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Ethnography
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.49
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 96  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1466-1381 - ISSN (Online) 1741-2714
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1175 journals]
  • Transnational giving between Shikoku, Japan and Burma/ Myanmar: From
           memorializing One’s dead to humanitarianism with peace and war
           reflections

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      Authors: Millie Creighton
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      Bagan, Myanmar (formerly Burma) is famous for its over 2200 Buddhist temples. People contribute to these temples as charitable work, to fulfill social or sacred obligations, or show they are “good Buddhists”. In World War II Japan’s military government sent Shikoku youth to South East Asia, including Burma, where over 6000 died. Following WWII, Shikoku groups sent funds to Burma to memorialize their dead. Thus began over 70 years of transnational giving involving construction and maintenance of temples, generalized support, and bringing medical advances to Burma/Myanmar. This article explores Shikoku-Myanmar transnational giving, and how it reverberates with peace and war issues. It raises a counter narrative to the Japanese state’s assertion that Yasukuni Shrine is necessary to memorialize war dead, makes links with Japanese citizens’ movements upholding Japan’s pacifist constitution and Article 9 (renouncing militarism), and adds to gift-giving frameworks, showing how, once established gift-giving can create obligations including those not directly about reciprocation.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-11-29T07:02:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221134435
       
  • Autonomous care' Muslim transnational giving networks and perceptions
           of welfare responsibilities in India

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      Authors: Catherine Larouche
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      In Uttar Pradesh, many middle-class Muslims increasingly view local and transnational religious giving as a pragmatic way to create tangible socioeconomic improvements in the lives of underprivileged Muslims and mitigate their growing marginalization in India. How does their turn toward transnational religious giving influence their perception of the state’s responsibilities regarding social welfare provision' Based on ethnographic fieldwork research with registered non-profit organizations collecting and distributing Islamic alms (zakat and sadaqa) in the state of Uttar Pradesh, this article examines how local and transnational religious giving affects the ways in which members of these Muslim philanthropic organizations imagine citizenship and welfare responsibilities in India. Distributive practices within these organizations show a dual focus on fostering Muslims’ economic independence and self-sufficiency by mobilizing local and transnational charitable networks on the one hand and improving access to state welfare on the other. The co-existence of these somewhat divergent strategies suggests that while the state is considered partial and uncaring, it also remains viewed as an indispensable welfare provider. More generally, these observations bring forth a discussion on the extent and effects of the transnationalisation and privatisation of welfare in globally connected South-Asia.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-11-09T08:08:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221134417
       
  • Humanitarian Sovereignty, Exceptional Muslims, and the Transnational
           Making of Kuwaiti Citizens

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      Authors: Mara A. Leichtman
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      What is the role of transnational non-state philanthropic actors in the Kuwaiti humanitarian mission abroad' How does humanitarian aid reinforce and (re)conceptualize Kuwaiti notions of citizenship' A key provider of foreign assistance, this small, at times vulnerable, Gulf country has given generously to other nations as part of a strategic foreign policy. Kuwait’s humanitarian sovereignty involves coordinated efforts at multiple levels of state policy, civil society organizations, and pious individual donors who fund the work of international Islamic charities – which have increasingly become more connected to the state. Exceptional Muslim humanitarians donate their time along with their money, and youth in greater numbers are volunteering with transnational missions. An honorable endeavor—sanctioned by the government—volunteering brings religious rewards and leads to professional development. Bridging state, civil society, and private domains, transnational giving from Kuwait merges religious and national forms of community and shapes moral citizens.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-11-05T11:59:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221134415
       
  • No one is self-made: Evolving iterations of giving and shaping of
           transnational Kamma caste subjectivities

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      Authors: Sanam Roohi
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      This article focuses on the transnational giving practices of Kammas (a dominant caste in Coastal Andhra, South India) by examining their records, standing myths and evolving iterations around the practice. While Kammas date their giving practices to the 1700s, written records trace community giving to the late colonial period, where a few elites instituted and patronized caste associations. The practice was reconstituted in the late 1990s, with many affluent Kamma professionals in the US embracing the role of community welfare organizers. In its transnational moment, expressed through the idiom of donations, horizontal giving has become one of the key embodied markers of Kamma selfhood, recursively produced as a group trait of a globally dispersed community of professionals. Despite the evolving iterations and modernizing impulses, the article argues that historically, giving for the Kammas has engendered an interiority and exteriority and is intimately tied to their collective quest for upward social mobility.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-11-05T09:40:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221134442
       
  • A uniform front': Power and front-line worker variation in Kakuma
           refugee camp, Kenya

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      Authors: Blair Sackett
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      Front-line workers, or street-level bureaucrats, who interact directly with clients, have significant discretion over clients’ lives. Drawing upon ethnographic observation in Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya and interviews with aid workers, I argue that front-line workers are not a uniform group. I examine three types of front-line aid workers (international, national, and refugee), who work directly with refugee clients. Workers use day-to-day work practices to structure where, when, and how they interact with refugee clients. Yet, workers at the bottom of the organizational hierarchy are less equipped to use these practices. As a result, they are vulnerable to increased criticism and accusations of corruption from co-workers and are uniquely affected by criticism from the refugee client community. By examining their day-to-day work practices, this paper illuminates how inequalities in power among workers contribute to differences in work practices and vulnerability in workplace interactions.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-11-05T02:45:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221104288
       
  • A Chinese woman’s journey to the “west”: Ethnographic knowledge
           production amid ambiguous power dynamics

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      Authors: Grazia Ting Deng
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      This article is a reflexive critique from a female Chinese anthropologist who conducted ethnographic fieldwork examining why Chinese immigrants have purchased local coffee bar businesses and how they manage their everyday racial/ethnic encounters in Bologna, Italy. It provides a new narrative of ethnographic knowledge production from the perspective of a non-Western woman amid ambiguous power dynamics in the metropolitan West. It examines the advantages and disadvantages of the ethnographer’s intersectional positionality, which affected her access to the field, interactions with interlocutors, and embodied experiences throughout multiple ethnographic encounters. It argues that none of the putatively disempowering notions, including racial/ethnic identity, gender, age, marital status, were necessarily barriers to the ethnographic knowledge production. This critique goes beyond the Euro/American frameworks of white/non-white and native/non-native binaries in understanding ethnographic knowledge production and further contributes to understanding the situated and relational nature of ethnographic knowledge and the process of its production.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-11-03T10:37:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221110047
       
  • Kin, friends, philanthronationalists: “Relations” as a modality of
           colonial and post-colonial charity in Sri Lanka

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      Authors: Tom Widger
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      Through an historical ethnographic analysis of Sri Lanka’s oldest charity, the Colombo Friend-in-Need Society, this article explores changing modalities of humanitarian “relations” in colonial and post-colonial contexts. For two hundred years, “the Society” would provide a model of liberal humanitarianism premised on “friendship,” a civil and secular relation that the organisation distinguished from “kinship” on the one side and “religion” on the other. Sorting and ranking kinds of charitable practice according to their relations became a project through which the elite could establish the relative values of different forms of mutuality and autonomy and their contribution to colonial and post-colonial development. Paying attention to the Society’s role in this process also helps to reveal the historical contingencies of “relation” as a foundational anthropological concept and analytical objective.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-10-26T04:41:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221134402
       
