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Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.506
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 8  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-0719 - ISSN (Online) 0169-3816
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Health Services Utilization Barriers for Rural Elderly Women in
           Bangladesh: Narratives of Clinicians, Pharmacists and Public Health
           Assistants

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      Abstract: Abstract Bangladesh has the third largest population of poor older adults in the world and 73% of them live in rural areas. Disparity in the country’s health services is evident that creates a substantial pressure, especially on rural elderly women who live in a compromised socio-cultural atmosphere. This is true that we know about rural elderly women’s self-reported health and service use barriers, but no studies captured the views of health staff. This study presents a qualitative exploration of the views held by rural health staff whose role is to provide care to local elderly women. We conducted 11 interviews with clinicians, pharmacists and public health assistants in Sylhet district, Bangladesh. A critical thematic discourse analysis, using the critical social constructs of Habermas and Honneth, of the data informed the women’s inadequate healthcare access and associated barriers that were complex and overlapping but had explicit institutional, subjective and material consequences. Five major themes emerged including: unequal distribution of health services; marginalization in patient-staff relationships; living with poverty; social relegation; and mistrust of clinical treatment. Rural areas were viewed with inequitably distributed health services and traditionally a large proportion of elderly women living in poverty who lacked social support and demonstrated a mistrust towards healthcare system. No recognition of the women and power differences were underpinned by economic factors and cultural societal values. The findings suggest a need for health policy solutions and education of healthcare staff and elderly women regarding accessing healthcare.
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
       
  • Representation of Aging in Elementary School Textbooks in Iran

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      Abstract: Abstract The attitude toward older adults is developed from childhood. School textbooks are one of the most important sources of shaping attitude in children. So, the present study aimed to analyze the visual and textual content of the aging concept in elementary school textbooks after the Irans’s Islamic Revolution (1979). The method of the present study was content analysis, and 112 textbooks were reviewed. The analysis unit included 118 images and 91 subset of texts pertaining to aging concept. The results showed that aging concepts are classified into two positive and negative stereotypes categories. The positive stereotype included social interaction, authority and respect, wisdom, spirituality, positive traits, and independence. Social interaction was the most frequent of them. Negative stereotypes included abuse, negative personality traits, illness, and disability, of which the negative personality traits were the most frequent. In addition, the results suggested that 87.7% of the concepts of aging in the textbooks were positive. Although the positive stereotypes were more frequent in textbooks, the active older adults were presented in low-status jobs, and the ethnic minorities and older women were less considered. Accordingly, policymaking through the textbooks and from childhood is necessary for developing successful aging and decreasing ageism in society.
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
       
  • Aging in Chinatowns: the Meaning of Place and Aging Experience for Older
           Immigrants

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      Abstract: Abstract The concept of “Aging in place” has not been fully validated among older immigrant groups living in diverse cultures. The study used a qualitative research approach and interviewed Chinese immigrant older adults across three Chinese enclave communities in New York City to identify whether Chinatowns are a place for Chinese immigrants to age and explore their experience of aging in Chinatowns. The findings showed that Chinese immigrants did consider Chinatown as the place, which conveyed practical, linguistic, social, emotional and cultural meaning. Aging in Chinatown, older adults sought independence, security, and autonomy through various social resources. However, older adults, especially newly arrived immigrants, have faced obstacles that undermine their aging experience. Older immigrants’ unique aging experience has provided profound insight in understanding migration and AIP, which help develop proper policies and programs to support the AIP initiative.
      PubDate: 2022-11-19
       
  • Global Gender Inequality, Older Women, and the Call for Change in the
           United States

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      Abstract: Abstract Gender inequality that persists through much of their lives, from birth through adulthood, impacts women and their quality of life in their later years. With some variation this holds true in every nation in the global community. In older adults, the most apparent indication of gender inequality—and a linchpin—is the disproportionate impoverishment of older women compared to older men. We take stock of global policy directions toward equality for girls and women, focusing specifically on derived avenues for furthering and protecting the economic well-being of older women in the United States, cognizant that these directions can rebound with implications for nations worldwide.
      PubDate: 2022-11-05
       
