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  Subjects -> ANTHROPOLOGY (Total: 398 journals)
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Anatomical Science International
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.367
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1447-6959 - ISSN (Online) 1447-073X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Anatomical characteristics of two cases of aberrant right subclavian
           artery

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      Abstract: Abstract An aberrant right subclavian artery is a branching variation of the aortic arch. We encountered two female cadavers with an aberrant right subclavian artery during routine student dissection at our school. In both cases, the right subclavian artery was not a branch of the brachiocephalic trunk but originated directly from the distal part of the aortic arch as the last branch and ran between the esophagus and vertebral column, traveling to the upper limb. The right recurrent laryngeal nerve was absent, but a non-recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve branching from the vagus and traveling directly toward the larynx was observed. In the first case, the right and left common carotid arteries originated solely from the aortic arch as the first and second branches, respectively, whereas the right and left common carotid arteries formed a bicarotid trunk at their origin in the second case. A Kommerell diverticulum was present at the base of the aberrant right subclavian artery in the second case, but not in the first case. We analyzed the anatomical differences between the two cases and discussed the developmental aspects and potential clinical risks.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • An anomalous muscle clinging around the inferior belly of omohyoid muscle

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      Abstract: Abstract Sternohyoid, sternothyroid, omohyoid and thyrohyoid muscles belong to a group of muscles called infrahyoid muscles. A few variations of these muscles and additional muscles in this area have been reported. We report an anomalous muscle in this area. The anomalous muscle took its origin from the posterior surface of the manubrium sterni and was inserted to the posterior surface of the clavicle. This muscle was 6 cm long and interestingly, it made a loop, which was clinging on to the inferior belly of omohyoid posteriorly, superiorly and anteriorly. The muscle was situated between the lower end of sternocleidomastoid and the carotid sheath. It was supplied by ansa cervicalis. Knowledge of this muscle could be useful in surgeries like removal of cervical rib, and cervical lymph node clearance. Hypertrophy of this muscle might compress the internal jugular vein.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Excised human larynx in N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-embalmed cadavers can
           produce voiced sound by pliable vocal fold vibration

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      Abstract: Abstract Tissue-hardening effect and health-hazard issue of formaldehyde (FA) have long been a great disadvantage of this conventional fixative in anatomical research. We recently developed a FA-free embalming method for cadavers which utilizes N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) and enables assessment of motion kinetics by maintaining the softness of embalmed tissue. By assessing the feasibility of NVP-embalmed tissue to mimic vocalization, this study aimed to prove the potential of embalmed cadavers, which have previously been used only for the understanding of anatomical morphology, for the assessment of precise motion physiology in the human body. Ten cadavers embalmed in NVP (n = 6) and FA (n = 4) were incorporated in this study. Excised larynges underwent experimental phonation to mimic vocalization with fast and pliable vibration of vocal folds. High-speed digital imaging was utilized for the assessment of vocal fold vibration. Furthermore, acoustic analysis of the voiced sound, and reproducibility examination were also performed. Regular vocal fold vibrations successfully produced voiced sounds during experimental phonation using NVP-embalmed larynges. The vibratory frequency, vibration amplitude, and stretch rate of the vocal folds were comparable to those of living humans. Six months after the first experiment, the vocal parameters were reproduced, to suggest the long-term preservation potential of our NVP-embalming technique. On the other hand, neither voiced sound nor vocal fold vibration were observed in FA-embalmed larynges. This novel embalming technique could pioneer the next era to utilize embalmed cadavers for the examination of motion physiology in the human body.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Depletion of Ift88 in thymic epithelial cells affects thymic synapse and
           T-cell differentiation in aged mice