  • Transnational Giving and Evolving Religious, Ethnic and Political
           Formations in the Global South

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      Authors: Sanam Roohi, Catherine Larouche, Leilah Vevaina
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      Conceptualising giving as a broad category encompassing philanthropy, charity, humanitarian aid and gifts, this Special Issue brings together researchers whose ethnographic and theoretical work examine different forms of transnational giving in the historical and contemporary Global South. In this Issue we contend that the Global South should not be seen as a passive recipient of these transnational welfare-oriented giving but as the site where their full social and religious meanings and moral obligations are actively realised or constructed. Through nuanced ethnographic and multi-sited research across Asia, Africa, and North America, articles in this Issue explore how the transnational scale of operability attaches newer meanings to belonging even as it shapes the subjectivities of actors and communities (givers and receivers) partaking in this process. We explore how gifts travel spatially and histories of transnational giving have contributed to the framing of communal histories, cementing of global connections and the creation of relationships of dependency as well as forging of new transnational solidarities. Moreover, we investigate how transnational giving also inflects the relationship between citizens and the state and (re)shapes national political communities.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-10-26T03:52:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221134434
       
  • Trusts on the monsoon winds: Parsi transnational religious philanthropy

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      Authors: Leilah Vevaina
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      Trade brought the Parsis to Hong Kong and a small group remained and settled after the British took over the island in 1841. Profits from the China trade made millionaires of several of Bombay’s ‘illustrious’ philanthropists and helped to build some of this city’s founding infrastructure. The ties between the two colonial ports were never severed, and recent years have seen a resurgence of funds transferred from Parsi charitable trusts in Hong Kong back to Mumbai and other settlements in India. Unlike the profits from individuals, these funds are funneled through charitable trusts. This article will articulate a transregional Indian Ocean world that is formed not only through the movement of people and goods, but by community giving and city building, through the temporal giving of the trust. It will show how this historical and contemporary giving has become an idiom of transnational placemaking between these two port cities.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-10-25T10:15:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221134414
       
  • Giving and belonging: Religious networks of Sub-Saharan African Muslims in
           Guangzhou, China

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      Authors: Qiuyu Jiang
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents empirical data on how religious giving structures African Muslims’ transnational lives in Guangzhou, China. It provides insight into mechanisms of mutual aid within a socially and economically marginalized migrant group in a Muslim-minority society. I argue that in this context Islamic charitable giving helps enable African Muslims to cope with everyday challenges, especially those related to their tenuous immigration statuses and social exclusion. Giving that promotes mutual charity is especially important for African Muslims in Guangzhou since the city’s formal welfare system is inaccessible to most migrants. The article argues that African Muslims’ religious giving creates a social network that safeguards group members from socioeconomic hardship and offers African Migrants a sense of belonging. It concludes by discussing the limitations of religious giving when ties of religious engagement are weak, with individuals failing to fulfil their religious responsibilities in the eyes of the community.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-10-19T12:33:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221134432
       
  • Slow violence, depoliticisation and hope: Cultural landscapes of schooling
           in Wentworth, South Africa

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      Authors: Peter Sutoris
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      This ethnographic study of environmental learning in a South African township school unravels how formal education can depoliticise young people’s understandings of environmental decay. Conceptualising environmental learning through Rob Nixon’s notion of ‘slow violence’ and Hannah Arendt’s understanding of ‘action’, the article argues that despite the depoliticization enacted through schooling, individual learners and educators articulate subterranean understandings of the environmental multicrisis rooted in informal learning. This helps us understand the potential of environmental learning outside schools.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-10-11T01:15:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221130278
       
  • Men in aprons versus men in suits: Reshaping masculinities within a
           Japanese nonprofit promoting fatherhood

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      Authors: Evan T. Koike
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      One of the most influential nonprofit organizations in Japan’s contemporary parenting movement, Fathering Japan has a mission to “increase the number of smiling fathers” and to eliminate obstacles that prevent fathers from participating in family life, which the nonprofit promotes as an enjoyable and fulfilling sphere of activity. Fathering Japan encourages fathers of young children to break with the practices of previous generations of Japanese fathers—who generally eschewed domestic labor—by practicing masculinities that engage actively in child care in ways that lessen women’s workloads and help to raise Japan’s low birthrate. Yet many of the nonprofit’s projects cater to the needs of suit-wearing men pursuing Japan’s traditional heteronormative lifestyles. In contrast, within Fathering Japan, members of the subgroup called the Secret Society, “The Househusband’s Friend,” don aprons and engage in play and parody that both problematize and reaffirm the links among masculinity, work, and family.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-09-30T11:28:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221124512
       
  • The Halfie Predicament in the Ethnography of Religion: Fieldwork with
           Iranian-Americana Muslim Women in Los Angeles

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      Authors: Afsane Rezaei
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      This article draws from fieldwork with Iranian-American Muslim women in Los Angeles to address the difficulties of occupying a halfie position in the ethnography of faith. While halfies are assumed to have easier access to communities in which they are part-members, and often have to justify their sufficient distance from the research subject, they are not readily accepted as insiders by their interlocutors either. I argue that having an in-between, insider/outsider position with respect to interlocutors' faith, particularly in sensitive sociopolitical contexts where religion is a primary site of boundary work, increases the potential for mistrust and suspicion rather than facilitating ethnographic research.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-09-29T09:31:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221111683
       
  • Jala Role: Normative Practice of Collaborative Ethnography in a Hostile
           Research Frontier, South Omo, Ethiopia

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      Authors: Yidneckachew Ayele Zikargie
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      This article outlines the significance of a normative social and cultural practice, Jala role, for collaborative ethnography in a hostile research frontier. Based on self-reflective notes and fieldwork details, this article critically discusses the notion of Jala as a methodological enterprise of collaborative ethnography in Omo Valley, Ethiopia. The Jala role enables a pathway to emic perspectives of the right-holders and reflect on the methodological limitation of the predominant focus on the conduct of duty bearer. Its normative value enables modes of self-presentation and access to ethnographic knowledge holders by going back and forth in multi-sited fields iteratively. These features establish the concept of collaborative ethnography as deliberate and explicit collaborations with participants of ethnographic fieldwork. The parties to the relationship have mutual obligations to support each other that neither define collaboration as reciprocation nor let the parties enter into stressful relationships except for a few challenges explored reflexively.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-09-29T03:36:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221110051
       
