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Issues in Ethnology and Anthropology
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0353-1589 - ISSN (Online) 2334-8801
Published by U of Belgrade Homepage  [9 journals]
  • Elegy for an erōmenos: Paul Silentiarios, Queer Desire, and Funerary
           Epigram (AP 7.560)

    • Authors: Steven D. Smith
      Pages: 1151– - 1151–
      Abstract: This essay advances a queer interpretation of a single funerary epigram by the early Byzantine poet Paul Silentiarios (Anthologia Palatina 7.560). The poem commemorates the life of Leontios, a young man from a faraway homeland whose premature death while living abroad (presumably in Constantinople) meant that his parents could not bury him; instead, Leontios’ grave is surrounded by the men who loved him in his adopted city. The essay draws on the insights of queer theorists Leo Bersani, Lee Edelman, and José Esteban Muñoz while also applying a rigorous philological approach to uncover how the poet uses the poetic conventions of funerary epigram to express joy in a shared carnality that affirms the intimacy of homosocial relations.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.21301/eap.v17i4.1
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Revisiting Homosociality and Homosocial Spaces in Pre-Modern Ottoman
           Society

    • Authors: Burkay Pasin
      Pages: 1167– - 1167–
      Abstract: This paper examines diverse conceptions of homosociality in pre-modern and modern societies, and discusses how these conceptions are politically, socially, culturally and spatially constructed and transformed throughout history, particularly during the modernization processes of the mid-19thcentury. Concentrating on two significant homosocial spaces, men’s coffeehouse and women’s section of the Ottoman-Turkish baths, it aims to demonstrate how homosociality is spatialized through the dissolution of the public/private dichotomy, as well as constructions of functionality in pre-modern Ottoman society. The paper follows a historical interpretative research methodology. Based on data derived from the second-hand sources available in the literature, the privatized public, complex, homoerotic and multi-functional characteristics of these homosocial spaces and their extensions towards and reflections on the Ottoman urban neighborhoods are critically analyzed and interpreted. The dissolution of the public/private dichotomy in these spaces also exemplifies the Foucaultian concept of heterotopia. The paper concludes that these traditional spaces and their modern versions demonstrate the constructedness of both gender categories and patriarchal structures.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.21301/eap.v17i4.2
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • The Classics between Disciplines and Theories: The Anthropology of Ancient
           Worlds

    • Authors: Lada Stevanović
      Pages: 1181– - 1181–
      Abstract: The paper presents the work of the French School of Anthropology of Ancient Worlds, which was developing intensively among the researchers gathered around the Centre Louis Gernet in Paris, named after the pioneer of this approach. This epistemological turn in researching classics is the consequence of the intersection of the classics, history, anthropology, sociology, archaeology, and different critical theories. The shift does not only refer to the change of methodologies, but also to the change of researched themes and phenomena, which are regarded in the concrete socio-political and cultural context. The most important representatives of the first generation in the Centre were Jean-Pierre Vernant, Pierre Vidal-Naquet, Marcel Detienne, and Nicole Loraux. Their work has been translated into other languages, while the Centre was a lively place of intellectual dialogue and innovative approaches to antiquity, especially during the 1970s and the 1980s. Extremely interesting dialogue and influences also appeared beyond the borders of France, so the paper will turn briefly to the reception of the school in the Anglophone world, but also in the former Yugoslavia, with the intention to shed light on certain intellectual trajectories in the exchange of ideas.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.21301/eap.v17i4.3
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Gender, Diseases, and Sexuality in the Writings of Soranus, Aetius of
           Amida and Paul of Aegina: Contributions to the Anthropology of Disease in
           Byzantium

    • Authors: Larisa Orlov Vilimonović
      Pages: 1203– - 1203–
      Abstract: By focusing on the anthropology of disease, the paper suggests some new research avenues within the field of gender in Byzantium. Gynaecological manuals from the second to seventh centuries A.D. serve as the basis for research in which the author attempts to comprehend how philosophy and social mores affected the interpretation of the gendered body – both male and female. In addition, the cultural foundations of certain diseases and the social implications of what was defined as pathology and what as health are emphasized. Medicine was the only scientific discipline in antiquity and the Byzantine period that welcomed women, and as such, it offers a vast array of potential research avenues pertaining to the lived experiences, health, and sexuality of women.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.21301/eap.v17i4.4
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Ioannes III Batatzes’s Italian Venture: Byzantine Imperial Revival
           in Mediterranean Diplomacy

