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Evolutionary Human Sciences
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2513-843X
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [352 journals]
  • Editorial – Déjà vu all over again

    • Authors: Mace; Ruth
      First page: 1
      Abstract:
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2021.51
       
  • The emergence of ‘Transeurasian’ language families in Northeast Asia
           as viewed from archaeological evidence

    • Authors: Miyamoto; Kazuo
      First page: 3
      Abstract: From a linguistic standpoint, Proto-Japonic and Proto-Koreanic are assumed to have split off the Transeurasian languages in southern Manchuria. The linguistic idea that Proto-Japonic came earlier than Proto-Koreanic in the chronological scheme means that the Proto-Japonic language first entered the Korean Peninsula, and from there spread to the Japanese archipelago at the beginning of the Yayoi period, around the ninth century BC, while the arrival of Proto-Koreanic in southern Korea is associated with the spread of the rolled rim vessel culture around the fifth century BC. The genealogical sequence of the Pianpu, Mumun and Yayoi cultures, which shared the same pottery production techniques, indicates the spread of Proto-Japonic. On the other hand, migrants moved from Liaodong to the Korean Peninsula and established the rolled rim vessel culture. This population movement was probably due to social and political reasons as the Yan state enlarged its territory eastward. The Proto-Koreanic of the rolled rim vessel culture later spread to the Korean Peninsula and gradually drove out Proto-Japonic, becoming the predecessor of the Koreanic. In this paper, I examine the spread of Proto-Japonic and Proto-Koreanic in Northeast Asia based on archaeological evidence, focusing especially on the genealogy of pottery styles and pottery production techniques.
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2021.49
       
  • Demography, trade and state power: a tripartite model of medieval
           farming/language dispersals in the Ryukyu Islands

    • Authors: Jarosz; Aleksandra, Robbeets, Martine, Fernandes, Ricardo, Takamiya, Hiroto, Shinzato, Akito, Nakamura, Naoko, Shinoto, Maria, Hudson, Mark
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Hunter–gatherer occupations of small islands are rare in world prehistory and it is widely accepted that island settlement is facilitated by agriculture. The Ryukyu Islands contradict that understanding on two counts: not only did they have a long history of hunter–gatherer settlement, but they also have a very late date for the onset of agriculture, which only reached the archipelago between the eighth and thirteenth centuries AD. Here, we combine archaeology and linguistics to propose a tripartite model for the spread of agriculture and Ryukyuan languages to the Ryukyu Islands. Employing demographic growth, trade/piracy and the political influence of neighbouring states, this model provides a synthetic yet flexible understanding of farming/language dispersals in the Ryukyus within the complex historical background of medieval East Asia.
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.1
       
  • Young children spontaneously invent three different types of associative
           tool use behaviour

    • Authors: Reindl; E., Tennie, C., Apperly, I. A., Lugosi, Z., Beck, S. R.
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Associative Tool Use (ATU) describes the use of two or more tools in combination, with the literature further differentiating between Tool set use, Tool composite use, Sequential tool use and Secondary tool use. Research investigating the cognitive processes underlying ATU has shown that some primate and bird species spontaneously invent Tool set and Sequential tool use. Yet studies with humans are sparse. Whether children are also able to spontaneously invent ATU behaviours and at what age this ability emerges is poorly understood. We addressed this gap in the literature with two experiments involving preschoolers (E1, N = 66, 3 years 6 months to 4 years 9 months; E2, N = 119, 3 years 0 months to 6 years 10 months) who were administered novel tasks measuring Tool set, Metatool and Sequential tool use. Participants needed to solve the tasks individually, without the opportunity for social learning (except for enhancement effects). Children from 3 years of age spontaneously invented all of the types of investigated ATU behaviours. Success rates were low, suggesting that individual invention of ATU in novel tasks is still challenging for preschoolers. We discuss how future studies can use and expand our tasks to deepen our understanding of tool use and problem-solving in humans and non-human animals.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.4
       
