Subjects -> JOURNALISM AND PUBLICATION (Total: 219 journals)
    - JOURNALISM (31 journals)
    - JOURNALISM AND PUBLICATION (148 journals)
    - NEW AGE PUBLICATIONS (8 journals)
    - PUBLISHING AND BOOK TRADE (32 journals)

NEW AGE PUBLICATIONS (8 journals)

Showing 1 - 8 of 8 Journals sorted by number of followers
New Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 569)
New Media & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
New Testament Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
New Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aries     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
New Educator     Open Access  
New Perspectives Quarterly     Hybrid Journal  
Similar Journals
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New Media & Society
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.262
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 74  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1461-4448 - ISSN (Online) 1461-7315
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1176 journals]
  • Inequality and discrimination in the online labor market: A scoping review

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      Authors: Floor Fiers
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Based on a comprehensive set of studies collected via five academic databases, this scoping review examines how inequality and discrimination have been studied in the context of paid online labor. We identify three approaches in the literature that aim to (1) identify participation patterns in (national) survey data, (2) examine background characteristics of online contractors based on survey or digital trace data, and (3) reveal social biases in the hiring process using experimental data. Building on Shaw and Hargittai’s pipeline of participation, we present a multi-stage model of engagement in online labor. When we map the studies across the stages, it becomes clear that the literature focuses on later stages (i.e. having been hired and received payment). Based on this analysis, future research should examine barriers to participation in earlier stages. Furthermore, we advocate for research that examines participation across multiple pipeline stages as well as for analysis of platform-level biases.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-02-01T09:01:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221151200
       
  • See something, say something' The role of online self-disclosure on
           fear of terror among young social media users

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      Authors: Ruta Kaskeleviciute, Helena Knupfer, Jörg Matthes
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Given that terrorism is omnipresent on social media, it is imperative to study how seeing terror content online is related to individuals’ attitudes, behaviors, and emotions. This study investigates how exposure to terrorism on social media associates with terror-related online self-disclosure and how self-disclosure, in turn, relates to fear of terrorism. A quota-based survey of young social media users (16- to 25-year-olds; N = 864) in Germany revealed that exposure to Islamist and far-right terrorism is related to higher online self-disclosure. Political ideology moderated the relationship between exposure to far-right terrorism and online self-disclosure, but not when exposed to Islamist terrorism. Attitudinal differentiation was negatively associated with self-disclosure. Additionally, we found an interaction effect of exposure to Islamist terrorism and attitudinal differentiation on self-disclosure. Finally, the results showed that online self-disclosure was positively related to fear of terrorism. By and large, our findings highlight the relevance of social media for the levels of fear.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-02-01T08:52:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221148982
       
  • Enhancing social connectedness: How adults with vision impairment perceive
           and use social media in Nigeria

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      Authors: Nnaemeka Chidiebere Meribe, Emmanuel Ita Bassey, Anthony Ekpo Bassey, Caroline Ellison
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      As the number of social media users continues to increase globally, it is important to explore the experiences of different segments of users. While research on social media use by people with vision impairment is growing, lacking is research in this area in Nigeria. This qualitative study describes the lived experiences and perceptions of social media use among Nigerian adults with vision impairment, using a transcendental approach. Findings showed that people with vision impairment experienced a reduction in social connectedness due to their vision impairment, but those who used social media were able to enhance social connectedness, increase social interaction, develop social relationships and expand their social networks. Participants described social media as a good medium for learning and education as it enabled ready access to information. Results indicated that supporting adults with vision impairment experiencing reduced social connectedness to engage with social media could help improve their social well-being.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-02-01T08:47:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221148980
       
  • ‘Just a little hack’: Investigating cultures of content moderation
           circumvention by Facebook users

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      Authors: Rosalie Gillett, Joanne E. Gray, D. Bondy Valdovinos Kaye
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      As social media platforms adapt their rules to limit the presence, spread, and amplification of harmful content on their services, users develop strategies to circumvent content moderation policies. To better understand cultures of content moderation circumvention, including the types of rules that Facebook users seek to circumvent, we analysed a sample of YouTube videos and Reddit threads in which users discuss content moderation circumvention. We show how Facebook users turn to others across platforms to obtain information about circumvention methods. We observe that these users often discuss overcoming Facebook’s content moderation policies in terms that downplay the significance of their intended actions. We suggest that where Facebook’s policies and enforcement measures fail to deter rule violations that may facilitate harm, Facebook should consider new culture-driven approaches to platform governance that foster prosocial environments and engender compliance with platform rules.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-02-01T08:42:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221147661
       
  • Book Review: The Web of Meaning: The Internet in a Changing Chinese
           Society

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      Authors: Rongbin Han
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-01-31T09:30:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448231152547
       
  • It’s not an encyclopedia, it’s a market of agendas: Decentralized
           

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      Authors: Ruqin Ren, Jian Xu
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Many innovative forms of media entered the online mediascape and can potentially set public agendas. This study drew on peer-produced news content on Wikipedia and theorized its unprecedented agenda building power within a network of diverse media sources. Adopting the network agenda-setting model, this study collected comprehensive global news coverage and Wikipedia coverage of top US political news events from 2015 to 2020. Time series analysis found that none of the media types (Wikipedia, elite media, and non-elite media) exhibited dominant agenda-setting power, while each of them can lead the agenda in certain circumstances. Wikipedia was a critical agenda setter for other media entities, and it also reflected the public’s collective evaluation of existing news agendas from multiple sources. This article proposed a multi-agent and multidirectional network architecture to describe agenda-setting relationships. We also highlighted four unique characteristics of Wikipedia that matter for digital journalism.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-01-28T11:17:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221149641
       
  • Facebook’s platform coloniality: At the nexus of political economy,
           nation-state’s internal colonialism, and the political activism of the
           marginalized

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      Authors: Mohammed A. Salih
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores Facebook’s censorship of Kurdish political activism at the request of the Turkish government. I argue that Facebook’s censorship of political voices belonging to the marginalized Kurdish community is an articulation of platform coloniality, an outcome constituted by the intersecting of the social media giant’s global political economy imperatives with racialized and hierarchized conceptions of human worth. The effects of platform coloniality are exacerbated due to it being mediated by the Turkish nation-state’s internal colonial politics and militarist regional policies, thus intensifying the marginalization of Kurds inside and outside Turkey. Covered in a typical neoliberal discourse of freedom and human rights, platform coloniality represents a continuation of the age-old patterns of Western power and its flow toward the Global South.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-01-24T08:43:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221144987
       
  • Book Review: Vidding: A History

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      Authors: Michael Mazzacane
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T08:06:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221151055
       
  • The bumpy paths of online sleuthing: Exploring the interactional
           accomplishment of familiarity, evidence, and authority in online crime
           discussions

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      Authors: David Wästerfors, Veronika Burcar Alm, Erik Hannerz
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Much of today’s public discourse on crime cases take place on online platforms, as long chains of high-speed posts: speculations, analyses, and laments, as well as ironic, sarcastic, and derogatory comments. These give excellent (and yet risky) possibilities to engage in homemade investigation, with other posters as instant reviewers and audiences. In this article, we explore the interactional origin of case-related familiarity, evidence and authority in crime discussions on the Swedish platform Flashback. Through Internet data and interviews, we show how online sleuths interact digitally with one another so that familiarity with the case is performed, leads and evidence suggested, and investigative authority recognized. We argue that an interactionist and ethnographic approach is needed to uncover such recurring processes in online crime case discussions. The accomplishment of sleuthing is highly dependent on others’ shifting responses, and is, therefore, a “bumpy” path.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T08:02:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221149909
       
  • Introducing an “invisible enemy”: A case study of knowledge
           construction regarding microplastics in Japanese Wikipedia

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      Authors: Mengyuan Fu, Kunhao Yang, Yuko Fujigaki
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Microplastics, a novel global environmental problem, has become a fast-developing research field with worldwide investments. With scientific development, social science studies are expected to contribute to developing more effective communication on microplastics. Among various media, this article focused on Wikipedia and discussed one particular situation—when the language of Wikipedia differs from the language of mainstream information sources. Inspired by actor network theory, we analyzed the revision history of the Japanese Wikipedia article on microplastics from 2014 to 2020 and elucidated how knowledge of microplastics was textually constructed. We found editors’ reluctance to disprove and update the latest scientific knowledge in edit actions, as well as problems and flaws existing in the created knowledge that shows limited enforcement of Wikipedia policies. Based on the findings, we urge more attention to improving the public knowledge of fast-developing science, especially when the knowledge construction might encounter a cross-language context.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T07:15:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221149747
       
  • ‘90 per cent of the time when I have had a drink in my hand I’m on my
           phone as well’: A cross-national analysis of communications technologies
           and drinking practices among young people

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      Authors: Gabriel Caluzzi, Laura Fenton, John Holmes, Sarah MacLean, Amy Pennay, Hannah Fairbrother, Jukka Törrönen
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Greater use of communication technologies among young people, including mobile phones, social media and communication apps, has coincided with declines in youth alcohol use in many high-income countries. However, little research has unpacked how drinking as a practice within interconnected routines and interactions may be changing alongside these technologies. Drawing on qualitative interviews about drinking with young people aged 16–23 across three similar studies in Australia, the United Kingdom and Sweden, we identify how communication technologies may afford reduced or increased drinking. They may reduce drinking by producing new online contexts, forms of intimacy and competing activities. They may increase drinking by re-organising drinking occasions, rituals and contexts. And they may increase or reduce drinking by enabling greater fluidity and interaction between diverse practices. These countervailing dynamics have likely contributed to shifting drinking patterns and practices for young people that may be obscured beneath the population-level decline in youth drinking.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T06:02:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221150775
       
  • Book Review: Reading Computer-Generated Texts

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      Authors: Ting Zhang, Ju Wen
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T05:59:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221150773
       
  • The epistemologies of data journalism

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      Authors: Amanda Ramsälv, Mats Ekström, Oscar Westlund
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Amid digital developments, data journalism has gained a strong foothold among news publishers and in public discourse. With its authoritative claims and informative visualizations, it can play a significant role in the actions of citizens and people in power. This mixed-method case study explores a distinct epistemology developed in an independent form of data journalism in public service media in Scandinavia, not subordinate to traditional news values or investigative journalism. The study investigates its knowledge and truth claims, approach to data, transparency practices, and resources invested to claim reliable knowledge. The epistemology is characterized by innovative practices in the visualizing of essentially prejustified datasets. It claims public value offering general information and audience-friendly explorations of individual perspectives on topics on the public agenda. The approach to data views reality as measurable facts yet indicates epistemic ambiguity regarding figures’ reliability, guided by a principle of reasonableness in the justifications of truth claims.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T05:56:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221150439
       
  • Aging differently: How socioemotional reactions to perceived remaining
           time in life influence older adults’ satisfaction in virtual communities
           

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      Authors: Junjie Zhou, Ruochen Liao, Rajiv Kishore
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to understand how older adults’ socioemotional reactions to perceived remaining time in life influence their satisfaction from their knowledge contribution and seeking in virtual communities (VCs). Rooted in socioemotional selectivity theory, we choose a positive attitude toward aging and meaning in life to describe older adults’ reactions to aging, and test the proposed hypotheses based on 204 valid survey responses. Results confirm that while both knowledge contribution and knowledge-seeking activities promote older adults’ satisfaction, the impact of knowledge contribution is stronger on satisfaction. Furthermore, as hypothesized, the positive attitude toward aging amplifies the impact of knowledge-seeking while meaning in life weakens the impact of knowledge contribution on older adults’ satisfaction. This study contributes to the literature on how older adults derive satisfaction from their knowledge contribution and knowledge-seeking activities in VCs and offers insights into using VCs to build a digitally inclusive society.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-01-23T05:53:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221149906
       
  • Book Review: Global South Discourse in East Asian Media Studies

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      Authors: Xiaoyi Sun
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-01-17T11:22:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221151201
       
  • Book Review: Cultural Netizenship: Social Media, Popular Culture, and
           Performance in Nigeria

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      Authors: Sonali Pahwa
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-01-17T11:18:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221151054
       
  • Book Review: Four Shades of Gray: The Amazon Kindle Platform

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      Authors: Robert A Wertz
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-01-17T11:16:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221151052
       
  • Book Review: The Modem World: A Prehistory of Social Media

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      Authors: Barbara Hof
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-01-17T11:14:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221151051
       
  • Book Review: Redeem All: How Digital Life is Changing Evangelical Culture

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      Authors: Kristin M Peterson
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-01-17T11:12:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221150778
       
  • “TikTok ≠ therapy”: Mediating mental health and
           algorithmic mood disorders

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      Authors: Holly Avella
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Popular and professional psychology merge to produce novel forms on TikTok—a platform on which therapeutic content grew enormously during the pandemic, rendering it a productive site to examine mediated mental health subjectivities, including ways people come to understand themselves in terms of mental health pathologies. Examining the dynamic interplay of capacities and constraints of therapeutic and algorithmic frameworks reveals ways in which therapeutic roles and rituals are re-negotiated in this space. Therapists utilize memetic tropes of the platform to position themselves within its affective flows, while leveraging beliefs about the algorithm to connect with users. The affective engagement of users’ works to curate a stream of content against which mental health and therapeutic frameworks are evaluated, ultimately designating a diagnostic gaze to a charismatic algorithm—a potentially emergent social media case of automated forms becoming paradigmatic in the ways we conceive of mental health and therapy.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-01-13T05:42:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221147284
       
  • Digital–environmental habitus of families in England in times of
           pandemic

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      Authors: Maria Laura Ruiu, Gabriele Ruiu, Massimo Ragnedda
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article uses adopts a revised version of the concept of techno-environmental habitus to investigate and make sense of the differentiation among digital technology users’ attitudes towards the environment in England. Digital–environmental habitus refers to the combination of structural determinants (existing background) and the metabolised increased use of digital technologies in people’s everyday life that also interacts with individual environmental attitudes. The results of a national survey among English parents between 20 and 55 years suggest that parents’ education levels, gender, age and income play a role in increasing their awareness about the environmental-friendly use of digital technologies. This study shows that the digital–environmental habitus of parents in England is layered according to the combination of existing socioeconomic traits and individual capacity and willingness to adapt to a drastic increase in both the use of digital technologies (due to the social distancing imposed by the pandemic) and environmental degradation.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-01-13T05:41:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221146716
       
  • How online advertising targets consumers: The uses of categories and
           algorithmic tools by audience planners

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      Authors: Thomas Beauvisage, Jean-Samuel Beuscart, Samuel Coavoux, Kevin Mellet
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Recent innovations in online advertising facilitate the use of a wide variety of data sources to build micro-segments of consumers, and delegate the manufacture of audience segments to machine learning algorithms. Both techniques promise to replace demographic targeting, as part of a post-demographic turn driven by big data technologies. This article empirically investigates this transformation in online advertising. We show that targeting categories are assessed along three criteria: efficiency, communicability, and explainability. The relative importance of these objectives helps explain the lasting role of demographic categories, the development of audience segments specific to each advertiser, and the difficulty in generalizing interest categories associated with big data. These results underline the importance of studying the impact of advanced big data and AI technologies in their organizational and professional contexts of appropriation, and of paying attention to the permanence of the categorizations that make the social world intelligible.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-01-13T05:40:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221146174
       
  • Alternative health groups on social media, misinformation, and the
           (de)stabilization of ontological security

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      Authors: Melissa Zimdars, Megan E. Cullinan, Kilhoe Na
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Through 19 semistructured interviews, we explore why people join and participate in “alternative health” Facebook groups and Reddit subs. Participation in these groups creates an ontological circle where people’s feelings of fear, desperation, and distrust in the systems and actors that comprise our government, health, and news systems inspire alternative information and support-seeking in these groups and subs. While participation assuages those feelings and stabilizes people’s sense of ontological security, it also destabilizes it, reinforcing and legitimizing feelings of fear, desperation, and distrust. This circle contributes to favorable receptive conditions for spreading unproven and dangerous health misinformation. We argue that it will be difficult to address misinformation (1) without considering and rectifying people’s often valid reasons for feelings of fear, desperation, distrust, and their desires for information and (2) without considering the relationships between alternative health social media groups and subs and the (de)stabilization of ontological security.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-01-13T05:39:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221146171
       
  • The shape of the cloud: Contesting date centre construction in North
           Holland

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      Authors: Julia Rone
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The article analyses local contestation of data centres in the Dutch province of North Holland. I explore why and how local councillors and citizen groups mobilized against data centres and demanded democratization of decision-making processes about digital infrastructure. This analysis is used as a vantage point to problematize existing policy and academic narratives on digital sovereignty in Europe. I show, first, that most debates on digital sovereignty so far have overlooked the sub-national level, which is especially relevant for decision making on digital infrastructure. Second, I insist that what matters is not only where digital sovereignty lies, that is, who has the power to decide over digital infrastructural projects: for example, corporations, states, regions, or municipalities. What matters is also how power is exercised. Emphasizing the popular democratic dimension of sovereignty, I argue for a comprehensive democratization of digital sovereignty policies. Democratization in this context is conceived as a multimodal multi-level process, including parliaments, civil society and citizens at the national, regional and local levels alike. The shape of the cloud should be citizens’ to decide.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-01-05T12:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221145928
       
  • Contextualizing the ethics of algorithms: A socio-professional approach

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      Authors: Netta Avnoon, Dan M Kotliar, Shira Rivnai-Bahir
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Research on AI ethics tends to examine the subject through philosophical, legal, or technical perspectives, largely neglecting the sociocultural one. This literature also predominantly focuses on Europe and the United States. Addressing these gaps, this article explores how data scientists justify and explain the ethics of their algorithmic work. Based on a pragmatist social analysis, and of 60 semi-structured interviews with Israeli data scientists, we ask: how do data scientists understand, interpret, and depict algorithmic ethics' And what ideologies, discourses, and worldviews shape algorithmic ethics' Our findings point to three dominant moral logics: (1) ethics as a personal endeavor; (2) ethics as hindering progress; and (3) ethics as a commodity. We show that while data science is a nascent profession, these moral logics originate from the techno-libertarian culture of its parent profession—engineering. Finally, we discuss the potential of these moral logics to mature into a more formal, agreed-upon moral regime.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-01-05T12:22:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221145728
       
  • A longitudinal examination of Internet users’ privacy protection
           behaviors in relation to their perceived collective value of privacy and
           individual privacy concerns

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      Authors: Yannic Meier, Nicole C Krämer
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      People’s perception of privacy can primarily be directed to themselves or to the value of privacy for society. Likewise, privacy protection can repel both individual and collective privacy threats. Focusing on this distinction, the present article examines Internet users’ privacy protection behaviors in relation to individual privacy concerns and their perceived collective value of privacy over time. We conducted a longitudinal panel study with three measurement points (N = 1790) to investigate relations between and within persons. The results of a random-intercept cross-lagged panel model revealed positive relations between the perceived value of privacy, privacy concerns, and privacy protection between persons. At the within-person level, only a temporal increase in the perceived value of privacy was related to increased protection behaviors. This suggests that individual privacy concerns are not as important for temporal protection as assumed, but that a recognition of collective privacy may temporarily change people’s privacy behavior.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-01-05T11:54:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221142799
       
  • Desirable work: Creative autonomy and the everyday turn in game production

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      Authors: Chris J Young
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Based on an ethnography of gamemaking in the Toronto game development scene, I introduce the concept of the everyday gamemaker to reveal how the everyday turn of game production work has transformed the identities of gameworkers. Whereas, previous research has documented the extensive self-exploitation and willingness of creative workers to accept difficult and precarious working conditions, I uncover how everyday gamemakers “make-do” with these modes of cultural production by their desires to going it alone as independent gamemakers, establish second careers through employment and craft work, and find professional development opportunities to make games. I argue these desires shape the nuanced work and leisure identities of everyday gamemakers and evoke their widespread struggle to achieve creative autonomy in the circuits of game production.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-01-04T08:52:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221146480
       
  • What do 5G networks, Bill Gates, Agenda 21, and QAnon have in common'
           Sources, distribution, and characteristics

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      Authors: Itai Himelboim, Porismita Borah, Danielle Ka Lai Lee, Jeonghyun (Janice) Lee, Yan Su, Anastasia Vishnevskaya, Xizhu Xiao
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Mounting uncertainties regarding the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and the popularity of social media created fertile grounds for conspiracy theories to flourish, leading to a global “infodemic.” We examine information sources used to support five popular COVID-19-related conspiracy theories on Twitter to identify (1) their primary building blocks, (2) similarities and dissimilarities across COVID-19 conspiracy theories, and (3) the relationship between type of message content and content distribution. Findings show that statements of belief and of malicious purpose were most popular, followed by conspirators, authentication, and secretive actions. However, only malicious purposes and secretive actions messages successfully predicted higher distribution of content, while, for instance, content authentication showed a negative relation. Furthermore, the type of conspiracy theories matters. Mega-theories, such as Agenda 21 and QAnon, incorporated less statements of Belief. COVID-19 vaccine–related theories focused more on authentication, while QAnon highlighted the conspirators behind the pandemic. Conceptual and practical implications are discussed.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2023-01-04T08:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221142800
       
  • Editorial

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      Authors: Steve Jones, David Park
      Pages: 3 - 4
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Volume 25, Issue 1, Page 3-4, January 2023.

      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-12-28T05:22:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221143425
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Looking backward

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      Authors: Nicholas Jankowski
      Pages: 5 - 11
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Volume 25, Issue 1, Page 5-11, January 2023.

      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-12-28T05:22:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221143426
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • International in scope and interdisciplinary in approach

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      Authors: Rohan Samarajiva
      Pages: 12 - 20
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Volume 25, Issue 1, Page 12-20, January 2023.

      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-12-28T05:22:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221143428
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Points of departure: Reflections on New Media & Society and the next
           25 years in new media studies

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      Authors: Leah A Lievrouw
      Pages: 21 - 25
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Volume 25, Issue 1, Page 21-25, January 2023.

      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-12-28T05:22:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221143427
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Reviewer acknowledgements

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      Pages: 255 - 269
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Volume 25, Issue 1, Page 255-269, January 2023.

      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-12-28T05:22:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221141179
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Knowledge of automated journalism moderates evaluations of algorithmically
           generated news

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      Authors: Wonseok (Eric) Jang, Dae Hee Kwak, Erik Bucy
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Drawing on propositions from the HAII-TIME (Human–artificial intelligence [AI] Interaction and the Theory of Interactive Media Effects) and Persuasion Knowledge Model, this study examines how knowledge of automated journalism (AJ) moderates the evaluation of algorithmically generated news. Experiment 1 demonstrates the utility of process-related knowledge in user evaluations of agency: individuals with little knowledge of AJ prefer attributions of human authorship over news stories attributed to algorithms, whereas individuals with high AJ knowledge have an equal or stronger preference for news that is described as algorithmically generated. Experiment 2 conditions these effects to show how prior characterizations of AJ—whether more machine- or human-like—shape evaluations of algorithmically generated news contingent on user age and knowledge level. Effects are found for differing age groups at lower levels of AJ knowledge, where machine-like characterizations enhance evaluations of algorithmically generated news for younger users but ascribing human-like traits enhances evaluations of automated news for older users.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-12-23T11:34:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221142534
       
  • Folk theories of false information: A mixed-methods study in the context
           of Covid-19 in Turkey

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      Authors: Suncem Koçer, Bahadır Öz, Gülten Okçuoğlu, Fezal Tapramaz
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study explores how media users define false information in the daily flow of their lives against a backdrop of sociopolitical contexts. We focus on the vernacular definitions of false information through the concept of folk theories, which are the intuitive explanatory tools users develop to make sense of and act in the world around them. Based on mixed-method research conducted in Turkey during the Covid-19 pandemic, we identify three prevailing folk theories of false information. First, users consider text-based characteristics, such as the presence of evidence as a flag of accuracy/inaccuracy. Second, users assume that people in their social networks distinguish between the accurate and the inaccurate, and thus the information coming from these circles is accurate. Finally, users imagine that people whose worldviews conflict with theirs spread inaccurate information. Despite users’ overarching references to textual traits of news, it appears that the latter two folk theories drive users’ information processing practices in daily life.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-12-23T11:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221142310
       
  • Too human and not human enough: A grounded theory analysis of mental
           health harms from emotional dependence on the social chatbot Replika

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      Authors: Linnea Laestadius, Andrea Bishop, Michael Gonzalez, Diana Illenčík, Celeste Campos-Castillo
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Social chatbot (SC) applications offering social companionship and basic therapy tools have grown in popularity for emotional, social, and psychological support. While use appears to offer mental health benefits, few studies unpack the potential for harms. Our grounded theory study analyzes mental health experiences with the popular SC application Replika. We identified mental health relevant posts made in the r/Replika Reddit community between 2017 and 2021 (n = 582). We find evidence of harms, facilitated via emotional dependence on Replika that resembles patterns seen in human–human relationships. Unlike other forms of technology dependency, this dependency is marked by role-taking, whereby users felt that Replika had its own needs and emotions to which the user must attend. While prior research suggests human–chatbot and human–human interactions may not resemble each other, we identify social and technological factors that promote parallels and suggest ways to balance the benefits and risks of SCs.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-12-23T05:25:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221142007
       
  • Be my boss: Migrant youth and the contradiction of hope labour on Kuaishou

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      Authors: Min Zhou, Shih-Diing Liu
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores the platformisation of a popular short-video platform Kuaishou and its impact on Chinese migrant youth. Based on 4 years of field observations, this study examines how Kuaishou’s platformisation process has paradoxically empowered and constrained the agency of migrant youth through the construction of ‘hope labour’. This hope labour seeks to benefit from Kuaishou’s attention economy at the expense of growing uncertainty and precarity. In particular, with the intervention of the state and fierce market competition, Kuaishou’s operation is moving towards a Douyin model to attract more urban youth, resulting in less diversity and more uniformity. This article illustrates how the joint forces of the market and the state push the platforms towards increased homogeneity. It shows how Kuaishou configures a digital assembly line for migrant youth, reproducing the precarious hope that everyone can become his or her boss.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-12-20T12:53:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221141828
       
  • An intersectional approach to evaluating the effectiveness of women’s
           sexualized body-positive imagery on Instagram

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      Authors: Megan A Vendemia, Kyla N Brathwaite, David C DeAndrea
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Our work adopted an intersectional approach to investigate how women’s racial identity may influence how they evaluate and are impacted by body-positive imagery of women on social media. In a 2 × 2 × 2 experiment (N = 975), we examined how source race (Black vs White) and sexualization (non-sexualized vs sexualized) in body-positive images affect Black and White viewers’ impressions of self-interest, moral appropriateness, and body positivity. Results indicated that viewers generally responded more favorably to non-sexualized (vs sexualized) images: Participants reported less self-interested motivations for sharing, found the images more morally appropriate, and believed they were more effective representations of body positivity. Results also revealed that Black (vs White) viewers tended to express more appreciation for body-positive imagery, regardless of source race or sexualization. Findings not only advance our theoretical understanding of sexual objectification with more diverse depictions and broader sampling, but also provide practical suggestions for advocates of the body-positive movement.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-12-14T12:21:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221143345
       
  • Representations of ICT use in young children’s television content
           broadcast in Israel

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      Authors: Keren Eyal, Matan Aharoni, Tali Te’eni-Harari
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Very young children increasingly use information and communication technologies (ICTs) in their home and educational environments. The study examined representations of ICT use in children’s television content, which is a central socialization agent for this audience. Based on cultivation theory, an in-depth qualitative content analysis of television series for young children aired in Israel was conducted. Findings indicate that ICTs are depicted in this content as largely positive, promoting community connectedness and problem resolution, and as effective innovations for the dissemination of information. At the same time, these portrayals ignore common ICTs in children’s lives (e.g. social media) as well as social and emotional aspects associated with ICTs in the real world (e.g. entertainment use). Promising themes in the representations—such as the promotion of free, intuitive, and successful use of ICTS—are coupled with findings that question the realism and relevance of these representations for young audiences.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-12-14T12:18:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221142822
       
  • The platformization of feminism: The tensions of domesticating Instagram
           for activist projects

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      Authors: Astri Moksnes Barbala
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores how contemporary feminism has become increasingly platformized, focusing on how Scandinavian feminist opinion leaders negotiate Instagram as an integral part of their everyday lives. Drawing on 3 years of digital observations and interviews with activists with over 12,000 followers each, the article investigates the meeting between Instagram’s script and feminist users who might not utilize the technology in line with the platform’s intentions. The analysis takes cues from domestication studies and underlines the morality and materiality involved in the appropriation of technology, pointing at the tensions arising when doing feminism and making culture is intertwined through the everyday use of social media platforms. Building on recent scholarship on the platformization of culture, the article offers novel contributions into how platformization affects non-profit countercultural projects.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-12-12T02:21:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221141705
       