  • Exploring Levels and Correlates of Depression Literacy Among Older Korean
           Immigrants

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      Abstract: Objectives Despite the high prevalence of depression among older Korean Americans (KAs), there has been very little research on depression literacy among older KAs. This study identified specific areas of improvement in depression literacy to address mental health promotion among KAs. Twenty-two items on the depression literacy scale were grouped under five key themes: incidence and prognosis, differential symptoms, symptom recognition, non-pharmacological effectiveness, and pharmacological knowledge. This study aimed to assess the level of understanding depression literacy based on five domains and identify factors associated with depression literacy and its domains among older KAs. Methods A cross-sectional study with 178 KAs aged 60 years and older was conducted in the Washington DC Metro area. Interviewer and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with depression literacy and its domains. Statistical significance was set at p < .05 for analyses. Results Knowledge pertaining to all 5 depression literacy domains was low, particularly on pharmacological treatment and differential symptoms were noticeably low. The majority of participants had misconceptions about antidepressants. 86% believed that antidepressants can have a rapid effect on symptoms, 82.6% believed people with depression should stop taking antidepressants as soon as they feel better, and 66.3% believed antidepressants were addictive. Conclusion Misperception about depression and antidepressants may be associated with poor mental health outcomes among older KAs. Culturally-tailored education for older KAs with limited English proficiency could be beneficial in promoting depression literacy and reducing stigma or misconceptions regarding depression and treatments.
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
       
  • Up-Close and Personal: Conceptualizing the Self as Dementia Caregiver: a
           Study in Soweto, South Africa

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      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to understand how dementia caregivers in the township of Soweto, South Africa interpret their role in the context of caregiving through the personal constructs identified using the Self- Characterization technique. Thirty family caregivers were recruited via purposive sampling methods and completed a Self-Characterization Sketch during semi-structured interviews. Content analysis of construct pairs was thematically coded using the Classification System for Personal Constructs (CSPC) - a reliable method to analyse personal constructs that are generated by constructivist assessments. Findings revealed that caregivers’ interpretations of themselves was characterized by moral, emotional and cognitive attributes. Specifically, a sense of mastery, self-efficacy, strength, selflessness and unconditional positive regard characterized the most meaningful constructs of care within caregiver narratives in response to their loved ones with dementia. These adaptive outcomes, despite the challenging, pervasive, complex nature of dementia and its manifestations, suggest psychological and emotional resilience, higher levels of adjustment and caregiver well-being. However, it is important to consider possible consequences such as physical fatigue and burnout despite adaptive outcomes. Therefore, it is recommended that approaches to psychoeducational initiatives, emotional and psychological interventions and awareness campaigns include teaching caregivers how to self-care encourage the importance of consistent exercise, rest, sleep, nutrition as well as reaching out for social support. Lastly, empowering caregivers to use their personal resources would prove valuable in support groups, and individual to facilitate self-awareness, sustained coping and mental health.
      PubDate: 2022-10-29
       
  • Loneliness in Myanmar’s older population: A mixed-methods
           investigation

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      Abstract: Objectives Little is known about loneliness in lower- and middle-income countries. This study investigates loneliness in the older population of Myanmar using a mixed-methods approach. Methods To identify predictors of loneliness, hierarchical regression models were used to analyze data from the Myanmar Aging Survey 2012 (N = 3,618, 57% women). In a mixed-methods sequential explanatory design, quantitative data were integrated with qualitative data from semi-structured interviews with older adults in Myanmar in 2019. Results The prevalence of loneliness varied by between-person characteristics. Health impairments, lower income, being widowed, not having children, and living with fewer household members were each associated with loneliness. Qualitative findings suggested that the physical presence of family members was especially protective against loneliness. Religion had mixed associations with loneliness, depending on the type of religious practice, demographic characteristics, health status, and community engagement. Discussion The findings contribute to a better understanding of individuals’ experiences of loneliness and may inform the design of interventions to prevent loneliness in Myanmar and globally.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
       