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      Abstract: Abstract Primary cilia are ubiquitous hair-like organelles, usually projecting from the cell surface. They are essential for the organogenesis and homeostasis of various physiological functions, and their dysfunction leads to a plethora of human diseases. However, there are few reports on the role of primary cilia in the immune system; therefore, we focused on their role in the thymus that nurtures immature lymphocytes to full-fledged T cells. We detected primary cilia on the thymic epithelial cell (TEC) expressing transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor in the basal body, and established a line of an intraflagellar transport protein 88 (Ift88) knockout mice lacking primary cilia in TECs (Ift88-TEC null mutant) to clarify their precise role in thymic organogenesis and T-cell differentiation. The Ift88-TEC null mutant mice showed stunted cilia or lack of cilia in TECs. The intercellular contact between T cells and the “thymic synapse” of medullary TECs was slightly disorganized in Ift88-TEC null mutants. Notably, the CD4- and CD8-single positive thymocyte subsets increased significantly. The absence or disorganization of thymic cilia downregulated the TGF-β signaling cascade, increasing the number of single positive thymocytes. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the physiological role of primary cilia and Ift88 in regulating the differentiation of the thymus and T cells.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Tendinous annulus of Zinn for a common origin of the extraocular rectus
           muscles: a histological study of the orbital apex from donated elderly
           cadavers

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      Abstract: Abstract The medial, inferior, lateral, and superior rectus muscles (MR, IR, LR, SR), levator palpebrae superioris (LPS), and superior oblique muscle (SO) seem to originate from the tendinous annulus of Zinn, ring-like fibrous tissue crossing the bony orbital fissure. We observed the histological annulus structure using semi-serial histological sections of the orbital apex from 30 elderly donated cadavers. Nearly frontal sections demonstrated a ring-like fibrous structure (a candidate annulus) connecting or embedding four rectus muscles. The candidate annulus did not contain the LPS and SO, and, in the anterior side, the latter muscles originated from the optic canal opening. Far posterior to the annulus, there was a common tendon of the MR, IR, and LR attached to the infero-medial wall of the bony orbital fissure. At the superior part, the annulus is tightly attached to the optic nerve sheath and the periosteum. Sagittal (or Horizontal) sections clearly exhibited parts of the annulus at the MR (SR) origin. Both sagittal and horizontal sections displayed (1) the common origin of the three rectus muscles near the oculomotor nerve in the bony fissure and (2) an accessory, independent muscle bundle of the MR originating from the superomedial margin of the optic canal near the origins of the LPS or SO. Consequently, the so-called tendinous annulus appeared not to provide origins of all six muscles.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • An in situ hybridization study of syndecan family during the late stages
           of developing mouse molar tooth germ

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      Abstract: Abstract Expression of syndecan-1, 2, 3, and 4 mRNAs during the late stages of tooth germ formation was investigated by in situ hybridization, using [35S]-UTP-labeled cRNA probes. Syndecan-1 mRNA was mainly expressed in the stellate reticulum and stratum intermedium as well as at the cervical region of dental papilla/dental follicle during E18.5-P3.0. Expression in the dental epithelium was enhanced during the postnatal periods, which was supported by real-time RT-PCR analysis. These spatiotemporal expression patterns may suggest specific roles of syndecan-1 in tooth formation such as tooth eruption or root formation. Syndecan-3 mRNA expression became evident in odontoblasts at E18.5, but compared to collagen type I mRNA, which was strongly expressed at this stage, syndecan-3 expression in odontoblast was restricted in mature odontoblasts beneath the cusps during the postnatal periods. This result was also supported by real-time RT-PCR analysis, and indicated that syndecan-3 may be involved in the progress of dentinogenesis rather than in the initiation of it. Syndecan-4 mRNA roughly showed comparable expression patterns to those of syndecan-3. Syndecan-2 mRNA did not show significant expression during the experimental period, but real-time RT-PCR analysis suggested that syndecan-2 expression might be enhanced with hard tissue formation.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Reappraisal of the types of hypoglossal canal: endocranial approach

