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  Subjects -> ANTHROPOLOGY (Total: 398 journals)
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New Florida Journal of Anthropology
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2691-2252 - ISSN (Online) 2691-2260
Published by U of Florida Homepage  [11 journals]

    • Authors: Molly Chisholm Selba
      Abstract: Facial reduction is a phenomenon described extensively in the evolutionary, clinical, and veterinary literature. Despite the fact that this phenomenon applies to a variety of species and can even be found in the clinical medical and veterinary literature (midfacial hypoplasia, craniosynostosis conditions, etc.), it has not been analyzed comprehensively using a geometric morphometric approach. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of facial reduction as both an evolutionary process and as the result of selective breeding. Three representative taxa (bats, primates, and dogs) were selected for this project for their presence of both a normocephalic and brachycephalic morphotype. Bats and primates evolved their facial reduction as the result of natural selection and other evolutionary processes over a long period of time with a large amount of genetic diversity. Dogs, on the other hand, developed their squished-face morphotype over the space of a few thousand years. Despite this fact, dogs have been proposed as a model for evolutionary facial reduction. Although dogs were able to achieve similar—if not more pronounced—facial reduction, they did so in a completely different way than bats and dogs.  This project included the analysis of specific patterns of localized shape change across these representative three taxa. The impact of this facial reduction on the soft tissue structures of the skull—namely, the brain—was assessed through the study of canine endocasts. We analyzed all three taxa through the analysis of six previously-established modules. These modules include the six main areas proposed by Goswami (2006): face, orbit, oral, zygomatic, cranial vault and cranial base. Modularity and integration were evaluated for these modules in order to better understand the constraints present during facial reduction. Finally, both global and modular facial reduction were analyzed in the three representative taxa using geometric morphometric analysis. Despite being proposed as a model of evolutionary facial reduction, dogs demonstrate major differences in cranial morphology as the result of selective breeding processes. Furthermore, facial reduction that is the result of evolutionary processes is not consistent between bats and primates, and instead, bats share much of their cranial morphology in common with dogs. Overall, it is clear that facial reduction is a multi-faceted morphological phenomenon of evolutionary significance. 
      PubDate: 2022-12-20
      DOI: 10.32473/nfja.3.2.131120
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)

    • Authors: Chu J Hsiao
      PubDate: 2022-12-20
      DOI: 10.32473/nfja.3.2.130548
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
  • Language Access in Immigration Court: Guatemalan Indigenous Languages

    • Authors: Matthew Boles
      Abstract: The number of immigrants[1] in the United States who has court hearings with the Executive Office of Immigration Review ("immigration court") has increased, resulting in a backlog. As immigration judges (I.J.s) determine whether an immigrant is removable and/or will be permitted to stay in the United States, due process requires an interpreter in the immigrant’s best language.             A pressing issue immigration courts across the nation face is providing interpreters for indigenous languages. For Guatemalan indigenous language speakers, this is particularly important because of the number of indigenous languages recognized by the Guatemalan government and because of the number of Guatemalans who have immigration court. The number of immigrants in immigration court whose best language is an indigenous language is increasing. Despite this increase, it is difficult to find interpreters. This paper examines the lack of interpreters for Guatemalan indigenous languages, the rise of the need for interpreters, and provides an overview of the immigration court’s obligation to provide an interpreter for immigrants. This paper concludes by arguing that the Department of Justice develop a plan that there are sufficient interpreters for Guatemalan indigenous language speakers.   [1] I use “immigrant” to refer to any foreign-born non-U.S. citizen or national. The term “immigrant” has a specific meaning in immigration law, but for purposes of social science, a “nonimmigrant” may be considered an immigrant. See Loue (2003).
      PubDate: 2022-12-20
      DOI: 10.32473/nfja.v3i2.129235
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2022)
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