  • Associations Between Country where Education is Obtained and Cognitive
           Functioning Among South American and Caribbean Older Adults Living in the
           U.S

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      Abstract: Abstract The increasing prevalence of AD among Hispanics calls for a need for examining factors that affect cognitive functioning and risk of AD among Hispanic older adults. The current study examined cognitive functioning among older Hispanic adults living in the U.S. from two Hispanic regions, South America and the Caribbean, in relation to the country where education was obtained. Participants (n = 139) were stratified into groups based on Hispanic education region and diagnostic categories: cognitively normal and amnestic MCI (aMCI). Results of Pearson correlations showed that among Hispanic Americans in general, there were significant positive correlations between the country of education to performance on measures of episodic, verbal, and word list tests. When examined separately by region and diagnosis, only cognitively normal (CN) South Americans showed significant relationships between country of education and cognitive functioning in these areas. Results of general linear models controlling for education identified differences in neuropsychological performance between groups with the CN groups demonstrating better performance than the aMCI groups within each region. Overall, it was evident that relationships between years of education obtained outside of the U.S. and cognitive functioning were not similar among individuals from these two disparate Spanish speaking regions. This is the first study to examine the country where education was obtained among individuals from countries located in different regions with different cultures that may influence their education and cognitive development throughout life. Findings contribute to the cross-cultural neuropsychological literature in understanding factors that are unique to Hispanic older adults at risk for developing AD.
      PubDate: 2022-10-17
       
  • The Use of Information Communication Technologies in a South African Deaf
           Older Adult Population Living in a Residential Care Home to Communicate
           with Emigrant Family Members

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      Abstract: Abstract South Africa has experienced considerable international outward migration in the last half century, which has had a severe psychological impact on members of families affected by this phenomenon. Older parents who remain behind may experience feelings of loss and isolation. Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) are useful in maintaining relationships between family members separated by migration and increasingly allow migrant families to experience a virtual co-presence despite geographical separation. However, the process may be challenging, especially for older people with hearing difficulties. This article reports on a qualitative study exploring the perceptions of a group of older adults who have difficulty hearing and who live in a residential care home about using ICTs to communicate with family abroad. Interview data were analysed using thematic analysis. Most of the participants used either a fixed line telephone or a mobile phone. They reported challenges in communicating with family members abroad arising from their deafness, as well as difficulties using technological devices together with their hearing aids. These challenges resulted in feelings of helplessness and frustration. Although the data collection took place prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, these findings may be of particular relevance to situations such as those during the pandemic when many older adults became more reliant on technology to communicate with family members because of restrictions on direct contact. Accordingly, suggestions are made to address challenges in communication between older adults and loved ones who are geographically separated.
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10823-022-09457-z
       
  • Using Cultural Lens Theory to Investigate the Impact of a Nursing
           Education Practicum in Aged Healthcare: Aotearoa New Zealand’s
           Bi-cultural Framework

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      Abstract: Aim The aim of this paper is to apply Cultural Lens Approach theory to data collected from third year nursing students related to an assignment undertaken during their month-long practicum placement in an aged residential care facility. We explore the extent to which a national vision of bi-culturalism and inclusivity is evident in students’ quality improvement project topic selection and practice. Background Aotearoa New Zealand is a nation of dual heritage, informed by the cultures of Māori as the indigenous tangata whenua (people of the land), and Pākehā, (European) settlers. All public sectors, including all higher education providers and the curricula they deliver, are required to incorporate and promote a contemporary, bi-cultural world-view. Methods Stage one of the research reported in this paper involved a) document analysis of 93 students’ quality improvement project reports; b) focus groups with 18 students; and c) an online questionnaire for 16 key stakeholders including aged care managers, clinical nurse leaders and student nurse educators. Stage two reviewed the above data through a five-step Cultural Lens Approach process to identify cultural biases and assumptions. Results Qualitative analysis revealed students’ increased professional confidence, improving communication and critical thinking skills. Responses as to development of cultural competence and cultural safety were mixed: a key barrier identified was that staff in the placement setting received minimal professional development to ensure appropriate tikanga (customary protocols and practice) for Māori residents was in place. Conclusion Viewed through a cultural lens, a westernized concept of aged healthcare provision continues to prevail in most settings. Nursing students noted gaps between cultural learning and practice.
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10823-022-09458-y
       