  • Behind the lab coat: How scientists’ self-disclosure on Twitter
           influences source perceptions, tweet engagement, and scientific attitudes
           through social presence

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      Authors: Annie Li Zhang, Hang Lu
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Social media platforms like Twitter offer scientists the opportunity to share professional, personal, and scientific information with the public. This study explores the effects of these self-disclosure types. In an online between-subjects experiment (N = 1458), participants rated scientists who disclosed personal information as more likable but less competent, and scientists who disclosed professional information as more competent and engaging. Subsequently, these perceptions influenced tweet engagement and certain scientific attitudes. Social presence served as a mediator between self-disclosure and perceptions. These findings broaden our understanding of science communication on Twitter as situated within a social media platform.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-12-12T02:19:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221141681
       
  • Visual disinformation in a digital age: A literature synthesis and
           research agenda

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      Authors: Teresa Weikmann, Sophie Lecheler
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      While a fast-growing body of research is concerned with the detrimental consequences of disinformation for democracy, the role of visuals in this context has so far only been discussed superficially. Visuals are expected to amplify the impact of disinformation, but it is rarely specified how, and what exactly distinguishes them from text. This article is one of the first to treat visual disinformation as its own type of falsehood, arguing that it differs from textual disinformation in its production, processing and effects. We suggest that visual disinformation is determined by varying levels of modal richness and manipulative sophistication. Because manipulated visuals are processed differently on a psychological level, they have unique effects on citizens’ behaviours and attitudes.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-12-12T02:16:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221141648
       
  • Responsibilisation of participants in sharing economy platforms: The case
           of Airbnb and the hotelisation of hosting practice

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      Authors: Antonios Kaniadakis, Anna Farmaki
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Processes of responsibilisation aim to configure individuals into the governance models of digital platforms and realise versions of the sharing economy pursued by powerful platform owners. Questions are raised, however, as to whether this is an empowering process or one that puts participants at risk. Based on a qualitative study of Airbnb hosts in Europe, we explore their understanding of their own responsibilities as emerging hospitality practitioners. Our analysis shows that hosts actively engage in professional identity work and map a practice architecture which includes a set of responsibilities. We suggest, however, that this is not by itself a sign of empowered individuals rather a reaction to the perceived shift of Airbnb’s strategy towards hotelisation of hosting practice. We contribute to an understanding of responsibilisation as a critical and reactionary process.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-12-12T02:13:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221141645
       
  • Convenient efficiency: A media genealogy of QR codes

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      Authors: Dang Nguyen
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article explains the widespread adoption of Quick Response (QR) codes from a media genealogy perspective. Understanding QR codes as more than the materiality of their machinic embodiments and rather as a method of systematically and repeatedly addressing emergent problems, I argue that the operative logic of QR code is that of convenient efficiency. Convenient efficiency captures three dynamics that drive QR codes’ ubiquity: the potentiality of spontaneous system synergies (system/distributed convenience coupled with streamlined efficiency); the autonomy of the subjects involved as part of this cybernetic system (personal convenience coupled with stacked efficiency); and the relative independence of the networks/assemblages that these practices constitute (convenient efficiency). That the convergence between convenience and efficiency as driving forces in contemporary technological culture has origins in the shop floor is consequential to the way motion, time and the body become disciplined—as well as the epistemological practices that cohere around these forces.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-12-12T02:09:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221141086
       
  • Learning to like TikTok . . . and not: Algorithm awareness as process

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      Authors: Ignacio Siles, Luciana Valerio-Alfaro, Ariana Meléndez-Moran
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article analyzes algorithm awareness as a process—a series of activities intended to reach a goal over time. It examines how a group of Costa Ricans understood, felt about, and related to TikTok and its algorithms as they began using the app for the first time. Data come from diary entries completed by 43 participants about their use of TikTok over a month and seven focus groups with these diarists. The article discusses five activities through which users expressed developing forms of awareness of TikToks’ algorithms and enacted various rhythms in the experience of the app: managing expectations about what TikTok is and how it works; “training” the app; experiencing a sense of algorithmic personalization; dealing with oscillations in the pertinence of recommendations; and showing various forms of rejection of TikTok. The article then considers some implications of bringing time to the fore in the study of algorithm awareness.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-12-12T02:07:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221138973
       
  • The power of predictability: How Angela Merkel constructed her
           authenticity on Instagram

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      Authors: Julia Sonnevend, Olivia Steiert
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Attention-seeking personal profiles on social media increasingly define successful political communication. But Angela Merkel, during her 16-year chancellorship, has come to stand for the opposite. The first woman to ever fill the office, she built a reputation for rational, evidence-based decision-making and predictable performances. Based on a visual discourse analysis of Angela Merkel’s official Instagram account, this article shows how her authenticity was strategically built through performances of ordinariness and consistency, without relying on more emotional aspects of presentation such as immediacy and intimacy. Instead of shaping her online persona according to the traditions and style of Instagram, Merkel attempted to bend Instagram to host her unique persona. Instead of “instagramizing” Merkel, she “merkelized” Instagram. This finding complicates understandings of social media and contemporary politics as being focused on relatability, spectacle, and drama. It also questions the close conceptual connection of authenticity and intimate, emotional representations.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-12-09T07:09:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221138472
       
  • Why do volunteer content moderators quit' Burnout, conflict, and
           harmful behaviors

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      Authors: Angela M. Schöpke-Gonzalez, Shubham Atreja, Han Na Shin, Najmin Ahmed, Libby Hemphill
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Moderating content on social media can lead to severe psychological distress. However, little is known about the type, severity, and consequences of distress experienced by volunteer content moderators (VCMs), who do this work voluntarily. We present results from a survey that investigated why Facebook Group and subreddit VCMs quit, and whether reasons for quitting are correlated with psychological distress, demographics, and/or community characteristics. We found that VCMs are likely to experience psychological distress that stems from struggles with other moderators, moderation team leads’ harmful behaviors, and having too little available time, and these experiences of distress relate to their reasons for quitting. While substantial research has focused on making the task of detecting and assessing toxic content easier or less distressing for moderation workers, our study shows that social interventions for VCM workers, for example, to support them in navigating interpersonal conflict with other moderators, may be necessary.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-12-05T07:03:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221138529
       
  • Visibility agents: Organizing transparency in the digital era

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      Authors: Delaney Harness, Shiv Ganesh, Cynthia Stohl
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Transparency is a complex and multifaceted communication phenomenon. In the current environment, demands for organizational transparency now come from a wide range of entities we term visibility agents, ranging from nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and global networks, on one hand, to activist coalitions and automated surveillance agents, on the other. We develop a framework to conceive of such visibility agents and the range of transparency demands that they make in the context of environmental issues, positing that visibility agents significantly shape and diversify transparency practices. We identify four major relationships between visibility agents and organizations—inquisitorial, adversarial, associative, and advocative—which are associated with specific kinds of transparency demands, requests, and imperatives: accountability, monitoring, disclosure, and secrecy. We illustrate each set of relationships with examples of environmental reporting practices, one of the most prominent areas of transparency management. Implications for both theory and research on transparency are discussed.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-26T10:54:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221137816
       
  • How a peripheral ideology becomes mainstream: Strategic performance,
           audience reaction, and news media amplification in the case of QAnon
           Twitter accounts

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      Authors: Yini Zhang, Zhiying Yue, Xiyu Yang, Fan Chen, Nojin Kwak
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Social media platforms have been used by various actors to bypass traditional media gatekeepers to share messages, draw attention, and accumulate influence. We study how actors from peripheral groups gain influence on social media and how their social media behaviors evolve over time. Integrating online strategic performance and hybrid media literature, we hypothesize that peripheral groups perform group identities to spur social media audience reaction and news media amplification, to which they further adapt their performance. By analyzing 242 QAnon Twitter accounts using topic modeling and time series modeling, we find that their in-group solidarity and out-group animosity tweets boost retweets, but not followers; increased retweets and followers drive news media amplification largely undertaken by right-wing outlets and motivate future performance of group identity, particularly of out-group animosity. The implications of social media and news media for the growth of peripheral actors and ideologies are discussed.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-26T10:50:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221137324
       
  • ‘BEING A FANGIRL OF A SERIAL KILLER IS NOT OK’: Gatekeeping Reddit’s
           True Crime Community

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      Authors: Judith Fathallah
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      All fandoms engage in gatekeeping. Whether or not we agree that contemporary media fandoms comprise something like ‘communities’, the ‘-dom’ suffix to the term ‘fan’ necessitates some conception of a group, and groups have boundaries. These boundaries are always in tension, and self-defined true crime fans are a tricky case. True crime is mainstream, an endlessly profitable and staple of the media landscape. However, true crime fans must negotiate and police a boundary that separates them from the posited figure of the Bad Fan. This article examines the Reddit subforums r/TrueCrime and r/SerialKillers, analysing posts that discuss and police the boundaries separating the right kind of interest in true crime from this posited Bad Fan. I argue that while true crime enthusiasts tend to present their gatekeeping work as an ethical practice, it is often more to do with maintaining gendered norms than it is about morality or propriety.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-24T08:10:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221138768
       
  • The orchestrated digital inequalities of the IoT: How vendor lock-in
           hinders and playfulness creates IoT benefits in every life

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      Authors: Alex van der Zeeuw, Alexander JAM van Deursen, Giedo Jansen
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      As the Internet of Things (IoT) is becoming the next frontier for the digital divide, we argue that access to most of the IoT and its benefits are hindered by vendor lock-in. Yet, people with an advanced set of operational skills can find creative ways to overcome vendor lock-in. In this article, we study socio-contextual dispositions to why some people are better able to capitalize on IoT benefits creatively than others. We use interview data and a novel approach to a diary study using a mobile application among 30 households. By focusing on vendor lock-in against the interplay between operational skills and creative IoT uses, we find those with the least access to IoT benefits are users who mainly task-oriented and consider IoT tools to solve specific problems. Those with a more play orientation are better positioned to access IoT benefits and further develop their operational skills.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-24T07:30:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221138075
       
  • Minority social influence and moral decision-making in human–AI
           interaction: The effects of identity and specialization cues

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      Authors: Yuheng Wu, Ki Joon Kim, Yi Mou
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      In group decision-making, the behavior of each member is sensitive to the social influence of other majority members. Research on majority influence has shown that multiple non-human agents with anthropomorphic cues can exert normative pressure on a lone human decision-maker. However, how individuals perceive and respond to minority influence exerted by a lone machine is rarely discussed. Hence, a between-subjects experiment was conducted to examine how different minority identity (human vs artificial intelligence [AI]) and specialization (specialist vs generalist) cues influence individuals’ perceptions and behavior in response to moral dilemmas in a joint human–AI group. The results confirmed the significant role of specialization cues in predicting in-group identification, source credibility, and conversion behavior. In addition, the participants perceived the human minority as more credible than the AI minority, which prompted conversion behavior when the minority was labeled as a specialist rather than as a generalist.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-24T07:27:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221138072
       
  • جمال_خاشقجي# #JamalKhashoggi: Unraveling multilingual Twitter
           sentiment dynamics in a longitudinal comparative analysis of tweets in
           Arabic and English

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      Authors: Nour Zeid, Thomas Frissen, Sebastian Scherr
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      In 2018, Jamal Khashoggi, a Saudi journalist who wrote for the Washington Post, was last seen alive entering the Saudi Consulate in Istanbul. Confirmed news of his murder ignited a heated and polarized public debate on Twitter. We use agenda melding as a theoretical lemma and argue that Twitter sentiment flourishes within multilingual, ad hoc public spheres contributing to an emotional agenda. We examined the Twitter sentiment from 2018 to 2021 by looking at the most popular hashtags used in both the Arabic-and-English language spheres. The daily sentiment analysis of 3,278,464 tweets revealed that both languages had a predominantly negative sentiment; however, the English sphere was more extreme in their emotional expression. An additional analysis of external media URLs found in a subsample of tweets highlighted distinct references to media discourse, emphasizing an East–West divide. Implications for global communication are discussed.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-24T07:24:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221137016
       
  • Search quality complaints and imaginary repair: Control in articulations
           of Google Search

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      Authors: Daniel Griffin, Emma Lurie
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      In early 2017, a journalist and search engine expert wrote about “Google’s biggest ever search quality crisis.” Months later, Google hired him as the first Google “Search Liaison” (GSL). By October 2021, when someone posted to Twitter a screenshot of misleading Google Search results for “had a seizure now what,” users tagged the Twitter account of the GSL in reply. The GSL frequently publicly interacts with people who complain about Google Search on Twitter. This article asks: what functions does the GSL serve for Google' We code and analyze 6 months of GSL responses to complaints on Twitter. We find that the three functions of the GSL are: (1) to naturalize the logic undergirding Google Search by defending how it works, (2) perform repair in responses to complaints, and (3) boundary drawing to control critique. This advances our understanding of how dominant technology companies respond to critiques and resist counter-imaginaries.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-24T07:19:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221136505
       
  • Defining affordances in social media research: A literature review

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      Authors: Alexander Ronzhyn, Ana Sofia Cardenal, Albert Batlle Rubio
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      An increasingly influential strand of research on social media relies on the concept of affordances to account for effects. However, hindering the possibility of a unified theory of affordances in social media is the conceptual blurring surrounding the concept. This article engages in a comprehensive review of the affordances literature in social media, aiming to provide an overview of the current state of the art and clarify the use of the concept. Through a systematic literature review, the characteristics of affordances research in social media are uncovered: the most prominent areas of application, research approaches, and dominant typologies and conceptualisations. Significant blurriness of the term ‘affordance’ is identified as well as an inconsistent use in research. To tackle these problems, a unified definition of affordances in social media is proposed based on the synthesis of knowledge on affordances in technology and social media. The suggested definition captures the core aspects of the concept to reduce ambiguity in the use of the concept and further the research on affordances of social media. The article provides the groundwork for future use of affordances theory in social media research.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-23T11:40:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221135187
       
  • The social-ecological model of cyberbullying: Digital media as a
           predominant ecology in the everyday lives of youth

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      Authors: Molly-Gloria Patel, Anabel Quan-Haase
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      While cyberbullying has been recognized as a critically important social problem, a void remains regarding the role of digital media. To address this gap, we propose the social-ecological model of cyberbullying, an expanded model that builds on Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory (EST) and expands Swearer and Espelage’s social-ecological model of bullying. A strength of the proposed model is the addition of the digital context as a new ecology in the everyday lives of youth, which is closely interconnected with all the other systems. Furthermore, the model incorporates digital-specific factors within each ecological system of the original EST model. This provides scholars with a holistic model that they can test, finetune, and expand. A practical implication of the model is that it can guide the creation and implementation of effective and age-appropriate cyberbullying prevention and intervention approaches because it considers in the chronosystem life phases, life transitions, historical events, and crises.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-23T07:17:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221136508
       
  • Visual focus groups: Stimulating reflexive conversations with collective
           drawing

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      Authors: Elisabetta Ferrari
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      In this methodological article, I introduce a qualitative research method, called the visual focus group (VFG), which incorporates a collective drawing task within the structure of a focus group. The VFG was specifically developed to support engaged research about how activists conceptualize the political role of technology, by stimulating participants to reflect on their unspoken assumptions about digital technologies. After reviewing the relevant literature on focus groups and graphic elicitation techniques, the article presents two types of VFGs: diagnostic and speculative. While diagnostic VFGs are primarily a research tool meant to enable researchers to assess how people envision technology, speculative VFGs encourage participants to imagine better digital technologies. I describe the structure of both types of VFGs and offer examples of their outputs; I then discuss the limitations of this method and propose other research topics for which it might be used.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-23T07:14:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221136082
       
  • Safe spaces' Grounding political talk in WhatsApp groups

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      Authors: Qinfeng Zhu, Marc Esteve-Del-Valle, Julia K Meyer
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Instant messaging (IM) platforms are believed to foster intimate and controlled conversations within small groups and hence provide safe social settings for political conversations, and yet we know little about how political talk emerges from the everyday social interactions in these environments. To fill the gap, this study examines how sociability within small, private WhatsApp groups shapes the extent and forms of political talk among young adults. Relying on in-depth interviews conducted in the Netherlands, we find that young people perceive politics as personal, offensive, divisive, and depressing, hence unsafe for WhatsApp groups where they find comfort in communicating care and phatic exchanges. Nonetheless, rules, relationship qualities, and strategies enacted in these groups allow some political talk to become temporarily possible. However, they perceive that what makes political talk safer also makes it unproductive. Our findings thus contribute to a finer-grained understanding of political talk in the closed digital spaces.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-23T07:09:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221136080
       
  • Tactics of invisibility: How people in vulnerable positions make datafied
           everyday life livable

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      Authors: Karoliina Talvitie-Lamberg, Vilma Lehtinen, Sanna Valtonen
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Various data platforms force the individual into constant presence and visibility. However, the ways in which datafied environments relate to experienced vulnerabilities in our everyday lives remain unclear. Through diaries produced by and interviews with participants from three groups who occupy presumably vulnerable positions and who currently live in Finland, we explore the ways in which people challenge expectations and prior assumptions related to forced visibility. Using the concept of tactics developed by de Certeau, we aim to understand how individuals make everyday surveillance culture livable through what we call tactics of invisibility. Based on our analysis, we identify three kinds of tactics in this context: keeping worlds apart, cropping oneself out of the frame, and sidestepping. We interpret tactics of invisibility as ways of shaping a space for oneself illustrate fractures in what previous research has framed as digital resignation.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-23T07:06:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221136077
       
  • Technologies of last resort: The discursive construction of digital
           activism in Wired and Time magazine, 2010–2021

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      Authors: Victoria Balan, Delia Dumitrica
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article approaches digital activism as an object of discourse and asks: how is the political prowess of digital technologies discursively articulated in news magazine coverage of digital activism' We take an exploratory approach that maps the representations of digital activism in two world-renowned news magazines – Wired and Time, between 2010 and 2021. We find five dominant narratives through which digital technologies gain political significance, namely: as a last resort; as a witness; as a double-edged sword; as sites of creativity; and as enablers of horizontalism. We argue that these narratives contribute to a persistent discourse casting digital technologies as powerful political tools of grassroots empowerment, which enable unprecedented levels of citizen mobilization. This discourse rehearses techno-utopian imaginaries casting digital technologies as democratizing forces while underplaying the difficulties of sustaining mobilization and of working towards political change.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-23T07:02:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221135886
       
  • #MeToo on Twitter: The migration of celebrity capital and social capital
           in online celebrity advocacy

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      Authors: Li Chen, Carol M Liebler
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Utilizing the #MeToo movement as its case, this article examines celebrities’ symbolic power using social media’s connectivity to enlarge the impact of social causes. This article adopts social network analysis as the primary method to explore the relationship between two #MeToo networks and media coverage regarding celebrities’ roles. Based on theories of social capital and celebrity capital, the results of this article find that famous people’s symbolic power in one social field can transfer into the social activism field through investment in their celebrity capital and social capital.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-23T07:01:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221135879
       
  • The bar of Forocoches as a masculine online place: Affordances,
           masculinist digital practices and trolling

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      Authors: Silvia Díaz-Fernández, Elisa García-Mingo
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Forocoches is an underexplored online forum, part of the Spanish manosphere, notorious for its misogynistic and trolling content. In this work, we understand Forocoches, through the metaphor of the bar, as a distinct (online) place where men go to talk and joke around. The interaction of very specific affordances enables the creation of a particular masculinist online culture. The data in this article are drawn from a combination of the walkthrough method with a qualitative content analysis of the forum. Results show that Forocoches’ affordances facilitate the reproduction of masculinist digital practices, particularly trolling-based. The performance of trolling masculinities thus emerges, afforded by the functionalities and diverse uses of the platform, configuring itself as a socially acceptable archetype of digital (hegemonic) masculinity. As a result of this afforded masculinist engagement, the online borders of Forocoches are delineated, clearly distinguishing among insiders and others, which could lead to further reinforcing of hegemonic masculinity.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-23T06:53:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221135631
       
  • Signaling silence: Affective and cognitive responses to risks of online
           activism about corruption in an authoritarian context

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      Authors: Aysenur Dal, Erik C. Nisbet, Olga Kamenchuk
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Networked authoritarian governments’ use of digital repression creates uncertainty and amplifies risk signals for ordinary citizens using social media for political expression. Employing theoretical frameworks from the risk and decision-making literature, we experimentally examine how citizens perceive and respond to the risks of low-effort forms of online activism in an authoritarian context. Our online field experiment demonstrates that emotional responses to the regime’s risk signals about online activism drive decision-making about contentious online political expression as compared with cognitive appraisal of risk. Moreover, the relationship between anticipatory emotions and contentious online political expression varies significantly depending on individuals’ involvement with the controversial topic of expression. We discuss the importance of emotions and citizen risk judgments for understanding online activism within networked authoritarian contexts.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-15T12:34:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221135861
       
  • Signaling news outlet trust in a Google Knowledge Panel: A conjoint
           experiment in Brazil, Germany, and the United States

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      Authors: Gina M Masullo, Claudia Wilhelm, Taeyoung Lee, João Gonçalves, Martin J Riedl, Natalie J Stroud
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Using data from a conjoint experiment in three countries (Brazil, n = 2038; Germany, n = 2012, and the United States, n = 2005), this study demonstrates that journalistic transparency can cue trust at the level of the entire news outlet—or domain level—using a Google Knowledge Panel that comes up when people search for a news outlet. In Brazil and the United States, two pieces of information in a Knowledge Panel provided the strongest heuristics that a news outlet was trustworthy: a description of the news outlet and a description of other sites accessed by people who frequent that news outlet’s website. In Germany, information about journalists and the description of the news outlet were the strongest cues. Results offer insights into how people heuristically process online news and are discussed in relation to the heuristic-systematic model of information processing.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-15T12:29:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221135860
       
  • Predicting COVID: Understanding audience responses to predictive
           journalism via online comments

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      Authors: Mowafak Allaham, Nicholas Diakopoulos
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic triggered a global health crisis that stimulated journalists to frame their stories around predictive models and forecasts aiming to predict the future trend of the pandemic. This article examines the audience response to predictive journalism by qualitatively analyzing readers’ comments to articles covering COVID that were published in a small sample of mainstream media. Based on a thematic analysis of readers’ comments, this research contributes a typology of audience response types to the models incorporated in such predictive journalism. We elaborate on each of three primary themes—reflecting affective, action-oriented, and evaluative responses—and discuss the implications of our findings and the importance of expanding research to answer questions related to the role of predictive journalism in shaping affective response, encouraging action-oriented responses and collective planning around responsibility for taking future actions, and considering the ways in which supportive and critical comments triggered by the models may be harnessed to improve communication.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-15T12:25:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221135632
       
  • Use this sound: Networked ventriloquism on Yiddish TikTok

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      Authors: Ido Ramati, Ruthie Abeliovich
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores body–voice entanglements in TikTok through the prism of ventriloquism. It suggests that TikTok is an app of network ventriloquism, that is, an audiovisual technology–based web of dissociations and reconfigurations of users’ bodies and voices. Yiddish serves as a case study for how TikTok’s features build an infrastructure for language, heritage, and cultural activism. We analyze YiddishToks as an instantiation of the ways TikTokers embody actual technolinguistic and ventriloquistic interconnections as well as bond with past generations. YiddishTokers interlace times and spaces and recontextualize Yiddish media history. TikTok’s algorithm participates in this reanimation of Yiddish’s past; it is a transparent, audible director that prompts the network off-stage. TikTok is an algorithmic network ventriloquism app that mediates between human and non-human voices.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-15T12:18:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221135159
       
  • Who is afraid of dataveillance' Attitudes toward online surveillance
           in a cross-cultural and generational perspective

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      Authors: Veronika Kalmus, Göran Bolin, Rita Figueiras
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article compares surveillance-related experiences and attitudes of two generations of media users in countries with different historical surveillance regimes (Estonia, Portugal, and Sweden) and analyzes the predictors of the attitudes toward contemporary surveillance. A large-scale online survey (N = 3221) reveals that attitudes toward online state and corporate surveillance are interrelated; the two attitudinal components are, however, generation-specific, having different predictors. Tolerance toward state surveillance is more characteristic of the older group, being predicted by trustful and obedient attitudes toward state authorities and institutions. Tolerance toward corporate dataveillance is more characteristic of the younger group, being predicted by active and self-confident media use. While the socio-historical context molds the intergenerational gaps in surveillance-related experiences and attitudes, individual-level experiences of state surveillance do not predict tolerance toward either type of contemporary surveillance, suggesting that global techno-cultural developments are probably more powerful factors than past experiences in forming generation-specific attitudes.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-15T12:14:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221134493
       
  • The lights are on, but no one’s home: A performance test to measure
           digital skills to use IoT home automation

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      Authors: Pia S de Boer, Alexander JAM van Deursen, Thomas JL van Rompay
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      As the Internet of Things (IoT) is making its entrance in people’s homes, differences in the skills to operate smart home devices need to be considered. This study examined (1) the levels of digital skills to use IoT home automation among Dutch adult citizens and (2) differences of these skills over gender, age, and education. Therefore, a performance test with actual real-life tasks was conducted among a representative sample (N = 99) of the Dutch adult population to measure digital skill levels. The participants performed tasks while using interconnected smart home devices in a virtual test environment. The results revealed that the Dutch adult population possesses insufficient data and strategic skills to use smart home devices to its full potential. Even less likely to benefit are the elderly and less educated; they showed the lowest levels of data and strategic skills. In addition, the elderly lack operational skills to use IoT home automation beneficially.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-15T12:11:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221133737
       
  • The continuity principle of digital remains

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      Authors: Tal Morse, Michael Birnhack
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The digitization of social interactions and daily activities means that multiple aspects of our daily lives are documented and stored, and social interactions leave digital traces. The accumulated data do not evaporate upon death, and questions about posthumous privacy and impression management arise. Drawing on eight focus groups comprised of Israeli Internet users from various backgrounds, the article points to the perceived interrelation between posthumous impression management and respect toward the dead and identifies a pervasive normative stance that advocates for the continuation of privacy management from life to after death. We call it the continuity principle. The living users position their personal data across two axes of public–private and in life–after death and manage access to their data accordingly. The findings suggest that given a digital footprint and possibilities to access digital remains, the separation between life and death erodes. However, users opine that in-life norms should linger and survive death.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-08T10:19:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221133535
       
  • Spreaders vs victims: The nuanced relationship between age and
           misinformation via FoMO and digital literacy in different cultures

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      Authors: Hyerim Jo, Fan Yang, Qing Yan
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Utilizing online surveys of 729 US and 469 Chinese respondents, this study examines the mediated relationships between age and misinformation via fear of missing out (FoMO) and digital literacy in two different cultures. Results suggest that senior citizens are uniquely vulnerable to misinformation as the victims, in that they are less likely to check on suspicious content and that they are also less motivated to share information online in general. In contrast, youngadults have a greater propensity to be the spreaders of misinformation if not made suspicious of the content due to their stronger motivations to share information online. FoMO and digital literacy significantly mediate the relationship between age and motivations to share information and the one between age and reactions to misinformation, respectively. Sociocultural differences vary the intensity of these mediated relationships. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-07T09:35:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221130476
       
  • Rohingya diaspora online: Mapping the spaces of visibility, resistance and
           transnational identity on social media

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      Authors: Abdul Aziz
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines how the Rohingya diaspora employs social media platforms to reclaim their identity narratives through visibility and resistance in the context of genocide and subsequent prolonged displacement. Drawing on qualitative interviews with 15 displaced Rohingya members and activists in Brisbane, Australia, this article demonstrates how transnational digital engagements foreground the construction of the Rohingya diaspora, and subsequently how the transnational identities are negotiated and mediated online. The findings show that the social media platforms facilitated the Rohingya diaspora development and identity construction through building an ‘imagined community’ of resistance, transnational advocacy networks and diasporic media production. At the same time, this article explores how online activism evolved and marginal voices emerged in cyberspace longing for home(land), justice and citizenship rights. This study brings unique insights to understand voices from the margins and shows how new media allow ethnic minorities and marginalised groups to construct diasporic identity through online mediation in transnational spaces.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-11-05T12:20:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221132241
       