  • Being crime: Youth violence and criminal identities in Bahia, Brazil

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      Authors: Peter Anton Zoettl
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      In Brazil, a growing number of young citizens from the socioeconomic periphery embark on a career in crime, earning their living by armed robbery or selling drugs. Through the life stories and narratives of inmates of a juvenile prison in the state of Bahia, the article anatomizes what makes these young men take up and stick to a life in conflict with the law, despite the limited profits and substantial hardships involved. I argue that the experience of violence, both suffered and perpetrated, is central to the forging of the youths’ criminal identities, and their persistent failure to change their life trajectories.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T12:45:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221115191
       
  • Effort in absence: Technologically mediated aesthetic experiences of the
           culture industries’ routine workers

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      Authors: Michael L Siciliano
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, I draw upon 20 months of participant observation to compare the labor processes of routine, office staff in the popular music and digital content industries in the U.S. In both cases, workers play a game of disappearing, pursuing immersive experiences in their efforts to be more productive. These pleasurably immersive experiences vis-à-vis technology described by informants bear a similarity to aesthetic experiences typically associated with art objects. Comparing how workers describe their aesthetic experiences, I show how the materiality of technology as well as management mediate workers’ immersion. In doing so, this article extends theories of control over work by highlighting the importance of work's affective and aesthetic dimensions while also making an empirical contribution by examining the culture industries’ often overlooked, routine workers in conventional and platformized contexts.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T02:34:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221124514
       
  • ‘The game is on!’ Eventness at a distance at a livestream
           concert during lockdown

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      Authors: Ariane d’Hoop, Jeannette Pols
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      In many countries the lockdown measures in response to the Covid-19 pandemic forbade social gatherings, including for performing arts. Numerous artists developed projects, often attempting to reach audiences in cyberspace. We offer an ethnographic study of such a project: a jazz concert played live for a particular audience, who attended it from home. We seek to understand how musicians, audience, and the material setting made it possible to engage with music in a way that gave these moments a particular density. What made this experience meaningful, we argue, was the eventness of the performance: the ‘game was on’, happening in the moment, in the unpredictable, risky interactions between musicians, and with the ‘push of the audience’ listening to the gig in real time. The eventness of this online concert was created in such a way it made possible a collective engagement with and through live music, notwithstanding the physical distance.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-09-03T01:16:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221124502
       
  • Turning newcomers into locals: Kinship practices and belonging in
           low-income neighborhoods in Finland

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      Authors: Lotta Junnilainen
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      For a long time, researchers have explored practices of kinship, but while focusing on individuals and groups, have ignored a crucial aspect of social life: place. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in low-income neighborhoods in Finland, this article analyzes practices of kinship as emplaced, asking what kinship in a particular urban setting does and how. Empirical data suggests that the social function of kinship practices is to make people belong to a neighborhood. The process of becoming family provides emotional and practical support but is also beneficial in previously understudied ways: For newcomers, kinship is a shortcut for becoming “a local,” whereas for established residents, kinship serves the reproduction of the historical place narrative and local moral order. As meaningful sources of respect and recognition, kinship practices connect people to families but even more to places in which they live.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-09-02T08:28:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221124511
       
  • Becoming ‘international’: Transgressing national identity as a ritual
           for class identification

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      Authors: Leonora Dugonjic-Rodwin
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      Asking how being ‘international’ relates to privilege, I analyse a role-play game, the Students’ League of Nations, where pupils and teachers from select international schools simulate the UN General Assembly in Geneva. I document distinctive practices of selection and visions of excellence as talent, using Bourdieu’s notion of ‘institutional rite’. I combine insider ethnography and quantitative analyses of the host school with a historical account of it’s elitism to bridge the gap between macro- and micro-analyses of ‘everyday nationalism’. I show how this game draws a symbolic boundary between ‘international’ and ‘local’ high schools by separating students who are considered worthy of transgressing their national identity from all others.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-08-26T03:02:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221082909
       
  • Interstitial position or ‘bastard’ status' Interpreters at the
           French National Court of Asylum

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      Authors: Anaïk PIAN
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      This article, based on fieldwork conducted in 2016 at the French national Court of Asylum (CNDA), explores reflections on the role and position of interpreters in the examination of asylum applications. Interpreters occupy a position that is at once an interstitial position – that is, at the crossroads of the social worlds of judges and claimants – and a ‘bastard’position, in the sense that, although they are indispensable, their legitimacy is never fully established. To grasp the full ambiguity and complexity of their position, on the one hand, the article aims to shed light on the trajectories and working conditions of interpreters as actors in this system whose legitimacy is fragile, yet who play an essential bridging role between the institutions and the foreigners seeking their protection. On the other hand, it seeks to identify and explore other factors, beyond the codification of the role within highly standardized hearings, which may influence the ways interpreters carry out their missions in practice, in both speech and behavior.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-08-25T06:53:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221116351
       
  • Beyond Big Brother: How to Study Tech-Driven Authoritarianism With
           Restricted Access to State Institutions

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      Authors: Rui Hou
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      With the tremendous advancements in Internet, big data analytics, and artificial intelligence, the power and potential of digital technologies has a special appeal to political rulers. How can qualitative researchers explore tech-driven authoritarianism when they have limited access to state institutions' This article addresses this question by arguing for a wider and more nuanced understanding of tech-driven authoritarianism as a state-market complex mediating the political application of digital technologies. Based on my own research on China’s Internet surveillance, I find that the engagement of the private sector, especially technology companies, in authoritarian control creates new opportunities for qualitative researchers to study state power in non-state fields. By reflecting on my experience of field-site choice, gaining access, and informant recruitment, I discuss how thorough preparation in both theory and fieldwork approaches help qualitative investigators develop creative ways of collecting information on tech-driven authoritarianism.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-08-17T03:32:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221120208
       
  • The passion of aging: The representation of localism in spiritual
           eldercare of Naxi in Lijiang

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      Authors: Wenzhen He
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      As concepts of place, locality, and localism have been abundantly discussed separately but seldom juxtaposed, the close examination of the divergence and complementarity among Place, Locality, and Localism will be the theoretical and methodological basis for the current research. In this article, I argue that diverse self-organized group activities of Lijiang Naxi elders in southwest China are prospered by the orchestration of their local identity, ethnic identity and the personal pursuit of aesthetic of skills. All these forms of belonging based on localism are constructed within the local sphere, facilitating a passionate and positive eldercare pattern in the small city. By juxtaposing the concepts of locality and localism in the local context, the creative agency and spirituality of the elders in Lijiang alternatively serve as a possible lens to seek elders’ positive involvement and delicate positionality in local cultural dynamics.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-08-16T10:05:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221120207
       
  • Love and agency in ethnographic fieldwork with children

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      Authors: Julie Spray
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      Analysing emotions such as love can enable new ways of understanding human relationships and deepen reflexive ethnographic practice. Love in research with children, however, carries a unique set of implications due to children’s structural vulnerability, the power imbalances and abuses that manifest in many adult-child relationships, and cultural taboos on love expressed between adults and children. Yet, the ability to elicit love and affective care from adults is an essential component of children’s survival, and children actively coproduce relationships, making researchers into whom they need them to be. How, then, can we approach love in fieldwork with children' Drawing from fieldwork experiences at a New Zealand primary school with participants aged 8-12, I analyse how children recruited me into their survival systems by cultivating love and associated processes of empathy, care, and attachment. I suggest that ethical fieldwork with children means attending to how we feel and respond to love.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-08-13T07:27:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221120209
       