  • The Psychological and Economic Impacts of Caregiving on Family Carers for
           People with Probable Dementia in Rural South India

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      Abstract: Abstract Informal carers play a vital role in the care and well-being of older people with dementia. This article examines the psychological and economic impacts caregiving has on carers of people with suspected dementia and the mechanisms by which they cope with challenges. A mixed-method design was adopted. A baseline survey of 123 older people was undertaken in a resource-poor setting in Kerala, India, using Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination – Malayalam Version (ACE-m) to identify those with probable dementia. This was followed by in-depth interviews with ten carers of those identified as having cognitive impairment. The data were later transcribed and thematically analysed using N-Vivo to identify main concepts and themes. Analysis of the in-depth interviews with carers revealed that dementia was often interpreted as a ‘second childhood’, but that this conceptualisation aided carers to cope better. Anger and irritation were the commonly expressed psychological reactions which got accentuated by lack of reciprocation of emotion on the part of care recipient. Government support through social security measures and medical care, along with traditional social practises, helped carers to tide over care expenses. These support systems lessened the psychological and economic impacts of caring. Misconstruction of the disease nature, for example by considering it a normal part of ageing, also seem inadvertently to have helped in coping with care requirements, although this comes at a cost of lower than optimal healthcare access for older people with cognitive impairment.
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10823-022-09455-1
       
  • Exploring the Effects of Gender Differences and Widowhood Status on the
           Days Spent in Poor Health: A Secondary Data Analysis from India

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      Abstract: Abstract The majority of research in India has focused on the impact of widowhood on health status and health care use, while little emphasis has been paid to the number of days spent in poor health among widowed population compare to other marital categories. Thus, the current study explores the relationship between widowhood and days spent with poor health outcomes among adults in India. Additionally, gender differences in the relationship between widowhood and days with poor health outcomes are further studied. The research employed nationally representative cross-sectional data from the 75th round (2017–2018) of the National Sample Survey (NSS). To investigate the associations of marital status (married vs widowed) and other factors with days spent in poor health, a negative binomial regression model was used. Additionally, the interaction model of age and widowhood was estimated separately for men and women. The findings suggest that widowed individuals had consistently prolonged days with an illness, limited activity, and confinement to bed. After adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, the findings suggested that widowed women (IRR = 1.141, 95% Confidence interval = 1.01–1.29) were more likely to spend days with limited acitivities than married women. The marital status-age interaction indicated that older widowed women were more likely to have days of restricted activity and confinement to bed than married women, but such link is absent for men. In India, the elderly widow often spends her days confined to bed and prolonged days with limited activity. Policymakers and practitioners in public health should develop effective policies and programmes to enhance the health and well-being of widowed women, particularly those from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10823-022-09454-2
       
  • Knowledge, Attitudes, and Cultural Beliefs about Healthy Aging and
           Alzheimer’s Disease among Older Chinese Americans in New York City