  • Understanding the role of new media literacy in the diffusion of
           unverified information during the COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Eun Hee Lee, Taejun (David) Lee, Byung-Kwan Lee
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      New media literacy (NML) is an emerging construct of great value in a digital age in which information overload threatens the well-being of society. Among the scarcity of available research going beyond a theoretical conceptualization of NML and using structural equational modeling, we explored the influence of NML on media trust, perception of fake news, and fact-checking motivation that underlie the dissemination of unverified information during the COVID-19 pandemic. Challenging the assertion of NML’s absolute effect on mitigating the problem of fake news communication, the components of NML were shown to contribute to the transmission of unverified information among citizens unless the risk of fake news was well understood. The findings suggest that further research is required to fully understand the scope of NML in designing public education, and that the problem of fake news spread may be a social phenomenon that digitalized society must embrace.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-10-31T01:33:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221130955
       
  • Affording worker solidarity in motion: Theorising the intersection between
           social media and agential practices in the platform economy

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      Authors: Yang Zhou, Ngai Pun
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Worker solidarity is a recurring theme in the digital labour debate. While recent studies of the on-demand platforms contribute to highlighting digital affordances in fostering solidarity among gig workers, few have explored how this works in depth and offered a theoretically informed evaluation of this potential. This study of Didi drivers in China fills this gap by looking at how agential practices amplify or constrain the effects of digital communication. We contribute to constructing a mediated framework of affordances for association, for discourse and for mobilisation to examine the process of fostering worker solidarity. Increasingly under structural constraints of platform control and state surveillance on labour activism, this article discloses the theoretical puzzle of ‘solidarity in question’ by rooting the agential practices firmly in the analysis of workers’ gender, migratory status, work experience and critical media literacy, and how they intersect with the tactical appropriation of social media to create potential.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-10-26T07:26:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221130474
       
  • Book Review: Misogynoir Transformed: Black Women’s Digital
           Resistance

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      Authors: Melissa Brown
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-10-26T07:23:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221129217
       
  • From individual affectedness to collective identity: personal testimony
           campaigns on social media and the logic of collection

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      Authors: Paolo Gerbaudo
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, there has been much debate about the consequences of the internet and social media for activism and social movements. According to Lance W Bennett and Alexandra Segerberg, digital activism involves a logic of ‘connective action’, in which collective action and collective identity lose importance. To assess the validity of this theory, I focus on personal testimony campaigns that have by now become a familiar digital tactic, especially in online mobilisations around issues of gender and sexuality. Drawing on discourse analysis of some of the most prominent examples, from #MeToo to #GirlsLikeUs, I argue that more than a logic of connection, what is at stake here is a ‘logic of collection’, involved in gathering personal testimonies as specimens of various grievances people are affected by (sexual harassment, discrimination, etc.). Aggregating personal testimonies around shared hashtags provides a means to construct and/or trasform the collective identity of the groups involved in order to raise their self-awareness and place them in a better position to engage in collective action. These practices thus suggest the need to overcome the opposition between personal and collective identity inherent in the theory of ‘connective action’, and refocus research on the forms of online identification that connect these two levels.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-10-25T11:43:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221128523
       
  • Philanthropic, prosocial players: How game-related charity events motivate
           unlikely donors

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      Authors: Amanda C Cote, Sonya Dal Cin, Liese Exelmans, Matea Mustafaj
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Although we have long known that many different types of individuals play video games, the stereotypical “gamer” is often portrayed as a young male. Furthermore, research into questions such as violence and aggression, addiction or problematic play, and toxic gaming communities tends to frame gamers and gaming as anti-social. From a philanthropic perspective, then, gamers appear to be unlikely candidates for charitable giving. Following attendance at a fundraising game tournament for Gamers Outreach, a non-profit charity that provides video game systems to children’s hospitals, this research team conducted a survey of attendees. Our findings suggest that gamers are willing to support and monetarily contribute to a cause they believe in, but also that engaging potential donors through their preexisting interests and communities—in this case, games—can be a productive form of outreach. Finally, participants recognized and sought to combat gaming’s anti-social stereotypes, revealing a further motivation behind their charitable behavior.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-10-20T10:46:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221130738
       
  • Not who you think' Exposure and vulnerability to misinformation

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      Authors: Nicolas M Anspach, Taylor N Carlson
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Is exposure to false information necessary for misbelief' In this article, we consider the possibility that certain individuals hold misinformed beliefs without encountering misinformation, thus questioning for whom exposure to “fake news” is most deleterious. Using a pre-registered experiment on a diverse sample of 1079 US respondents, we find that the young, those with low information literacy, and those with high trust in government tend to hold mistaken beliefs, even without exposure to misinformation. Because these groups are already misinformed, eventual exposure to fake news does little to influence their misperceptions. Instead, misinformation exposure affects the elderly, those with high information literacy, and those with low trust in mainstream media the most. These results suggest that research focused on correcting misperceptions should avoid studying how certain characteristics correlate with misbelief only in misinformation’s presence.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-10-19T01:25:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221130422
       
  • Hashtag feminism in a blocked context: The mechanisms of unfolding and
           disrupting #rape on Persian Twitter

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      Authors: Hossein Kermani, Niloofar Hooman
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Despite the growing body of literature on hashtag feminism in Western contexts, there is still a significant gap in our knowledge of the ways that feminist hashtag movements are developed in authoritarian societies. Moreover, we do not know much about the mechanisms by which a feminist hashtag movement is disrupted, particularly in non-democratic regimes. Drawing on and contributing to the hashtag feminism literature, we undertook a discursive approach to examine #rape on Persian Twitter to address these gaps. Findings showed that #rape was a space for Iranian users to share abusive experiences, but they went further to discuss barriers of disclosing sexual assault as well. Developing resistive strategies and raising awareness about other muted groups such as LGBTQIA+ were other discursive practices in articulating #rape. This article also pushes forward the existing literature on hashtag feminism by providing empirical analyses of the ways that a feminist movement is disrupted.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-10-19T01:18:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221128827
       
  • Heightened scrutiny: The unequal impact of online hygiene scores on
           restaurant reviews

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      Authors: Chao Yu, Drew Margolin
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The success of the public display of restaurant hygiene scores has encouraged online review sites to display these scores digitally on their platforms. By investigating 225,252 Yelp reviews toward 1,937 restaurants in Charlotte, North Carolina, we find that while displaying hygiene scores digitally can inform consumers in a way that reduces bias in reviews, it paradoxically can also promote the creation of more reviews that are biased, something we call the cognitive–discursive dilemma. Specifically, after the digital display on Yelp, reviews mentioning hygiene were more in line with scores, indicating an improvement in “accuracy” across reviews in general. Yet, the digital display also led to greater attention to hygiene, leading to lower scores for restaurants of lower social status as measured by price and cuisine type. Our findings thus call for more attention to a broader theoretical implication about the provision of “accurate information” on review sites.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-10-11T09:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221127674
       
  • The effects of avatar customization and virtual human mind perception: A
           test using Milgram’s paradigm

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      Authors: Jorge Peña, Matthew Craig, Hans Baumhardt
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated how “teacher” avatar customization and exposure to “learner” virtual humans who display mind-affected participants’ behavior and emotions in a re-creation of Milgram’s obedience experiment. Female participants customized avatars that merged their physical self with hero, antihero, or villain archetypes and then interacted with a mindful or non-mindful virtual human; 82.8% of participants went above the maximum electric shock intensity. Women who customized hero avatars delivered lower voltage shocks to a virtual human compared with those who customized antihero and villain avatars. Virtual humans’ display of mind did not affect shock intensity, guilt, or negative emotion though participants reported increased shame after shocking a mindful versus a non-mindful virtual human. Customizing antihero avatars increased shame and negative affect, especially after interacting with mindful virtual humans. We discuss the implications of these findings for the Proteus effect and Computers Are Social Actors perspective in extreme virtual encounters.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-10-11T09:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221127258
       
  • How digital devices transform literary reading: The impact of e-books,
           audiobooks and online life on reading habits

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      Authors: Kari Spjeldnæs, Faltin Karlsen
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Literary reading is under transformation. Digital devices supplement traditional paper books with e-books and audiobooks, and at the same time, ubiquitous digital connection challenges focused reading. Based on a qualitative interview study with adult leisure readers, this article explores how affordances offered by digital technologies influence reading habits. Informants demonstrate how e-books and audiobooks enhance reading experiences, as digital affordances influence the how and the when of literary consumption. Three prominent findings are stated. (1) Readers adapt reading mode to the situation, and experienced readers have developed strategies to maximise the ultimate combination of title, format and reading conditions. (2) Digital reading favours lighter texts. This dimension is more substantial for audiobooks, relating to the wide choice of combining audiobooks with other activities. (3) Being devoted readers motivates people to develop strategies to ensure further reading. These strategies effectively make readers practically and temporally disconnect to immerse in literature.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-10-11T09:27:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221126168
       
  • Media exposure and adoption of COVID-19 preventive behaviors in Brazil

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      Authors: Gustavo S Mesch, Wilson Levy Braga da Silva Neto, Jose Eduardo Storopoli
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this article is to study the effects of media communication regarding COVID-19 on the adoption of healthy behaviors. Specifically, we investigated the role of fear in the relationship between media exposure and adoption of healthy protective measures while also identifying individual effects for traditional media (TV and newspapers) versus social media. The study was based on a large sample of university students (n = 7554) during April 2020 in Brazil. Results showed that controlling for self-efficacy, age, and gender, total media exposure had greater indirect effect than direct effect on the adoption of healthy behaviors. The indirect effect was through the perception of fear of becoming ill (with COVID-19). We discuss the theoretical implications of the findings.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-10-11T09:17:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221122203
       
  • The online structure and development of posting behaviour in Dutch
           anti-vaccination groups on Telegram

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      Authors: Anniek Schlette, Jan-Willem van Prooijen, Arjan Blokland, Fabienne Thijs
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Online communities play an important role in spreading public discontent and could contribute to polarization. This study focuses on anti-vaccination views in the Netherlands, which have intensified during the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined the structure and development of five Dutch anti-vaccination Telegram groups and studied their interactivity and posting behaviour. Using group-based trajectory modelling, we examined the development of users’ posting behaviour in these groups. We find four posting trajectories across all five groups. A small group of users contributes the majority of posts. Overall, posting frequency declines over time and our results do not show evidence for a group of users whose posting frequency increases. This is taken to indicate that only a small group of users spread their anti-vaccination views through Telegram groups. While social media can reach a broad audience, most users are not necessarily engaged to also actively contribute to the online anti-vaccination community.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-10-08T08:11:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221128475
       
  • News literacy, fake news recognition, and authentication behaviors after
           exposure to fake news on social media

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      Authors: Michael Chan
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The global problem of online disinformation has led scholars, educators, and other stakeholders in societies to emphasize the utility of news literacy to engender more critical news audiences. Using a survey among a representative online sample of citizens in Hong Kong (N = 1485), this study examined how dispositional news literacy was related to individuals’ ability to discern real and fake COVID-related news on social media and their news authentication behaviors. Results showed that higher news literacy was related to greater ability to discern the veracity of real and fake news headlines; greater likelihood of certain internal acts of authentication when exposed to fake news (e.g. assessing content characteristics of the message); and greater likelihood to search online to verify fake news. The findings demonstrated the normative benefits of high dispositional news literacy among the general populace that can attenuate the effects of online disinformation.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-10-08T08:04:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221127675
       
  • Youth on standby' Explaining adolescent and young adult bystanders’
           intervention against online hate speech

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      Authors: Magdalena Obermaier
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Most adolescents and young adults frequently encounter hate speech online. Although online bystander intervention is essential to combating such hate, young bystanders may need support with initiating interventions online. Thus, to illuminate the factors of young bystanders’ intervention, we conducted a nationwide, quota-based, quantitative online survey of 1180 young adults in Germany. Among the results, perceived personal responsibility for combating online hate speech positively predicted online bystanders’ direct and indirect intervention. Moreover, frequent exposure to online hate speech was positively associated with bystander intervention, whereas, a perceived threat or low self-efficacy reduced the likelihood of intervention. Also, a greater acceptance of negative consequences and being educated about online hate speech through peers or campaigns all positively predicted some direct and indirect forms of online bystander intervention.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-10-08T07:13:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221125417
       
  • News is “toxic”: Exploring the non-sharing of news online

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      Authors: Nick Mathews, Valérie Bélair-Gagnon, Seth C Lewis
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Sharing is a central activity on social media platforms and a key component in crafting one’s self-presentation online. In the context of news, user-driven sharing is seen as vital to the success of digital journalism. While research has examined why people choose to share news online, much less is known about non-sharing—that is, why people may be reluctant to share, and what that determination suggests about the nature of news and self-presentation. We examine qualitative interview responses from a cross-section of US news consumers to investigate this question. We find that non-sharers tend to believe that news is “toxic” and potentially damaging to their reputations as well as their relationships. Not sharing news is a protective mechanism for identity maintenance, even as it brings worries about one’s voice being silenced in the process.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-10-06T07:28:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221127212
       
  • Social media use of the police in crisis situations: A mixed-method study
           on communication practices of the German police

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      Authors: Marc Jungblut, Anna Sophie Kümpel, Ramona Steer
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Social media have become essential for crisis communication. While past research has focused on their role in corporate communication, studies largely ignored how public organizations use social media. Among these, the police are a particularly relevant case due to their responsibilities in society. Using a sequential mixed-methods design that combines qualitative interviews with an automated content analysis, this study analyzes how the German police use social media during community (e.g. mass shootings) and organizational-level crises (e.g. misdemeanors within the police). The results demonstrate that Twitter and Facebook are the primary platforms for crisis communication, with their unique affordances shaping the communicative styles of the police. We also find police communication strategies to differ between the two crisis types. During community-level crises, the main goal of the police is to provide information in a largely unidirectional manner, while communication during organizational-level crises is more dialogue-oriented to prevent reputational damage.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-10-05T07:03:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221127899
       
  • Exploring data ageism: What good data can(’t) tell us about the digital
           practices of older people'

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      Authors: Mireia Fernández-Ardèvol, Line Grenier
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Considering that data are no stranger to politics and power, we argue that it may well be a site of age-based discrimination. We discuss how older people are described and, at times, disregarded in the analysis of digitisation and how those partial descriptions bring about challenges in the study of digital practices throughout life. We propose the notion of data ageism to conceptualise the production and reproduction of the disadvantaged status of old age caused by decisions concerning how to collect and deliver whose data. We exemplify this concept by examining data produced by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union, which offers high-quality statistics on digitisation, but no data on individuals aged 75 years and over.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-10-03T10:13:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221127261
       
  • Difficult heritage on social network sites: An integrative review

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      Authors: Ingrida Kelpšienė, Donata Armakauskaitė, Viktor Denisenko, Kęstas Kirtiklis, Rimvydas Laužikas, Renata Stonytė, Lina Murinienė, Costis Dallas
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Social network sites (SNS) have recently become an active ground for interactions on contested and dissonant heritage, on the heritage of excluded and subaltern groups, and on the heritage of collective traumatic past events. Situated at the intersection between heritage studies, memory studies, Holocaust studies, social media studies and digital heritage studies, a growing body of scholarly literature has been emerging in the past 10 years, addressing online communication practices on SNS. This study, an integrative review of a comprehensive corpus of 80 scholarly works about difficult heritage on SNS, identifies the profile of authors contributing to this emerging area of research, the increasing frequency of publication after 2017, the prevalence of qualitative research methods, the global geographic dispersion of heritage addressed, and the emergence of common themes and concepts derived mostly from the authors ‘home’ fields of memory studies, heritage studies and (digital) media studies.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-29T07:33:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221122186
       
  • Examining the effect of identification with a social media community on
           persuasive message processing and attitude change

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      Authors: Brent J Hale
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Recent scholarship has suggested the presence of website-delineated social identities within social media platforms, couched within the social identity model of deindividuation effects, and evidenced by distinct commenting patterns between networks. This study experimentally evaluated the possibility that Imgur users self-categorize and identify with an Imgur social identity, testing this hypothesis through the lens of in-group argumentation and attitudinal conformity. Specifically, this study presented persuasive messages to individuals reporting varying levels of Imgur identification and measured resulting attitudes, manipulating message context and the presence of message-reinforcing user comments. Findings support the proposition that users identify with the Imgur community, as high-identifiers exhibited greater message processing and normative attitude change when exposed to a persuasive message from an in-group source (i.e. another Imgur user) than low identifiers. These results further our understanding of contemporary social media use, contributing to a growing body of literature exploring online social identification and persuasive message processing.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-26T07:29:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221124085
       
  • Different stakes, different struggles, and different practices to survive:
           News organizations and the spectrum of platform dependency

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      Authors: Jane Yeahin Pyo
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      As people access news via digital platforms, existing literature provides foundations for institutional approaches to news organizations’ platform dependency. Yet, platform dependency also exists on a spectrum: size, business model, and market position impact how each news organization strategizes its reliance on digital platforms. I draw on in-depth interviews with 22 South Korean news professionals to delve into different survival strategies in dealing with South Korea’s biggest search portal and news aggregator, Naver. Findings reveal that contrary to the common belief, journalists in legacy news organizations experience more pressure and compromise journalistic values with clickbait headlines. They deem their relationship with the platform more in hierarchical and inevitable terms while journalists from new, emerging organizations are relatively freer from the competition for clicks and strive for more quality journalism. However, the difference stems from the Naver platform’s news organization ranking system and its tiered visibility structure that systematically creates the difference in audience reach and news distribution.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-24T09:17:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221123279
       
  • The roles of perceived privacy control, Internet privacy concerns and
           Internet skills in the direct and indirect Internet uses of older adults:
           Conceptual integration and empirical testing of a theoretical model

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      Authors: Jošt Bartol, Katja Prevodnik, Vasja Vehovar, Andraž Petrovčič
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Internet privacy has been proposed as a new dimension of the digital divide. Although Internet privacy relates to all segments of the population, older Internet users are particularly vulnerable because they generally have lower Internet skills. Coupled with their high level of privacy concerns, this can dissuade them from fully engaging in a variety of Internet uses. As older adults overcome their limited Internet skills by asking others to perform online activities on their behalf, a practice known as use-by-proxy, it is likely that this is also a strategy for dealing with Internet privacy concerns. Therefore, we examine how Internet skills, along with Internet privacy concerns and perceived privacy control, influence their Internet uses and use-by-proxy. To this end, we develop an integrative conceptual model and test it with structural equation modelling using data collected in November 2021 from a nationwide sample of 460 Internet users aged 65+ in Slovenia.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-21T06:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221122734
       
  • Social media regulation, third-person effect, and public views: A
           comparative study of the United States, the United Kingdom, South Korea,
           and Mexico

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      Authors: Myojung Chung, John Wihbey
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Given the prevalence of misinformation on social media and accompanying negative externalities, platform regulation has become a highly contested public issue globally. This study investigated (a) what global publics think about platform regulation and (b) the psychological mechanisms underlying such opinions through the lens of the third-person effect. Four national surveys, conducted in the United States, the United Kingdom, South Korea, and Mexico in April–September 2021, revealed that both presumed media influence on self and others play important but different roles in predicting support for two distinctive forms of platform regulation (i.e. government regulation of social media platforms versus content moderation by social media platforms). Self-efficacy (self-perceived ability to spot misinformation) and other-efficacy (perception of others’ ability to spot misinformation) were identified as two crucial antecedents of third-person perception. There were also nuanced but noteworthy differences in public attitudes toward platform regulations across the four countries studied.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-21T05:40:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221122996
       
  • Inside a White Power echo chamber: Why fringe digital spaces are
           polarizing politics

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      Authors: Petter Törnberg, Anton Törnberg
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Recent decades have seen a blurring of the line between extremist movements and mainstream politics, driven by rising sectarian polarization. This development has been linked to digital media, with suggestions that so-called echo chambers may drive political radicalization. To understand the social processes taking place inside such digital spaces, this article draws on Randall Collins and the Durkheimian tradition to develop a theory of discursive community formation. Empirically, we analyze 20 years of discussion on the White Power forum Stormfront, employing natural language processing to study discursive evolution as members become socialized into the community. Our findings suggest that digital media provide space for conversational rituals that instill in people a sense of social membership and intersubjectivity, contained in the elaboration of a shared discourse, within which certain beliefs become sacred and unquestionable. This provides a potential social mechanism linking echo chambers to the rise of sectarian polarization.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-21T05:33:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221122915
       
  • Capital gains in a digital society: Exploring how familial habitus shapes
           digital dispositions and outcomes in three families from Aotearoa, New
           Zealand

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      Authors: Caroline Keen, Alan France
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Persistent concerns about the digital divide are typically framed as a deficit of Internet access, skills or participation. Despite advances remedying first- and second-level divide issues, scholars have found that not all benefit equally from the Internet use resulting in the theorising of a third-level digital divide exploring the social determinants critical to benefit from the Internet use. Presenting analysis for three families from Aotearoa New Zealand, this work highlights the importance of the family in creating children’s digital disposition. Applying Bourdieu’s Theory of Practice concepts, we illustrate how parent’s habitus informs children’s responses to the digital world, shaping diverse forms of ‘digital capital’ which may result in ‘capital gains’ for some, and less capital benefits for others. Findings suggest that the forms of digital capital that are valued by families are closely tied to class positioning and cultural background.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-21T05:15:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221122228
       
  • “I’m not this Person”: Racism, content moderators, and protecting
           and denying voice online

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      Authors: Rae Jereza
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Much scholarship across the humanities and social sciences seek to shed light on the intersection of far-right politics and social media platforms. Yet, scholars tend to focus on racist actors and the ideological underpinnings of platform policies while the contingencies that shape the experiences of content reviewers who make decisions about racist content remain underexamined. This article fills this gap by exploring such contingencies from a linguistic anthropological perspective. Drawing on Facebook moderators’ stories, I illustrate the factors adjacent to, and beyond, ideology that animate the adjudication of racist hate speech.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-21T05:12:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221122224
       
  • We are all (not) Anonymous: Individual- and country-level correlates of
           support for and opposition to hacktivism

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      Authors: Leanna Ireland
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Hacktivists oftentimes challenge or subvert existing power relations or structures and attempt to promote reform. How the public perceives occurrences of hacktivism can influence the direction and impact of operations, including their potential success. Public support can encompass person power, computational ability, resources and solidarity, among other things. This study examines socio-legal contexts in which an individual is embedded and personal perceptions as predictors for support for hacktivism. Using representative survey data from 23 countries (n = 23,140), the study finds that more effective civic participation mechanisms and more positive views toward alternative actors and hacktivists’ utilitarianism motives were associated with heightened support. In contrast, greater trust in legal and state authorities promoted opposition. Effective justice was not associated with more support but was with less opposition for hacktivism. Implications for campaigns, social movements, and desistance of activity are discussed.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-09T07:14:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221122252
       
  • Mediated by the giants: Tracing practices, discourses, and mediators of
           platform isomorphism in a media organization

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      Authors: Salla-Maaria Laaksonen, Minna Koivula, Mikko Villi
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      News media are increasingly interwoven with social media platforms. Building on institutional theory, we trace the repercussions of the platform infrastructure inside a media organization by focusing on organizational discourses and practices in connection with the journalistic use of social media. The empirical material includes interviews, field notes, chat logs, and documents collected from a public service media organization during a 6-month on-site and virtual ethnography. The findings show how platform pressures intertwine with content production, audience representation, journalistic values, and organizational development, thus manifesting the infrastructuralization and institutionalization of platforms in the media industry. While the interviewees articulated tensions related to adopting social media, the fieldwork data revealed forms of mimetic and normative isomorphism, mediated by platform data and professional roles in the organization. Moreover, the platform infrastructure seems to cultivate both critical and aspirational talk in the organization, which implies a more complex relationship beyond coercive platform power.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-09T07:11:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221122220
       
  • Framing in the social media era: Socio-psychological mechanisms underlying
           online public opinion of cultured meat

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      Authors: Alisius D Leong
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The shift in reliance from broadcast to online news sources has called into question the continued relevance and applicability of conventional frame building practices and frame setting processes in the new media environment. Findings from a 2 (frame direction: same vs different) × 2 (frame emphasis: environment vs health) × 2 (popularity cues: high vs low) between-subjects experiment (N = 326) showed that user comments serve an egalitarian function by enabling laypeople to participate in the construction and dissemination of frames for a novel risk issue, cultured meat. Interestingly, the congruence between elite and lay perspectives was found to be more influential than the specific arguments put forth by different sources in influencing attitudes and behavioral intentions. Issue importance moderated the relationship between frame direction and framing outcomes while perceived source credibility mediated it. Suggestions to safeguard the democratic process and improve online science communication are provided.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-09T07:08:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221122211
       
  • More aggressive, more retweets' Exploring the effects of aggressive
           climate change messages on Twitter

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      Authors: Shupei Yuan, Yingying Chen, Sophia Vojta, Yu Chen
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Although an increasing amount of aggressive and polarized tweets about climate change are being observed, little is known about how they spread on Twitter. This study focuses on how different types of network gatekeepers use aggressive styles and how the styles affect their propagation. The current study employed a computational method and identified 951 influential accounts from 7.25 million tweets about climate change in 2019 and 2020. We analyzed their use of aggression and politicized cues, and the relationship with the volume of retweets. Results showed that even though aggressive tweets were a small portion of the overall tweets about climate change, aggressive tweets were more likely to be politicized and retweeted. Specifically, aggressive tweets from politicians received the most retweets and news media amplified the aggression. The findings of this study build upon the current knowledge of the use of aggression online and provide practical implications for environmental communicators.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-09T07:06:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221122202
       
  • The computational turn in online mental health research: A systematic
           review

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      Authors: Max Schindler, Emese Domahidi
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Digital trace data and computational methods are increasingly being used by researchers to study mental health phenomena (i.e. psychopathology and well-being) in social media. Computer-assisted mental health research is not simply a continuation of previous studies, but rather raises ethical, conceptual and methodological issues that are critical to behavioural science but have not yet been systematically explored. Based on a systematic review of n = 147 studies, we reveal a multidisciplinary field of research that has grown immensely since 2010, spanning the humanities, social sciences, and engineering. We find that a substantial majority of studies in our sample lack a standardized form of ethical consideration, focus on specific constructs and have a rather narrow focus on specific social media platforms. Based on our findings, we discuss how computational elements have influenced mental health research, highlight academic gaps and suggest promising directions for future studies.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-07T10:33:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221122212
       
  • A gateway to acquaintance community: Elderly migrants’ collective
           domestication of interest-oriented group chats in China

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      Authors: Yuting He, Xiyuan Liu, Hui Xiong, He Gong
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      WeChat interest-based group chats (IGCs) are becoming popular among China’s elderly migrants. Previous domestication research paid little attention to mobile services that highlighted shared goals and teamwork beyond familial boundaries. To reconsider the approach of domestication in the emerging mediascape, this study employs the concept of “collective domestication” to analyze how elderly migrants in the W community of Xiamen, China, use and make sense of WeChat IGCs. Nonparticipatory observation of four IGCs and in-depth interviews with 21 elderly migrants indicate that IGCs are effective supplements to offline activities; they serve the role of a gateway to an acquaintance community in elderly migrants’ lives. Implications for Chinese elderly migrants’ digital inclusion and the domestication approach are discussed.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-07T08:39:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221122194
       
  • Digital false information at scale in the European Union: Current state of
           research in various disciplines, and future directions

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      Authors: Petra de Place Bak, Jessica Gabriele Walter, Anja Bechmann
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Digital false information is a global problem and the European Union (EU) has taken profound actions to counter it. However, from an academic perspective the United States has attracted particular attention. This article aims at mapping the current state of academic inquiry into false information at scale in the EU across fields. Systematic filtering of academic contributions resulted in the identification of 93 papers. We found that Italy is the most frequently studied country, and the country of affiliation for most contributing authors. The fields that are best represented are computer science and information studies, followed by social science, communication, and media studies. Based on the review, we call for (1) a greater focus on cross-platform studies; (2) resampling of similar events, such as elections, to detect reoccurring patterns; and (3) longitudinal studies across events to detect similarities, for instance, in who spreads misinformation.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-07T08:35:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221122146
       
  • ‘The metaverse and how we’ll build it’: The political economy of
           Meta’s Reality Labs

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      Authors: Ben Egliston, Marcus Carter
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Spatial computing – that is, a form of human–computer interaction that retains or manipulates referents of real object and spaces – is an increasingly intense focus for Meta. In 2018, Meta launched ‘Reality Labs’ (RL), a research and development division to oversee the company’s production of spatial computing technologies. Drawing on a media historiographical approach from platform studies, this article charts the development of the company’s spatial computing ambitions through RL from 2018 to 2022. In so doing, we find that Meta attempts to consolidate complementors through acquisitions, capture policymakers and academics, convene third-party businesses and developers, and expand its ecosystem through enhancing platform programmability. We argue that RL’s efforts to grow the platform from within, and through drawing in third-parties, signals an ambition to grow their spatial computing offerings such that they take on a central, infrastructural role in society.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-05T06:22:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221119785
       