  • Sensitivity of musculoskeletal models to variation in muscle architecture
           parameters

    • Authors: Kramer; Patricia Ann, Feuerriegel, Elen M., Lautzenheiser, Steven G., Sylvester, Adam D.
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Musculoskeletal models, like all theoretical models of physical processes, depend on the assumptions needed to construct the model. For musculoskeletal models, these assumptions include, among other things, the kinematic data, the kinetic data and the muscle parameters. The former (dynamic) data can be acquired relatively easily from living subjects, but the latter are usually based on limited information, frequently determined from cadaver studies performed on elderly individuals. Previously, we determined the sensitivity of forces to dynamic differences among 10 humans walking on a straight path. Here, we assess the sensitivity of the muscle and joint reaction forces developed in human walking to variable muscle parameters obtained from 10 living adults, whose data were recently reported, and compared the results with the values from a standard model that depends on cadaveric data. We found that, while the force patterns across the stance cycle were similar among muscle parameter models, differences of as much as 15% in the force magnitude were produced. Whether or not the variation between the standard model and other muscle parameters is important depends on why the forces are required.
      PubDate: 2022-02-15
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.6
       
  • Life-history tradeoffs in a historical population (1896–1939) undergoing
           rapid fertility decline: Costs of reproduction'

    • Authors: Jaeggi; Adrian V., Martin, Jordan S., Floris, Joël, Bender, Nicole, Haeusler, Martin, Sear, Rebecca, Staub, Kaspar
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Evolutionary demographers often invoke tradeoffs between reproduction and survival to explain reductions in fertility during demographic transitions. The evidence for such tradeoffs in humans has been mixed, partly because tradeoffs may be masked by individual differences in quality or access to resources. Unmasking tradeoffs despite such phenotypic correlations requires sophisticated statistical analyses that account for endogeneity among variables and individual differences in access to resources. Here we tested for costs of reproduction using N = 13,663 birth records from the maternity hospital in Basel, Switzerland, 1896–1939, a period characterised by rapid fertility declines. We predicted that higher parity is associated with worse maternal and offspring condition at the time of birth, adjusting for age and a variety of covariates. We used Bayesian multivariate, multilevel models to simultaneously analyse multiple related outcomes while accounting for endogeneity, appropriately modelling non-linear effects, dealing with hierarchical data structures, and effectively imputing missing data. Despite all these efforts, we found virtually no evidence for costs of reproduction. Instead, women with better access to resources had fewer children. Barring limitations of the data, these results are consistent with demographic transitions reflecting women's investment in their own embodied capital and/or the adoption of maladaptive low-fertility norms by elites.
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.2
       
  • Early nomads of the Eastern Steppe and their tentative connections in the
           West – CORRIGENDUM

    • Authors: Savelyev; Alexander, Jeong, Choongwon
      First page: 8
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.8
       
  • Deep ancestry of collapsing networks of nomadic hunter–gatherers in
           Borneo

    • Authors: Lansing; J. Stephen, Jacobs, Guy S., Downey, Sean S., Norquest, Peter K., Cox, Murray P., Kuhn, Steven L., Miller, John H., Malik, Safarina G., Sudoyo, Herawati, Kusuma, Pradiptajati
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Theories of early cooperation in human society often draw from a small sample of ethnographic studies of surviving populations of hunter–gatherers, most of which are now sedentary. Borneo hunter–gatherers (Punan, Penan) have seldom figured in comparative research because of a decades-old controversy about whether they are the descendants of farmers who adopted a hunting and gathering way of life. In 2018 we began an ethnographic study of a group of still-nomadic hunter–gatherers who call themselves Punan Batu (Cave Punan). Our genetic analysis clearly indicates that they are very unlikely to be the descendants of neighbouring agriculturalists. They also preserve a song language that is unrelated to other languages of Borneo. Dispersed travelling groups of Punan Batu with fluid membership use message sticks to stay in contact, co-operate and share resources as they journey between rock shelters and forest camps. Message sticks were once widespread among nomadic Punan in Borneo, but have largely disappeared in sedentary Punan villages. Thus the small community of Punan Batu offers a rare glimpse of a hunting and gathering way of life that was once widespread in the forests of Borneo, where prosocial behaviour extended beyond the face-to-face community, facilitating successful collective adaptation to the diverse resources of Borneo's forests.
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.3
       