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      Abstract: Abstract Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Related Dementias (ADRD) are a growing concern across the globe. Unfortunately, racial/ethnic minorities in the United States (U.S.), such as Chinese Americans, have lower ADRD knowledge, and these individuals are less likely to be targeted and engaged in recommended dementia prevention and care. The objective of this study is to examine knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about healthy aging and ADRD among older Chinese Americans living in New York City. Chinese Americans with very low English proficiency were recruited from a senior center in New York City. Accordingly, surveys were translated and focus groups were conducted in Mandarin or Cantonese. Questionnaires assessed demographic and health characteristics. Focus groups followed an open-ended protocol which was guided by the published literature. Focus group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed, and translated to English for qualitative analysis. Analysis of qualitative data proceeded according to the constant comparative method. A total of 18 participants were recruited. Average age of participants was 76.4 years and participants were 72.2% female. The majority were married (72.2%). Participants reported chronic conditions, including diabetes (38.9%) and dyslipidemia (22.2%). Participants commonly reported that their health limited their ability to accomplish things (66.7%) and achieve things (66.7%). While 16.7% of participants reported no bodily pain, slight pain was reported by 44.4%, moderate pain by 33.3%, and extreme pain by 5.6%. Qualitative analysis revealed several prominent themes, including: (1) perceptions about normal aging; (2) fears about loneliness and cognitive decline; (3) understanding of healthy aging; (4) cultural influences on aging; and (5) perceptions of ADRD. Results from this study highlight a set of cultural beliefs about healthy aging as well as knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs pertaining to ADRD. These results may inform opportunities for increasing healthy aging practices and knowledge about dementia among underserved older Chinese Americans.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10823-022-09450-6
       
  • Social position of older immigrants in the Netherlands: where do
           immigrants perceive themselves on the societal ladder'

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      Abstract: Abstract Older Turkish and Moroccan immigrants are often ascribed a low social position based on their relatively unfavourable educational level, occupational status and income. Yet immigrants emigrated to improve their social position and came from contexts where determinants of social position might be based on different socio-cultural circumstances than those used in the country of settlement. In order to understand immigrants’ own perception of their social position, we interviewed 23 60–68 year old immigrants from Turkish and Moroccan origin in the Netherlands. Using a ten rung ladder, participants were asked to position themselves in the societal hierarchy before migration, after settlement and currently. Most participants positioned themselves at a middle or high position on the societal ladder. Circumstances used for positioning were related to socioeconomic indicators, but also to social affirmation, family, social integration, physical, mental health, happiness and complying to religious prescriptions. When these circumstances were deemed favourable, participants tended to position themselves higher. Our findings also show that the circumstances that participants used for positioning themselves varied across the life course. These findings complement the picture of the often low objective low socioeconomic position of older immigrants and show that immigrants’ perception of their subjective social position reflects a broader set of circumstances than just socioeconomic ones.
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10823-022-09453-3
       
  • Technology in the Home Care of Older People: Views from Finland and
           Ireland

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      Abstract: Abstract Optimistic expectations of technology can be identified in policy documents, academic centres and businesses that aim to create and promote a variety of technologies so that older people can age at home. This article draws on recent data from Ireland and Finland, two countries at different stages of technological development, to examine the role of technology in the home care for older adults. Research participants (service providers and care recipients) agreed that technology could play an important role by improving communications, enabling social contact, and connecting the ‘lone worker’ and ‘isolated patient’ to other stakeholders in home care services. However, participants also had serious concerns around technology. Care was conceptualised as relational and participants expressed apprehension about technology replacing face-to-face contact. Service providers expressed trepidation about the digital divide and technology driving further inequalities in the future. It is important that attempts to develop technology for older adults consider the concerns identified in this study, in order for home care technology to be successfully implemented, widely adopted and meaningfully used.
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10823-022-09449-z
       
  • “I Know Hyena. Do you Know Hyena'” Challenges in
           Interpreter-Mediated Dementia Assessment, Focusing on the Role of the
           Interpreter