  • Escaping the house of secrets: Auto-ethnographic reflections on the
           complexities of field exit

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      Authors: Abir Mohamad Ismail
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      While a large body of auto-ethnographic literature focuses on the bias associated with conducting methodological research as ‘insiders’ and examines the implications of their backgrounds for their research design, the interpretation of the data and the complexities of their position for the research, less reflection exists in the literature on the complexities of exiting the field. Drawing on auto-ethnographic reflections from fieldwork among Arab Muslim families in Denmark, I discuss field exit in relation to field access and field behaviour. I show how the established trust, friendship and intimate relationships with our interlocutors can position us as the subject and the object of our study. While embracing familiarity and being intimately inside one’s field offer significant advantages, I argue that it simultaneously reshapes and complicates the researcher’s insider role experiences and expectations, as the strategies, behaviour and negotiations we make in the field often have an impact on field exit.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-08-11T08:05:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221120210
       
  • Ruination in the ring: Habitus in the making of a professional
           “opponent”

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      Authors: Loïc Wacquant
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      Backed by 3 years of apprenticeship in a boxing gym of Chicago’s hyperghetto and in-depth life-story interviews with fifty professional boxers, this article reconstructs the social biography and ring career of a professional “opponent” as a living analyzer of the social, economic, mental, and emotional wheels and cogs of prizefighting careers. An “opponent” like Jake “The Snake” Valliance is a boxer determined and skilled enough to give a good account of himself in the ring, but willing to travel for quick money and be overmatched to serve as a stepping stone in the careers of rising fighters. He fights often, loses nearly as often, but maintains enough occupational pride that he keeps going, always hoping to turn his ship around, thus playing a key role in the pugilistic market. The article dissects the genesis, feeding, and fading of the libido pugilistica that explains the opponent's continued investment in the economy of pain, love, and deceit that is professional boxing. It throws light on the material and symbolic logics of a skilled bodily craft and, beyond it, on the workings of habitus as cognitive cog, trained capacity and socialized desire driving social action.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-07-20T10:17:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221114069
       
  • Snap-along ethnography: Studying visual politicization in the social media
           age

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      Authors: Eeva Luhtakallio, Taina Meriluoto
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, we argue that two significant shifts, namely, the blurring of lives offline and online and the increasing significance of the visual character of these lives, pose new challenges to social science research methods. We propose the application of snap-along ethnography to address these challenges. Snap-along ethnography is an ethnographic method with three core features: (1) participant observation conducted simultaneously offline and online, (2) a concomitant analytical focus on the act of taking, sharing, posting and commenting on images and the content of the images taken, and (3) a research design that builds on the participants’ own, spontaneous and self-originating actions of taking images. We illustrate the application and benefits of the method with examples from an ongoing research on young people’s visual forms of political action.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-07-19T03:30:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221115800
       
  • Negotiating diasporic leisure among Zimbabwean migrants in Britain

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      Authors: Dominic Pasura
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines, from a theoretical and empirical perspective, the types of diasporic leisure experienced by the Zimbabwean diaspora in Britain through extensive fieldwork, including interviews and participant observation. It extends an emerging body of scholarship concerning the relationship between diaspora and leisure by discussing different conceptualisations of diasporic leisure as homeland-oriented, boundary-crossing, and technologically mediated. Specifically, this is done to highlight the role leisure practices play in the formation of diasporic consciousness and in negotiating and contesting transnational identities. The article develops a dialectic of diasporic leisure as a framework for understanding how leisure practices and activities reconnect the Zimbabwean diaspora in Britain, enabling them to construct transnational identities in a country that construes them as “other.” The paper’s central argument is that diasporic consciousness and identities are activated, materialised and mobilised in and through leisure practices.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-07-18T06:29:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221115798
       
  • ‘Say it in Swedish!’: Babies, belonging and multilingualism in an
           integration initiative activity in Sweden

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      Authors: Enni Paul, Liz Adams Lyngbäck
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this article is to critically examine ideas about language and integration in a non-governmental integration programme targeting parents of small children in Sweden. Through ethnographic and netnographic fieldwork of parenting experiences it is revealed that monolingual ideologies conflate with iconic figures reproducing and reinforcing language norms. Some parents – i.e. non-white non-Swedish speaking – are made into ‘language projects’ when the white Swedish parents take on the role of the ‘integration teacher’ acting as language and parenting role models. The Others' multilingualism is celebrated from within Swedishness, with multilingualism treated as a commodity. This contrasts with the risk of loss - experience of multilingualism by parents with migration background. The inscription of the harms of segregated society on non-white, non-Swedish mothers shows the powerful mechanisms obscuring that integration initiatives operate from monolingual norms within a neoliberal workfare model which creates programs which have unintended effects.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-07-16T07:09:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221113549
       
  • The activism of young muslims in Italy: Citizens ‘crossing borders’ in
           search of recognition

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      Authors: Ivana Acocella
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      The article investigates how young Muslims born and/or raised in Italy perform ‘acts of citizenship’ combining religious belief and civic engagement. We present the results of 40 in-depth interviews carried out with young Muslims active in two associations: Giovani Musulmani d’Italia and Islamic Relief. The aim is to explore how the tactics of visibility, the strategies of recognition ‘from below’ and the forms of transnational mobilisation of Western Muslim activists may trigger processes to ‘denationalize’ the meaning of citizenship, challenging original autochthony as the primordial ‘right’ of belonging. Furthermore, in the Italian model of imperfect secularism, young Muslims’ acts of citizenship can shed light on the limits of the fictitious principle of public ‘neutrality’ as tolerance and the need to redefine the public sphere as a common and heterogeneous space affirming cultural pluralism and the right to difference as integral elements of the foundation of civil society.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-07-15T01:45:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221115801
       
  • The embodiment of fear: Reproductive health and migrant women’s
           choices, in Verona, Italy

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      Authors: Giuliana Sanò, Pamela Pasian, Francesco Della Puppa
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      This article discusses the results of ethnographic research conducted in the municipality of Verona (Veneto Region, Northeast Italy), during 2018, aimed at analysing the reproductive health needs of migrant women, and their access to such services in the territory. The research highlighted that, in addition to many critical structural-organizational issues, there was an emotional obstacle to the use of services – that is, the feeling of fear. In this paper, therefore, we will try to reflect on the role exercised by fear in the relationship between migrant women and reproductive health services. We interpret this emotion not as the expression of an individual experience and feeling, but rather as an example of “embedded thinking”; the result of a social construction that reflects dynamics and power relationships, capable of transforming feelings into practices.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-07-09T06:10:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221113245
       