  • Sociotechnical imaginaries of remote personal touch before and during
           COVID-19: An analysis of UK newspapers

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      Authors: Kerstin Leder Mackley, Carey Jewitt
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article considers newspapers’ role in shaping the sociotechnical imaginaries of touch, and emerging technologies that digitally mediate touch. It examines the discourses of touch and personal relationships at a distance that circulated in major British broadsheet newspapers during the 2020 outbreak of coronavirus disease-19, alongside dominant narratives of touch and remote communication in the previous 5 years. In doing so, the article demonstrates how existing discourses of touch and remote communication intensified during the pandemic, while imaginations of remote touch narrowed. The sociotechnical imaginaries of digital touch matter because they illuminate the kinds of social relations touch technologies are perceived to forge, maintain or deny.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-01T07:28:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221113922
       
  • Toward an integrated framework for misinformation and correction sharing:
           A systematic review across domains

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      Authors: Wenting Yu, Brett Payton, Mengru Sun, Wufan Jia, Guanxiong Huang
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Although misinformation and correction sharing is a topic that spans various domains and disciplines, the ultimate aim of such research is to better understand how to reduce misinformation sharing while motivating correction sharing in an increasingly decentralized and dispersed informational landscape. This review aims to (a) provide a systematic and structured overview of empirical studies on both misinformation sharing and correction sharing, as differentiated phenomenon, by examining article elements such as theoretical lenses, methodologies, topics of research, and (b) collect and organize factors predicting both misinformation sharing and correction sharing into an integrated model, which provides the foundation for an interdisciplinary framework of misinformation sharing and correction sharing. A total of 64 relevant empirical articles published before October 2021 were identified for analysis. Finally, a discussion regarding the academic and practical implications of this study, and gaps in the literature aim to provide direction for future research.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T09:49:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221116569
       
  • Lurking as literacy practice: A uses and gratifications study in
           neighborhood Facebook groups

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      Authors: Gina Sipley
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study explores lurking as a literacy practice and poses two questions: In what ways do so-called Facebook lurkers use neighborhood groups to engage in literacy practices' What gratifications are sought when individuals choose to lurk and engage in these literacy practices in Facebook neighborhood groups' A community mapping of the literacy practices of NYC suburban neighborhood Facebook groups was conducted by 203 participants, and 18 of those participants were interviewed. Through lurking, participants sought to gratify desires to (1) understand a divergent point of view, (2) verify information, (3) suppress the spread of information, (4) pivot to offline social action, (5) advance professionally, and (6) maintain quality of community life. The study also introduces the concepts of receptive reading, participatory restraint, and protective curation as ways of reading that individuals engage in while gratifying these desires.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T11:13:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221117994
       
  • Your social ties, your personal public sphere, your responsibility: How
           users construe a sense of personal responsibility for intervention against
           uncivil comments on Facebook

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      Authors: Emilija Gagrčin
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      User intervention against incivility is a significant element of democratic norm enforcement on social media, and feeling personally responsible for acting is a vital prerequisite for intervention. However, our insight into how users construe their sense of personal responsibility and expectations of other users remains limited. By theoretically foregrounding user perspective, this study investigates the boundaries and nuances of user responsibility to intervene against incivility. Empirically, it draws on 20 qualitative vignette interviews with young people in Germany. The findings show that as contexts collapse in users’ newsfeeds, the imagined boundaries of personal public spheres and own social relationships with uncivil users serve as heuristics for hierarchizing and delimiting personal responsibility to intervene. Beyond abstract individual responsibility for the public discourse, practical responsibility is distributed among personal public spheres.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T11:12:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221117499
       
  • Cynical Nonpartisans: The Role of Misinformation in Political Cynicism
           During the 2020 U.S. Presidential Election

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      Authors: Sangwon Lee, S Mo Jones-Jang
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The literature on misinformation has not provided sufficient empirical evidence concerning its political consequences. To amend this trend, this study examines how widespread misinformation on social media elevates political cynicism, which has peaked over the past decade in the United States. Using two-wave survey data collected both before and after the 2020 US presidential election, we present evidence that social media use triggers political cynicism, which is mediated through exposure to misinformation. In addition, the results reveal that the mediating relationship only holds among nonpartisans. Implications for democracy are also discussed.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T11:11:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221116036
       
  • Participatory censorship: How online fandom community facilitates
           authoritarian rule

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      Authors: Zhifan Luo, Muyang Li
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Following a burgeoning literature on private actors under digital authoritarianism, this study aims to understand the role played by social media users in sustaining authoritarian rule. It examines a subcultural community—the queer-fantasy community—on Chinese social media to expound how members of this community interpreted China’s censorship policy, interacted based on the interpretation, and participated in censorship. Integrating structural topic modeling and emergent coding, this study finds that a political environment of uncertainty fostered divergent imaginaries about censorship. These imaginaries encouraged participatory censorship within the online community, which strengthened the political control of the Internet in the absence of the state. This study illuminates how participatory censorship works, especially in non-professional and non-politically mobilized online communities. With a focus on social media users, it also offers a lens for future research to compare peer-based surveillance and content moderation in authoritarian and democratic contexts.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-08-20T06:47:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221113923
       
  • Social media and Internet-based communication in military families during
           separation: An international scoping review

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      Authors: Abigail Wood, Leanne Gray, Joanne Bowser-Angermann, Poppy Gibson, Matt Fossey, Lauren Godier-McBard
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The last decade has seen the growth of social media and Internet-based communication. Recent research highlighted the need for exploration of the use of social media by military families due to the significant period of separation that they experience. On this basis, an international scoping review was undertaken to explore how military families use Internet-based communication and social media to communicate with their serving members and what the impact of this is. The review showed a paucity of research focused specifically on the use of social media by Service families. Overall, papers returned showed that social media and Internet-based communication has distinct benefits for military families, fostering connectedness, increasing potential communication, enabling Serving parents to be more involved and better accommodate their family’s routine, and potentially improving the deployment experience. However, unique practical barriers were also identified, alongside the potential exacerbation challenges associated with traditional forms of communication.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-08-18T06:29:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221117767
       
  • Local is now national: The Athletic as a model for online local news

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      Authors: Patrick Ferrucci, Gregory Perreault
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Through the lens of disruptive innovation, the present study explores a potential model for local journalism—one that has proven particularly successful for sports journalism in The Athletic. The present study reports on in-depth interviews with Athletic employees across all facets of the organization (n = 49), and argues that the key to The Athletic’s success is reflected in its emphasis on implementing a national infrastructure for local reporting, and employing journalists already embedded in local communities. The article concludes with a rudimentary rendering of how this model could be implemented for local news.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-08-18T06:28:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221117748
       
  • The role of affective and cognitive attitude extremity in perceived
           viewpoint diversity exposure

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      Authors: Thomas Zerback, Lara Kobilke
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The current study examines the role of affective and cognitive attitude extremity on perceived exposure to diverse political viewpoints and investigates the possibility of a “primacy of affect.” Based on a multi-level analysis of panel survey data, we show that people with extreme attitudes toward immigrants experience less viewpoint diversity and that this tendency is especially pronounced for affective attitude extremity. However, even those holding extreme attitudes do not find themselves in issue-specific echo chambers, that is, they still encounter relatively diverse sets of viewpoints.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-08-17T06:19:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221117484
       
  • Thus spoke Zuckerberg: Journalistic discourse, executive personae, and the
           personalization of tech industry power

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      Authors: Brian Creech, Jessica Maddox
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      As technology chief executive officers have become public figures, their personae operate as loci for journalistic discourse about the intersection of moral responsibilities, regulation, and political-economic power of the tech industry. They possess a power often construed as beyond the reach of politics or civil society to address. This study considers how the ubiquity of tech power has become a kind of common sense in journalistic discourse, specifically looking at news, commentary, and analysis that has circulated around Facebook’s Mark Zuckerberg since 2016, arguing that even as critiques of Zuckerberg’s moral fitness and leadership capacity proliferate, they construct the epistemic bounds within which tech industry power over American public life is understood as legitimate, even as journalists and commentators question certain executives’ ability to wield the tech industry’s infrastructural and cultural power.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-08-17T06:18:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221116344
       
  • Networked gift-giving: Ethno-religious minority youths’ negotiation of
           status and social ties in a society of distrust

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      Authors: Tom De Leyn, Ralf De Wolf, Mariek Vanden Abeele, Lieven De Marez
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The reciprocal exchanges of messages, likes, and pictures on social media are typical expressions of mobile youth culture. After all, it is well-established that young people’s disclosure practices support their efforts to maintain relationships, gain autonomy, and, by large, consolidate a place in the world. What is often missing, however, is an exploration of how the specific socio-cultural contexts of ethno-religious minority youths shape and are shaped by social media appropriations. Therefore, we conducted a 15-month ethnographic study among ethno-religious minority youths in which we investigated networked gift-giving practices. We stress the notion of “networked” because the results illustrate how these young people appropriate the amplified visibility of their relational maintenance behaviors on social media in order to negotiate status and social ties. We connect these findings to the concept of a “distrustful society” as the participants hold a general distrust in society due to experiences of racism and marginalization.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-08-17T06:17:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221114628
       
  • Walk in my shoes: How perspective-taking and VR enhance telepresence and
           empathy in a public service announcement for people experiencing
           homelessness

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      Authors: Yanyun (Mia) Wang, Chen (Crystal) Chen, Michelle R Nelson, Sela Sar
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This research explored how a virtual reality (VR) public service announcement (PSA) in a first-person perspective (vs non-VR PSA scripts: first-person perspective-taking, non-perspective-taking) impacted attitudes toward the PSA and attitudes toward people experiencing homelessness. Participants first reported their attitudes toward people experiencing homelessness. Seven days later, participants watched or read a PSA about the life of a person experiencing homelessness and reported their attitudes toward the people experiencing homelessness and the PSA. We explored how psychological processes (telepresence, empathy, reactance) related to persuasion. Results showed viewing or reading any of the PSAs led to more favorable attitudes toward the target group. The VR PSA was the most likely format to induce telepresence and empathy and the least likely to induce reactance. Attitudes toward the VR PSA were more positive than toward the script PSAs. Overall, our study provides insights into the effectiveness of VR and narrative formats for persuasion.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-08-16T10:10:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221108108
       
  • “Will the law not protect survivors who don’t weep”: Twitter as a
           platform of feminist deliberation and democracy in India

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      Authors: Paromita Pain
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      An analysis of 40,000 tweets that trended after the Tarun Tejpal acquittal in India showed that the nature of the debate around issues of molestation and rape exhibited attributes of deliberation and demonstrated that Twitter in India, in certain cases, has strong potential to emerge as a space for deliberative feminist activism. Discussions gave impetus to advocacy around sexual molestation. While the word “victim” was used in more instances rather than the human rights–based term “survivor,” Twitter debates were supportive toward survivors of assault. There was minimum trolling and patriarchy was called out as was a legal system that sided with the influential man of power. Although city-bred English-speaking voices dominated, conversations were intersectional in nature acknowledging how the horror of physical assault was perceived by different women belonging to disparate socio-economic strata and how legal systems exacerbated gender related crimes.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-08-01T11:51:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221113007
       
  • Who gets a say in this' Speaking security on social media

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      Authors: Natalia Umansky
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Can social media revert the top-down dynamics of securitization' Limited by the notion that ‘security is only articulated in an institutional voice by the elites’, the role of non-elite actors has remained understudied. Only recently has it been proposed that lay actors can become influential security agents through their online activity. However, social media’s capacity to revert the top-down dynamics of securitization remains contended. To explore this puzzle and seeking to update the theory of securitization to the modern context of political communication, this study employs a semi-supervised machine learning approach to analyse a novel dataset of over 10 million Twitter messages by five elite and non-elite actor groups discussing the Amazon rainforest fires in 2019. Finally, the study uses vector autoregression (VAR) models to explore who leads and who echoes the securitization process. The results show that both elite and lay actors behave as security agents and demonstrate the methodological contribution offered by the text-as-data approach developed in this analysis.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-27T11:18:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221111009
       
  • Between surveillance and technological solutionism: A critique of
           privacy-preserving apps for COVID-19 contact-tracing

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      Authors: Monique Mann, Peta Mitchell, Marcus Foth
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, we examine the rise of contact-tracing apps during the first 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic as a new form of technological solutionism – a technological or techno-social fix that can be deployed at national scale in response to an urgent, supranational problem. A dystopian view saw the rapid development and proliferation of COVID-19 contact-tracing apps as a vanguard technology for surveillance. Expediently deployed as a technological fix to the pandemic, contact-tracing was seen to threaten to transform a state of emergency into a state of exception, under which accepted or constitutional laws and norms might be suspended. Here, we extend early critiques of the contact-tracing app as a ‘technofix’ to argue the growing intervention of global technology corporations in digital governance and affairs of national sovereignty throughout the COVID-19 pandemic represents a new frontier of state–industrial surveillance that exploits people’s pre-investment in and dependence on technology corporations. We exemplify this with the ‘technofix’ of the Google–Apple Exposure Notification (GAEN) framework and critically examine the notion of a decentralised and privacy-preserving Bluetooth-based contact-tracing framework proposed by global technology corporations that may threaten state sovereignty when determining public health responses to current or future crises.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-27T06:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221109800
       
  • Phenomenal algorhythms: The sensorial orchestration of “real-time” in
           the social media manifold

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      Authors: Ludmila Lupinacci
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      If our sociality is intertwined with the logics of social media, then the examination of the temporalities that are immanent in these technologies contributes to the understanding of our very conditions of existence. And even if algorithmic sorting is increasingly employed to deliver what is “relevant” at the “right-time,” the notion of “real-time” still permeates these platforms’ operations. Through a critical phenomenological approach, I examine the interplay of chronological and algorithmic ordering. To operationalize the idea of temporality as both subjectively experienced and always arranged by the platforms themselves, I use rhythm as an analytical device. Based on accounts of lived experience obtained through the conduction of the diary-interview method with London-based social media users, I foreground how “the algorithm” is used as a vehicle to make sense of platforms’ temporalities, reflecting struggles and negotiations over social coordination and temporal control. I argue that realtimeness is also rhythmic, and can therefore be scrutinized as a “sensorial orchestration.”
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-25T06:26:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221109952
       
  • The role of news media knowledge for how people use social media for news
           in five countries

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      Authors: Anne Schulz, Richard Fletcher, Rasmus Kleis Nielsen
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Concern over misinformation on social media has amplified calls to improve the public’s knowledge about how news is produced, distributed and financed. This study investigates the relationship between people’s news media knowledge and the ways in which they use social media for news using online survey data in five countries: the United Kingdom, United States, Germany, Spain and Sweden (N = 10,595). We find that people with higher news media knowledge are more likely to include social media in their news repertoire – but not as their main or only source of news. Second, we find that news media knowledge is positively associated with paying attention to source and editorial cues. When it comes to different social endorsement cues, news media knowledge is positively associated with paying attention to the person who shared the news, but negatively associated with paying attention to the number of likes, comments and shares.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-21T12:59:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221108957
       
  • (In)visible moderation: A digital ethnography of marginalized users and
           content moderation on Twitch and Reddit

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      Authors: Hibby Thach, Samuel Mayworm, Daniel Delmonaco, Oliver Haimson
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Research suggests that marginalized social media users face disproportionate content moderation and removal. However, when content is removed or accounts suspended, the processes governing content moderation are largely invisible, making assessing content moderation bias difficult. To study this bias, we conducted a digital ethnography of marginalized users on Reddit’s /r/FTM subreddit and Twitch’s “Just Chatting” and “Pools, Hot Tubs, and Beaches” categories, observing content moderation visibility in real time. We found that on Reddit, a text-based platform, platform tools make content moderation practices invisible to users, but moderators make their practices visible through communication with users. Yet on Twitch, a live chat and streaming platform, content moderation practices are visible in channel live chats, “unban appeal” streams, and “back from my ban” streams. Our ethnography shows how content moderation visibility differs in important ways between social media platforms, harming those who must see offensive content, and at other times, allowing for increased platform accountability.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-18T11:21:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221109804
       
  • A queer kind of dwelling: Digital throwness and existential security among
           sexual minorities in Russia

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      Authors: Matilda Tudor
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article asks what it means to habituate a queer orientation in a world permeated by digital connectivity. In doing so, it takes media phenomenology away from the mundane towards the momentous, drawing on queer phenomenology, and existential media studies. Using life-narrative interviews with sexual minorities in Russia, the article sheds light on the “work of queer habituation” in a straight world, and the contemporary significance of digital media technologies within this process. Digital media’s ability to multiply space is defined a key feature which offers sites to “stay with” the disorienting experience of queer dispositions. Through longer periods of discrete “queer digital dwelling,” individuals who have been associating their queer desires with ontological threats are able to find space for existence and existential security. By locating others in close proximity, some are also allowed to appropriate local territory in ways that make it more livable.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-15T07:12:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221109801
       
  • Autism and the making of emotion AI: Disability as resource for
           surveillance capitalism

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      Authors: Jeff Nagy
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article uncovers how computers learned to recognize emotion from a neurological difference often conceived of as marked by a difficulty in recognizing it at all: autism. Developers of facial emotion recognition technologies have repeatedly mobilized autism to produce new kinds of knowledge at the interface of machine learning and human feeling, deploying it as a charismatic use-case, as a source for conceptual schemata for how emotion should be made computable, and as a testbed for development. The entanglement of emotion recognition and autism research shows how disability has been transformed into a rhetorical, conceptual, and material resource for the expansion of surveillance capitalism. This history has also underwritten a larger reconceptualization of emotional data, from a neglected variable in human–computer interaction to an exploitable corporate asset, a transformation that has allowed platform users’ emotional lives to be mined for new forms of knowledge, value, and power.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-15T07:11:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221109550
       
  • Self-branding strategies of online freelancers on Upwork

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      Authors: Dorothy Lee Blyth, Mohammad Hossein Jarrahi, Christoph Lutz, Gemma Newlands
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Self-branding is crucial for online freelancers as they must constantly differentiate themselves from competitors on online labor platforms to ensure a viable stream of income. By analyzing 39 interviews with freelancers and clients on the online labor platform Upwork, we identify five key self-branding strategies: boosting a profile, showcasing skills, expanding presence, maintaining relationships with clients, and individualizing brand. These self-branding strategies are contextualized within Goffman’s dramaturgical theory and through an affordances lens, showing immanent tensions. While online freelancers successfully leverage self-branding to improve their visibility on Upwork and beyond, the client perspective reveals a fine line between too little and too much self-branding. Online freelancers must brand themselves in visibility games when the game rules are largely opaque, riddled with uncertainty, and constantly evolving. We connect the findings to adjacent platform economy research and derive a self-branding as a performance framework.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-15T07:09:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221108960
       
  • A tool or a social being' A dynamic longitudinal investigation of
           functional use and relational use of AI voice assistants

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      Authors: Shan Xu, Wenbo Li
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study integrates two lines of research: technologies as tools and technologies as social beings, under the theoretical framework of dynamic systems, to investigate the reciprocal dynamics between functional use and relational use of artificial intelligence (AI) voice assistants, and the mediating roles of self-disclosure and privacy concerns. A two-wave longitudinal survey was conducted among 354 AI voice assistant users across 2 months. Factor analysis results supported the conceptualization and operationalization of functional use and relational use of voice assistants. Results from the cross-lagged panel model confirmed that functional use and relational use reinforced themselves over time, respectively. Relational use increased subsequent functional use, and relational use reinforced itself through self-disclosure. Surprisingly, functional use did not increase subsequent relational use; instead, longitudinal mediation analysis showed that functional use reduced subsequent relational use due to the lack of self-disclosure. Furthermore, while self-disclosure increased subsequent privacy concerns, privacy concerns did not reduce subsequent self-disclosure.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-15T07:07:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221108112
       
  • How older adult information and communication technology users are
           impacted by aging stereotypes: A multigenerational perspective

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      Authors: Johanna LH Birkland
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Older adults (those aged 65 years and above) are stereotyped as warm but incompetent, particularly in their use of modern information and communication technologies (ICTs). Interpretative interactionist data from 17 cases of older adult ICT use suggests that older adults are aware of these stereotypes. Each of these cases included an older adult (the primary participant of each case) and, if possible, two to three individuals the person used ICTs within their relationship (family members, friends, and/or coworkers). Those surrounding the older adults often spoke about older adult ICT use in stereotypical terms, seeing skilled older adult ICT users as exceptional. The most highly skilled advanced ICT users were most likely to have internalized these ageist technology stereotypes.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-13T07:32:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221108959
       
  • When friction becomes the norm: Antagonism, discourse and planetary data
           turbulence

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      Authors: Sebastián Lehuedé
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The ideal of unfettered data circulation has fallen into crisis. As of today, a growing number of actors are introducing measures to ensure a greater degree of control over the global data pipeline. Combining critical data studies and political theory, this article conceptualises the current technopolitical conjuncture as one of ‘planetary data turbulence’ in which divergences regarding the production and circulation of data have become the norm. The concept of data turbulence emerges from studies on data friction, but this article contends that the current state of affairs requires expanding the emphasis on technosciences and materiality in these works. Drawing on Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, the article shows that attending to antagonism and discourse makes it possible to account for the eminently political forces shaping the circulation of data. The strengths of this framework are illustrated by looking at the articulation of digital sovereignty in different geographies.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-11T12:44:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221108449
       
  • Searching differently' How political attitudes impact search queries
           about political issues

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      Authors: Marieke van Hoof, Corine S Meppelink, Judith Moeller, Damian Trilling
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      For many, search engines are crucial gateways to (political) information. While extant research is concerned with algorithmic bias, user choices had been largely neglected. Yet, search queries are the key way in which searchers explicate their information need. Building on framing theory and selective exposure, we argue that queries are ingrained with (political) predispositions: issue frames in mind of searchers manifest themselves in search terms and queries. Using Dutch survey data (N = 1994), and manual coding and latent class analysis, we explore how types of people formulate search queries about immigration and climate change (RQ1). A regression analysis shows how these searcher types relate to political attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics (RQ2). Notably, searchers formulate queries in ways that are related to their political positions, but this differs for different issues. These findings imply systematic differences in user choices which future research needs to consider when auditing search engines.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-11T10:13:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221104405
       
  • Automotive parasitism: Examining Mobileye’s
           ‘car-agnostic’ platformisation

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      Authors: Sam Hind, Alex Gekker
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The article examines a ‘trinity’ of interconnected components by Mobileye, a company moving into autonomous driving. However, Mobileye is neither an automotive manufacturer, nor a nominal ‘big tech’ company, but an established maker of ‘bolt-on’ advanced driver assist systems (ADAS), able to draw on over 65 million vehicles. Through these devices, Mobileye is undertaking a ‘platformisation’, transforming from an automotive supplier into a provider of autonomous vehicle (AV) platforms. We characterise this as a ‘car-agnostic’ approach to autonomous driving. Mobileye represents the advancement, and modulation, of a platform logic into a different type of hardware: the car. To understand the implications of this, we argue that Mobileye acts parasitically in three ways: by inserting itself between driver and vehicle, vehicle manufacturer and vehicle data, and specific vehicles and the emerging AV industry.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-11T10:03:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221104209
       
  • Investigating the experience of viewing extreme real-world violence
           online: Naturalistic evidence from an online discussion forum

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      Authors: Joshua Edward Stubbs, Laura Louise Nicklin, Luke Wilsdon, Joanne Lloyd
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigates the psychological impact of viewing user-generated content depicting extreme real-world violence. Eight threads were harvested from a publicly accessible online discussion forum in which people discussed their experiences of witnessing real-world torture, maiming or death online. Reflexive thematic analysis was used to systematically analyse these threads. The themes capture the contradictory ways in which people react to viewing extreme real-world violence online, with some finding it intensely distressing and others using it as a resource for psychological grounding or (perceived) strengthening. Based on this analysis, we highlight pathways that may lead to the cessation or continuation of viewing such content and argue that greater research on this seemingly common but under-studied experience is warranted.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T09:21:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221108451
       
  • The use of emotions in conspiracy and debunking videos to engage publics
           on YouTube

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      Authors: Sang Jung Kim, Kaiping Chen
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      With the rise of digital media, conspiracy theories infamous for their emotional manipulation have challenged science epistemology and democratic discourse. Despite extensive literature on misinformation and the role of emotion in persuasion, less is understood about how emotion is used in conspiracy and debunking messages on video platforms and the impact of emotional framing on public engagement with science on social media. Our article fills this gap by analyzing thousands of YouTube videos that propagate or debunk COVID-19 conspiracy theories from March to May 2020. We found that conspiracy and debunking videos used the emotions of trust and fear differently depending on the issue framing of the conspiracy. Our article also reveals a dilemma facing debunking messages—when debunking videos used more trust-related emotions, these videos received more likes yet fewer views. These findings shed new light on the role of emotion on user engagement with misinformation and its correction on digital platforms.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-06T11:22:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221105877
       
  • Everyday disconnection experiences: Exploring people’s understanding of
           digital well-being and management of digital media use

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      Authors: Minh Hao Nguyen, Moritz Büchi, Sarah Geber
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      With the permeation of digital media into all spheres of life, individual-level efforts to manage information abundance and constant availability have become more common. To date, information on the prevalence of the motivations and strategies for such disconnection practices and how different sociodemographic groups experience digital disconnection is scarce. We surveyed a national sample of 1163 Swiss Internet users in November 2020. Thematic coding of open-text responses demonstrated people’s understandings of “balanced digital media use” as primarily concerned with subjectively appropriate amounts of use, purposeful use, social connections, non-addiction, and time for “real life.” Through principal components analysis, we provide a classification of the types of motivations people have for disconnecting and strategies people use to disconnect. Persistent age differences suggest that life-span approaches to studying digital disconnection are imperative. We formulate implications for disconnection research in the context of digital inequality and provide an outlook for evolving digital habits in future digital societies.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-06T06:46:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221105428
       
  • Hybrid activism under the radar: Surveillance and resistance among
           marginalized youth activists in the United States and Canada

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      Authors: Ashley Lee
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Social media and digital platforms have become essential tools for the new generation of youth activists. However, these tools subject youth to both new (and old) forms of surveillance and control. Drawing on in-depth interviews and social media walkthroughs with 61 youth activists, I examine hybrid tactics that these youth employ to resist surveillance and other forms of digitally mediated control as they participate in politics and social movements. I show that even in democracies like the United States and Canada, for individuals along intersecting axes of marginalization (e.g. race, gender), public political acts do not capture the full range of young people’s political repertoires. Young people, especially those from marginalized groups, adopt hidden, under-the-radar tactics in response to pressures of social, state, and corporate surveillance. I develop the concept of “digital infrapolitics” referring to the ways in which digital politics and activism go below the radar under surveillance and control.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-07-05T09:58:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221105847
       
  • Nudging towards news diversity: A theoretical framework for facilitating
           diverse news consumption through recommender design

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      Authors: Nicolas Mattis, Philipp Masur, Judith Möller, Wouter van Atteveldt
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Growing concern about the democratic impact of automatically curated news platforms urges us to reconsider how such platforms should be designed. We propose a theoretical framework for personalised diversity nudges that can stimulate diverse news consumption on the individual level. To examine potential benefits and limitations of existing diversity nudges, we conduct an interdisciplinary literature review that synthesises theoretical work on news selection mechanisms with hands-on tools and implementations from the fields of computer science and recommender systems. Based thereupon, we propose five diversity nudges that researchers and practitioners can build on. We provide a theoretical motivation of why, when and for whom such nudges could be effective, critically reflect on their potential backfire effects and the need for algorithmic transparency, and sketch out a research agenda for diversity-aware news recommender design. Thereby, we develop concrete, theoretically grounded avenues towards facilitating diverse news consumption on algorithmically curated platforms.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T06:46:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221104413
       
  • A “soul” emerges when AI, AR, and Anime converge: A case study on
           users of the new anime-stylized hologram social robot “Hupo”