  • The origin of smiling, laughing, and crying: The defensive mimic theory

    • Authors: Graziano; Michael S. A.
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Why do we leak lubricant from the eyes to solicit comfort from others? Why do we bare our teeth and crinkle our faces to express non-aggression? The defensive mimic theory proposes that a broad range of human emotional expressions evolved originally as exaggerated, temporally extended mimics of the fast, defensive reflexes that normally protect the body surface. Defensive reflexes are so important to survival that they cannot be safely suppressed; yet they also broadcast information about an animal's internal state, information that can potentially be exploited by other animals. Once others can observe and exploit an animal's defensive reflexes, it may be advantageous to the animal to run interference by creating mimic defensive actions, thereby manipulating the behaviour of others. Through this interaction over millions of years, many human emotional expressions may have evolved. Here, human social signals including smiling, laughing and crying, are compared component-by-component with the known, well-studied features of primate defensive reflexes. It is suggested that the defensive mimic theory can adequately account for the physical form of not all, but a large range of, human emotional expression.
      PubDate: 2022-03-03
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.5
       
  • Four levers of reciprocity across human societies: concepts, analysis and
           predictions

    • Authors: Lehmann; Laurent, Powers, Simon T., van Schaik, Carel P.
      First page: 11
      Abstract: This paper surveys five human societal types – mobile foragers, horticulturalists, pre-state agriculturalists, state-based agriculturalists and liberal democracies – from the perspective of three core social problems faced by interacting individuals: coordination problems, social dilemmas and contest problems. We characterise the occurrence of these problems in the different societal types and enquire into the main force keeping societies together given the prevalence of these. To address this, we consider the social problems in light of the theory of repeated games, and delineate the role of intertemporal incentives in sustaining cooperative behaviour through the reciprocity principle. We analyse the population, economic and political structural features of the five societal types, and show that intertemporal incentives have been adapted to the changes in scope and scale of the core social problems as societies have grown in size. In all societies, reciprocity mechanisms appear to solve the social problems by enabling lifetime direct benefits to individuals for cooperation. Our analysis leads us to predict that as societies increase in complexity, they need more of the following four features to enable the scalability and adaptability of the reciprocity principle: nested grouping, decentralised enforcement and local information, centralised enforcement and coercive power, and formal rules.
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.7
       
  • Bipedal locomotion in zoo apes: Revisiting the hylobatian model for
           bipedal origins

    • Authors: Rosen; Kyle H., Jones, Caroline E., DeSilva, Jeremy M.
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Bipedal locomotion is a hallmark of being human. Yet the body form from which bipedalism evolved remains unclear. Specifically, the positional behaviour (i.e. orthograde vs. pronograde) and the length of the lumbar spine (i.e. long and mobile vs. short and stiff) of the last common ancestor (LCA) of the African great apes and humans require further investigation. While fossil evidence would be the most conclusive, the paucity of hominid fossils from 5–10 million years ago makes this field of research challenging. In their absence, extant primate anatomy and behaviour may offer some insight into the ancestral body form from which bipedalism could most easily evolve. Here, we quantify the frequency of bipedalism in a large sample (N = 496) of zoo-housed hominoids and cercopithecines. Our results show that while each studied species of ape and monkey can move bipedally, hylobatids are significantly more bipedal and engage in bipedal locomotion more frequently and for greater distances than any other primate sampled. These data support hypotheses of an orthograde, long-backed and arboreal LCA, which is consistent with hominoid fossils from the middle-to-late Miocene. If true, knuckle-walking evolved in parallel in Pan and Gorilla, and the human body form, particularly the long lower back and orthograde posture, is conserved.
      PubDate: 2022-03-14
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.9
       
