 21, 30, 35, 37, 39, and 40 in the ADHD children as compared to the normative database. Left and right Brodmann areas 10 and 11 are highly disconnected to each other. The most dysregulated Brodmann Areas in ADHD are 7, 10, and 11, relevant to ADHD executive-function deficits and provide important considerations when developing interventions for ADHD children.
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
       
  • In Honor of Evgeny Vaschillo: His Impact on My Research and Career

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      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Evgeny Vaschillo (April 11, 1945–November 21, 2020)

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      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Editorial: A Festschrift in Memory of Evgeny Vaschillo

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      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • My Life in HRV Biofeedback Research

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper reviews the published work of me along with my students and close colleagues on the topic of heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVB). It includes early research by Vaschillo documenting resonance characteristics of the baroreflex system that causes large oscillations in heart rate when breathing at resonance frequency, research on heart rate variability as a marker of parasympathetic stress response in asthma, and HRVB as a treatment for asthma and depression. Many questions about HRVB remain unresolved, and important questions for future research are listed.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Following the Rhythm of the Heart: HeartMath Institute’s Path to HRV
           Biofeedback

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper outlines the early history and contributions our laboratory, along with our close advisors and collaborators, has made to the field of heart rate variability and heart rate variability coherence biofeedback. In addition to the many health and wellness benefits of HRV feedback for facilitating skill acquisition of self-regulation techniques for stress reduction and performance enhancement, its applications for increasing social coherence and physiological synchronization among groups is also discussed. Future research directions and applications are also suggested.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • From GSR to Heart Rate Variability: A Long and Winding (Actually, Wiggly)
           Road

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      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • An Undergraduate Program with Heart: Thirty Years of Truman HRV Research

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      Abstract: Abstract This article celebrates the contributors who inspired Truman’s heart rate variability (HRV) research program. These seminal influences include Robert Fried, Richard Gevirtz, Paul Lehrer, Erik Peper, and Evgeny Vaschillo. The Truman State University Applied Psychophysiology Laboratory’s HRV research has spanned five arcs: interventions to teach diaphragmatic breathing, adjunctive procedures to increase HRV, HRV biofeedback (HRVB) training studies, the concurrent validity of ultra-short-term HRV measurements, and rhythmical skeletal muscle tension strategies to increase HRV. We have conducted randomized controlled trials, primarily using within-subjects and mixed designs. These studies have produced eight findings that could benefit HRVB training. Effortful diaphragmatic breathing can lower end-tidal CO2 through larger tidal volumes. A 1:2 inhalation-to-exhalation (I/E) ratio does not increase HRV compared to a 1:1 I/E ratio. Chanting “om,” listening to the Norman Cousins relaxation exercise, and singing a fundamental note are promising exercises to increase HRV. Heartfelt emotion activation does not increase HRV, enhance the effects of resonance frequency breathing, “immunize” HRV against a math stressor, or speed HRV recovery following a math stressor. Resonance frequency assessment achieved moderate (r = 0.73) 2-week test-reliability. Four weeks of HRVB training increased HRV and temperature, and decreased skin conductance level compared with temperature biofeedback training. Concurrent-validity assessment of ultra-short-term HRV measurements should utilize rigorous Pearson r and limits of agreement criteria. Finally, rhythmical skeletal muscle tension can increase HRV at rates of 1-, 3-, and 6-cpm. We describe representative studies, their findings, significance, and limitations in each arc. Finally, we summarize some of the most interesting unanswered questions to enable future investigators to build on our work.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Evaluation of Heart Rate Variability and Application of Heart Rate
           Variability Biofeedback: Toward Further Research on Slow-Paced Abdominal
           Breathing in Zen Meditation

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      Abstract: Abstract This review summarizes my own involvement in heart rate variability (HRV) and HRV biofeedback studies, as a tribute to the late Dr. Evgeny Vaschillo. I first review psychophysiological studies on behavioral stress and relaxation performed in my laboratory using an assessment of cardiac parasympathetic activity. Although magnitude of high-frequency (HF) component of HRV corresponding respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is widely used as an index of cardiac parasympathetic function, a respiratory confound during stress or relaxation may have interfered with the proper assessment of the HF HRV. An enhanced method under frequency-controlled respiration at 0.25 Hz provided a reliable assessment of cardiac parasympathetic activity. I then review findings from HRV biofeedback research in my laboratory. Based on the hypothesis that RSA measured as an HF component of HRV represents cardiorespiratory resting function, it was demonstrated that HRV biofeedback before sleep enhanced the magnitude of HF HRV during sleep, a cardiorespiratory resting function. Moreover, by focusing on the spectral peak of the low-frequency (LF) component of HRV, paced breathing at the LF-peak frequency was shown to increase baroreflex sensitivity. Finally, I describe the potential of slow-paced abdominal breathing (i.e., Tanden breathing) performed in Zen meditation. The concept of Tanden breathing as described in a regimen from early modern Japan is introduced, and recent research findings on slow-paced abdominal breathing are summarized. Future research directions of slow-paced abdominal breathing are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Review of I. Z. Khazan (2019), Biofeedback and Mindfulness in Everyday
           Life: Practical Solutions for Improving Your Health and Performance. W. W.
           Norton and Company

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      Abstract: Abstract Dr. Inna Khazan is the preeminent authority on integrating biofeedback with mindfulness. She wrote Biofeedback and Mindfulness in Everyday Life for biofeedback clients, individuals seeking self-improvement, clinicians, performance coaches, and students. Part I, Physiological Principles, describes the major biofeedback modalities, breathing physiology, and heart rate variability. Part II, Mindfulness, reviews the Foundations of Mindfulness, Mindfulness Meditation, Mindfulness-Based Skills, and Compassion and Self-Compassion. Part III, Applications to Common Challenges, addresses Sleep, Stress and Performance, Anxiety and Fear, Anger, Interpersonal Communication, Pain, Sadness and Depression, and Shame and Guilt. Two appendices contain Meditation Scripts and a Sample List of Biofeedback Devices. Khazan masterfully explains the science supporting biofeedback, mindfulness-based interventions, and self-regulation. Biofeedback and Mindfulness in Everyday Life provides a step-by-step guide for building resilience and emotional flexibility and addressing challenges like anxiety, depression, and pain.
      PubDate: 2022-10-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10484-022-09564-0
       
  • Heart Rate Variability: A Personal Journey

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      Abstract: Abstract Heart rate variabfility (HRV) has been a focal point throughout my academic history. To put into perspective, I have published studies spanning seven decades focusing on HRV (1969–2022). My interest in HRV started early in graduate school and continues to be an important portal informing my theoretical perspective. The current paper tracks some of this history, which started as an empirical observation and moved through several scientific stages including development of quantitative methods and investigations of neural mechanisms. Along this journey a variety of hypotheses were tested including the relative sensitivity of HRV metrics to neural mechanisms, psychological processes, and medical diagnoses. In addition, the research led to the identification of portal of intervention that have become strategies to optimize mental and physical health. These apparent disparate programs of inquiry have been tightly merged as the Polyvagal Theory evolved. In the sections below, I have shared my personal journey through these stages of scientific inquiry and my attempts to integrate the new knowledge in an expansive theoretical model.
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10484-022-09559-x
       
 
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