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      Authors: Jindong Leo-Liu, Biying Wu-Ouyang
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      By converging 3A—artificial intelligence (AI), augmented reality (AR), and anime culture, a new type of non-naturalistic and stylized anthropomorphism has been exercised on the latest hologram social robot—“Hupo.” By combining scopes of human–machine communication and cultural studies, this study investigated how this 3A convergence constructed the user experience of Hupo. Through in-depth interviews with 25 users, we revealed their expected experience related to the dual identity of anime otaku and technology geeks alongside social segregation and loneliness. We found their actual experience highlighted how anime elements offset their dissatisfactions caused by AI weakness and the uncanny valley. Three specific anime-enabled strategies were illustrated, namely anime characterization, gamification, and idolization. Our analysis suggested that pop culture offers not technical solutions but temporary compensation for the current AI limitations. Nevertheless, such fusions between anime otakuism and instinct-served technologies also raise concerns about a further animalized human society.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-29T05:29:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221106030
       
  • Let’s verify and rectify! Examining the nuanced influence of risk
           appraisal and norms in combatting misinformation

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      Authors: Xizhu Xiao
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Mounting concerns about COVID-19 misinformation and its insidious fallout drive the search for viable solutions. Both scholarly and practical efforts have turned toward raising risk appraisal of misinformation and motivating verification and debunking behaviors. However, individuals remain reluctant to verify and correct misinformation, suggesting a need to develop persuasion strategies to motivate such behaviors. Therefore, with an experiment of 256 participants recruited from Amazon MTurk, this study examines how effectively norm-based messages improve positive behavioral intentions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings suggest that among individuals with high perceived severity of misinformation, exposure to both descriptive and injunctive norms about verification reduced their intention to rectify misinformation. However, both descriptive and injunctive norms about debunking misinformation increased intentions to engage in preventive behaviors. By probing the “self–other” discrepancy and the “trade-off effect” of risk appraisal, the study further reveals that the perceived severity of misinformation merits in-depth exploration in future research.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-29T05:25:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221104948
       
  • Never-married single adults’ experiences with online dating websites and
           mobile applications: A qualitative content analysis

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      Authors: Katarzyna Adamczyk, Kamil Janowicz, Marta Mrozowicz-Wrońska
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The current article presents the results of interviews with 30 Polish never-married singles (14 women and 16 men) aged 20–43 years. Four themes were identified: (1) ambiguous perception of the usefulness of dating services as a means to search for a romantic partner, (2) acquiring skills in using dating services, (3) personal difficulties and failures in using dating services, and (4) online dating as self-obligation. The participants positioned themselves with regard to dating technology through ambiguous opinions and beliefs about the usefulness of dating services. They perceived using dating services to be a task that requires skills in self-commodification and self-branding and a good opportunity to gain practice in dating; they experienced various difficulties related to using dating platforms, and sometimes they reported a feeling of self-obligation to use such services. Single adults related to dating technology in various modes in the context of their singlehood and relationship desires.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T11:47:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221097894
       
  • Digital care work at public libraries: Making Digital First possible

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      Authors: Anne Kaun, Michael Forsman
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Claims of becoming the first, the best, and the most digitized are standard rather than outstanding in most public-facing digitalization agendas and strategy documents of countries in the Global North. These grand narratives of digitalization need translation through concrete practices by sometimes unexpected actors—in this case, librarians. This article develops the notion of digital care work based on 18 book-chapter-length essays by active librarians based at Swedish public libraries. It illustrates that librarians are central to the process of translating digitalization into reality; they have become ambassadors of digitalization not only by fostering digital skills and competences in workshops and official training sessions but also, we argue, through a specific form of digital work, namely, digital care work. This kind of gendered work, which is typically carried out alongside the official tasks and assignments of librarians, is of low prestige and often involves affective aspects, such as emotions of shame and uncertainty.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T09:47:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221104234
       
  • Field insurgency in lifestyle journalism: How lifestyle journalists
           marginalize Instagram influencers and protect their autonomy

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      Authors: Gregory Perreault, Folker Hanusch
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      While Facebook and Twitter have received significant scholarly attention for their role in shaping the journalistic field, Instagram has received sparse attention in comparison. The present study examines how lifestyle journalists (n = 63) from Austria and the United States perceive Instagram influencers operating in relation to the journalistic field. Instagram influencers, empowered by the digital medium, would seem to be in direct competition with lifestyle journalists in terms of content. Through the theoretical lenses of boundary work and field, this study argues that lifestyle journalists—long relegated to the periphery of the journalistic field—discursively leverage the presence of influencers to protect their autonomy within the field while pushing influencers to its boundaries.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T09:41:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221104233
       
  • Does distrust in humans predict greater trust in AI' Role of
           individual differences in user responses to content moderation

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      Authors: Maria D. Molina, S. Shyam Sundar
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      When evaluating automated systems, some users apply the “positive machine heuristic” (i.e. machines are more accurate and precise than humans), whereas others apply the “negative machine heuristic” (i.e. machines lack the ability to make nuanced subjective judgments), but we do not know much about the characteristics that predict whether a user would apply the positive or negative machine heuristic. We conducted a study in the context of content moderation and discovered that individual differences relating to trust in humans, fear of artificial intelligence (AI), power usage, and political ideology can predict whether a user will invoke the positive or negative machine heuristic. For example, users who distrust other humans tend to be more positive toward machines. Our findings advance theoretical understanding of user responses to AI systems for content moderation and hold practical implications for the design of interfaces to appeal to users who are differentially predisposed toward trusting machines over humans.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T09:39:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221103534
       
  • “The real ethernet”: The transnational history of global Wi-Fi
           connectivity

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      Authors: Maria Rikitianskaia
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Wi-Fi is an integral and invaluable part of our media practices. Wireless networks are blended into our media environment and, in terms of infrastructural importance, have become comparable with electricity or water. This article offers a new transnational perspective on the underexplored history of IEEE 802.11 standards by focusing on the tensions between the United States and Europe in terms of development trajectories of wireless technology. The goal is to analyze the standardization of wireless networking through a transnational lens and to contribute to enhanced understanding of the global proliferation of Wi-Fi technology. Four particular aspects of the transnational development of Wi-Fi technology are discussed: the rivalry between US and European standards, the constitutive choice to focus on data transmission, radio spectrum availability, and the peculiarities of network authentication.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T09:36:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221103533
       
  • Not only people are getting old, the new media are too: Technology
           generations and the changes in new media use

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      Authors: Eugène Loos, Loredana Ivan
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article investigates the changes in the use of traditional and new media by different technology generations. Focusing on the changes in the use of Email, Chat and Social Network Sites by older people, it explores the process by which new media become ‘old’ and reach a saturation point. Collected survey data suggest differences in media use between the three technology generations distinguished in this study: the ‘mechanical’ generation (born in 1938 or before), the ‘household revolution’ generation (born between 1939 and 1948), and the ‘technology spread’ generation (born between 1949 and 1963). This longitudinal and transnational study provides evidence of media saturation, showing that an increase in both the availability of and access to media does not lead to an increase in use, even in older adults who are behind in the adoption of the new media. Finally, the article discusses the findings, arguing for an interplay between individual and structural lag in later life.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T09:34:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221101783
       
  • Few voices, strong echo: Measuring follower homogeneity of
           politicians’ Twitter accounts

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      Authors: Felix Rusche
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Politicians have discovered Twitter as a tool for political communication. If information provided by politicians is circulated in ideologically segregated user networks, political polarization may be fostered. Using network information on all 1.78 million unique followers of German Members of Parliament by October 2018, follower homogeneity across politicians and parties is measured. While the overall homogeneity is low, politicians of the AfD—a right-wing populist party—stand out with very homogeneous follower networks. These are largely driven by a small group of strongly committed partisans that make up around 7% of the party’s but around 55–75% of the average AfD politician’s followers. The findings add to the literature by showing potentially unequal distributions of network segregation on Twitter. Furthermore, they suggest that small groups of active users can multiply their influence online, which has important implications for future research on echo chambers and other online phenomena.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T12:12:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221099860
       
  • Representativeness and face-ism: Gender bias in image search

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      Authors: Roberto Ulloa, Ana Carolina Richter, Mykola Makhortykh, Aleksandra Urman, Celina Sylwia Kacperski
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Implicit and explicit gender biases in media representations of individuals have long existed. Women are less likely to be represented in gender-neutral media content (representation bias), and their face-to-body ratio in images is often lower (face-ism bias). In this article, we look at representativeness and face-ism in search engine image results. We systematically queried four search engines (Google, Bing, Baidu, Yandex) from three locations, using two browsers and in two waves, with gender-neutral (person, intelligent person) and gendered (woman, intelligent woman, man, intelligent man) terminology, accessing the top 100 image results. We employed automatic identification for the individual’s gender expression (female/male) and the calculation of the face-to-body ratio of individuals depicted. We find that, as in other forms of media, search engine images perpetuate biases to the detriment of women, confirming the existence of the representation and face-ism biases. In-depth algorithmic debiasing with a specific focus on gender bias is overdue.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T06:53:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221100699
       
  • Roses and thorns: Political talk in reality TV subreddits

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      Authors: Amanda Chen, Katherine T McCabe
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Most online media consumption is not driven by a desire to seek out news and politics. However, the public may still encounter politics because it arises organically in communities devoted to non-political subjects. This study examines the potential of popular reality television online discussion forums to serve as online third spaces and stimulate political discussion due to the natural connections that audiences make between the cast members and “real life” in reality-based programming. Based on a quantitative analysis of political comments made to reality television subreddits and a survey of visitors to a popular subreddit focused on The Bachelor television show, the findings not only demonstrate the ability of entertainment-focused online communities to expose a broad segment of the public to political talk, but also point to the obstacles in promoting political discussion that is simultaneously enjoyable, informative, and tolerant of diverse viewpoints.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T11:00:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221099180
       
  • Dimensions of autonomy in human–algorithm relations

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      Authors: Laura Savolainen, Minna Ruckenstein
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article reorients research on agentic engagements with algorithms from the perspective of autonomy. We separate two horizons of algorithmic relations – the instrumental and the intimate – and analyse how they shape different dimensions of autonomous agency. Against the instrumental horizon, algorithmic systems are technical procedures ordering social life at a distance and using rules that can only partly be known. Autonomy is activated as reflective and informed choice and the ability to enact one’s goals and values amid technological constraints. Meanwhile, the intimate horizon highlights affective aspects of autonomy in relation to algorithmic systems as they creep ever closer to our minds and bodies. Here, quests for autonomy arise from disturbance and comfort in a position of vulnerability. We argue that the dimensions of autonomy guide us towards issues of specific ethical and political importance, given that autonomy is never merely a theoretical concern, but also a public value.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T11:57:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221100802
       
  • All the lonely people: Effects of social isolation on self-disclosure of
           loneliness on Twitter

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      Authors: Anya Hommadova Lu, Yelena Mejova
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study explores the effect of unprecedented mass isolation during COVID-19 lockdowns through the lens of self-disclosure of loneliness on Twitter. Using a dataset of 30 million public tweets, we use machine learning to identify tweets that contain self-disclosure of loneliness. We find that thousands more people turned to Twitter to express their loneliness during the lockdowns; however, this effect normalized within a month, demonstrating the “ordinization” effect on a collective level. Furthermore, lockdown brought a marked shift in the weekly timings of posting and a change in the accompanying emotions, which were more positive and other-focused. Finally, based on a qualitative analysis, we propose an updated typology of loneliness that captures the possibilities offered by the affordances of social media. Our findings illustrate the profound effect lockdowns had on the societal psychological state and emphasize the importance of mental health resources during extreme and isolating events.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T10:34:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221099900
       
  • Can we blame social media for polarization' Counter-evidence against
           filter bubble claims during the COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: S Mo Jones-Jang, Myojung Chung
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Although collective efforts are essential to fight COVID-19, public opinion in the United States is sharply divided by partisan attitudes and health beliefs. Addressing the concern that media use facilitates polarization, this study investigated whether social and traditional media use for COVID-19 information attenuates or reinforces existing disparities. This article focuses on two important areas where the public is highly polarized: partisan affect and vaccine attitudes. Contradicting the filter bubble claim, our survey (n = 1106) revealed that social media use made people less polarized in both partisan affect and vaccine hesitancy. In contrast, traditional media use made people more polarized in partisan affect. These findings corroborate the growing evidence that social media provide diverse viewpoints and incidental learning.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T10:28:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221099591
       
  • ‘How do I become blue pilled'’: Masculine ontological insecurity
           on 4chan’s advice board

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      Authors: Marcus Maloney, Steve Roberts, Callum Jones
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Through an analysis of 4chan’s /adv/ or ‘advice’ board – in which predominately male users seek advice on life matters – here we examine masculine ontological insecurity and its implications for understanding how ‘toxic’ masculine identities emerge, and how young men more generally struggle to make sense of their lives. Advancing extant scholarship, our findings uncover an ‘on the cusp’ masculine identity – subject to the anxieties and self-perceived failures which act as preconditions of toxic ideologies and outcomes, but also seemingly yet to practice such (il)logics. Responses from the community suggest three ways of addressing, or making sense of, the problems users faced. Finally, and of relevance to both the theorising of contemporary masculinities and related socio-positive interventions, we highlight the (seemingly) odd paradox of vulnerable male users being drawn to express their vulnerabilities on a platform notorious for its insensitivities.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T09:56:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221103124
       
  • Parasocial interactions with real and virtual influencers: The role of
           perceived similarity and human-likeness

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      Authors: Jan-Philipp Stein, Priska Linda Breves, Nora Anders
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Digitally created online celebrities (so-called virtual influencers) have appeared on various social media and video streaming platforms. While the scientific community has recently started to take an interest in this new phenomenon, it still remains mostly unclear how online audiences engage with—and relate to—these artificial digital creations. To address the identified research gap, we conducted a preregistered experiment (N = 179), comparing viewers’ parasocial interactions (PSIs) with either a human or a virtual influencer. Based on natural stimuli, we find that viewers’ parasocial response does not differ significantly between the two groups. However, by focusing on several theoretically relevant mediator variables, we uncover two opposing effects at play: While a significant direct effect signifies stronger PSIs with the virtual influencer, participants also attribute this persona with less mental human-likeness and similarity to themselves—which ultimately suppresses the observed advantage. Potential explanations for our results are discussed.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T09:54:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221102900
       
  • “Write it down! I am an Arab”: The role of reader comments in the
           formation of networked counterpublics

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      Authors: Hila Lowenstein-Barkai
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Various literature has examined how affordances of online media such as openness and connectivity have constituted digital counterpublics, that is, discursive arenas where members of subordinate social groups invent and circulate oppositional interpretations of their identities. At the same time, and in sharp contrast to the bilateral nature of online media, most of this literature has focused on content produced by the group members only, without addressing neither its acceptance by the hegemonic public nor the internal discursive negotiations surrounding it. Using the Facebook page “Write it down! I’m an Arab” as a case study, the current study examines the role played by reader comments in the formation of networked counterpublics. We found that reader comments expand the counterpublic sphere in two directions: vertical and horizontal. Vertically, they produce an interface between the dominant public sphere and the counterpublic sphere. Horizontally, they function as a discursive arena within the group members.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T09:51:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221101163
       
  • Longitudinal effects of cyberbullying at work on well-being and strain: A
           five-wave survey study

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      Authors: Magdalena Celuch, Reetta Oksa, Nina Savela, Atte Oksanen
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated the impact of cyberbullying victimization at work on well-being and strain in the workplace. This is the first study to use a longitudinal approach to research cyberbullying at work. A nationally representative sample of Finnish workers (n = 768) took part in a five-wave survey study. Both within-person and between-person effects were analyzed using hybrid regression models showing that experiencing cyberbullying at work leads to psychological distress, technostress, work exhaustion, and decreased work engagement. The effects of remote work and social media use were also explored. These results confirm that cyberbullying at work can have damaging consequences for victims and, consequently, for whole organizations. Thus, it constitutes a significant problem that employers must confront.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T09:48:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221100782
       
  • Viral paradox: The intersection of “me too” and #MeToo

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      Authors: Alicia Boyd, Bree McEwan
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Scholarship on #MeToo has examined the feminist underpinnings of the movement and affordances of digital platforms to create space for telling stories of sexual harassment and violence. This essay makes a different contribution, in that we seek to understand the impact of the viral version of #MeToo on the established primarily Black community developed by Tarana Burke. In this essay, we use the framework of intersectionality and organizational paradox to examine the differences in the social construction of the two versions of the movement. The framework of intersectionality allows us to examine how the viral version of #MeToo perpetuated by Alyssa Milano reified the social construction of inequalities and interlocking systems of oppression for Black and other women of color. The article examines the effects of Milano’s entrance into the “me too” space on the community built through Burke’s “me too” movement. We identify an illumination/occlusion paradox that creates the illusion of inclusivity, creates difficulty in community boundary management, and allows for outsider gaze into a previously safe space. We argue for moving beyond the considerations of assigning credit for the movement and instead consider the impacts of the paradox of the original community experiencing erasure through the abrupt and swift increased visibility of the hashtag.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T09:46:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221099187
       
  • How the social robot Sophia is mediated by a YouTube video

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      Authors: Leopoldina Fortunati, Anna Maria Manganelli, Joachim Höflich, Giovanni Ferrin
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      In robotics, a field of research still populated by prototypes, much of the research is made through videos and pictures of robots. We study how the highly human-like robot Sophia is perceived through a YouTube video. Often researchers take for granted in their experiments that people perceive humanoids as such. With this study we wanted to understand to what extent a convenience sample of university students perceive Sophia’s human-likeness; second, we investigated which mental capabilities and emotions they attribute to her; and third, we explored the possible uses of Sophia they imagine. Our findings suggest that the morphological human-likeness of Sophia, through the video, is not salient in the Sophia’s representations of these participants. Only some mental functions are attributed to Sophia and no emotions. Finally, uses of Sophia turned out to be connected to the gender stereotypes that characterize stereotyped women’s professions and occupations but not completely.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T01:40:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221103176
       
  • Toward a political economy of synthetic data: A data-intensive capitalism
           that is not a surveillance capitalism'

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      Authors: James Steinhoff
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Surveillance of human subjects is how data-intensive companies obtain much of their data, yet surveillance increasingly meets with social and regulatory resistance. Data-intensive companies are thus seeking other ways to meet their data needs. This article explores one of these: the creation of synthetic data, or data produced artificially as an alternative to real-world data. I show that capital is already heavily invested in synthetic data. I argue that its appeal goes beyond circumventing surveillance to accord with a structural tendency within capitalism toward the autonomization of the circuit of capital. By severing data from human subjectivity, synthetic data contributes to the automation of the production of automation technologies like machine learning. A shift from surveillance to synthesis, I argue, has epistemological, ontological, and political economic consequences for a society increasingly structured around data-intensive capital.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-11T10:56:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221099217
       
  • Fake thumbs in play: A large-scale exploration of false amplification and
           false diminution in online news comment spaces

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      Authors: K Hazel Kwon, Mi Hyun Lee, Sang Pil Han, Sungho Park
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study explores how disinformation can dampen general users’ expressions of opinion online. In the context of a proven disinformation case in South Korea, this study analyzes externally validated click-logs of 1389 fake accounts and more than a million logs of 45,769 general users in a highly popular web portal. Findings show that the inflated visibility of anti-governmental opinions in the manipulated comment space was incongruent with the overall political tone that general users had spontaneously encountered from the broader media ecosystem beyond the manipulated space. Subsequently, this opinion “climate” incongruence decreased the likelihood of commenting in the manipulated space. The study concludes that false amplification (of the opinions that the manipulators promote) and false diminution (of general users’ political expressions) work in tandem to create a distorted opinion environment.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-11T10:53:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221099170
       
  • The birth of identity biopolitics: How social media serves antiliberal
           populism

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      Authors: Brian Judge
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article establishes a theoretical link between the business model of social media and the resurgence of antiliberal populism. Through a novel set of tactics I term “identity biopolitics,” political campaigns and foreign governments alike can identify voters as members of socioculturally differentiated populations, then target them with political messages aimed at cultivating voters’ awareness of their particular disadvantage within the prevailing liberal order. Identity biopolitics exploits a positive feedback loop between targeting and content: the sociocultural differentiations liberalism declares politically irrelevant are used to target content that cultivates awareness of subjects’ particular depoliticized disadvantage within the prevailing liberal order. The antiliberal populist exploits this condition to drive support for their political program. This article presents case studies of the Internet Research Agency and Cambridge Analytica during the 2016 general election in the United States to demonstrate the symbiosis between social media and antiliberal populism.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-11T10:41:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221099587
       
  • Self-representations of the experience of anorexia on YouTube: The joint
           influence of the explanatory model and the web platform

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      Authors: Oxana Mikhaylova
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study analyzes the self-representations of Russian-speaking women with anorexia on YouTube. Using multimodal interaction analysis, the research focuses on how the explanatory model of anorexia and the representation platform influence the narratives produced by vloggers who have experienced or are experiencing anorexia. It is concluded that anorexia is mainly represented in these videos as a weight-related mental health disorder. Although the explanatory model of anorexia shapes self-representations on YouTube, the platform plays an even greater role in the construction of such narratives. This study’s findings fill gaps in the existing literature by revealing the joint structural influences that shape storytelling regarding the anorexia experience. The theoretical perspective utilized in this article could be further applied in research examining media representations of other mental health conditions.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T05:22:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221099172
       
  • Normalizing player surveillance through video game infographics

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      Authors: Jan Švelch
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      As video game production is becoming increasingly data-driven, player surveillance shapes the everyday realities of users and developers. Remote online tracking and the resulting optimization and governance of in-game activity subscribe to the Big Data methodology as a way of accounting for entire player populations. By design, player surveillance serves the interests of developers and publishers, who have exclusive access to this proprietary data. Yet, discursively, these parties attempt to present surveillance as a mutually beneficial endeavor aimed at improving video games. A part of this strategy is the video game industry’s selective information disclosure, which I explore empirically on the example of telemetry infographics. Based on a thematic analysis of 200 infographics from 127 games, I show how publicly disseminated infographics contribute to the normalization of player surveillance by presenting it as a source of harmless trivia to be collected and shared by fans and the specialized press.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T05:20:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221097889
       
  • Use and changes in the use of the Internet for obtaining services among
           older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic: A longitudinal population-based
           survey study

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      Authors: Tarja Heponiemi, Lotta Virtanen, Anu-Marja Kaihlanen, Emma Kainiemi Päivikki Koponen, Seppo Koskinen
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has led to an increase in the digitalisation of services that poses the risk of digital exclusion, especially among older adults. We examined the predictors of Internet use for services and its increase or decrease among a longitudinal population-based sample of 1426 older adults from Finland aged between 70 and 100 years, gathered in 2017 and 2020. High education and high income positively predicted the use of the Internet for services, and age, deteriorated health and deteriorated memory negatively. High age, low education and a change to living alone predicted a decrease in use. High education predicted the increased Internet use due to COVID-19. Thus, it seems that those older adults who have low education level are very old, whose health or memory has deteriorated and those who have changed to living alone are particularly in danger of digital exclusion. Actions targeted to these people are needed.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T05:20:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221097000
       
  • Hashtag activism in a politicized pandemic: Framing the campaign to
           include Taiwan in the World Health Organization’s efforts to combat
           COVID-19

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      Authors: Anita KC Liu, Yotam Ophir, Shu-An Tsai, Dror Walter, Itai Himelboim
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      We examined hashtag activism promoting Taiwan’s participation in the global efforts to combat COVID-19. We employed the computational Analysis of Topic Model Networks (ANTMN) to examine the discourse around the #TaiwanCanHelp/#TWforWHO campaign in 2020 (N = 163,876) on Twitter. Our model identified 35 topics clustered within three frames. The containment frame emphasized strategies used to stop COVID-19’s spread in Taiwan. The geopolitics frame described China’s use of its international power to exclude Taiwan from the World Health Organization. The international cooperation frame emphasized Taiwan’s ability and efficacy to contribute to the global efforts to slow down COVID-19. These results extend our understanding of hashtag activism by examining the intersection of geopolitics and global health crises. We introduce the theoretical concept of a mutually beneficial coalition, one that points to detrimental impacts of oppression on both the oppressed and the allies who are asked to help.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T01:17:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221099173
       
  • Cross-media usage and explorative digital music consumption: An optimum
           stimulation-level perspective and evidence from China

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      Authors: Sunghan Ryu, Shantanu Dutta, Baizhu Chen
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Based on a theoretical perspective of the optimum stimulation level (OSL), we investigate how the cross-media usage (multi-device and multi-app usage) of individual users influences their exploration of new music in a music-streaming platform. We also examine whether gender moderates the link between cross-media usage and new music exploration behavior. We analyze survey responses from 1116 college students in China, and our findings show a significant and positive effect of multi-device usage on new music exploration. By contrast, multi-app usage does not have any statistically significant effect. The results also indicate that being a woman positively moderates the relationship between multi-app usage and new music exploration behavior. Our study contributes to the understanding of exploratory user behavior in a new media context by linking the OSL theory to digital music consumption.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T04:47:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221099168
       
  • Individual and collective coping with racial discrimination: What drives
           social media activism among Asian Americans during the COVID-19 outbreak

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      Authors: Weiting Tao, Jo-Yun Li, Yeunjae Lee, Mu He
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      What drives racial minorities to partake in social media activism for racial justice' Answers to this question are vital and urgent, particularly in view of growing anti-Asian hate crimes amid the current pandemic. Motivated to address this question, we draw insights from the transactional model of stress and coping, the situational theory of problem solving (STOPS), and social media activism literature. We propose an integrative model that delineates the psychological antecedents and processes leading Asian Americans to cope with racial discrimination and engage in social media activism. Results of an online survey among 400 Asian Americans supported the proposed model, highlighting a perception-motivation-coping-activism effect chain. Our study advances the three bodies of literature—coping, STOPS, and social media activism—in the context of racial discrimination concerning an understudied minority group: Asian Americans. It also renders meaningful insights to organizations, groups, and governments that seek to support this community.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T12:10:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221100835
       
  • Humour and Comedy in Digital Game Live Streaming

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      Authors: Mark R Johnson
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article considers the nature and functions of humour in digital game live streaming on Twitch. Most streamers and viewers seem uncomfortable with ‘serious’ in-game narrative content, resulting in weighty or emotional moments in games becoming sources of comedy and humour. Many also subvert the platform’s power dynamics by mocking community standards or the possibility of being banned, while some go even further and treat streamers themselves as fair game for mockery. This article thus examines how the humour of play, games and the Internet combine and evolve in an emerging and distinctive ‘stream-humour’, which can be sometimes playful and supportive yet sometimes shade into antagonism, rule-bending and hostility. Examining these dynamics on Twitch, in turn, provides a valuable window into how platform infrastructures and cultures generate norms and cultures of humour and amusement, and strengthens our understanding of online communities and platform power in this and similar contexts.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T12:09:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221095160
       
  • E-extremism: A conceptual framework for studying the online far right

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      Authors: Xinyi Zhang, Mark Davis
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Despite a recent surge in the literature on the far right, there has been a theoretical gap in studying the relationship between the dynamics of change in the far right and the changing digital landscape. Drawing on a set of interrelated concepts developed in far-right studies, social movement studies, and media and communication studies, this theoretical paper adopts a framework based on the concepts of digital network repertoires and the mediation opportunity structure to discuss the ways in which various actors on the far right – reactionary conservatives, online antagonistic communities and right-wing extremists and terrorists – exploit the affordances of mainstream and alt-tech platforms for their own purposes. Through this discussion, this article seeks to shed light on the interplay between e-extremism and the online far right.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T12:07:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221098360
       
  • Online social support for infertility in Azerbaijan

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      Authors: Katy E Pearce, Dana Donohoe, Kristen Barta, Jessica Vitak
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Online social support, with its novel opportunities for coping, is especially important for those experiencing isolation. Daughters-in-law in Azerbaijan are isolated and have inadequate support due to patriarchal and patrilocal norms, amplified when they experience infertility. This study considers an online community where supportive communication and resources are exchanged to mitigate infertility isolation. Using virtual ethnography and thematic analysis, three research questions related to different types of isolation are explored. We find support exchanges in this community can likely help women more efficiently and effectively cope with, and have more control over, the immediate stressor of infertility and associated uncertainty, which is profound given the lack of supportive resources they would otherwise have.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T11:49:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221097946
       
  • Facets of algorithmic literacy: Information, experience, and individual
           factors predict attitudes toward algorithmic systems

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      Authors: David E Silva, Chan Chen, Ying Zhu
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Algorithmic decision-making systems are ubiquitous in digital media, but the public has been largely unable to negotiate the role of algorithms in society. Building from the concept of attitude-behavior consistency for political behavior, we develop a framework for fostering algorithmic literacy to develop well-informed attitudes toward algorithms. As algorithms are increasingly relevant to broad societal effects, an integrative approach is needed for a full account of how the public makes sense of algorithms and their role in society. We designed and tested a novel intervention that combines algorithmic literacy with personalized user experiences to see how each component influenced attitudes toward algorithms. We found these methods jointly informed attitudes, but the intervention’s efficacy was dependent on participants’ individual differences in technology use.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T02:28:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221098042
       