  • What is the extent of a frequency-dependent social learning strategy
           space'

    • Authors: Bellamy; Aysha, McKay, Ryan, Vogt, Sonja, Efferson, Charles
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Models of frequency-dependent social learning posit that individuals respond to the commonality of behaviours without additional variables modifying this. Such strategies bring important trade-offs, e.g. conformity is beneficial when observing people facing the same task but harmful when observing those facing a different task. Instead of rigidly responding to frequencies, however, social learners might modulate their response given additional information. To see, we ran an incentivised experiment where participants played either a game against nature or a coordination game. There were three types of information: (a) choice frequencies in a group of demonstrators; (b) an indication of whether these demonstrators learned in a similar or different environment; and (c) an indication about the reliability of this similarity information. Similarity information was either reliably correct, uninformative or reliably incorrect, where reliably correct and reliably incorrect treatments provided participants with equivalent earning opportunities. Participants adjusted their decision-making to all three types of information. Adjustments, however, were asymmetric, with participants doing especially well when conforming to demonstrators who were reliably similar to them. The overall response, however, was more fluid and complex than this one case. This flexibility should attenuate the trade-offs commonly assumed to shape the evolution of frequency-dependent social learning strategies.
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.11
       
  • Cultural variation in running techniques among non-industrial societies

    • Authors: Wallace; Ian J., Kraft, Thomas S., Venkataraman, Vivek V., Davis, Helen E., Holowka, Nicholas B., Harris, Alexandra R., Lieberman, Daniel E., Gurven, Michael
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Research among non-industrial societies suggests that body kinematics adopted during running vary between groups according to the cultural importance of running. Among groups in which running is common and an important part of cultural identity, runners tend to adopt what exercise scientists and coaches consider to be good technique for avoiding injury and maximising performance. In contrast, among groups in which running is not particularly culturally important, people tend to adopt suboptimal technique. This paper begins by describing key elements of good running technique, including landing with a forefoot or midfoot strike pattern and leg oriented roughly vertically. Next, we review evidence from non-industrial societies that cultural attitudes about running associate with variation in running techniques. Then, we present new data from Tsimane forager–horticulturalists in Bolivia. Our findings suggest that running is neither a common activity among the Tsimane nor is it considered an important part of cultural identity. We also demonstrate that when Tsimane do run, they tend to use suboptimal technique, specifically landing with a rearfoot strike pattern and leg protracted ahead of the knee (called overstriding). Finally, we discuss processes by which culture might influence variation in running techniques among non-industrial societies, including self-optimisation and social learning.
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.12
       
  • Paternal investment, stepfather presence and early child development and
           growth among Serbian Roma

    • Authors: Čvorović; Jelena
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Research on paternal investment and child growth and development is limited outside of high-income countries. Using nationally representative data from low-resource Serbian Roma communities, this study examined father investment (direct care), its predictors and the associations between paternal investment, stepfather presence and child physical growth and early development. The sample included 1222 children aged 35–59 months, out of which 235 were living with biological fathers. Child outcomes included height-for-age Z-scores, stunting and early child developmental score. Roma paternal investment was relatively low. There was a positive association of father investment and children's height, and no association with developmental score. The presence of father vs. stepfather did not exert any influence on children. Instead, maternal and child characteristics explained both the overall development and height for Roma children. Thus, older children, born to literate, lower parity mothers of higher status and greater investment had better developmental and growth outcomes; girls were the preferred sex, owing to expected fitness benefits. Reverse causality emerged as the most likely pathway through which the cross-sectional association of father direct care with child growth may manifest, such that Roma fathers tend to bias their investment towards taller, more endowed children, because of greater fitness pay-off.
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.14
       