    • Authors: Aleksandar Jovanović
      Pages: 1225– - 1225–
      Abstract: Three Greek letters by the Holy Roman emperor Frederick II Hohenstaufen to the Eastern Roman emperor Ioannes III Batatzes, dating from the year 1250, cast light on the Laskarid involvement in Italian politics outside of the Balkan Peninsula, the traditional sphere of Byzantine influence. In two of the letters, the Holy Roman Emperor informs his son-in-law and ally Ioannes III about the war he is waging against the papal forces in Italy; in the third, Frederick II openly appeals to his Byzantine counterpart not to engage in unionist negotiations with the Holy See. Examining the content of these three letters, I suggest, helps us to redefine the role that the Laskarid polity played in the wider Mediterranean world of the mid-13th century. In this paper, I focus on the Italian case in order to illustrate that the Laskarid Roman Empire was an active political agent that sought to influence the politics of polities well outside its assumed political sphere of interest. The Italian example allows us to understand that the Byzantine Empire of Ioannes III Batatzes and his successors had enough vigor and resilience from the 1240s to the 1280s to project an image of itself as a dominant power invested in determining international affairs throughout Christendom.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.21301/eap.v17i4.5
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Return of Labour Migrants to Serbia: Realistic Expectations or Wishful
           Thinking'

    • Authors: Dragana Antonijević, Miloš Rašić
      Pages: 1239– - 1239–
      Abstract: Serbia has traditionally been a country with a high emigration rate. Numerous administrative obstacles and slow economic reforms have discouraged migrants from returning and making business investments. Over the last few years there has been a noticeable effort to provide concrete assistance, introduce benefits and reliefs and stimulate return migrations, particularly of entrepreneurs and highly educated persons, by means of different strategies, legal acts, and the establishment of government agencies and non-governmental organizations. Our decade-long research on migrations has primarily focused on the so-called Gastarbeiter, as well as their descendants. We have conducted research on migrants from North-eastern Serbia, which is one of the biggest emigration zones in the country, and field research was also conducted in Vienna, the city with the most numerous Serbian diaspora in Europe, a specific population which, due to the geographic proximity between Serbia and Austria, often engages in cross-border movement and is transnationally active. As regards the studied population, return migrations to Serbia and economic investment in the country’s development are unlikely and certainly insufficient. In this paper, we will look at the classification of returnees as at their motives for a possible return, but also at the numerous reasons for staying in the host country.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.21301/eap.v17i4.6
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Misanthropic Aspects of Science Fiction: The Examples of Battlestar
           Galactica and Borislav Pekić’s Atlantis