  • Trust-oriented affordances: A five-country study of news trustworthiness
           and its socio-technical articulations

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      Authors: Tali Aharoni, Keren Tenenboim-Weinblatt, Neta Kligler-Vilenchik, Pablo Boczkowski, Kaori Hayashi, Eugenia Mitchelstein, Mikko Villi
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Research on trust has come to the forefront of communication studies. Beyond the dominant focus on informational trust and its country-specific articulations, trustworthiness evaluations can relate to the materiality of news and its global manifestations. Especially in digital algorithmic environments, understanding news trustworthiness requires a holistic approach, which combines informational and socio-technical aspects while addressing both institutional and interpersonal trust. Drawing on 488 in-depth interviews with media consumers in Argentina, Finland, Israel, Japan, and the United States, this article investigates news (dis)trust from the lens of socio-materiality. The six trust-oriented affordances we identified—selectivity, interactivity, customization, searchability, information abundance, and immediacy—reveal important socio-technical commonalities that underlie news trust across countries. These affordances, moreover, point to an interplay of trust and self-agency. Taken together, the findings illuminate the lived experience of news trust as manifested across cultures and offer a broader understanding of trustworthiness within current media ecology.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T02:26:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221096334
       
  • ‘Las Kellys son las que limpian’: Collective identity and social media
           in the mobilisation of room attendants in Spain

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      Authors: Verna Alcalde-González, Ana Gálvez-Mozo, Alan Valenzuela-Bustos
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      In this qualitative study, we focus on Las Kellys, a Spanish movement of room attendants who have mobilised against labour precarisation and social devaluation, to address two challenges: (1) to characterise the role of social media in the construction and politicisation of collective identity as a stepping stone to mobilisation, and (2) to describe the lines of interplay between online politicisation of collective identity and other mobilisation factors such as grievances, social embeddedness and efficacy. Findings suggest that (1) room attendants build a politicised collective identity on Facebook, which functions as both an online community of coping and a locus of politicisation and micro-mobilisation, and (2) online politicisation of collective identity happens in online/offline interplay with the process of consensus mobilisation around the room attendants’ issues (grievances), the social capital accumulated within intragroup and intergroup networks (social embeddedness) and the expectation of changing conditions and/or policies through protest (efficacy).
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T02:23:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221097891
       
  • Enacting cross-platform (buy/boy)cotts: Yellow Economic Circle and the new
           citizen-consumer politics in Hong Kong

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      Authors: Hannah Poon, Tommy Tse
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      While existing studies assert that citizens actively use digital media to exert their political agency, the various roles and impacts of digital media should be further unpacked. Building on the notions of ‘digital democratic affordance’ and ‘cross-platform play’, this article uniquely theorises political consumerism as a multi-scalar mode of human–non-human interactions. The concept of multi-scalar cross-platform affordances is formulated to demonstrate how different digital platforms – large or small, corporate or amateur, global or local – co-constitute an environment in which citizens are progressively channelled to engage in multiple platforms, reinvent them in concert with one another and participate in political consumption across time and space. In the case of the Yellow Economic Circle, against the backdrop of Hong Kong’s 2019–2020 Anti-Extradition Law Amendment Bill (Anti-ELAB) movement, we examine such cross-platform dynamics and their multi-scalar enactment of everyday political consumption practices across four stages: deliberation, crowdsourcing, materialisation and habituation.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T02:16:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221097305
       
  • Networked Islamic counterpublic in China: Digital media and Chinese
           Muslims during global pandemic of COVID-19

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      Authors: Jing Wang
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      How do Chinese Muslims have their own voices heard under China’s tightening online censorship amid a global health crisis like COVID-19' Based on 13-month ethnographic fieldwork, this article examines the active participation and creative use of digital media by Chinese Muslims during the pandemic. This study uses multi-sited ethnography (MSE) and digital ethnography to identify major features of networked Islamic counterpublic in China. It shows how Chinese Muslims creatively blend Islamic discourses of hygiene, scientific discourse, official regulations, and global discourses of public health through digital media. It also examines how Chinese Muslims selectively use digital platforms to cultivate Islamic ethics and strengthening global connections to Muslim world both online and offline. Furthermore, this study shows how resilient the networked Islamic counterpublic in China has been in terms of strategically voicing dissent in the shadows of anti-Muslim sentiments and state policies during a major global pandemic of our time.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T02:10:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221095437
       
  • “Foreign beauties want to meet you”: The sexualization of women in
           Google’s organic and sponsored text search results

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      Authors: Aleksandra Urman, Mykola Makhortykh
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Search engines serve as information gatekeepers on a multitude of topics dealing with different aspects of society. However, the ways search engines filter and rank information are prone to biases related to gender, ethnicity, and race. In this article, we conduct a systematic algorithm audit to examine how one specific form of bias, namely, sexualization, is manifested in Google’s text search results about different national and gender groups. We find evidence of the sexualization of women, particularly those from the Global South and East, in search outputs in both organic and sponsored search results. Our findings contribute to research on the sexualization of people in different forms of media, bias in web search, and algorithm auditing as well as have important implications for the ongoing debates about the responsibility of transnational tech companies for preventing systems they design from amplifying discrimination.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T01:49:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221099536
       
  • High-speed broadband availability, Internet activity among older people,
           quality of life and loneliness

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      Authors: Gretta Mohan, Seán Lyons
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Using data from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), linked to administrative data on high-speed broadband availability from infrastructure maps, this study examines patterns of Internet uses and psychosocial outcomes for over 3500 people aged 50 plus across Ireland. High-speed broadband availability is associated with higher reported levels of home Internet access, greater frequency of Internet use and more engagement with Internet activities. Controlling for demographic and socio-economic circumstances, regression models show that quality of life is higher among daily users of the Internet. Little association is found with loneliness. Quality of life is higher among users of Internet-based communication applications such as email and video calls, and there is some evidence that loneliness may be less pronounced among users of these applications. The findings are consistent with the view that digital engagement can enhance the lives of older people and thus may be supportive of policies and interventions to address potential ‘grey’ digital divides.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-04T08:30:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221095218
       
  • Recognize the bias' News media partisanship shapes the coverage of
           facial recognition technology in the United States

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      Authors: Sonia Jawaid Shaikh, Rachel E. Moran
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Media exists as the primary route through which the public learns about new technologies and thus plays an important role in shaping public sentiments. This article examines the influence of news media partisanship on the coverage of the controversial artificial intelligence (AI) technology facial recognition. A mixed-methods content analysis of news articles (N = 451) from 23 US-based news outlets highlights the emergence of several frames in coverage of facial recognition pertaining to issues of privacy and surveillance, bias, technology’s ability to provide solutions, and its problematic development and implementation. Coverage was differentiated by partisanship, whereby left-leaning media focused more on ethical problems associated with the technology compared to their right-leaning peers who highlighted its abuses by foreign governments. Right-leaning media also referred more to technology’s positive uses, such as helping law enforcement, compared to left-leaning media. Finally, AI companies were the most dominant suppliers of information to the media regarding the technology.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T12:18:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221090916
       
  • When is the right time to remember': Social media memories,
           temporality and the kairologic

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      Authors: Benjamin N Jacobsen
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article asks what impact temporality and timing have on the ways in which memories are felt and made to matter on social media. Drawing on Taina Bucher’s theorisation of the ‘kairologic’ of algorithmic media, I explore how digital memories are resurfaced or made visible to people at the ‘right time’ in the present. The article proposes the notion of ‘right-time memories’ to examine the ways in which social media platforms and timing performatively shape people’s engagement with the past. Drawing on interview and focus group data, I explore four ways that right-time memories are sociotechnically produced and felt in everyday life: through an anniversary logic, personalisation, rhythms, and tensions. Ultimately, it is argued that when memories are made to matter in the present is a crucial way to further examine the temporal politics of social media platforms and algorithms.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T11:40:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221096768
       
  • Opening up mediation opportunities by engaging grassroots data: Adaptive
           and resilient feminist data activism in China

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      Authors: Yu Sun, Siyuan Yin
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores the dynamics and practices of feminist data activism that engages with grassroots data to archive cases of sexual violence in China. Drawing on Cammaert’s notion of the mediation opportunity structure, we investigate the mediation process of a feminist data campaign and activists’ communicative practices in contemporary China. By practicing data-activist research, our study shows that the data-based action repertoire opens up hybrid and contingent mediation opportunities for an anti-sexual violence campaign under the current political opportunity structure. We find the paradox of seeking visibility while refusing mainstream media coverage in activist tactics, which embodies a form of adaptive and resilient feminist data activism in the authoritarian context of China. This case study suggests that the dynamics of feminist data activism in China are configured by the tripartite interaction among the disruptive action repertoire, mediation opportunity structure, and political conditions.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T10:36:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221096806
       
  • Carceral communication: Mass incarceration as communicative phenomenon

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      Authors: Jeffrey Lane, Fanny A Ramirez
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article introduces the concept of carceral communication to focus attention on the role of communication in mass incarceration’s racialized, criminal justice process. To argue that a communication perspective helps explain how individuals, neighborhoods, and prisons are linked together, the article uses publicly available indictments that charged three New York City youth gangs with violent crimes. It identifies three facets of carceral communication to demonstrate how and why mass incarceration is a communicative phenomenon. First, computer-mediated communication (CMC) has become the most sought-after type of criminal evidence because of its visibility and permanence. Second, law enforcement uses the interpersonal communication and neighborhood networks of incarcerated Black men for crime control and surveillance purposes. Third, carceral communication operates as a communication feedback process, in which marginalized, young, Black men under surveillance know they are being watched and respond to that surveillance with resistance that is also subject to criminalization.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-05-24T11:46:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448211060841
       
  • Disinforming the unbiased: How online users experience and cope with
           dissonance after climate change disinformation exposure

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      Authors: Laura Wolff, Monika Taddicken
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The emergence of disinformation challenges today’s democracies. Selective exposure research assumes that psychological biases cause people to turn to attitude-reinforcing disinformation, though studies indicate that this only holds true for small niches of online audiences. However, when online, unbiased users as well may encounter disinformation, which for them appear to be attitude-challenging. How unbiased online users experience and cope with dissonance triggered by this, and whether this affects their pre-existing attitudes, has hardly been explored. This research gap is addressed using the polarized topic of climate change as an example. An experimental research design is applied combining stimulus exposure, survey research, eye tracking, and interviews (n = 50). The findings indicate that unbiased users are not entirely resistant to disinformation influence. However, attitude effects could not be fully explained by selection behavior but instead through different feelings and strategies of coping with dissonance and patterns of performing online information searches.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T06:48:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221090194
       
  • In the eye of the beholder: A viewer-defined conception of online visual
           creativity

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      Authors: Laura Mariah Herman, Angel Hsing-Chi Hwang
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Despite substantial interest in developing theoretical models and technology for creativity enhancement, existing creativity research across various fields lacks a user-centered definition of creativity that can be operationalized in today’s digital spaces. To address this, we conducted a mixed-methods longitudinal research on a study website mirroring content from Bēhance, a popular online platform for creatives. Specifically, we examined how content creators and consumers explored and reflected on online creative content through textual, visual, quantitative, and behavioral data. Analyzing and triangulating these multiple data streams, we conceptualize creativity from the perspectives of its genuine “users,” the viewers. Collectively, we highlight (1) constructs of creativity that have not been emphasized in the existing literature, (2) the impact of users’ roles on content exploration and conception of creativity, and (3) the difference between machine and human users’ perception of creative content. We discuss theoretical and practical implications accordingly.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T06:47:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221089604
       
  • ‘COVID Casablanca’: A case of Dubai’s British social media
           influencers and postdigital intermedia geographies

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      Authors: Zoe Hurley
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      During the COVID-19 pandemic in 2021, British social media influencers posted pictures and stories from Dubai. As a result, the emirate faced an intense backlash from the British media. This study considers the British media’s motivations for constituting Dubai as Orientalist ‘other’ while uncovering earlier imagined geographies of the Orient. The study develops the novel concept of ‘intermedia geographies’ to trace intertextual links, tales, texts, content, audiences and discourses, as dynamic constellations of the postdigital condition. Unique methods of postdigital critical discourse analysis are developed to map a corpus of 20 British magazine, tabloid and broadsheet newspaper articles, which are the jumping-off point to intertextual references to television, film and earlier Oriental narratives. Theorizing levels up from description to nuanced analysis to illustrate that the themes of content, stance and social actors’ positioning within the corpus are indicative of Britain’s siloed mainstream audiences and postdigital reinforcements of colonial discourse.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T06:14:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221098364
       
  • Networking down: Networks, innovation, and relational labor in digital
           book publishing

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      Authors: Christine Larson, Elspeth Ready
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      While management and network scholars have long asked why some groups adapt to innovation more readily than others, such questions have been surprisingly absent in studies of new media production. We offer a network analytical framework which relates producers’ informal networks to their capacity to adopt digital innovations. Through a network ethnography of 4264 romance writers, we find that established authors who reversed traditional advice patterns, by seeking advice from inexperienced newcomers rather than experienced peers, were more likely to adopt digital self-publishing. By linking the concept of relational labor to network structures, we demonstrate the value of “networking down” in a digitally disrupted cultural industry—a surprising finding in a business where networking up, to powerful actors, has seemed critical for success. We argue that strategic relational labor by established content creators facilitates adaptation to digital conditions and provides some measure of protection against precarity in a changing landscape.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T10:11:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221090195
       
  • Examining communication visibility and social technology platform use in
           organizations

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      Authors: Jeffrey W Treem, Ward van Zoonen, Anu Sivunen
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Organizations are increasingly adopting social technology platforms in an effort to support increased knowledge sharing among workers. Although scholarship has indicated that the use of social technologies can increase multiple forms of communication visibility within organizations, little is known about the nature of these relationships and how the benefits of that visibility may differ based on the use of different functionalities of platforms. This study examines how various uses of a social technology platform in a global organization relate to communication visibility and increased metaknowledge among workers. In addition, our analysis investigates how communication visibility relates to workers’ knowledge-sharing intentions and engagement. Findings extend theory by indicating that metaknowledge from communication visibility does indeed differ based on whether employees use functionalities that connect communication partners, or interact with communal communication available to third parties.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T10:06:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221089278
       
  • Online social connections and Internet use among people with intellectual
           disabilities in the United Kingdom during the COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Sue Caton, Chris Hatton, Amanda Gillooly, Edward Oloidi, Libby Clarke, Jill Bradshaw, Samantha Flynn, Laurence Taggart, Peter Mulhall, Andrew Jahoda, Roseann Maguire, Anna Marriott, Stuart Todd, David Abbott, Stephen Beyer, Nick Gore, Pauline Heslop, Katrina Scior, Richard P Hastings
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Having a disability, in particular, an intellectual disability, is associated with Internet non-use. This article explores how people with intellectual disabilities used the Internet across the United Kingdom during the COVID-19 pandemic. In April to May 2021, 571 adults with intellectual disabilities were interviewed. Participants most commonly used the Internet for being with family and friends, social media or doing online activities with other people. People who lived with family were the most likely to use social media; people who lived with other people with intellectual disabilities were the least likely. People who self-reported as not lonely were more likely to use the Internet for online activities with others and play video games with others. Social connections were identified as the best thing about the Internet. Many participants chose not to identify a worst thing about Internet use, while others reported issues with technology, online harm and threats to well-being.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-05-06T02:34:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221093762
       
  • Making sense of deepfakes: Socializing AI and building data literacy on
           GitHub and YouTube

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      Authors: Anthony McCosker
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      As a form of synthetic media built on the Internet’s extensive visual datasets with evolving machine learning techniques, deepfakes raise the specter of new types of informational harms and possibilities for image-based abuse. There are calls for three types of defensive response: regulation, technical controls, and improved digital or media literacy. Each is problematic by itself. This article asks what kind of literacy can address deepfake harms, proposing an artificial intelligence (AI) and data literacy framework to explore the potential for social learning with deepfakes and identify sites and methods for intervening in their cultures of production. The article applies contextual qualitative content analysis to explore the most popular GitHub repositories and YouTube accounts teaching “how to deepfake.” The analysis shows that these sites contribute to socializing AI and establishing cultures of social learning, offering potential sites of intervention and pointing to new methods for addressing AI and data harms.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T10:26:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221093943
       
  • How social media users perceive different forms of online hate speech: A
           qualitative multi-method study

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      Authors: Ursula Kristin Schmid, Anna Sophie Kümpel, Diana Rieger
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Although many social media users have reported encountering hate speech, differences in the perception between different users remain unclear. Using a qualitative multi-method approach, we investigated how personal characteristics, the presentation form, and content-related characteristics influence social media users’ perceptions of hate speech, which we differentiated as first-level (i.e. recognizing hate speech) and second-level perceptions (i.e. attitude toward it). To that end, we first observed 23 German-speaking social media users as they scrolled through a fictitious social media feed featuring hate speech. Next, we conducted remote self-confrontation interviews to discuss the content and semi-structured interviews involving interactive tasks. Although it became apparent that perceptions are highly individual, some overarching tendencies emerged. The results suggest that the perception of and indignation toward hate speech decreases as social media use increases. Moreover, direct and prosecutable hate speech is perceived as being particularly negative, especially in visual presentation form.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T10:32:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221091185
       
  • Populist everyday politics in the (mediatized) age of social media: The
           case of Instagram celebrity advocacy

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      Authors: Angelos Kissas
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article is interested in populism outside the master frame of institutional politics (populist parties/leaders), considering, instead, the populist potential of celebrities’ everyday politics on social media. To understand this potential, the article suggests, we need to understand how celebrities are compelled by today’s mediatized communicative ecosystem to perform themselves as ordinary advocates for people-victims. We need to examine how the performative logic that this ecosystem forces into platforms accommodates certain emotional claims to ordinariness and normative-moral claims to advocacy—who is (un)worthy of a place in the victimized people that celebrities should advocate for. The article does so by analyzing two paradigmatically different case studies: Lady Gaga’s legacy-status and Greta Thunberg’s influencer-style performances of celebrity advocacy on Instagram. The analytical discussion leads to contemplating the mediatized populist politics of everyday politics that both perform, despite their differences, and its ambivalent relationship with liberal democracy (centrist moderation and neoliberal consolidation).
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T10:17:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221092006
       
  • The social side of cryptocurrency: Exploring the investors’ ideological
           realities from Romanian Facebook groups

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      Authors: Dragoș M Obreja
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The complexity of blockchain technologies is reflected in the various ways in which social actors operate with crypto transactions, and this is seen in the wide range of discourses and practices adopted on the crypto market. Using social constructivism, this study highlights the fact that social practices in the crypto area respect certain thematic ideologies, through which individual discourses reflect different pragmatic expectations in relation to virtually encrypted transactions. Drawing on inductive thematic analysis based on 38 semi-structured interviews with Romanian investors, four major themes emerge: (1) unbreakable power of code encompasses rather libertarian discourses on potential state policies, (2) key role of peers explains the investments in the crypto market as a form of community membership, (3) assuming plenty of risks highlights the discourses focused on substantial and unpredictable gains, and (4) preferring safety above all encompasses discourses on financial stability through rather conservative behaviors.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T09:02:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221092028
       
  • Constructing alternative facts: Populist expertise and the QAnon
           conspiracy

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      Authors: Alice E Marwick, William Clyde Partin
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Communication research is increasingly concerned with the relationship between epistemological fragmentation and polarization. Even so, explanations for why partisans take up fringe beliefs are limited. This article examines the right-wing conspiracy QAnon, which posits that the anonymous poster “Q” is a Trump administration insider who encourages followers (“Bakers”) to research hidden truths behind current events. Drawing on qualitative fieldwork on the 8chan imageboard, we position baking as a collective, knowledge-making activity built on the affordances of social media designed to construct specific facts and theories that maintain QAnon’s cohesion over time. Bakers demonstrate populist expertise, the rejection of legacy media accounts of current events in favor of the “alternative facts” constructed through their systematic research programs. We emphasize the politically ambivalent nature of participatory culture and argue that baking casts doubt on critical thinking or media literacy as solutions to “post-truth” dilemmas like hyperpartisan media and disinformation.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T05:29:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221090201
       
  • Co-producing industrial public goods on GitHub: Selective firm
           cooperation, volunteer-employee labour and participation inequality

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      Authors: Mathieu O’Neil, Laure Muselli, Xiaolan Cai, Stefano Zacchiroli
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The global economy’s digital infrastructure is based on free and open source software. To analyse how firms indirectly collaborate via employee contributions to developer-run projects, we propose a formal definition of ‘industrial public goods’ – inter-firm cooperation, volunteer and paid labour overlap, and participation inequality. We verify its empirical robustness by collecting networks of commits made by firm employees to active GitHub software repositories. Despite paid workers making more contributions, volunteers play a significant role. We find which firms contribute most, which projects benefit from firm investments, and identify distinct ‘contribution territories’ since the two central firms never co-contribute to top-20 repositories. We highlight the challenge posed by ‘Big Tech’ to the non-rival status of industrial public goods, thanks to cloud-based systems which resist sharing, and suggest there may be ‘contribution deserts’ neglected by large information technology firms, despite their importance for the open source ecosystem’s sustainability and diversity.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T09:48:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221090474
       
  • Medium and source convergence in crisis information acquisition: Patterns,
           antecedents, and outcomes

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      Authors: Xinyan Zhao, Sifan Xu, Lucinda L. Austin
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      To understand how individuals navigate the complex, dynamic, and bewildering media information environment, we propose a convergence framework theorizing individuals’ acquisition of information from distinct sources on multiple mediums, along with its antecedents and consequences. This study is among the first to test the convergence framework. Using a national sample during the COVID-19 pandemic, our results revealed four convergence patterns and key antecedents and outcomes of these patterns. Individuals’ information verification tendency, perceived medium anonymity, and trust in alternative sources were associated with distinct patterns of convergence, which led to different risk perceptions. Future research should explore different forms of convergence and additional antecedents and outcomes of convergence.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T10:25:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221088866
       
  • Curative platforms: Disability, access, and food delivery work in
           Singapore

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      Authors: Renyi Hong
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      In the recent years, food delivery platforms in Southeast Asia have accepted people with disabilities as delivery workers, framing it as economic empowerment. This article examines this ambivalent bargain of economic rehabilitation in Singapore where Grab is headquartered. Drawing from historical records, it first traces the relations of “platform” to “access,” demonstrating how the framework of curative intermediaries had historically shaped expectations around work. Access in the 1980s was envisioned as intermediating infrastructural connections that could provide disabled people with resources, transforming them from liabilities to productive personhoods. The second portion draws from interviews with disabled delivery workers to highlight the problems that constitute this investment in intermediaries and cure. Although accommodative platforms provide some degree of economic inclusion, these accommodations are often partial, resulting in precarity, attrition, and injury. “Curative platforms,” therefore, signals the investment and twinning of cure and violence that subject the disabled to a compromised existence.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T09:16:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221090638
       
  • The relationship between humanitarian NGO communication and user
           engagement on Twitter

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      Authors: Daniela Dimitrova, Tobias Heidenreich, Teodor Antonio Georgiev
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      One of the few actors whose mission is to provide support and advocacy for refugee communities with limited access to information and services are humanitarian non-governmental organizations (NGOs). This study examines the narratives produced by the leading humanitarian NGOs on one of the most popular social media platforms today—namely, Twitter. The study investigates which narratives are most popular among global NGOs and whether the way they frame the refugee issue is related to Twitter engagement. The findings contribute to scholarship on online communication and user engagement, and also inform humanitarian NGO practices and policy discussions regarding media and migration.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T05:30:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221088970
       
  • Memetic persuasion: and WhatsAppification in Indonesia’s 2019
           presidential election

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      Authors: Emma Baulch, Ariadna Matamoros-Fernández, Fiona Suwana
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines the interplay between the creation of ‘meme factories’ by political elites, and their operationalisation through WhatsApp. It uses the case study of Indonesian President Joko Widodo’s (Jokowi’s) bid for re-election in 2019 to argue that political elites are leveraging meme culture’s association with popular voice to ‘astroturf’ public discourse, and that WhatsApp’s unique infrastructure advances that project. Drawing on interview data, we offer a holistic picture of the processes and structures implicated in this instance of astroturfing, with a focus on how WhatsApp is positioned within them. The authors’ access to campaigners affords a rare inside view of these processes and structures, and contributes to a growing body of work on the WhatsAppification of election campaigns globally. In addition, the article builds on scholarship on social media election campaigning in Indonesia by drawing attention to the role WhatsApp’s unique features play in surreptitiously influencing public discourse.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T05:28:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221088274
       
  • Is it better to strike a balance' How exposure to congruent and
           incongruent opinion climates on social networking sites impacts users’
           processing and selection of information

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      Authors: Manuel Cargnino, German Neubaum
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The growing significance of social networking sites (SNSs) as venues for political exchanges between citizens raises questions on the consequences of their use. This pre-registered experiment (N = 704) aexamined to what extent a gradual variation of congruence between users’ opinions and the opinion climate they encounter on SNSs affect their strength of opinion and selective exposure. No effects were found from the level of congruence on selective exposure, while exploratory analyses suggested that exposure to overly congruent opinion climates can lead to marginally stronger opinions. Building on research into political social identities which suggests polarizing effects of the latter, interaction effects of users’ ideological identities and exposure to opinions on SNS were additionally investigated. However, the present work found no indication that effects of congruence are modulated by identity salience. Taken together, findings of this study suggest that socially divisive effects of like-minded or non-like-minded opinion climates conveyed by SNS may be limited.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T05:26:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221083914
       
  • “Pose”: Examining moments of “digital” dark
           sousveillance on TikTok

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      Authors: Chelsea Peterson-Salahuddin
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Over the past year, many young creators who use the Chinese-owned social networking platform TikTok have claimed that its underlying algorithm surveils and suppresses the reach of content by Black, brown, fat, queer, and disabled creators. However, despite these algorithmic biases, these marginalized creators have continued to find new and ingenious ways to not only create but also successfully share anti-racist, anti-misogynistic, LGBTQIA+supportive, and body-positive content on the platform. Using this tension, this essay engages visual content analysis and critical technocultural discourse analysis to examine the innovative ways marginalized creators employ TikTok’s various medium and technological affordances to evade algorithmic surveillance and oppression. Building on Simone Browne’s concept of dark sousveillance, I theorize these practices as acts of digital dark sousveillance, defined within the essay as the use of digital tools to enact surveillance subversion, obfuscation, inversion while operating within systems of racializing surveillance.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T10:48:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221080480
       
  • Time spent online and children’s self-reported life satisfaction in
           Norway: The socio-ecological perspective

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      Authors: Tijana Milosevic, Niamh Ní Bhroin, Kjartan Ólafsson, Elisabeth Staksrud, Sebastian Wachs
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Despite public discourses highlighting the negative consequences of time spent online (TSO) for children’s well-being, Norwegian children (aged 9–16 years) use the Internet more than other European children and score higher on self-reported life satisfaction (SRLS). To explore the possibility that TSO might contribute to high life satisfaction or other underlying explanatory factors, we investigate the relationship between TSO and SRLS in Norway while also accounting for how individual, family, school, and broader social circumstances influence this relationship. Countering prevailing discourses, we find a positive relationship between TSO and SRLS, which remains positive and significant even after a wider range of variables are accounted for. By explaining the circumstances under which TSO has a positive effect on SRLS, this article provides evidence of the complex role that digital technology plays in the lives of children. It also provides a critique of the often simplistic arguments found in public discourses around children’s digital media use.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-06T01:24:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221082651
       
  • Constitutional metaphors: Facebook’s “supreme court” and the
           legitimation of platform governance

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      Authors: Josh Cowls, Philipp Darius, Dominiquo Santistevan, Moritz Schramm
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Who governs—and who should govern—online communication' Social media companies, international organizations, users, or the state' And by what means' A range of rhetorical devices have been used to simplify the complexities associated with the governance of online platforms. This includes “constitutional metaphors”: metaphorical allusions to traditional political concepts such as statehood, democracy, and constitutionalism. Here, we empirically trace the ascent of a powerful constitutional metaphor currently employed in the news media discourse on platform governance: characterizations of Facebook’s Oversight Board (OB) as a “supreme court.” We investigate the metaphor’s descriptive suitability and question its normative and political ramifications. We argue that uncritical characterizations of the OB as Facebook’s “supreme court” obscure its true scope and purpose. In addition, we argue that appropriating the socio-cultural symbolism and hence political legitimacy of a supreme court and mapping it onto a different type of actor poses a threat to responsible platform governance.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T09:51:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221085559
       