  • Robert C. Dunnell's Systematics in prehistory at 50

    • Authors: Riede; Felix, Araujo, Astolfo, Marwick, Ben
      First page: 16
      Abstract: The year 2021 marked the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of Robert C. Dunnell's (Free Press, 1971) diminutive yet dense Systematics in prehistory. At the height of the debate between Culture History and New Archaeology, Dunnell's work sought to address a more fundamental issue that was and still is relevant to all branches of prehistoric archaeology, and especially to the study of the Palaeolithic: systematics. Dunnell himself was notorious and controversial, but the importance of his work remains underappreciated. Like other precocious works of that tumultuous time, Systematics in prehistory today remains absent from most course reading lists and gathers dust on library shelves. In this contribution we argue for a greater appreciation of its as yet unfulfilled conceptual and analytical promise. In particular, we briefly chart its somewhat delayed impact via evolutionary archaeology, including how it has also influenced non-Anglophone traditions, especially in South America. The obstinate persistence of classification issues in palaeoanthropology and palaeoarchaeology, we argue, warrants a second look at Dunnell's Systematics.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.18
       
  • Food storage facilitates professional religious specialization in
           hunter–gatherer societies

    • Authors: Watts; Joseph, Hamerslag, Elise M., Sprules, Cassie, Shaver, John H., Dunbar, Robin I. M.
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Professional religious specialists centralised religious authority in early human societies and represented some of the earliest instances of formalised social leadership. These individuals played a central role in the emergence of organised religion and transitions to more stratified human societies. Evolutionary theories highlight a range of environmental, economic and social factors that are potentially causally related to the emergence of professional religious specialists in human history. There remains little consensus over the relative importance of these factors and whether professional religious specialists were the outcome or driver of increased socio-cultural complexity. We built a global dataset of hunter–gatherer societies and developed a novel method of exploratory phylogenetic path analysis. This enabled us to systematically identify the factors associated with the emergence of professional religious specialists and infer the directionality of causal dependencies. We find that environmental predictability, environmental richness, pathogen load, social leadership and food storage systems are all correlated with professional religious specialists. However, only food storage is directly related to the emergence of professional religious specialists. Our findings are most consistent with the claim that the early stages of organised religion were the outcome rather than driver of increased socio-economic complexity.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.17
       
  • Extracting hierarchical features of cultural variation using network-based
           clustering

    • Authors: Liu; Xiran, Rosenberg, Noah A., Greenbaum, Gili
      First page: 18
      Abstract: High-dimensional datasets on cultural characters contribute to uncovering insights about factors that influence cultural evolution. Because cultural variation in part reflects descent processes with a hierarchical structure – including the descent of populations and vertical transmission of cultural traits – methods designed for hierarchically structured data have potential to find applications in the analysis of cultural variation. We adapt a network-based hierarchical clustering method for use in analysing cultural variation. Given a set of entities, the method constructs a similarity network, hierarchically depicting community structure among them. We illustrate the approach using four datasets: pronunciation variation in the US mid-Atlantic region, folklore variation in worldwide cultures, phonemic variation across worldwide languages and temporal variation in first names in the US. In these examples, the method provides insights into processes that affect cultural variation, uncovering geographic and other influences on observed patterns and cultural characters that make important contributions to them.
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.15
       
  • Forest terrains influence walking kinematics among indigenous Tsimane of
           the Bolivian Amazon