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      Abstract: Abstract This study aims to classify the endocranial variations inside the Hypoglossal Canal (HC) and evaluate the elements of the HC region in terms of sizes, diameters, and distances to the nearby surgical landmarks. The present study was done on 18 adult human fixed cadaver heads bilaterally. The internal opening of HC was examined for the presence of dural or osseos septations in the canal and was classified into five types (Type 1–5). The dimensions of hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) and the distance of intracranial openings of HC from the jugular foramen and jugular tubercle were measured. The prevalence of endocranial HC types were determined on both sides as follows: type 1 (23.53% left, 6.25% right), type 2 (37.5% right, 5.88% left), type 3 (52.94% left, 25% right), type 4 (18.75% right, 17.65% left), type 5 (12.5% right). Understanding the endocranial HC types is crucial for neurosurgeons in the differential diagnosis of various intracranial pathologies for the posterior cranial fossa approach. Knowing the anatomical relationships between the adjacent structures and symmetrical organization of the HC according to the types is crucial in determining surgical strategies and preserving adjacent structures.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Double-layered two-directional somatopleural cell migration during chicken
           body wall development revealed with local fluorescent tissue labeling

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      Abstract: Abstract The thoracic ventral body wall consists of the rib, the sternum, the intercostal muscles, and the connective tissues surrounding them. The ribs and the intercostal muscles are derived from the somite. The connective tissues are derived from the somatic layer of the lateral plate mesoderm, somatopleure. The lateral growth of the somatopleure forms the primary ventral body wall. The migration of somitic cells into the somatopleure generates the secondary body wall. As the migrating behavior of the somatopleural cells during secondary body wall formation is still unclear, we investigate here the migratory behavior of the somatopleural cells in the thorax during chicken ventral body wall development by labeling the thoracic somatopleural cells one-somite-wide by DiI labeling or gene transfection of the enhanced green fluorescent protein and observe their distribution assisted by the tissue-clearing technique FRUIT. Our labeling experiments revealed the rostral migration of the somatopleural cells into a deep part of the thoracic body wall in embryonic day 6.5 chickens. For embryonic day 8.5 chickens, these deep-migrating somatopleural cells were found around the sternal ribs. Thus, we identified the double-layered two-directional migrating pathways of the somatopleural cells: the rostral migration of the deep somatopleural cells and the lateral migration of the superficial somatopleural cells. Our findings imply that the rostral migration of deep somatopleural cells and the lateral migration of superficial ones might be associated with the developing sternal ribs and the innervation of the thoracic cutaneous nerves, respectively.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Relationship between the lumbosacral plexus deviation and 12th rib length
           in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)

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      Abstract: Abstract The relationship between the lumbosacral plexus (LSP) origin and the 12th rib length was recently determined in humans; cranial and caudal deviations of the plexus origin are related to shortening and elongation of the 12th rib, respectively. However, it remains unclear whether such anatomical correlations are also observed in non-human mammals. To address this issue, in the present study, we evaluated the LSP origin and the 12th rib length in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). In typical cases, the femoral and obturator nerves were derived from both the 4th and 5th lumbar nerves, and the lumbosacral trunk was from the 5th to 7th lumbar nerves. Some of the LSPs exhibited a caudal deviation of their origins; the femoral and obturator nerves were also derived from the 6th lumbar nerve, in addition to the 4th and 5th lumbar nerves; the lumbosacral trunk lost the 5th lumbar nerve origin and arose from the 6th and 7th lumbar nerves. Individuals with the caudal deviation of LSP origin exhibited significant elongation of the 12th ribs, in comparison with individuals with the typical plexus. The present findings indicate that the caudal deviation of LSP origin was correlated to the 12th rib elongation in Japanese macaques, similar to humans. As a future studies, we need to clarify which mammalian groups exhibit such correlation between the deviation of the LSP origin and the lowest rib length, and further to provide evolutionary implications of this correlation.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Anatomical variations of the superficial palmar arch in human fetuses