  • “I did it without hesitation. Am I the bad guy'”: Online
           conversations in response to controversial in-game violence

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      Authors: Nicholas David Bowman, Daniel A Bowen, Melissa C Mercado, Lindsey Jean Resignato, Philippe de Villemor Chauveau
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Video game content has evolved over the last six decades, from a basic focus on challenge and competition to include more serious and introspective narratives capable of encouraging critical contemplation within gamers. The “No Russian” mission from Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 casts players as terrorists responsible for the murder of innocent bystanders, sparking debate around how players engage and react to wanton violence in modern video games. Through thematic analysis of 649 Reddit posts discussing the mission, 10 themes emerged representing complexity in player experiences. Those themes were grouped into categories representing (descending order), (1) rote gameplay experiences, (2) dark humor, (3) comparing the mission to other games and real-world events, and (4) self-reflective eudaimonic reactions to the mission. Although less common, the presence of eudaimonic media effects (in at least 15% of posts) holds promise for the use of video games as reflective spaces for violence prevention.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T09:49:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221078865
       
  • Mommy influencers: Helpful or harmful' The relationship between
           exposure to mommy influencers and perceived parental self-efficacy among
           mothers and primigravida

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      Authors: Gaëlle Ouvrein
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Questions are raised about the potential effects of (future) mothers’ regular exposure to the perfect representations of motherhood by mommy influencers. Due to the regular exposure, mothers might see these images as the norm but are not always able to meet with these standards themselves. Based on a survey among mothers and primigravida this study analyzed the association between visiting mommy influencer profiles on Instagram, comparing oneself with these online mothers and perceived parental self-efficacy. For mothers, it was found that both exposure to the content and comparison with the mommy influencers were related to lower perceived parental self-efficacy. For primigravida, the direction of the relationship was different: Regular exposure to mommy influencer content was related to higher parental self-efficacy, meaning that this exposure was helpful. The implications of this study for (future) mothers, mommy influencers, and practitioners who guide mothers through the transition to motherhood will be discussed.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-04T10:42:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221086296
       
  • In times of crisis: Public perceptions toward COVID-19 contact tracing
           apps in China, Germany, and the United States

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      Authors: Genia Kostka, Sabrina Habich-Sobiegalla
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The adoption of COVID-19 contact tracing apps (CTAs) has been proposed as an important measure to contain the spread of COVID-19. Based on a cross-national dataset, this article analyzes public perceptions toward CTAs and the factors that drive CTA acceptance in China, Germany, and the United States. We find that public acceptance of CTAs is significantly higher in China as compared with Germany and the United States. Despite very different sociopolitical contexts, there are striking similarities in the factors that drive CTA acceptance in all three countries. Citizens are willing to accept digital contact tracing despite concerns about privacy infringement and government surveillance, as long as the apps are perceived as effective in lowering infection rates and providing health information. This creates a chicken-and-egg problem for CTAs in Germany and the United States where CTAs are voluntary: a high citizen adoption rate is necessary for CTAs to be effective, but CTAs are only effective if adoption rates are high.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-04-03T04:46:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221083285
       
  • Newly minted: Non-fungible tokens and the commodification of fandom

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      Authors: Trevor Zaucha, Colin Agur
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) exist today as a component of a broader, ever-evolving financial environment in which questions of value, ownership, and intention are characterized by their ambiguity. This article considers Dapper Labs “NBA Top Shot,” a blockchain-backed website inviting NBA fans to join in “a new era in fandom” wherein they may acquire NFTs of NBA highlights by opening “packs,” which are functionally similar to trading cards. NFTs reflect the pressures of market forces, as well as increased cultural and economic emphasis on marketization, financialization, commodification, and the ubiquity of gambling-like designs and interactions. Furthermore, this study explores tensions present in differing intentions for the NBA Top Shot platform and Discord server, the diffuse nature of user conversations (a nature that disregards topical boundaries), and audience attention toward marketization and investment interests. The commodification of the NBA fan experience illustrates a shared social pressure to more readily think of one’s life, interactions, and consumptive behaviors through the lens of the investor, fostering financial attitudes that normalize instability and encourage risk-taking beyond the scope of a platform where purchase-dependent interactions serve as a source of joy and social experience in a venue representing a perceived electronic gold rush.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-03-28T07:22:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221080481
       
  • Platformed antisemitism on Twitter: Anti-Jewish rhetoric in political
           discourse surrounding the 2018 US midterm election

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      Authors: Martin J. Riedl, Katie Joseff, Stu Soorholtz, Samuel Woolley
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      What does antisemitism look like in the context of political discussions on Twitter' In this article, we introduce the notion of platformed antisemitism. We first define it as a platform-agnostic concept, and then explore it through an exemplary case study of Twitter and its affordances by way of a mixed-methods analysis of discourse surrounding the 2018 US midterm election. Via qualitative textual analysis, we document how political discourse on Twitter is marred by antisemitic conspiracy theories that intersect with QAnon and Trump/MAGA support. Through quantitative content analysis of a sample of 99,062 tweets, we highlight a list of terms and hashtags most often associated with antisemitic speech on Twitter and showcase how specific affordances on the platform (quote-tweets, hashtags) amplify and/or diminutize antisemitic speech. Via Lasso regression, we introduce an antisemitism classifier that can be used to further refine future detection efforts of antisemitic speech.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-03-25T06:47:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221082122
       
  • Buying the news: A quantitative study of the effects of corporate
           acquisition on local news

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      Authors: Benjamin LeBrun, Kaitlyn Todd, Andrew Piper
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Local newspapers are increasingly subject to predatory corporate acquisition—corporate takeovers in which media conglomerates purchase publications in financially precarious states, drastically cut staff, and in certain cases consolidate newsroom operations. We investigate how this practice alters the information environment of 31 corporate-owned local newspapers across over 130,000 articles. Formalizing local information across three dimensions, we find (a) that corporate acquisition is associated with a reduction in the volume of local content produced, (b) that the coverage of local places following acquisition is significantly more concentrated than prior to acquisition, and (c) that articles produced to be shared across regional hubs of corporate-owned publications are significantly less local—and discursively more national—than articles produced for a single local market. Our findings identify reductions in newsroom resources and regional hubs of publications as detrimental to the information environment of local communities.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-03-25T06:39:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221079030
       
  • “This would be sweet in VR”: On the discursive newness of
           virtual reality

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      Authors: Daniel Harley
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      When virtual reality (VR) entered the consumer market in 2016, it was accompanied by claims of its potential as a “revolutionary” new technology. This article examines these claims of newness by focusing on statements made by industry leaders and other professionals. The findings suggest repetitions of problematic discourse, in which colonialist language of “pioneering” expansion appears to be used to mobilize developers who are dominantly young, White, and male. I argue that recontextualizing the “newness” of VR opens opportunities to contest its depoliticized histories and to question its imagined futures. Situating VR within a much longer history of digital and non-digital technologies not only challenges the notions of newness that are foundational to industry-led VR discourse, but also offers a critical alternative.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-03-19T11:13:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221084655
       
  • Digital self-tracking, habits and the myth of discontinuance: It doesn’t
           just ‘stop’

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      Authors: Marianne Clark, Clare Southerton, Matthew Driller
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Digital self-tracking devices increasingly inhabit everyday landscapes, yet many people abandon self-trackers not long after acquisition. Although research has examined why people discontinue these devices, less explores what actually happens when people unplug. This article addresses this gap by considering the embodied and habitual dimensions of self-tracking and discontinuance. We consider the potential for digital data – and their unanticipated affects – to linger within habitual practices even after the device is abandoned. We draw on the philosophies of Felix Ravaisson and Gilles Deleuze to understand habit as a capacity for change, rather than a performance of sameness. We trace how self-tracking prompts new embodiments that continue to unfold even after people disengage. In decentring the device as our object of attention, we trouble the logic that self-tracking simply ‘stops’ in its absence. This holds implications for theorizing human–digital relations and for how self-tracking health interventions are implemented and evaluated.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-03-19T05:37:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221083992
       
  • Digital media and political consumerism in the United States, United
           Kingdom, and France

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      Authors: Shelley Boulianne, Lauren Copeland, Karolina Koc-Michalska
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Digital media use can connect citizens across geographic boundaries into coordinated action by distributing political information, enabling the formation of groups, and facilitating political talk. These activities can lead to political consumerism, which is an important and popular form of political participation that translates across geographic borders. This article uses original survey data (n = 9284) to examine the relationship between digital media use and political consumerism in the United States, United Kingdom, and France. Talking politics online, joining social groups on social media, and searching online for political information increase participation in political consumerism. However, the strength of these positive correlations differs by age, country, and mode of political consumerism. Joining social groups on social media has a much larger effect size on buycotting compared to boycotting. The findings imply that social groups are more salient in the mobilization process for buycotting campaigns compared to boycotting campaigns.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-03-18T12:56:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221083025
       
  • Practical knowledge of algorithms: The case of BreadTube

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      Authors: Kelley Cotter
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The growing ubiquity of algorithms in everyday life has prompted cross-disciplinary interest in what people know about algorithms. The purpose of this article is to build on this growing literature by highlighting a particular way of knowing algorithms evident in past work, but, as yet, not clearly explicated. Specifically, I conceptualize practical knowledge of algorithms to capture knowledge located at the intersection of practice and discourse. Rather than knowing that an algorithm is/does X, Y, or Z, practical knowledge entails knowing how to accomplish X, Y, or Z within algorithmically mediated spaces as guided by the discursive features of one’s social world. I conceptualize practical knowledge in conversation with past work on algorithmic knowledge and theories of knowing, and as empirically grounded in a case study of a leftist online community known as “BreadTube.”
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-03-18T12:55:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221081802
       
  • Gamblification: A definition

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      Authors: Joseph Macey, Juho Hamari
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, gambling has become increasingly prominent in everyday life; the term ‘gamblification’ first emerged in the late 2000s and was used to describe the colonisation of sports and sporting cultures by the gambling industry. Since that time, gamblification has been used to describe a range of phenomena in increasingly diffuse contexts; it has been variously used as a proxy for the convergence of gaming and gambling, to describe specific monetisation practices, or as a means of motivating consumer behaviours. Conceptual clarity has been further muddied by the positioning of gamblification as a form of gamification. This work provides a definition of gamblification, which draws upon and consolidates existing uses of the term while also providing a lens through which the differing aspects of gamblification can be understood and appraised. By doing so, this work will establish a clear conceptual framework, which can structure in-depth discussions of this multi-dimensional phenomenon.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-03-17T11:51:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221083903
       
  • Mobile phone repair in Ghana: Comparing three approaches

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      Authors: Miao Lu
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Mobile phone repair is booming in the Global South, creating new players and approaches. Based on ethnographic research in Ghana’s major phone markets, this article maps the local repair ecosystem by illustrating two sets of repair actors: “company repairers” and “independent repairers.” Paying attention to their internal diversity and complex interactions, this article categorizes three types of repair practices, including the high-end approach employed by Samsung, Apple and Huawei, the mid-range approach adopted by the Chinese after-sales service provider Carlcare, and the low-end approach used by independent repairers. This article argues that Carlcare, as a rising repair actor, creates a middle ground between the elitism of big tech and the informality of local repair shops. Through its repair practice, Carlcare not only translates dysfunctional technologies into functional ones but also transforms informal laborers into professional technicians. Contextualizing Carlcare’s development in Ghana, this article discusses the tensions and implications of institutionalization.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-03-17T11:46:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221083652
       
  • How do transnational public spheres emerge' Comparing news and social
           media networks during the Madrid climate talks

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      Authors: Timothy Neff, Dariusz Jemielniak
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, we explore two parallel networks of discourse during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) negotiations of 2019 in Madrid (25th Conference of the Parties, COP25): one produced by news media coverage of the talks; the other by Twitter users who shared news content about the talks. Findings show that transnational public spheres can emerge out of relatively homogeneous moments internal to networks and external to networks (i.e. across multiple networks) at the intersection of certain actors and topics, cultural practices, and commercial and non-commercial (state) institutions. Yet there are persistent divisions along language, geographic, and other lines that encourage the formation of distinct micro-spheres of networked actors (internal heterogeneity), as well as distinct media practices that work to differentiate mass media networks from networks produced by a different set of publics on social media (external heterogeneity).
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-03-17T11:44:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221081426
       
  • How offline backgrounds interact with digital capital

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      Authors: Massimo Ragnedda, Felice Addeo, Maria Laura Ruiu
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article investigates the interaction between digital capital and some offline components (economic, cultural, political, social and personal) that represent the background against which we access and use the Internet. Based on a stratified sample of the UK population (868), six indexes (one for each component) were generated through factor analysis and univariate analysis. We summarised them into a unique model by performing a multiple linear regression to evaluate the role-played by offline components in the development/reinforcement of digital capital. The interaction between these new indexes and the digital capital index shows that, with the exception of the political component, all offline backgrounds positively contribute to digital capital. Moreover, the multiple regression analysis shows that the economic and social components have the strongest influence on digital capital.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-03-12T12:06:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221082649
       
  • Sex tracking apps and sexual self-care

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      Authors: Rebecca Saunders
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      ‘To-Do List: Masturbate’ reads one of the Instagram posts for the fashionable, new Lioness vibrator and tracking app. Lioness is just one of the most publicised of a spate of sex tracking apps principally aimed at women that have emerged over the past 5 years, which asks users to monitor their sexual interactions, and which also offers medical and holistic advice on how to improve one’s sex life. This article focuses on how the value of this technology is articulated through the rhetoric of self-care that connects these apps to the increasingly culturally pervasive valorisation of sex as a form of work; and how its connections both to self-care and quantification demonstrate important developments in post- and neoliberal feminism where objectivity and distance become central to the formation to female sexual subjectivity.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-03-11T11:40:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221079631
       
  • Social media engagement against fear of restrictions and surveillance: The
           mediating role of privacy management

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      Authors: Macau KF Mak, Alex Zhi-Xiong Koo, Hernando Rojas
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The impact of state restriction and surveillance on social media engagement has been widely investigated in communication studies. However, these studies tend not to capture the moment when these restrictions are implemented and citizens experience a high level of uncertainty. Addressing the implementation of a national security law (NSL) in Hong Kong, we used two-wave panel data to understand political engagement on Facebook before and shortly after the law was enacted. We find a serial mediation path in which pan-democratic and localist users (those who tend to oppose the government) showed greater fear of the law; this encouraged more active privacy management which was related to a higher level of engagement after the enactment of NSL, implying that these users responded strategically through restricting the visibility of their engagement. This mediation path is moderated by the level of political disagreement users encountered on Facebook. Implications of the findings are discussed.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-03-09T10:36:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221077240
       
  • The steam platform economy: From retail to player-driven economies

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      Authors: Anne Mette Thorhauge
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, I analyse the Steam platform as a configuration of several market contexts. I argue that Valve, the owner of Steam, maintains a classical retail market catering to large game publishers, while the emphasis of Valve’s own game titles is in alternative market contexts based on player-driven economies. I first discuss Steam as a distinct type of platform economy due to its roots in player-driven game economies. I then introduce the notion of ‘markets as fields’ as my analytical framework. Based on this framework, I describe three different contexts of economic transaction: the Steam Game Store, the Steam Community Workshop and the Steam Community Market. I analyse how the approximately 46,500 game titles published on the platform are distributed across these contexts and how these games can be ranked with regard to current player numbers, and discuss Valve’s position as combined platform owner, game developer and game publisher.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-03-07T11:17:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221081401
       
  • Platform imperialism, communications law and relational sovereignty

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      Authors: Sara Bannerman
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      While many have asked whether the law can keep up with new technologies, we may need to ask bigger questions, lest in ‘updating’ we redraw the circuits of inequitable power relations. The fundamental ideas of autonomy and sovereignty that sit at the heart of the circuitry of platform and technological regulation must be reconsidered. How can we rewire this system' Examining the ways that relational thinking has been employed normatively, particularly in areas of communications law, this article suggests that we can draw on relational thinking, understood through critical theories that deal with historical structural relations, for guidance on how to rewire our legal operating system. Critical theories can infuse a relational approach to understanding communication law, which can be drawn on to rewire our legal operating system.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-03-07T11:16:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221077284
       
  • #CancelCulture: Examining definitions and motivations

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      Authors: Edson C Tandoc, Beverly Tan Hui Ru, Gabrielle Lee Huei, Ng Min Qi Charlyn, Rachel Angeline Chua, Zhang Hao Goh
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      While cancel culture has become a social media buzzword, scholarly understanding of this phenomenon is still at its nascent stage. To contribute to a more nuanced understanding of cancel culture, this study uses a sequential exploratory mixed-methods approach by starting with in-depth interviews with social media users (n = 20) followed by a national online survey (n = 786) in Singapore. Through the interviews, we found that our participants understand cancel culture as more than just a mob engaged in public shaming on social media; it also involves perceptions of power imbalance and social justice. Building on these perspectives from our interviews, we tested the framework of theory of planned behavior in predicting intention to engage in cancel culture and expanded it by examining the effects of people’s belief in a just world using an online national survey in Singapore. The analysis showed that attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control were positively related to intention to engage in cancel culture, while general belief in a just world was a negative predictor.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-03-07T01:11:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221077977
       
  • Approximately in-person in the locked-down home: Approximation, digital
           ties and maternity amid the COVID-19 lockdown

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      Authors: Ranjana Das
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores strategies and practices of approximation to cope with needs of pregnancy and maternity in the locked-down home at a distinct point in time – the earliest lockdown in the course of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom, where, disruption of in-person support, both formally and informally, had implications for new mothers, babies and families. Amid a turn to digital for mental health and related support, it appears, unsurprisingly from the fieldwork, that despite many benefits, the role of technology in this context has been complex, as contexts of use, maternal practices, literacies and the nature of perinatal support required deeply shaped the role technology played amid blanket lockdown restrictions. I explore attempts to ‘approximate’ in-person ties within the confines of mandatorily digitally mediated interactions by paying attention to the fatigue, materialities and unsettlement of approximation.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-03-05T09:51:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221082082
       
  • The Lovelace effect: Perceptions of creativity in machines

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      Authors: Simone Natale, Leah Henrickson
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article proposes the notion of the ‘Lovelace Effect’ as an analytical tool to identify situations in which the behaviour of computing systems is perceived by users as original and creative. It contrasts the Lovelace Effect with the more commonly known ‘Lovelace objection’, which claims that computers cannot originate or create anything, but only do what their programmers instruct them to do. By analysing the case study of AICAN – an AI art-generating system – we argue for the need for approaches in computational creativity to shift focus from what computers are able to do in ontological terms to the perceptions of human users who enter into interactions with them. The case study illuminates how the Lovelace effect can be facilitated through technical but also through representational means, such as the situations and cultural contexts in which users are invited to interact with the AI.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T12:55:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221077278
       
  • Sharing and social media: The decline of a keyword'

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      Authors: Nicholas John
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article revisits claims made a decade ago about the importance of the word “sharing” in the context of social network sites (SNSs). Based on an analysis of the home pages of 61 SNSs between the years 2011 and 2020, the findings incontrovertibly show that “sharing” has lost its central place in the terminology employed by social media platforms in their self-presentation. Where in the mid-2000s SNSs relied heavily on a rhetoric of sharing to promote their services, by 2020, this rhetoric had been almost entirely dropped. The research reported here implies that social media platforms no longer feel a need or desire to be associated with these cultural beliefs. Given this, questions are raised as to whether “sharing” remains a keyword for social media.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T12:45:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221078603
       
  • Digital togetherness as everyday resistance: The use of new media in
           addressing work exploitation in rural areas

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      Authors: Yao-Tai Li
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The literature on spatial-temporal barriers shows that temporary migrant workers are vulnerable to exploitation and has concentrated on how they utilize new media to address underpayment and exploitation. These studies, however, have left unexplored the agency, temporality, and spatial considerations that underpin why workers prefer to activate “informal” mechanisms of complaint rather than accessing “formal” channels of redress, such as the Fair Work Ombudsman or labor unions. Using Working Holiday Makers in Australia as an example, this article focuses on digital togetherness generated through new media. I argue that digital interactions on new media platforms not only change the spatial-temporal limit of temporary migrant workers, but also create digital togetherness and connect workers with different imagined others (customers, arriving migrant workers, and workers who are facing exploitation). This connection can become an everyday resistance strategy, a remedy to space–time limits, and potentially challenge asymmetrical power relations between workers and employers.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T10:12:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221080717
       
  • Beyond Precarity: Forced Labor in China’s Ride-Hailing Industry

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      Authors: Angela Ke Li
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Scholarly discussions of the consequences of the on-demand economy on work mainly focus on precarity. Using a case study of Didi Chuxing, this article moves beyond this conventional approach to highlight coercion as a striking feature of labor relations in China’s ride-hailing industry. Drawing upon the conceptual tool of neo-bondage, this article foregrounds the central role played by forced labor in securing a cheap and docile work force during Didi’s rapid market expansion. This article advances the existing literature in two ways. First, it highlights the need for a more robust analysis of the productive forces in the on-demand economy. Second, it argues that the on-demand economy not only represents an intensification of the ongoing trend toward precarity, but also an extension of forced labor regimes from electronic assembly lines to the service industry.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T10:00:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221080460
       
  • Pre-service teachers’ insights on data agency

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      Authors: Henriikka Vartiainen, Lotta Pellas, Juho Kahila, Teemu Valtonen, Matti Tedre
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      With growing concerns over children’s data agencies, researchers have begun to draw attention to children’s and young people’s privacy practices in social media environments. However, little is known about the experiences of pre-service teachers who play a key role in educating future generations. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring Finnish pre-service teachers’ conceptions and experiences of data agency in social media environments. Drawing from in-depth interviews of pre-service teachers (N = 14), the analysis revealed that pre-service teachers construct their data agency in terms of social frames and shared social norms, and they also recognize the lack of understanding regarding wider socio-technical systems within which data agencies are situated. This research argues that without a sophisticated understanding of algorithmic governance and commercial use of data, it is unlikely that these future teachers would be prepared to facilitate children’s and youth’s agentive actions in a data-driven society.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T09:59:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221079626
       
  • Facebook Live is not “liked”: Construction of liveness and the
           reception of video livestreaming

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      Authors: Asta Zelenkauskaite, Greg Loring-Albright
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Not all information communication technologies are liked equally by their intended users. Situated within media richness and media ritual theories, this study conceptualizes the notion of liveness for live video streaming and its implementation for Facebook Live. A longitudinal analysis of 21 top hit radio stations in the United States in the years 2016 and 2018 found that, overall, Facebook Live did not garner audience approval. A closer examination of the Facebook Live content showed that while in-studio content featuring radio announcers in their traditional setup did not solicit followers’ likes, Facebook Live posts that featured out-of-studio locations gained more approval in 2018. These findings show how technological-algorithmic platforms are leveraged by radio stations, even if they are not endorsed by social media users. The implication of these findings is that the meaningful integration of video live streaming is still negotiated on social media platforms.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-18T07:26:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221078119
       
  • Algorithms as complementary abstractions

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      Authors: Tobias Matzner
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The text diagnoses two opposing tendencies in the research on algorithms: the first abstracts and unites heterogeneous developments under the term “algorithm”; the second emphasizes specifics such as data sets, material conditions, software libraries, interfaces, and so on, thus dissolving that which apparently algorithms do into more fine-grained analyses. The text proposes a research perspective that resolves this tension by conceiving of algorithms as a relation between the abstract and the concrete that allows to capture both in their interdependence. This approach is informed by two motives: first, the necessity to connect detailed analyses of specific information technologies with general political concerns; and second, the application of recent feminist critiques of epistemology to the analysis of algorithms. The ensuing relational perspective on algorithms is connected to the genealogy of algorithmic technology before being demonstrated regarding the mutually complementing relationships: algorithms-materiality, algorithms-data, algorithms-code, and algorithms-interfaces.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-16T10:54:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221078604
       
  • Gendered violence and sexualized representations in video games: (Lack of)
           effect on gender-related attitudes

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      Authors: Liam Cross, Linda K Kaye, Juris Savostijanovs, Neil McLatchie, Matthew Johnston, Liam Whiteman, Robyn Mooney, Gray Atherton
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This research explored how gender portrayals in video games affect gender-related attitudes. Two hundred participants from the United Kingdom and Malaysia participated across three experiments, where the appearance and behaviour of video game characters were manipulated with regard to target (enemy) gender (Study 1), sexually explicit attire (Study 2) and level of character agency (Study 3). We found minimal evidence that exposure to gender-stereotyped content resulted in differential gender-related attitudes (implicit associations, hostile and benevolent sexism, or rape myth acceptance). However, Study 1 findings showed that individuals who played a first-person shooter with male enemies showed lower endorsement of some (benevolent) sexist attitudes (cf. control) and showed difference in game behaviour (cf. female enemies). Together, our results suggest that short-term exposure to video games containing female characters (sexualised, passive, or otherwise) does not consistently lead to the endorsement of negative gender attitudes.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-11T11:51:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221075736
       
  • Engagement in subversive online activity predicts susceptibility to
           persuasion by far-right extremist propaganda

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      Authors: Kurt Braddock, Brian Hughes, Beth Goldberg, Cynthia Miller-Idriss
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Despite the widespread assumption that online misbehavior affects outcomes related to political extremism, few studies have provided empirical evidence to this effect. To redress this gap, we performed two studies in which we explored the relationship between subversive online activities and susceptibility to persuasion by far-right extremist propaganda. Study 1 (N = 404) demonstrates that when individuals are exposed to far-right “scientific racism” propaganda, subversive online activity is significantly associated with feelings of gratification, attribution of credibility to and intention to support the propaganda’s source, as well as decreased resistance (in the form of reactance) to the propaganda. To verify these findings across thematic domains, Study 2 (N = 396) focused on far-right extremist propaganda that advocates “male supremacy.” Results in Study 2 replicated those from Study 1. These findings have implications for understanding subversive online activity, vis-à-vis its association with one’s susceptibility to persuasion by far-right extremist propaganda.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-10T10:53:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221077286
       
  • ‘Who is /ourguy/'’: Tracing panoramic memes to study the
           collectivity of 4chan/pol/

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      Authors: Sal Hagen
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores how Internet memes can be traced as nodal points for the study of online groups. Such ‘meme tracing’ is specifically pertinent to the study of anonymous imageboards like 4chan, where inquiry cannot be easily based on the individual. Drawing from actor-network theory, I argue ‘panoramic memes’ – memes that repeatedly paint a totalising picture of a collective – are especially useful to identify what narratives hold such anonymous groups together. To operationalise this, I conducted a qualitative-quantitative case study of ‘/ourguy/’: a meme used to suggest a certain public figure is representative of the beliefs of an entire group. Using text mining methods, I traced this term to the names of public figures on 4chan’s far-right /pol/ board. This reveals that Donald Trump and Robert Mueller were most commonly proposed as an ‘/ourguy/’ between 2016 and 2020, while the meme was entangled with conspiracy creation and far-right mobilisation.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-09T11:42:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221078274
       
  • Corporate censorship online: Vagueness and discursive imprecision in
           YouTube’s advertiser-friendly content guidelines

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      Authors: Susanne Kopf
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article deals with YouTube’s advertiser-friendly content guidelines – the content rules dedicated to defining what YouTube deems advertiser (un)friendly and that YouTube creators seeking to monetise their content through advertising have to follow. Specifically, this study addresses the textual composition of YouTube’s regulations with a focus on occurrences of vagueness. Regarding methods of data analysis, I take a corpus-assisted discourse analytical approach to YouTube’s texts on advertiser-friendliness. That is, I take a wide-angle view on all concordance lines of ‘content’ and identify occurrences of different forms of vagueness. Findings suggest that at least 26% of the lines of ‘content’ detailing YouTube’s ad-friendly content guidelines exhibit at least one of eight forms of vagueness. Consequently, content creators – left unsure about the monetisability of particular content – may choose not to push any boundaries but to produce noncontroversial content, which, in turn, may impede content plurality on YouTube.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-09T06:00:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221077354
       
  • “I agree with you, bot!” How users (dis)engage with social
           bots on Twitter