  • Living in the frame of structural violence: Institutional regulations and
           daily life in Lleida, Spain

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      Authors: Juan M. Solís, Eduard Ballesté-Isern, Miquel Úbeda
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      This article investigates how structural violence is reflected in the daily life of the peripheries of a medium-sized city in the interior of Spain. For this, three categories of analysis are used: inquisitive violence, coercive violence and horizontal violence. Forms of resistance are also highlighted. This makes it possible to trace the various ways that state institutions act and behave to exercise power over people. These actions have direct consequences for ‘vulnerable’ population, inducing feelings of humiliation, personal and group suffering, the perpetuation of social inequality, the lack of democratic freedoms, and the creation of violent or exploitative practises. Likewise, this path allows us to see how neoliberal logics are applied, their consequences and, most importantly, how they generate new normalities and livelihoods that serve as discursive support for new applications of antisocial policies.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-07-08T07:06:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221113418
       
  • From the street to the drug consumption room. Injected drug use across
           consumption environments

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      Authors: Rafael Clua‐García, Guillaume Dumont
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      Previous studies have reported that injected drug use cannot be understood in a spatiotemporal vacuum but, paradoxically, they have tended to analyze this practice in a single environment instead of examining how people who inject drugs deploy their agency across environments. This ethnographic account describes and analyzes how David, an injected cocaine user, moved from the streets of Barcelona to a drug consumption room By accounting his transition from exclusively consuming on the street to progressively increasing his visits to La Sala, we uncover how different practices, interactions, and norms, specific to these environments, can contribute to the shaping of the development of specific substance use and the techniques informing the complex relationship between pleasure and harm reduction. Accordingly, we argue that we cannot limit ourselves to analyzing this activity in each environment individually; rather, we must locate and study drug use at the interplay of different environments.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-07-06T05:12:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221113416
       
  • Learning to (depoliticize) critique: Critical knowledge and the formation
           of elite habitus in a predominantly White institution

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      Authors: Chenyu Wang
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      Liberal arts education is highly commodified, yet it also boasts to cultivate critical thinkers and progressive changemakers. What exactly is the kind of “critical mindedness” that liberal arts institutions produce' Drawing from Bourdieuan concepts and recent anthropological work on elite subject formation, I explain how undergraduate students in an elite, predominantly White institution refashion the notion of “critique” as part of their elite habitus. I argue that neoliberal educational institutions enable the new elites to speak about (and advocate for) structural change without ever having to scrutinize their own elite subject position. This depoliticized notion of “doing critique” promises little progressive social transformation and reinforces the hegemonic power of neoliberalism from the inside out. I conclude by highlighting the situatedness of “critique” and its pedagogical potential and limitations.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T10:41:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221110050
       
  • All-encompassing ethnographies: Strategies for feminist and
           equity-oriented institutional research

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      Authors: Taylor Paige Winfield
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      This article addresses the challenges inherent to conducting ethnography in all-encompassing institutions and presents strategies for equity-oriented research in such restrictive settings. All-encompassing institutions are organizations that have no separation between home, work, and play, with forms of surveillance, power imbalances, and control that create logistical and ethical challenges for ethnographers. Building on feminist orientations to qualitative inquiry, the author shares vignettes from her research in a military institution to introduce four strategies for ethnography in these contexts. The strategies are: (a) adopting a participant-centered approach; (b) attending to power dynamics; (c) negotiating consent and confidentiality; and (d) engaging participants in research presentation. These strategies are applicable to ethnographers across contexts looking to meaningfully engage interlocutors in research generation and presentation.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-05-30T05:42:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221076267
       
  • On board the quarantine-ship as “floating hotspot”: Creeping
           externalization practices in the Mediterranean Sea

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      Authors: Elena Giacomelli, Sarah Walker
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      Following the COVID-19 pandemic, migration was framed in Italy as ‘the emergency within the emergency’, leading the Italian Government to declare that its ports were not ‘‘safe places’ for people rescued from boats flying a foreign flag to disembark.’ As a result, under this guise of health and safety, in Italy migrants are now held in cruise ships repurposed as quarantine-ships for their sanitary isolation. We take this space as our analytic lens and draw on the experiences of the Elena Giacomelli whilst working as a caseworker for a humanitarian organization on board. In our analysis of the interactions of those working on board and the social relations produced therein, we unravel how these ships function as a form of Goffman’s totalitarian institution, where bio-political techniques are adopted that act on the body and mind of all on board, limiting access to asylum and functioning as a form of externalisation.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T05:22:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221100532
       
  • Playing ethnographically living well together: Collaborative ethnography
           as speculative experiment

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      Authors: Joshua B Fisher, Alex M Nading
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      How can we live well together' The question is critical for cities, where “wicked problems” like failing infrastructure, natural and industrial disaster, and epidemic disease pose threats to diverse forms of life. Because such problems are by definition world-shattering, it is notoriously difficult for city-dwellers to agree on how to think about them, much less overcome them. This essay sketches a collaborative ethnographic approach for co-conceptualizing wicked problems. Proyecto Buen Vivir (The Living Well Project) features a series of multisector experimental workshops conducted over four years in Ciudad Sandino, Nicaragua. This workshop model draws on collaborative research design and active learning strategies from both Nicaraguan and North American pedagogical traditions. Collaborative methods have historically identified and addressed the discrete problems. Given that common understanding can be rather more elusive when grappling with wicked problems, this essay argues for collaborative methods oriented to speculation and play might also be more generative.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T01:11:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221083299
       
  • Fair Trade in an unfair market: economic competitiveness and workers’
           rights in Costa Rica’s banana industry

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      Authors: Layla Zaglul Ruiz
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      The Fair Trade movement aims to provide producers and workers at the tail end of the value chain with secure working conditions and just incomes. However, the certification standards generated by these goals are often incompatible with the regional production systems. By comparing two Costa Rican banana farms––one Fair Trade, one conventional-my research reveals that Fair Trade regulations fail to account for the complexities of the structural issues that create and maintain precarity. This article shows that despite the movement’s best intentions it is unsuccessful in controlling the application of its values as it is disconnected from the communities on the ground. Fair Trade’s ideals become tainted locally because of pre-existing inequalities that shape social relations. I therefore specify that Fair Trade would benefit from integrating requirements specific to regional and national production processes––termed here “industry specific” standards.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T07:18:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221098608
       
  • Risky business' Parenting children of deployed Danish soldiers

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      Authors: Maj Hedegaard Heiselberg
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      This article focuses on children’s reactions to military deployment from the perspective of their parents. Based on ethnographic fieldwork among Danish soldiers, their female partners and young children over the course of military deployment, the article illustrates how parents’ attempts to access whether their children will suffer from the long-term absence of their father influence parenting practices and experiences of military deployment. Inspired by anthropological perspectives on parenthood, the article argues that the pressure on parents to be ‘involved’ in the upbringing and care of their children is magnified in the Danish case of soldiers and their partners because of cultural understandings of the military as well as ideals of gender equality and sameness. With the purpose of preventing future harm on their children, the article further argues, soldiers and their partners mobilise strategies to limit the uncertainty experienced in relation to deployment. Such strategies include preparing children for deployment, routinising everyday activities and making the absence of their father comprehensible.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-05-08T03:58:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221098611
       