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      Abstract: Abstract The superficial palmar arch is an important anatomical structure that contributes to the arterial supply of the palmar side of the hand in the upper extremity. However, there is limited information on the embryological morphological structure of the superficial palmar arch in the literature. We studied the types of the superficial palmar arch and determined their variations by dissecting 80 upper extremities of 40 formalin-fixed human fetuses (19 males, 21 females) 18–37 weeks of age. The types and variations of the superficial palmar arch were examined, and the median artery was imaged. The superficial palmar arch type was complete in 58 hands (72.5%) and incomplete in 22 hands (27.5%). The complete group consisted of type A (47.5%), type B (16.25%), type C (3.75%), type D (1.25%), and type E (3.75%). On the other hand, the incomplete group consisted of type F (15%), type G (8.75%), type H (2.5%), and type I (1.25%). A median artery that originated from the ulnar artery and passed through the carpal tunnel during its course was detected in two hands (2.5%). Knowledge of the superficial palmar arch variations will contribute to hand microsurgery particularly in vascular graft and free flap application interventions for arterial bleeding in the palmar region.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
       
  • Morphologic observation for anomalous patterns of the flexor carpi
           radialis muscle and atypical insertions: a proposal for a new
           classification

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      Abstract: Abstract In the present study, four types of variations of the flexor carpi radialis with accessory muscular bundles were classified depending on the origin of the accessory muscular bundle and relationships with the bicipital aponeurosis, biceps brachii, pronator teres, and coracobrachialis. Six types of insertions of the tendon of the flexor carpi radialis were also divided according to their inserted positions on the carpal and metacarpal bones. An accessory muscular bundle of the flexor carpi radialis was found in 4 (1 female and 3 males) of 68 cadavers (5.88%), with five examples in 136 arms (3.68%). It was bilateral in one cadaver and unilateral (two on the right and one on the left) in three. The insertion of the flexor carpi radialis tendon was not only on the proximal surface of the base of the second metacarpal bone but also on the third metacarpal bone, the tubercle of the trapezium, and the scaphoid. These findings and classifications are important in anatomical education, and have important significances in clinical diagnosis and therapies.
      PubDate: 2022-07-07
       
  • Anatomical study of arterial arrangement of the spinal cord in Syrian
           hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

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      Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to investigate the arterial arrangement of the spinal cord in Syrian hamsters, and to identify differences and similarities to humans and experimental animals that are mostly used as models in studies into ischemic spinal cord injuries. This observational anatomical study was conducted on 20 adult Syrian hamsters using dissection and corrosion casting technique. The general anatomy of the arterial blood supply of spinal cord was obtained and noted as follows: (1) high variability in the level of the origin of right and left vertebral arteries, (2) the independent origin of dorsal intercostal arteries, (3) origin of lumbar arteries as a common trunk with right and left divisions, (4) presence of dorsal and ventral radicular branches in both sides of the cervical spinal cord with almost the same frequency, (5) greater presence of ventral and dorsal radicular branches in the left side of the thoracolumbar spinal cord, (6) two dorsal spinal arteries originating from the posterior inferior cerebellar arteries and extending to the caudal end of the thoracic spinal cord, (7) continuous ventral spinal artery originating from both vertebral arteries and extending to the conus medularis, and (8) presence of the artery of Adamkiewicz in the thoracic region of the spinal cord. From comparative anatomy viewpoints, the arteries supplying the spinal cord of Syrian hamsters exhibit many similarities with humans, laboratory rodents, and rabbits in many aspects compared to dogs, cats, and pigs. Overall, Syrian hamsters can be used as a proposed model in experimental studies of the spinal cord ischemia.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Thiel embalming in neonates: methodology and benefits in medical training