    • Authors: Holowka; Nicholas B., Kraft, Thomas S., Wallace, Ian J., Gurven, Michael, Venkataraman, Vivek V.
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Laboratory-based studies indicate that a major evolutionary advantage of bipedalism is enabling humans to walk with relatively low energy expenditure. However, such studies typically record subjects walking on even surfaces or treadmills that do not represent the irregular terrains our species encounters in natural environments. To date, few studies have quantified walking kinematics on natural terrains. Here we used high-speed video to record marker-based kinematics of 21 individuals from a Tsimane forager–horticulturalist community in the Bolivian Amazon walking on three different terrains: a dirt field, a forest trail and an unbroken forest transect. Compared with the field, in the unbroken forest participants contacted the ground with more protracted legs and flatter foot postures, had more inclined trunks, more flexed hips and knees, and raised their feet higher during leg swing. In contrast, kinematics were generally similar between trail and field walking. These results provide preliminary support for the idea that irregular natural surfaces like those in forests cause humans to alter their walking kinematics, such that travel in these environments could be more energetically expensive than would be assumed from laboratory-based data. These findings have important implications for the evolutionary energetics of human foraging in environments with challenging terrains.
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.13
       
  • Credibility Enhancing Displays, religious scandal and the decline of Irish
           Catholic orthodoxy

    • Authors: Turpin; Hugh D., Willard, Aiyana K.
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Credibility Enhancing Displays have been shown to be an important component in the transmission of empirically unverifiable cultural content such as religious beliefs. Decreased Credibility Enhancing Displays are a major predictor of religious decline. However, because declines in belief are often paired with the decreasing importance of religious institutions, existing research has not yet shown the effect of Credibility Enhancing Displays as separate from this institutional decline. Here, we assess the role of past Credibility Enhancing Display exposure among the baptised Catholic population of Ireland in predicting who retains a Catholic identity and religious beliefs among those who reject the Catholic Church. We find that leaving Catholicism outright (i.e. ‘ex-Catholicism’) is predicted by low Credibility Enhancing Display exposure, but rejecting the Church while retaining a Catholic identity (i.e. ‘liminal Catholicism’) and theistic belief is not. High perceived prevalence of clerical paedophiles (i.e. religious hypocrisy) predicts both groups similarly. Higher exposure to Credibility Enhancing Displays predicts higher orthodox Catholic beliefs and Catholic morality among Catholics, but with inconsistent and even negative effects among the other groups. High perceived prevalence of clerical paedophiles predicts the rejection of orthodox Catholic beliefs, but not the rejection of theism or a Catholic identity.
      PubDate: 2022-05-25
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.21
       
  • Can impulsivity evolve in response to childhood environmental
           harshness'

    • Authors: Kometani; Atsushi, Ohtsubo, Yohsuke
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Previous studies have suggested that human impulsivity is an adaptive response to childhood environmental harshness: individuals from families of low socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be more impulsive. However, no studies have tested the evolvability of this reaction norm. This study examined whether (a) impulsivity is associated with higher fitness among individuals from low SES families, while (b) it is associated with lower fitness among individuals from high SES families. We assessed three indices of impulsivity (temporal discounting, risk taking and fast/slow life history strategy), childhood SES and five proxy indices of fitness (number of children, lifelong singlehood, annual household income, subjective SES and life satisfaction) of 692 middle-aged participants (40–45 years old). None of the results supported the evolvability of the impulsivity reaction norm, although low childhood SES was associated with lower fitness on every proxy measure. Impulsivity (operationalised as the fast life history strategy) was associated with lower fitness regardless of childhood SES.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.22
       
  • Representations of facial expressions since Darwin

    • Authors: Perrett; David
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Darwin's book on expressions of emotion was one of the first publications to include photographs (Darwin, The expression of the emotions in Man and animals, 1872). The inclusion of expression photographs meant that readers could form their own opinions and could, like Darwin, survey others for their interpretations. As such, the images provided an evidence base and an ‘open source’. Since Darwin, increases in the representativeness and realism of emotional expressions have come from the use of composite images, colour, multiple views and dynamic displays. Research on understanding emotional expressions has been aided by the use of computer graphics to interpolate parametrically between different expressions and to extrapolate exaggerations. This review tracks the developments in how emotions are illustrated and studied and considers where to go next.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.10
       