  • ‘Bed-space’ housing in Dubai: African migrants, ambivalence towards
           authorities and gender differences

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      Authors: Jonathan Ngeh
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      In the literature on migration to the states of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), authors generally mention that labour migrants, predominantly from South and Southeast Asia, live in overcrowded, low-class accommodation, sharing rooms and ‘doing bed-space’, without giving a clear picture of what this practice entails. This paper is an ethnographic account of what it actually means to live in ‘bed-space’ accommodation. It explores how West African migrants cope with the difficulties of this type of housing. The paper is based on 6 weeks of fieldwork in Dubai and draws on Achille Mbembe’s ‘Provisional Notes on the Postcolony’. The analysis reveals that African migrants undermine and modify the established practices of exclusion that relegate them to urban slums through strategic responses to challenges in their everyday lives and that their experiences and responses vary in relation to gender.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-05-06T11:22:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221098610
       
  • ‘Then we decided not to tell the adults’. Fieldwork among children in
           an international school

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      Authors: Mari Korpela
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      This article discusses ethnographic fieldwork among nine- and ten-year-old children in an international school in Finland. It elaborates on the myth of going native and on the researcher’s performance and negotiation of various roles, along with the improvisation this requires. Ethnographers cannot escape certain roles that are given to them but they can strategically use these and other roles to establish rapport and gain rich knowledge. When adults study children in an institutional setting, such as a school, they have to take into account the views and expectations of not only the children themselves but also the adults who work there. The article argues that reciprocity is an essential part of a successful ethnographic endeavour and analyses the significance of the researcher’s reciprocal involvement when conducting fieldwork among children in a school.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T04:41:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221091916
       
  • Towards a politics of collaborative worldmaking: ethics, epistemologies
           and mutual positionalities in conflict research

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      Authors: Christoph Vogel, Josaphat Musamba
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      Scholarly engagement with ethics, epistemologies and positionalities dilemmas in conflict research is marked by a disconnect between self-referential debates in the Ivory Tower and the very places research takes place. If there is reflection on foreign researchers, research brokers or research participants, accounts of genuinely collaborative work are rare. Drawing from a decade of collaborative research in eastern Congo, our essay targets this gap by critically discussing challenges we faced and lessons we learned with regards to our mutual positionalities. In so doing, we join debates calling for situated reflection on ethnography in and of conflict zones. Based on our research experience, we contend that a fully joint approach – including planning, execution, analysis and writing – can be an avenue toward decolonizing our ethics and epistemologies. Moreover, we argue for a pluriversal ethics that accounts for context and positionalities of the involved researchers and allows for collaborative worldmaking.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T08:03:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221090895
       
  • Ethnography of the kitchen: The Women’s House, a space for feminist
           alliance and intercultural encounter

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      Authors: Mari-Luz Esteban, Miren Guilló-Arakistain, Marta Luxán-Serrano
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, we delve into a debate about whether a kitchen was to be installed in a new Women’s House in a city in the Basque Country (Hernani, Gipuzkoa). The ethnography presented here was conducted by observing the process around the creation of the House. Articulating the debate’s main points led us to examine the dominant cultural assumptions about cooking in Basque society, especially in view of the opposing feminist positions on the kitchen and the domestic sphere. To understand the changes that took place, it is essential to consider the participants’ previous experience, the shape the discussion took and the diffractions and interferences that occurred during the process, as well as the priority placed on ‘being and doing together’ and being aware of the (self-)imposed limits while also allowing, even for a short period of time, the dichotomies that characterize and delimit this intercultural encounter to be questioned.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-04-17T11:44:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381211073122
       
  • Tangier heat: On migrant vulnerability and social thermology

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      Authors: Line Richter, Henrik Vigh
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      This article investigates a particular moment of political tension and intimidation of sub-Saharan migrants in Northern Morocco. Drawing on insights gained from collective fieldwork in Tangier, as well as from individual, longstanding ethnographic engagements with migrants from Guinea-Bissau and Mali, it describes the way West African migrants are policed, used as political capital and made the unwilling pawns of large-scale geopolitical negotiations. Targeted and intimidated as part of a diplomatic performance related to the bilateral dealings between Morocco and the European Union, their hardship is orchestrated to communicate the Moroccan state’s control of migration flows into the EU. The article clarifies the existential and social consequences of such staged persecution among migrants and elucidates how it is made sense of and managed through vernacular notions of ‘heat’, a metaphor for nonviable existence. As we shall see, such metaphors provide a window to a larger ‘social thermological’ register prevalent in making sense of precarious circumstance in both social life, social science and politics.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-03-31T09:48:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381211069669
       
  • Design ethnography: A view from an industrial think tank

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      Authors: Stuart Kirsch
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      Anthropologists increasingly turn to design research for inspiration. Yet work in design anthropology is frequently cut off from ethnographic research. To some extent this is intentional, given concerns that ethnographic methods have failed to keep pace with a rapidly changing world. But anthropologists should not have to choose between ethnography and design research. This article examines the author’s participation in an industrial think tank in which anthropologists and engineers collaborated to address the environmental impacts of mining. This included discussion of unrecognized sources of pollution at mining sites and rising penalties for environmental damage. The members of the think tank also developed designs for new technology intended to reduce the exposure of artisanal gold miners to mercury and its release into the atmosphere, facilitate the recycling of electronic waste in developing countries, and reduce the catastrophic risks posed by tailings dams. Our collaborations point to the value of combining ethnography and design research in new ways.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-03-31T03:37:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381211073287
       
  • Social participation of youth through volunteering: Case study of Centre
           for Peace Studies in Zagreb

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      Authors: Rašeljka Krnić, Dino Vukušić
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      Centre for Peace Studies (CPS) (Centar za mirovne studije – CMS) falls under the broader corpus of examples of youth activation where organisation has used its work to highlight the existence of a ‘critical mass’ among youth in Croatia. This ethnographic research deals with social activism through attempts to make up for (according to the actors) inefficient state care for marginalised groups, in this specific case migrants. Participatory observation method and semi-structured interviews provided us with an in-depth insight into the activities of the organisation, but also into the specific motives, values and norms of young people gathered around the organisation. The basic research questions refer to the specific sets of motives of young people involved in volunteering and their attitude towards their own culture and cultural heritage as an indicator of the strategy of constructing their own identity and attitudes towards the ‘other’.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-03-27T05:36:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381221076277
       