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      Abstract: Abstract Current teaching and training methods for surgical techniques in the pediatric population involve artificial models (manikins), animals or adult human cadavers embalmed using various techniques. We found no references in the literature concerning the use of the Thiel method in the pediatric population. The aim of this study, therefore, was to assess the viability of using pediatric human cadavers embalmed through Thiel’s technique and to compare them with standard pediatric manikins. After donation of a 24-week stillborn, the Thiel technique was carried out for fixation following the usual protocol. A video recording with eye-tracking glasses was used to perform an examination, and techniques. The same procedures were conducted on a pediatric manikin. Medical students, medical residents and physicians were asked to respond to questions in an online survey after being shown the video. A total of 92 responses were obtained. The Thiel-embalmed stillborn was assessed as superior to the manikin in all items. Our study confirmed that this technique is feasible even with extremely small donors. The value of this form of preservation for medical training is not widely known though it is receiving increasing interest. Our results show that Thiel fixation in pediatrics is clearly more highly valued than a manikin and offers great potential. This innovative application of the Thiel method in the pediatric population is technically possible. It poses no additional difficulties and is very positively assessed for undergraduate and postgraduate teaching.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • What is a vulva'

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      Abstract: Abstract What exactly is a vulva' The question remains unresolved. Some sources consider the clitoris, labia, mons pubis, perineum, or vagina to be components of the vulva, while other sources do not. Indeed, disagreement exists among international anatomical and clinical societies with regard to what precise structures form the human vulva. The obfuscation regarding the anatomy of the vulva and, likewise, inconsistencies in vulva-related anatomical terminology have adversely affected communication, research, and healthcare. Therefore, this review was undertaken to provide a comprehensive and critical analysis regarding the past, present, and potential future of vulvar anatomy and vulva-related anatomical terminology. The review reveals that confusion regarding the specific gross anatomical structures that form the vulva has persisted for thousands of years. The review provides novel information regarding the etymology of vulva, contributes important historical context regarding vulva, and gives details regarding related anatomical terminology including clitoris, hymen, labia majora, labia minora, mons pubis, pudendum, pudendum femininum/muliebre, uterus, vagina, et cetera. The review highlights disagreement regarding what specific structures comprise a vulva, identifies sexual bias in anatomical terminology and among noteworthy anatomical resources, and offers novel perspectives regarding anatomical terminology—especially anatomical terminology that relates to the external genitalia. What specific anatomical structures comprise the vulva' This review provides a comprehensive and critical analysis regarding the past, present, and potential future of vulvar anatomy and vulva-related anatomical terminology.
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
       
  • Hic gaudent mortui viventes docere

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      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-022-00656-9
       
  • Ethical perspectives on the Japanese guidelines for cadaver surgical
           training (CST)

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      Abstract: Abstract Cadaver surgical training (CST), which aims to maintain patient safety, provided anatomists with new duties and increased their workload. In Japan, with development of relevant guidelines, CST programs have been implemented and promoted mainly by surgical societies. This paper examines ethics of and anatomists’ attitude toward the Japanese CST guidelines. The guidelines were well established to ensure that ethical issues such as financial exploitation and commercialism involved in procurement of cadavers for training do not emerge, as these can create the dilemma of how to allocate cadavers for undergraduate education and postgraduate surgical training, given the increase in demand for cadavers. Fair allocation must accommodate and respect the donor’s advance will. Also, the guidelines must offer more detailed commentary on informed consent, particularly with regard to disclosure of information to donor candidates. The guidelines should explain better the legality of CST, the roles of anatomists, and surgeon preparedness.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-022-00670-x
       
  • Training on skin flap elevation in hand surgery using cadavers embalmed by
           the saturated salt solution method: effectiveness and usefulness