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      Abstract: Abstract Dementia assessment requires functional communication and interaction between healthcare professionals and the patient being assessed. These can be affected by the requirement for an interpreter to communicate with the patient. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the interactions between patient, healthcare professionals and interpreter, focusing on the role of the interpreter and the challenges that may arise in interpreter-mediated dementia assessment. The study had an ethnographic design in which the data consisted of audio and video recordings of 19 dementia assessments conducted in the presence of an interpreter. The data were analyzed using the constant comparative method. The results showed that the interpreter could affect the patient’s performance and results during the dementia assessment. The interpreter could alter the meaning and content of what was communicated, sometimes change information and instructions exchanged between the patient and healthcare professionals, could avoid interpreting everything being said, and occasionally made their own corrections to what was being communicated. This occurred mainly because of the interpreter’s lack of linguistic skills and the interpreter failing to adhere to the ethical guidelines governing their profession. These challenges could also occur when the interpreter was not familiar with the context of dementia assessment. Alterations made by the interpreter to what was being communicated could lead to incorrect evaluation of the patient’s cognitive abilities and health status. This, in turn, may lead to misjudgment of the patient’s remaining resources and symptoms and their required treatment and support.
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10823-021-09439-7
       
  • “I tried to control my emotions”: Nursing Home Care Workers’
           Experiences of Emotional Labor in China

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      Abstract: Abstract Despite dramatic expansions in the Chinese nursing home sector in meeting the increasing care needs of a rapidly aging population, direct care work in China remains largely devalued and socially unrecognized. Consequently, scant attention has been given to the caregiving experiences of direct care workers (DCWs) in Chinese nursing homes. In particular, given the relational nature of care work, there is little knowledge as to how Chinese DCWs manage emotions and inner feelings through their emotional labor. This article examines the emotional labor of Chinese DCWs through ethnographic data collected with 20 DCWs in one nursing home located in an urban setting in central China. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis and constant comparison. Participants’ accounts of sustaining a caring self, preserving professional identity, and hoping for reciprocity revealed implicit meanings about the often-conflicting nature of emotional labor and the nonreciprocal elements of care work under constrained working conditions. Importantly, the moral-cultural notion of bao (报 norm of reciprocity) was found to be central among DCWs in navigating strained resources and suggested their agency in meaning-construction. However, their constructed moral buffers may be insufficient if emotional labor continues to be made invisible by care organizations.
      PubDate: 2022-02-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10823-022-09452-4
       
  • Acknowledgement of Reviewers for Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology,
           2021

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      PubDate: 2022-02-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10823-022-09451-5
       
  • In the Shadows of Others: Unheard Voices of Older Russian Immigrant Women
           in the United States

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      Abstract: Abstract Older post-Soviet immigrants in the U.S. have been largely overlooked by research despite their unique experience of having lived in a totalitarian regime until middle age, only to find their lives profoundly altered after its fall. Our qualitative study examined the experiences and caregiving expectations of 16 older post-Soviet immigrant women (mean age = 74.5 years, SD =5.8) through in-depth, face-to-face interviews. Data analysis revealed four themes: broken family ties, happiness in the little things that money can buy, intergenerational comparison, and a nursing home is not an option. Overall, our findings emphasize immigration as an important life course event, with profound implications to one’s social position, familial ties, employment opportunities contributes to a deeper understanding of how historical context shapes the aging experiences and intergenerational relationships.
      PubDate: 2022-01-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10823-021-09446-8
       
  • Use of Home and Community Based Services in Urban China: Experiences of
           Older Adults with Disabilities

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      Abstract: Abstract This study examined the factors related to the use of home and community based services (HCBS) by urban Chinese older adults with disabilities. The study used data from the 2006 Sample Survey on Aged Population in Urban/Rural China. A total of 3,920 older adults who experienced at least one disability were included in this sample. Of the study participants, 13.9% used housekeeping services and 12.2% used doctor/nurse home visit services. Results from logistic regression tests showed that older adults’ gender, educational attainment, financial strain, family support, and number of chronic illnesses were significantly related to their use of housekeeping services. Additionally, older adults’ levels of disability were significantly related to doctor/nurse home visit services. Findings underscore the importance of service needs in Chinese older adults’ use of HCBS and also reveal that factors related to service use vary depending on specific services.
      PubDate: 2022-01-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10823-021-09444-w
       
 
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