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      Authors: Magdalena Wischnewski, Thao Ngo, Rebecca Bernemann, Martin Jansen, Nicole Krämer
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article investigates under which conditions users on Twitter engage with or react to social bots. Based on insights from human–computer interaction and motivated reasoning, we hypothesize that (1) users are more likely to engage with human-like social bot accounts and (2) users are more likely to engage with social bots which promote content congruent to the user’s partisanship. In a preregistered 3 × 2 within-subject experiment, we asked N = 223 US Americans to indicate whether they would engage with or react to different Twitter accounts. Accounts systematically varied in their displayed humanness (low humanness, medium humanness, and high humanness) and partisanship (congruent and incongruent). In line with our hypotheses, we found that the more human-like accounts are, the greater is the likelihood that users would engage with or react to them. However, this was only true for accounts that shared the same partisanship as the user.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T12:51:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448211072307
       
  • Investigating longitudinal and bidirectional relationships between
           parental factors and time spent on social media during early adolescence

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      Authors: Jasmine Fardouly, Natasha R Magson, Ronald M Rapee, Ella L Oar, Carly J Johnco, Cele Richardson, Justin Freeman
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This three-wave panel study examined the prospective and bidirectional relationships between parental control of social media use, and parents’ and adolescents’ perceived time spent on social media over a 2-year period. Adolescents (52% males, T1: Mage = 12.19, SD = 0.52) and one of their parents (96% mothers, T1: Mage = 45.26, SD = 4.28) completed annual surveys (T1: N = 498, T2: N = 477 and T3: N = 440). Data were analysed using cross-lagged panel models. More adolescent time spent on social media predicted small decreases in parental control 1 year later, but parental control did not predict adolescent time on social media. More parental time spent on social media predicted small increases in adolescent time spent on social media 1 year later, but adolescent use did not predict parent use. Examining factors related to parental use, rather than restriction, may be more effective to reduce adolescents’ social media use.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T11:32:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221076155
       
  • Sharing inequalities: Racial discrimination in review acquisition on
           Airbnb

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      Authors: Chao Yu, Drew Margolin
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Online reviews are found to mitigate racial discrimination in the sharing economy, but we argue that the chance of getting reviews is unequal for suppliers/workers of difference races. We test this logic with 16,674 hosts and 396,923 reviews on Airbnb in New York City. We find that the majority hosts (i.e. White) acquire their first review and third review (enough to trigger the publication of aggregate rating) more quickly than minority hosts (i.e. Asian and Black). However, setting listings instantly bookable helps reduce the racial difference in review acquisition. Our analyses also reveal that compared with Asian or Black hosts, White hosts receive higher aggregate ratings and more positive reviews at early stage of review acquisition. Such racial difference attenuates over time as the number of reviews increases. Our findings contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of racial discrimination against minorities in the sharing economy.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T11:31:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221075774
       
  • Conspiracy theories in online environments: An interdisciplinary
           literature review and agenda for future research

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      Authors: Daniela Mahl, Mike S. Schäfer, Jing Zeng
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Research on conspiracy theories in digital media has grown considerably in recent years. As a result, the field of research has become more multidisciplinary and diverse. To bridge disciplinary boundaries, identify foci of analysis and research gaps, this study provides an interdisciplinary systematic literature review (2007–2020), analyzing current research on conspiracy theorizing online, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Findings show that the majority of studies lack a definition of conspiracy theories and fail to conceptually delineate conspiracy theories from other forms of deceptive content. We also found that while the field employs a variety of methodological approaches, most studies have focused on individual, “mainstream” social media platforms, “Western” countries, English-language communication, and single conspiracy theories. We use the findings of our review to remedy conceptual and empirical shortcomings and to provide suggestions on how to move forward in research on conspiracy theories online.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T11:28:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221075759
       
  • The usefulness of open events: Navigating professional spaces of urban
           Meetups

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      Authors: Andrea Alarcon
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Based on ethnographic research, this paper examines the burden of search that individuals bear in navigating the plethora of open events surrounding the tech industry. It focuses on one learn-to-code Meetup, finding that attendees are pulled in by the hope embedded in the popular imaginary of coding, particularly the programming language Python, as a way to change their careers. While the gathering’s call labels it as a learning space,the study finds teaching happens rarely, instead drawing individuals who seek peers based on a Python affinity, in part to break the side-by-side-but-not together norms of urban mobile work. This paper argues that the hope of individual professional change spills over into the hope of sharing space with programmers and to find “local Python community”. However, given the porosity of events facilitated by online convening, the gathering falls short of attracting those already pertaining to that community itself.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T11:20:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448211072827
       
  • Protecting the community: How digital media promotes safer behavior during
           the Covid-19 pandemic in authoritarian communities—a case study of the
           ultra-Orthodox community in Israel

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      Authors: Baruch Shomron, Yossi David
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The Covid-19 pandemic has ushered in new behaviors and digital practices. This study explores how digital media has advanced safer behavior among ultra-Orthodox Israeli adults during the pandemic in authoritarian societies. We explored the level of adherence to government-issued health guidelines during the Covid-19 pandemic by conducting a public opinion survey among a representative sample of ultra-Orthodox Israeli adults (N = 500) during the second Covid-19 wave (Autumn 2020). The results show that digital media usage significantly contributes to higher levels of adherence to health guidelines. This offers new insight into the field of new media research, revealing the significant role of digital media in promoting safer behavior in times of emergency in authoritarian communities, possibly because it bypasses Internet censorship and disinformation. It also emphasizes the need for adapting risk communication to the media habits and cultural beliefs of different social groups, in turn contributing to well-being and life itself.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-04T09:32:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448211063621
       
  • ‘Endorsing a dictatorship and getting paid for it’: Discursive
           struggles over intimacy and authenticity in the politicisation of
           influencer collaborations

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      Authors: Johanna Arnesson
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Politically motivated criticism of influencer collaborations with certain brands or organisations is a recurring feature on social media today. This article is based on a case study of followers’ reactions to collaborations between two popular Swedish influencers and Visit Dubai, the governmental tourism agency of the United Arab Emirates. Drawing on critical discourse analysis, the article takes a sociocultural approach to influencer marketing and examines how and why politicisation happens in comments to sponsored posts. The analysis focuses on discursive struggles over the construction of political issues and the role of influencers, as well as expressions of perceived interconnectedness and authenticity work among followers. It offers a qualitative understanding of audience perceptions of influencers’ political power and responsibilities, and argues that this is connected to how the role of influencers is constructed – as a friend or as promotional professional.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T09:01:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448211064302
       
  • Artificial intelligence and the affective labour of understanding: The
           intimate moderation of a language model

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      Authors: Carlo Perrotta, Neil Selwyn, Carrie Ewin
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Interest in artificial intelligence (AI) language models has grown considerably following the release of ‘generative pre-trained transformer’ (GPT). Framing AI as an extractive technology, this article details how GPT harnesses human labour and sensemaking at two stages: (1) during training when the algorithm ‘learns’ biased communicative patterns extracted from the Internet and (2) during usage when humans write alongside the AI. This second phase is framed critically as a form of unequal ‘affective labour’ where the AI imposes narrow and biased conditions for the interaction to unfold, and then exploits the resulting affective turbulence to sustain its simulation of autonomous performance. Empirically, this article draws on an in-depth case study where a human engaged with an AI writing tool, while the researchers recorded the interactions and collected qualitative data about perceptions, frictions and emotions.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T10:23:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221075296
       
  • Framing Indigenous protest in the online public sphere: A comparative
           frame analysis

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      Authors: Pascal Lupien, Adriana Rincón, Andrés Lalama, Gabriel Chiriboga
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Indigenous social movement organizations are increasingly using social media to engage in strategic framing, a dynamic discursive process that seeks to attribute meaning to events and circumstances. But there remains a gap in our knowledge with respect to the impact of social media on the capacity of Indigenous actors to engage in frame competition in the virtual world. Based on a comparative frame analysis of online content in three Latin American countries where Indigenous organizations have recently engaged in large-scale protest, we ask to what extent the frames generated by Indigenous actors on social media are reflected in the online public sphere. We examine how their protest action is framed by Indigenous organizations themselves, the media, and government agencies. We find that social media do provide an outlet for Indigenous actors to disseminate counter-hegemonic frames. But state and media actors do not engage with Indigenous frames disseminated over social media, and their messages do not change the tone or direction of online discourse.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T10:21:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221074705
       
  • Discontentment trumps Euphoria: Interacting with European Politicians’
           migration-related messages on social media

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      Authors: Tobias Heidenreich, Jakob-Moritz Eberl, Fabienne Lind, Hajo G Boomgaarden
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      We investigate user engagement with politicians’ migration discourses on social media. In particular, we study the effects of message framing and support base attitudes on interactions on Facebook and Twitter in five European countries. Enriching automated analysis of social media content with survey data in a multilevel negative binomial regression approach, findings show that migration-related messages tend to elicit more interactions than other kinds of messages. Furthermore, the presence of a security frame in a migration-related message positively relates to user engagement. However, additional analyses suggest that the relevance of these frames differ between different political parties. In fact, a message gets an even higher number of interactions, when the dimension of the migration issue included in those framed messages is perceived more negatively by a party’s support base. The findings have important implications for communication strategies of political actors and the state of migration discourses on social media.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T10:16:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221074648
       
  • The role of task relevance and information credibility in adolescents’
           internalization of and reliance on social media ideals

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      Authors: Ann Rousseau
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Expanding on theory of norm internalization and literature on credibility heuristics, this study examined whether (a) peers can increase the perceived task relevance and credibility of social media ideals (i.e. appearance-related norms promoted on social media) and (b) increased perceptions of task relevance (i.e. usefulness of social media ideals for body image improvement) and credibility facilitate reliance on social media for appearance information and thin/athletic-ideal internalization. To examine these relationships, we used two-wave panel data (Nw1 & w2 = 657) gathered among Belgian adolescents (14–18 years). Structural equation analyses indicated that peer appearance conversations were associated with increased perceived task relevance and credibility of social media ideals. In turn, task relevance and credibility were positively related to thin/athletic-ideal internalization and informational reliance on social, respectively. These findings suggest that peer conversations contribute to a positive evaluation of social media ideals and in doing so indirectly contribute to thin/athletic-ideal internalization.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T10:15:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221074049
       
  • The double-edged sword of online deliberation: How evidence-based user
           comments both decrease and increase discussion participation intentions on
           social media

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      Authors: Svenja Schäfer, Philipp Müller, Marc Ziegele
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Deliberation theory posits that users’ willingness to participate in online comment sections should increase if the discussions are more evidence-based. However, extant empirical research does not clearly support this assumption. The current study argues that social comparison processes and the metacognitive perception of knowledge mediate the relationship between evidence in comments and participation intention in different ways. Findings from two online experiments (NStudy1 = 368; NStudy2 = 854) support this assumption: For three different topics, the results show that providing evidence in comments, as opposed to merely opinions, increases participants’ perceived knowledge by increasing their factual knowledge. At the same time, evidence in comments decreases participants’ perceived knowledge through social comparison with other commenters. Higher perceived knowledge is related to increased participation intention. In summary, the studies reveal psychological mechanisms that explain why high deliberative quality of online discussions does not necessarily stimulate further user participation.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-31T07:05:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448211073059
       
  • Digital detox tourism: Practices of analogization

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      Authors: Urs Stäheli, Luise Stoltenberg
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Technological disconnectivity has turned into a tourist attraction in its own right: digital detox tourism celebrates temporary disconnection as a means for experiencing an “authentic” world. With pervasive digital media and a strong impetus to being available 24/7, this tourism has to answer not only the question of what has to be done to become disconnected, but also it has to highlight the pleasures disconnection may afford. Drawing on two case studies—a discourse analysis of self-organized unplugged travel writing and an ethnography of the detox event Camp Grounded—we argue that digital detox tourism relies heavily on staging and performing a distinction between the analog and the digital. The article introduces the notion “analogization” to capture practices, media, and infrastructure which support the creation and the blurring of this distinction. Thus, we argue that analogization, in contrast to digitalization, emphasizes that there is no “analog” per se.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-31T07:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448211072808
       
  • The year of the “virtual date”: Reimagining dating app affordances
           during the COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Stefanie Duguay, Christopher Dietzel, David Myles
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The coronavirus disease-19 pandemic introduced a crisis of safety and relevance for dating apps, as their affordances for facilitating in-person encounters posed the risk of viral transmission. This article examines how eight apps primarily catering to heterosexual markets responded to the pandemic through changes to socio-technical arrangements, new user prescriptions, and the curation of corporate data and success stories. By analyzing corporate social media and promotional materials alongside in-app developments, we find that these companies reimagined app affordances to promote “virtual dating,” a set of practices and symbolic meanings that prioritize visual, synchronous digital interaction as the most responsible, reliable, and successful dating approach to the pandemic. Virtual dating centers apps as databases of potential partners while prescribing modes of use aimed toward affective relief, displays of authenticity, and romantic courtship. This reimagining counters moral panics about digitally mediated relationships by resorting to heteronormative dating scripts while overlooking alternative app uses.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-31T05:20:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448211072257
       
  • Seeking anonymity on the Internet: The knowledge accumulation process and
           global usage of the Tor network

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      Authors: Zhicong Chen, Eric Jardine, Xiao Fan Liu, Jonathan J. H. Zhu
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The Onion Router (Tor) network is one of the most prominent technologies for accessing online resources while preserving anonymity. Effectively employing the technology is not a trivial process and involves the following steps: (1) motivated by needs, (2) becoming aware of and learning the technology, and (3) realizing desired purposes by usage. Using country-level panel data, this study examines the knowledge accumulation process through which motivated users eventually employ Tor. The results suggest that Tor is often searched in less free countries for censorship circumvention, while it is employed for Dark Web activities in more free countries. There is also an indirect relationship between being aware of the technology and its usage through how-to knowledge accumulation. This study is the first attempt to understand the role of knowledge accumulation in the global usage of Tor. The findings provide insights into the worldwide concerns of online privacy and Dark Web regulation.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-31T05:14:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448211072201
       
  • Exploring the association between use of conversational artificial
           intelligence and social capital: Survey evidence from Hong Kong

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      Authors: Yu-Leung Ng
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Media use–social capital research has studied traditional and social media use and associated social capital. Still, little is known about whether social capital would be cultivated or damaged by the use of conversational artificial intelligence (AI). This study explores the associations between conversational AI use and various measures of social capital using a territory-wide survey of an online representative sample in Hong Kong (n = 1022). The results showed that conversational AI users (n = 398) were more likely to have more offline and online bonding and bridging social capital, social trust, and civic participation than non-users (n = 624). For the conversational AI users, intensity and frequency of conversational AI use were the positive predictors of the social capital measures. The findings demonstrated larger effect sizes for online bonding and bridging social capital than offline bonding and bridging social capital.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-28T08:10:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221074047
       
  • Who gets lost' How digital academic reading impacts equal opportunity
           in higher education

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      Authors: Axel Kuhn, Annika Schwabe, Hajo Boomgarden, Lukas Brandl, Günther Stocker, Gerhard Lauer, Ina Brendel-Kepser, Marion Krause-Wolters
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, providing digital texts as learning material had become a common practice in academia. But little is known about who profits from and who loses out when moving from print to digital reading in higher education. In this study, we connect digital reading to digital divides, and draw on a unique data set of university students digital reading practices obtained by a quantitative survey during the lockdown semester in three European countries. Based on the statistical results for digital reading access, attitudes, motivation, skills, behavior, and support, we argue that varying digital reading experiences of students are linked to inequalities in higher education opportunities. In conclusion, our results contrast current digital policies of merely improving access to digital texts in academia to democratize higher education.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T10:54:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448211072306
       
  • ‘You feel a need to inspire and be active on these sites otherwise
           . . . people won’t remember your name’: Elite female athletes and
           the need to maintain ‘appropriate distance’ in navigating online
           gendered space

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      Authors: Molly Pocock, Michael Skey
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Although some scholars have argued that social media provide opportunities for sportswomen to bypass mainstream media reporting, there is little existing research on how female athletes use, and experience, digital platforms. This article uses insights from studies of ‘gendered visibility’ alongside work on ‘closeness and distance’ in journalism studies to put forward the concept of ‘appropriate distance’ when trying to understand how these athletes manage their time and engagements online. Drawing on interviews with UK-based elite sportswomen, the findings not only show how distance is carefully managed to protect themselves from negative comments and over-exposure online, but also the significance of building connections with young female followers. Indeed, the athletes prize their status as ‘role models’ and seek to provide ongoing support and a sense of community in what is often an antagonistic online space.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T10:53:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448211069343
       
  • Division of digital labor: Partner support for technology use among older
           adults

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      Authors: Will Marler, Eszter Hargittai
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Older adults often assist one another in using digital technology and tend to prefer assistance provided at home. However, research has yet to examine how life partners in this age group support one another in using technology. We interviewed 50 older adults representing 25 couples in five countries about their sources of support when using the Internet. Partner support was more common than existing literature suggests and was motivated by in-home convenience, partners’ level of digital skills, and a desire to avoid burdening other network members. At odds with a one-way view of digital assistance, partners often helped each other in different domains of Internet use based on career experience and personal interest. Partner support could both aid and discourage self-sufficiency, depending on how assistance was provided. Studying couples helps clarify how older adults develop relationships of mutual aid and dependency out of the everyday (un)availability of technology support.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T10:51:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448211068437
       
  • The labor of search engine evaluation: Making algorithms more human or
           humans more algorithmic'

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      Authors: Colten Meisner, Brooke Erin Duffy, Malte Ziewitz
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      While search engines are discursively framed as automated, self-governing machines, they remain dependent on human laborers. This behind-the-screen workforce includes not only programmers and engineers but also categories of workers that have drawn far less attention. The latter include search quality raters, contingent workers tasked with supplying a “human check” on search algorithms. To explore the human–machine entanglements in search engine evaluation, we draw upon 21 in-depth interviews with raters located across the globe; we supplement our interview data with an analysis of worker training documents. Our findings reveal that despite Google’s stated efforts to make algorithmic systems more sensitive to human subtlety, raters experience their work in ways that are—paradoxically—algorithmic. Indeed, workers framed their experiences through regimes of standardization, discipline, and invisibility. We conclude by discussing the broader implications of our analysis, including worker dehumanization and the exacerbation of power hierarchies in the global, on-demand economy.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T10:49:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448211063860
       
  • For better and for worse: A panel survey of how mobile-only and hybrid
           Internet use affects digital skills over time

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      Authors: Teresa Correa, Sebastián Valenzuela, Isabel Pavez
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Public policies across the world are tackling Internet access inequality through mobile connections, which has led to an increase in mobile-only use. However, digital skills remain as a stumbling block to achieve digital inclusion. Using a two-wave panel survey on a representative sample conducted in Chile between 2018 and 2020, this study investigates how different mode of access (i.e. mobile-only vs mobile and computer) affects digital abilities over time. Results show significant differences in skills by mode of access. People who became hybrid users (mobile and computer) by wave 2 significantly gained skills while those who were hybrid and became mobile-only by wave 2 significantly lost abilities. People who did not change their type of access did not change their level of digital skills, despite the past of time and gained experience using the Internet. These conclusions show how mode of access may have a key effect on people’s digital inclusion.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T10:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448211059114
       
  • Permanent connectedness and its impact on news sharing

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      Authors: Slgi S. Lee
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      The ubiquitous use of Internet-connected media enables individuals to stay in constant touch with personal contacts in an “always-on” society. Consequently, some individuals have developed the habit of being permanently connected with others through digital media. This article examines the psychological and political consequences of permanent connectedness. Analysis of two independent sets of data collected via a two-wave panel survey and an online experiment reveals that, over time, permanent connection—the behavior of constantly engaging in mediated communication—increased the perception of permanent togetherness with others, which I label as permanently connected perception. This perception was in turn positively associated with news sharing through the belief that information one shares online can instantly be received and responded to by online contacts as it is shared. Findings emphasize the “spillover” influence of permanent connectedness, in which perpetual mediated communication encourages political behavior, news sharing, and the role of the permanently connected perception in mediating this process.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-18T08:40:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448211063466
       
  • Audience size, moderator activity, gender, and content diversity:
           Exploring user participation and financial commitment on Twitch.tv

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      Authors: Grace H Wolff, Cuihua Shen
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      User participation has long been recognized as a cornerstone of thriving online communities. Social live-streaming service (SLSS) communities are built on a subscription-based model and rely on viewers’ participation and financial support. Using the collective effort model and heuristics of social influence, this study examines the influence of streamer and viewer behaviors on viewers’ participation and financial commitment on the SLSS, Twitch.tv. Findings from behavioral data collected over 7 weeks show larger audiences diminish individual participation and financial commitment while moderation may encourage more. Female streamers benefit from increased moderation, earning two to three times more in financial commitment compared to men, who streamed more frequently and for longer durations but attracted much smaller audiences. Viewers’ participation and financial commitment did not differ across streams with more content diversity. Our results demonstrate how group factors influence individual participation and financial commitment in newer subscription-based media.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-16T06:09:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448211069996
       
  • Social media literacy: A conceptual framework

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      Authors: Hyunyi Cho, Julie Cannon, Rachel Lopez, Wenbo Li
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Concerns over the harmful effects of social media have directed public attention to media literacy as a potential remedy. Current conceptions of media literacy are frequently based on mass media, focusing on the analysis of common content and evaluation of the content using common values. This article initiates a new conceptual framework of social media literacy (SoMeLit). Moving away from the mass media-based assumptions of extant approaches, SoMeLit centers on the user’s self in social media that is in dynamic causation with their choices of messages and networks. The foci of analysis in SoMeLit, therefore, are one’s selections and values that influence and are influenced by the construction of one’s reality on social media; and the evolving characteristics of social media platforms that set the boundaries of one’s social media reality construction. Implications of the new components and dimensions of SoMeLit for future research, education, and action are discussed.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-16T06:06:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448211068530
       
  • Salient deliberative norm types in comment sections on news sites

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      Authors: Ines Engelmann, Hanna Marzinkowski, Klara Langmann
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Civil and argumentative public discussions are considered crucial for functioning democracies. Among other factors, the quality of user discussions of political issues on news sites depends on prevalent discussion norms. We integrate injunctive and descriptive norms into news comment research, assuming that the degree of salience of the respective norm influences the commenting behavior. Furthermore, we discuss how technical affordances such as default comment sorting determine the comment visibility and thus the salience of norms. Using data from a content analysis of 8162 comments on eight German news sites, we investigate how the two norm types influence deliberative forms of commenting. The results show that different types of salient injunctive and descriptive norms promote norm-compliant commenting. Furthermore, the default comment sorting can determine which comments are more or less salient. The results underline the importance of distinguishing different norm types in analyzing the quality of user comments in comment sections.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-16T06:02:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448211068104
       
  • Deletion discussions on Hebrew Wikipedia: Negotiating global and local
           ideologies

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      Authors: Anat Leshnick
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      Much research has documented how global technologies and platforms are part of specific cultures and reflect local values. In this study, I examine the case of Hebrew Wikipedia as representative of localization that is neither top-down (producer-driven) nor bottom-up (user-driven); but rather, it is implemented by mid-level, self-selecting bureaucratic administrators in an ongoing process that is driven by their own perceptions of Wikipedia’s mission. Through an analysis of Hebrew Wikipedia’s deletion discussion pages—in which editors decide what information should be excluded from Wikipedia—I demonstrate how national ideology customarily triumphs over the global, communitarian ethos of the Wikipedia project. Even when decisions are aligned with a more “global” agenda, editors still portray their choices as congruent with the national cause through strategic use of depersonalized discourses about Wikipedia’s policies. I thus argue that global, seemingly “neutral” policies can provide a discursive framework that conceals questions about the power of local ideologies.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-16T06:00:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448211067836
       
  • No trade-offs between news and entertainment: Evidence from online
           engagement data

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      Authors: Shengchun Huang, Tian Yang
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      In today’s high-choice media environment, some scholars are concerned that people selectively consume media content based on personal interests and avoid others, which might lead to audience fragmentation across different content genres. Individually, there might be trade-offs between those genres, especially entertainment versus news. This study analyzed a large user engagement dataset (~40,000 users’ comments) collected from the Chinese information application Toutiao, one of the most popular information distribution platforms in China. The results showed that (1) the commenters were not fragmented between content genres, and (2) the users’ news engagement was positively associated with their entertainment engagement. The findings indicate that the availability of high media choices will not reduce the news engagement of those who have strong interest in entertainment. Instead, news engagement might increase alongside the augmentation of the sum of information engagement. Finally, we discussed the differences between relative news engagement and absolute news engagement.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-16T05:58:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448211063899
       
  • “If you didn’t take a selfie, did you even vote'”: Embodied mass
           communication and citizenship models in “I voted” selfies

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      Authors: Chelsea P Butkowski
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      After participating in US elections, voters have begun to share “I voted” selfies, or networked self-portraits that display their political participation. “I voted” selfies exist at the intersection of competing ideals of citizenship, including dutiful citizenship, which centers civic duty and voting, and self-actualizing citizenship, which focuses on individualized and expressive forms of political participation. I argue that these images can be understood through historically resonant communication practices, namely, as a mediated manifestation of 19th-century political congregations that I term embodied mass communication. To trace how voters perform embodied visions of citizenship through shared practices of digital self-representation, I conducted a content analysis of “I voted” selfies posted to Twitter on US Election Day 2016. In these selfies, voters present their bodies as civic evidence, frame individual representations to signify visual collectives, and creatively contextualize their political participation. Their selfies suggest how representational rituals can reflect and reconstitute citizenship models.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-12T12:39:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448211068937
       
  • A battle for truth: Islam-related counterpublic discourse on Scandinavian
           news media Facebook pages

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      Authors: Anders NJ Lien
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, I aim to contribute to existing literature on counterpublics by analysing the extent to which competing counterpublics regarding Islam appear in mainstream news outlets’ comment sections on Facebook. By utilising, and slightly modifying, Toepfl and Piwoni’s pioneering theoretical framework for analysing (counter)publics, I identify an Islam-hostile counterpublic and an Islam-sympathetic counterpublic that operate in the examined comment sections. I conducted a quantitative content analysis of Facebook posts (and associated articles) published by 15 established Scandinavian news outlets in 2018 (N = 599) and the comments written by ordinary Facebook users in response (N = 6797). I found the majority of the comments mirrored the views presented in the established media posts, but a substantial minority of the comments engaged in counterpublic discourses, contesting the bounds of established discourse around Islam in the Scandinavian public spheres.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-08T09:43:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448211068436
       
  • The affective embeddings of gacha games: Aesthetic assemblages and the
           mediated expression of the self

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      Authors: Orlando Woods
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article argues that the motivations for investing money in gacha games can be a function of the affective embedding of players within the game, and the game within broader circuits of cultural affinity and appeal. While research on gacha games – and the specific role of loot boxes therein – has emphasised their associations with gambling, I contend that affect is another trigger that can motivate seemingly irrational playing behaviours. The affective embeddings of gacha games motivate players to curate aesthetic assemblages of virtual content that enable the mediated expression of the self. Drawing on qualitative data generated among young Singapore-based players of gacha games, I explore how the acquisition of characters, skins and collections can be motivated by the emotional payoff that comes from relationality rather than gambling.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T10:47:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448211067756
       
  • Elevators as media objects manipulating information in time

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      Authors: Mika-Petri Laakkonen, Ville Kivivirta
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.
      We investigate elevators as media. Our central argument is that elevators manipulate information in time. Time manipulation of elevators (movement data + genetic algorithms) produces temporal order. Elevators have become media objects because they produce data that are digitally manipulated to optimize movement. We conducted an empirical study in a multinational corporation that manufactures elevators, including 4 months of field research at multiple locations and interviewed 64 people. We show how time manipulation changes with the information architecture: first, time manipulation took place inside and during the movement of elevators by pushing the buttons. Second, time manipulation took place in the cloud by statistical mathematics. The latest development is toward decentralized social application where elevators as independent media objects manipulate time using genetic algorithms and communicate with each other. We reveal how largely hidden media affects our temporality and argue that media theory should study its implications in contemporary society.
      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T10:46:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448211067460
       
  • Book Review: The Lab Book: Situated Practice in Media Studies

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Diana Lengua
      First page: 243
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-21T05:18:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221122242
       
  • Book Review: Content

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Robert Diab
      First page: 245
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-27T01:08:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221127202
       
  • Book Review: Digital Media Influence: A Cultivation Approach

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Zachary J Rzicznek
      First page: 247
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-27T01:06:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221127200
       
  • Book Review: Road to Nowhere: What Silicon Valley Gets Wrong about the
           Future of Transportation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Agustin Ferrari Braun
      First page: 249
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-09-27T01:08:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221127227
       
  • Book Review: (Im)mobile Homes: Family Life at a Distance in the Age of
           Mobile Media

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yongjian Li
      First page: 252
      Abstract: New Media & Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: New Media & Society
      PubDate: 2022-10-03T10:16:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14614448221128034
       
 
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