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      Abstract: Abstract Thiel embalmed and fresh-frozen cadavers have been mainly used for hand surgery training. We held a training seminar on skin flap elevation using cadavers embalmed by the saturated salt solution method. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of such training and to validate the suitability of saturated salt solution-embalmed cadavers for hand surgery training. Participants were trained in elevation procedures for the oblique triangular, reverse digital artery, reverse radial forearm, and reverse dorsal metacarpal artery flaps. Forty-eight surgeons participated in three seminars (one held in 2017, 2018, and 2019 each). A self-assessment of the participants’ confidence levels for their surgical skills was performed before and immediately after the seminar, and the suitability of saturated salt solution-embalmed cadavers was determined in terms of visual perception, tactility, comparison with real-world surgical settings, and usefulness. The confidence level for all skills increased immediately after the seminar. The surgeons reported that the visual perception and tactility of the saturated salt solution-embalmed cadavers were comparable to those of a living body, and the cadavers were rated higher with respect to their usefulness. Hand surgery seminars using cadavers embalmed by the saturated salt solution method are considered useful for training in skin flap techniques.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-022-00668-5
       
  • Usage of cadavers in surgical training and research in Japan over the past
           decade

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      Abstract: Abstract The “Guidelines for Cadaver Dissection in Education and Research of Clinical Medicine” drafted by the Japan Surgical Society (JSS) and the Japanese Association of Anatomists in 2012 helped dispel legal concerns over cadaver surgical training (CST) and the usage of donated human bodies for research and development (R&D) in the country. Subsequently, in the fiscal year 2018, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare increased the funding for CST, prompting its wider implementation. This study analyzed data obtained in 2012–2021 through the reporting system of the JSS-CST Promotion Committee to map the usage of cadavers for clinical purposes, specifically education and R&D, in Japan. We found that the number of medical universities using cadavers for CST and R&D programs was just 5 in 2012, and it reached 38 for the decade. Thus, about half of Japan’s medical universities implemented such programs over the period. Meanwhile, the total number of programs was 1,173. In the clinical field, the highest number of programs were implemented in orthopedics (27%), followed by surgery (21%), and neurosurgery (12%). Based on the purpose, the most common objective of the programs (approximately 70%) was acquiring advanced surgical techniques. Further, the highest number of programs and participants were recorded in 2019 (295 programs, 6,537 participants). Thus, the guidelines helped expand cadaver usage for clinical purposes in Japan. To further promote the clinical usage of cadavers in medical and dental universities throughout Japan, sharing know-how on operating cadaver laboratories and building understanding among the general public is recommended.
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-022-00659-6
       
  • Laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection in cadaver surgical training
           from the combined perspectives of urologists, gastroenterologists and
           gynecologists improves overall knowledge and technique: initial experience
           of multidisciplinary cadaver surgical training at a single institution in
           Japan

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      Abstract: Abstract Surgeons in Japan have recently become more familiar with cadaver surgical training (CST). Extended pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) considering the vesicohypogastric fascia and ureterohypogastric nerve fascia is gradually being performed not only in urology, but also in gynecology and gastroenterology. We performed CST using a 76-year-old female cadaver who was fixed by the Thiel method, with the aim of confirming the differences in the extent of PLND performed by certified laparoscopic specialists in urology, gastroenterology and gynecology. Even in the common surgeries, there are still several areas where anatomical structures are poorly understood. In recent years, with the spread of robotic surgery, the techniques related to PLND in these three departments have gradually become similar. Through this CST program, we were able to understand the differences in procedures and the extent of PLND in these three departments. By continuing these CSTs, we hope that a standardized PLND procedure will be performed not only within the same department, but also between different departments, and that high-quality PLND will be safely performed.
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-022-00655-w
       
  • Considering respect for the donated body: lessons from the scandal in
           France

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      Abstract: Abstract Cadaver surgical training (CST) has been developing in Japan in the past 10 years. To perform ethically adequate CST program, sincere respect for the donated body is required. To understand this better, we reviewed the recent scandal at a body donation center in Paris, France. This scandal revealed the disrespectful treatment of donated bodies happening for several years. Therefore, legal regulation over the body donation center has been reinforced. We believe that serious action against disrespectful handling of donated bodies is warranted in Japan.
      PubDate: 2022-03-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-022-00654-x
       
 
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