  • Indo-European loanwords and exchange in Bronze Age Central and East Asia

    • Authors: Bjørn; Rasmus G.
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Loanword analysis is a unique contribution of historical linguistics to our understanding of prehistoric cultural interfaces. As language reflects the lives of its speakers, the substantiation of loanwords draws on the composite evidence from linguistic as well as auxiliary data from archaeology and genetics through triangulation. The Bronze Age of Central Asia is in principle linguistically mute, but a host of recent independent observations that tie languages, cultures and genetics together in various ways invites a comprehensive reassessment of six highly diagnostic loanwords (‘seven’, ‘name/fame’, ‘sister-in-law’, ‘honey’, ‘metal’ and ‘horse’) that are associated with the Bronze Age. Moreover, they are shared between Indo-European, Uralic, Turkic and sometimes Old Chinese. The successful identification of the interfaces for these loanwords can help settle longstanding debates on languages, migrations and the items themselves. Each item is analysed using the comparative method with reference to the archaeological record to assess the plausibility of a transfer. I argue that the six items can be dated to have entered Central and East Asian languages from immigrant Indo-European languages spoken in the Afanasievo and Andronovo cultures, including a novel source for the ‘horse’ in Old Chinese.
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.16
       
  • Early adversity, adult lifestyle, and posttraumatic stress disorder in a
           military sample

    • Authors: Clint; Edward K., Fessler, Daniel M. T.
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Early adversity is considered a major risk factor for adult posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Simultaneously, however, early adversity is also known to contribute to psychological resilience, and, indeed, some high-adversity groups do not display elevated PTSD risk. We explored correlates of PTSD in the Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers military dataset to evaluate contrasting accounts of the relationship between early adversity and PTSD. The standard deficit model depicts ontogeny as inherently vulnerable to insult, such that early adversity yields a less robust adult phenotype. A complementary life history theory account holds that adverse early experiences cue a fast life history orientation that reduces investment in maintenance, yielding an adult phenotype less able to recover from trauma. An opposing life history theory account holds that early adversity cues expectations of an adverse adult environment, adaptively reducing reactivity to adverse events. We use principal component analysis to extract a latent variable representing several childhood experiences and multiple lifestyle factors that plausibly proxy life history orientation. After correcting for covariates, we find a strong positive influence of such proxies on PTSD risk, suggesting that early adversity may indeed increase risk for PTSD, and thus that either the standard deficit model, the reduced maintenance account or a combination are correct.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.19
       
  • Archery's signature: an electromyographic analysis of the upper limb

    • Authors: Dorshorst; Tabitha, Weir, Gillian, Hamill, Joseph, Holt, Brigitte
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Non-technical summary:Bow and arrow technology plays a significant role in the recent evolutionary history of modern humans, but limitations of preservation make it challenging to identify archaeological evidence of early archery. Since bone structure can change in response to muscle force, archers of the past can potentially be identified through analysis of upper arm bones. However, there is limited research on how archery impacts upper limb musculature. This study offers initial insights into how archery impacts humeral musculature and highlights the need for additional research focused on archery's direct impact on humeral morphology.Technical summary:Humeral morphology has been used to support behaviour reconstructions of archery in past populations. However, the lack of experimental research concerning the impacts that archery has on the upper limb weakens skeletal morphological approaches. The goal of this study was to determine how archery impacts the activation of upper limb musculature. More specifically, this study tested: (a) whether the relative muscle activations are similar between arms; and (b) what muscles were activated on the dominant (draw) arm compared with the non-dominant (bow) arm. Data on upper arm muscle activation were collected bilaterally for nine archers using surface electromyography (EMG). Results show similar levels of muscle activation bilaterally with different muscles being activated in each arm. There were significantly higher integrated EMG and peak muscle activations of the biceps brachii muscles in the draw arm compared with the bow arm. In contrast, the lateral deltoid and the triceps brachii muscles had significantly higher integrated EMG and peak muscle activations on the bow arm compared with the draw arm. This work offers initial insights into how archery impacts humeral musculature and highlights the need for additional research focused on archery's direct impact on humeral morphology.
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.20
       
 
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