  • The interpretation of relationships: Fieldwork as boundary-negotiation

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      Authors: Louisa Lombard
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      Following critiques of anthropologists’ involvement in colonialism and insufficient attention to power, friendship, solidarity, and closeness have become implicit ideals for fieldwork relationships. But distance is also inherent to respectful fieldwork relationships. I therefore argue for greater attention to boundaries—the ways we are able to mutually understand in the midst of, rather than by dissolving, difference and distance—and the labor and finesse that go into negotiating them. Foregrounding boundary work allows for a greater honesty about fieldwork relationships and facilitates the broadness of spirit that is the discipline’s hallmark. It also helps people who are most engaged in boundary work to grapple with it and not see that work as failure, weakness, or their taking “risks.” And it further helps one avoid imposing one’s own social ideals for egalitarianism or intimacy on one’s interlocutors. Boundaries are not the enemy of mutual understanding and integrity; in fact, boundaries facilitate them.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-03-22T04:23:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381211069670
       
  • The communitarian stigma: Stigmatization as a mechanism of institutional
           racism in France

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      Authors: Linda Haapajärvi
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines minority citizens’ attempts of civic participation in the working-class banlieue of Tiercy in the Paris area by considering the double-bind they are confronted to: their efforts to perform as active and locally engaged citizens are readily abrogated by suspicions of violating what public authorities understand as appropriate modes of civic participation. By zooming into the chain of events that caused a minority leader of West African origin to be disqualified as a civic actor based on accusations of ‘communitarianism’, it develops a relational analysis of stigmatization as a meso-level mechanism of institutional racism. The analysis shows that competing definitions of ‘civic’ and asymmetrical social relations together engender racially differentiated principles of interaction that prepare the ground for the emergence of stigma in organization settings.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-03-21T12:20:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381211069044
       
  • Chinese rural left-behind elderly: Their individualization, descending
           familism and difficulties

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      Authors: Yan Zhang, Junxiu Wang
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      China’s social changes have altered the family structure of rural villagers, leading to increasing numbers of rural left-behind elderly (RLBE). RLBE are considered victims of social changes, abandoned by their migrant children. However, this ethnographic work from two villages in southern China showed that the problems of RLBE are not related to being left behind but stem from institutional deficiencies faced by rural families. RLBE have been adapting to social changes and showed some signs of individualization; with improved economic status, they will have more opportunities to make personal choices. Nevertheless, migration is a family project; familism is still the core, yet descending. Descending familism was a re-embedment to regain a safety net when institutions were deficient. However, familism is not enough to cope with great risks. New ways to develop rural areas are key to solving the problems of RLBE and their families.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T01:54:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381211050009
       
  • Toward a non-individualistic analysis of neoliberalism: the stay-fit
           maternity trend in Taiwan

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      Authors: Amélie Keyser-Verreault
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      This paper explores the new sexy maternity phenomenon in Taiwan’s neoliberal context, focusing on analyzing mothers' intense pursuit of getting their bodies back into shape. More specifically, I problematize and nuance the taken-for-granted individualistic analyses of neoliberalism and illustrate how getting the body back into shape involves multiple social actors, a consequence of women’s relational self. Not only does women’s beauty give face to their spouses and honor the family, but consideration of social effects are decisive factors in women’s beautification of their bodies. Thus, I emphasize that the material or immaterial profit of agentic individualism can be collective. In this context, an individual’s entrepreneurial activity should not necessarily be interpreted as an abnegation of the social, since tactful management of social relationships is an indispensable immaterial labor of women’s aesthetic entrepreneurship. I propose the theoretical frame of “reconstruction of the relationality” to better understand the trans-individual relationship under neoliberalism.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T07:47:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381211054027
       
  • Ethnographic (dis) locations: An approach for studying marginalisation in
           the context of socio-economic change

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      Authors: Asiya Islam
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      This paper revisits discussions about the pursuit of a singular location for ethnographic research. Citing challenges to the fixity of location, from circulation of people to the impossibility of containing digital worlds, scholars have proposed multi-sited, multi-scalar, multi-modal and multi-sensorial ethnographies, advocating that the researcher ‘follow the actor’. Drawing upon these innovations, this paper traces the affects generated in the process of following the actors as well as the consequent blurring of the division between the researcher and the researched so that they together constitute the category of ‘actors’ who co-produce the field. Using the example of an ethnography with young lower middle class women in Delhi, this paper deploys the researcher’s experience of dislocation or unexpected shuttling in the field to develop ‘dislocation’ as a methodological and analytical strategy for studying marginalisation in the context of socio-economic change by embracing intersubjective relations, affects and partiality of knowledge in ethnographic research.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T10:38:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381211058356
       
  • Carceral ethnography in a time of pandemic: Examining migrant detention
           and deportation during COVID-19

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      Authors: Ulla D. Berg, Sebastian K. León, Sarah Tosh
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      Each year the United States government detains and deports hundreds of thousands of people who prior to their removal are held in confinement for an average of 55 days. The short and long-term effects of the coronavirus pandemic on migrant detention and deportation continue to be evaluated in real time, including how we can best study it. This paper provides a timely analysis on the relationship between immigration enforcement and confinement, public health emergencies, and ethnographic methods. It makes two contributions. The first is methodological and focuses on the challenges and opportunities of ethnographic methods in carceral settings when pandemic-related protocols have raised additional challenges to conventional in-person prison ethnography. The second contribution is empirical and documents how we adapted ethnographic methods to an interdisciplinary research design and to the exigencies of the pandemic to study the spread of the coronavirus in four immigrant detention facilities in New Jersey, USA.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T04:58:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381211072414
       
  • Sacrificial heroes: Masculinity, class, and waste picking in Iran

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      Authors: Manata Hashemi
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines how five male waste pickers in Khorramabad, Iran, negotiate the stigmatization and criminalization associated with their work against the backdrop of escalating social inequality. I demonstrate how the men use embodied compliance and discursive narratives of masculine self-sacrifice to position themselves as innocent, sacrificial heroes. In changing the narrative from one of humiliation to valor, the men both amplify the classed and gendered hierarchy while simultaneously critiquing the social order that has led to their marginalization. This gendered identity work arises as a response to both classism and everyday occupational denigration, enabling waste pickers to construct distinct moral selves in Iran’s current global moment, but at the expense of disparaging devalued others and creating new forms of inequality.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T02:47:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381211073125
       
  • Kickboxing with Bourdieu: Heterodoxy, hysteresis and the disruption of
           “race thinking”

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      Authors: Amit Singh
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      This article deploys Bourdieu’s conceptualization of habitus to examine how fighters at a Muay Thai/Kickboxing gym in East London challenge their taken-for-granted thinking about race (their racial doxa). I argue that through training to fight, people experience “hysteresis” as they find themselves within situations where their habitus – and relatedly their doxa – no longer adequately guides them. This results in a questioning of racial doxa that previously went unquestioned, which Bourdieu refers to as ‘heterodoxy’; an alternative to doxa. This article subsequently offers empirically informed theoretical insights by establishing a relationship between habitus, race and racism. It argues that the reproduction of racist thought and action is not inevitable, as people find ways to break habitual practices in their everyday life.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-02-28T12:13:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381211072431
       
  • The fleeting moment and the long haul in urban panhandling

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      Authors: Joseph Wallerstein
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      Sociological writings on panhandling have depicted protracted donor relationships as one of panhandlers’ surest paths to an income, while portraying the fleetingness of one-off appeals as a major barrier. In this article, I recast fleetingness as a facilitator of panhandlers’ fundamental task: trying to seem worthy of aid without attracting unwanted legal attention. Using participant-observation data from a Chicago neighborhood, I outline two favorable elements of fleetingness: it allows panhandlers to evoke sorrowful compassion only for a moment, denying passersby the chance to get stuck in the feeling; and grants passersby only a brief period to evaluate the candor of panhandlers’ appeals. Together, these limit potential givers’ deliberative capacity—their capacity to determine that the panhandlers before them are bothersome, intimidating, deceitful, censurable, or the like. Protracted time horizons still matter, but primarily insofar as panhandlers work continuously, and collectively, to uphold the neighborhood conditions that enable their fleeting appeals.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-02-26T02:04:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381211073124
       
  • Ambiguous interventions: The social consequences of assistance in the
           field

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      Authors: Amber R. Reed, Casey Golomski
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines how race, gender, and generation influence ethnographers’ ethical decision-making in the field. We consider how decisions to intervene engage these complex variables, which are both cultural and historical constructs as well as lived experiences that researchers and interlocutors differently embody over time. We discuss this from the vantage point of postcolonial communities in South Africa’s Eastern Cape and eSwatini, where we have done fieldwork for over a decade. Our examples highlight researchers’ involvement in crises surrounding rites of passage. When rites went wrong, conflicting forces of race, gender, and generation both confounded our interlocutors’ abilities to define who they might become as well as challenged our own efforts to support them in social and material ways. We argue that “interventions” in fieldwork are intrinsically multidirectional and ethically ambiguous; this ambiguity is an epistemic and practical force that ethnographers must make explicit to realize potentialities for “otherwise” worlds.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-02-14T06:18:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381211067449
       
  • Ethnographic experiences of participating in a correctional officer
           training program: An exploration of values, ethics, and role conflict

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      Authors: Rosemary Ricciardelli
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      In the current article, I reflect on data from an ethnographic study at the National Training Academy of the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC), where I participated in the correctional officer training program (CTP) with the objective to gain appreciation for the many realities of the training process and content. Reflecting on experiences as a uniformed participant in the 14-week in-person component of the program, I describe the challenges tied to starting an immersive ethnography midcareer and unpack the central ethical dilemmas shaping data collection and article preparation. First, I speak to what it means to be part of the 14-week job interview with 24 other individuals, with a strong emphasis on how participant values and ethics align with those of the organization and the challenges of consent. Next, I unpack the complexities across relationships that emerge in doing ethnographies in an organization with a hierarchical structure, specifically the role conflict between being a researcher (e.g., working in partnership with CSC) and participant (e.g., doing the training). As an ethnographer, I did not want to affect the experiences or outcomes of other recruits, but my presence may have influenced them regardless of my intentions. I conclude by highlighting implications for further consideration when conducting ethnographic work in partnerships with organizations of justice.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-02-12T12:06:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381211069045
       
  • Cruising Boston and Providence: The roles of place and desire for
           reflexive queer research(ers)

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      Authors: Landon H Lauder
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      Feminist methodological interventions have advanced our understanding of reflexivities, leading us to question our own positions and intersections in relation to the field and those we study. More recent methodological contributions from queer authors add notions of fluid researcher identities and researcher erotics to reflexivities. However, such interventions frame reflexivity as a research practice applied to the research process or occurrences in the field. This article argues for a continuous, although never complete, use of reflexivity that addresses the researcher’s personal desires and orientations—there before the research started—that can influence what topics we study, the questions we ask, the methods and sites we choose, how we interact with others in the field, and our analyses. I use ethnographic data on gay and queer spaces in Boston, Massachusetts, and Providence, Rhode Island, to demonstrate the utility of this reflexivity, especially for sex research.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-02-10T10:09:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381211067457
       
  • Concrete sectarianism: Revisiting the Lebanese civil war through
           Beirut’s built environment

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      Authors: May Tamimova
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      During the Lebanese civil war (1975-1990), Beirut’s built environment was taken over by militias and used for sniping and launching military offensives. These operations took place across demarcation lines that cut through mixed neighbourhoods, eventually dividing the city into an ideologically Christian East and Muslim West. Due to Beirut’s excessive urbanization, navigating the built environment during the war became a necessity of survival. However, on a more imperceptible level, the years of repetitive navigation between, under, and around Beirut’s buildings contributed to learning scripts of othering, where sectarian ‘others’ were assigned to concrete structures that represented danger and foreignness. This article explores Lebanon’s sectarian war by analyzing how survivors interacted with Beirut's built environment. Using the ethnographic approach of considering built matter, alongside humans, as co-constitutive of social phenomena, the article shows how matter can shed light on the emergence of sectarian thinking and behavior.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T09:25:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381211067451
       
  • Bodily ethnography: Some epistemological challenges of participation

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      Authors: Till Förster
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      Bodily participation provides insights that mere observation cannot offer. Based on an ethnographic vignette, this article explores how bodily interactions in ethnographic fieldwork raise awareness for non-observational knowledge and hidden social practices. It looks at how such encounters shape all participants, including the ethnographer, and how subtle bodily interactions constitute a social space that remains invisible to outsiders but where intersubjectivity unfolds. It then addresses differences between participation and observation in ethnography and the epistemological problems it leads to: First, bodily social practice is largely non-predicative, but ethnographers are urged to put it in words – which affect their relationship to that practice and how they can engage in it. The second challenge is the habituation of bodily practices. The longer ethnographers engage in such social practices, the more they will develop routines and no longer focus consciously on them. Both can distort the ethnographic account of bodily practices.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-02-04T02:37:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381211067452
       
  • Energy and the ethnography of everyday life: A methodology for a world
           that matters

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      Authors: Alice Dal Gobbo
      Abstract: Ethnography, Ahead of Print.
      Ecological sustainability is identified as one of the greatest challenges of the present, which the social sciences are called to engage with. The radical nature of the crisis requires researchers to question, update, and experiment with methods, approaches, and tools. The aim is to better grasp the phenomena under study, but also and foremost to produce forms of knowledge that are capable of productively reshaping socio-ecological relations. In this article, I focus on the ethnographic study of everyday energy transitions. Critically building on the ‘ontological turn’, I address this concrete level of experience in its complexity: how symbolic constructions become intertwined with bodily and material processes; the interrelation between micro- and macro-level of organisation; the non-discursive, affective, dimensions of energy assemblages. Multisensory, multimodal, and multimedia engagement might re-position the researcher not only in the field of inquiry but also generally in the process of talking with everyday life and its ecologies.
      Citation: Ethnography
      PubDate: 2022-01-18T06:37:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/14661381211065598
       
 
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