    • Authors: Bojan Žikić
      Pages: 1265– - 1265–
      Abstract: Anthropological interest in science fiction derives from the fact that works of science fiction, while depicting imaginary worlds, actually speak about existing human communities. This paper looks at how misanthropy is communicated in science fiction works, specifically, in Borislav Pekić’s novel Atlantis (Atlantida), first published in 1988, and the TV series Battlestar Galactica, which originally aired between 2003 and 2009. The theme of both works is essentially the same: the end of human history in its present form and the attempt to create a better civilization, all of this resulting from a long-standing conflict between humans and their biggest historical mistake – robots. The subject matter of the two works is also the same: having reached a high level of technological and spiritual development, humans design robots to replace them first in the most difficult jobs, and then in everyday tasks; the robots develop self-awareness and rise against their makers, and then come to believe that they should replace people and rectify all the errors and shortcomings they have identified in them as beings and also in their social development and organization, and eventually achieve deification by surpassing their makers and initiating their own independent and – compared to humans – more just history. The novel and the series have in common, not only with each other but also with many other science fiction works, a pessimistic view of human existence: a proneness to corruptibility in terms of morals and actions as a human characteristic, and its embedding and presence in the modes of human cultural thought and social organization and actions, represent a distinct, misanthropic thematic dimension in science fiction. This is particularly apparent when the acts of othering and institutional inflicting of evil on Others are considered. This is contrary to the humanistic ideal of humanity as an essential, ennobling quality of human beings. Science fiction works that problematize misanthropy as a sociocultural category suggest that human society reflects human nature: human communities are a product of human mental and material organization, and thus the lack of agreement between proclaimed social and cultural values and corresponding behavior represents a product of human thought and actions. What follows from this in Battlestar Galactica and Atlantis is that robots are like people: they know of no values other than human ones, hence their society is similar to human societies. They strive to evolve and thus distance themselves from their makers, yet it turns out that their patterns of behaviour towards Others and their tendency to other those among them who do not think like them or refuse to behave like them, are identical to those of humans.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.21301/eap.v17i4.7
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Shame in the Clash of Two “Normals”: The Case of Covid-19 in
           Tasmania

    • Authors: Vladimira Ilić
      Pages: 1293– - 1293–
      Abstract: This paper deals with the general question of what a segment of sociocultural reality in the capital of Tasmania looked like over the time span from the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in China up to Australia's lockdown in mid-March 2020, or more specifically, what took place in direct, daily contacts between people, in the meeting or clash of coexisting incongruous behavioral norms – the “old” (habitual up until then) and the “new” (modified due to the crisis) patterns of interpersonal behavior. In this period of health and social crises, which is here termed liminal, shame was generated. It arose as an emotional reaction to the discrepancy between the thinking, feeling and behavior of interviewees and the thinking, feeling and behavior of members of their social environment, a discrepancy that became apparent in the course of their mutual interactions and whose object was a different emotion – fear. The fieldwork was conducted in mid-2020 in Hobart, in the form of semi-structured interviews with several immigrants from the states of the former Yugoslavia. As it was aimed at studying their fear, and only in second place their feeling of shame, in this paper I have limited myself to a narrative interpretation of the origins and object of shame, with the intention of, on the one hand, highlighting the principal factors in the construction of shame and, on the other, examining what it was in connection with fear that aroused shame in the given context. It was noted that, among other things, shame was culturally generated in the given interactions which occurred within secondary relationships and specific environmental contexts and, still more broadly, as part of the crisis caused by the general spread of the virus, and that, as the object of shame, fear emerged as an inappropriate emotion, initially in the sense of the disproportion between the intensity of fear and its object (i.e. the threat posed by the virus).
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.21301/eap.v17i4.8
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • On the Celebration of Failure in Serbian Technological Entrepreneurship
           from an Anthropological Perspective

    • Authors: Miloš Zarić
      Pages: 1323– - 1323–
      Abstract: The entering of the Serbian economy into a more markedly neoliberal phase after 2008 has been accompanied by attempts to implement the concept of the entrepreneurial economy into a national economic policy, thus creating the conditions for the emergence of an altered way of cultural conceptualization of the entrepreneurship phenomenon, and also for a change in the way in which the phenomenon of entrepreneurial failure is conceived. This paper analyzes “stories of failure”, typical narratives that technological entrepreneurs present as part of so-called Fuckup Nights, events organized in Belgrade as well as in a number of other cities around the world. The educational, propaganda and autodidactic function of these stories, which seek to bring about a change in the social perception of the phenomenon of entrepreneurial failure, is realized within an interpretative framework delineated by the discourse of the neoliberal system, which circulates a certain kind of implicit knowledge regarding the way that the surrounding reality and socially desirable roles assigned to subjects are defined. The way in which the phenomenon of entrepreneurial failure is conceived is linked to the paradoxes stemming from the concept of the entrepreneurial economy which, existing within the dominant neoliberal discourse, emphasizes the use of both innovativeness as an economically grounded concept and of creativity as an intrinsic, universal human quality, which is shaped by the mechanisms of culture but also in accordance with the demands of the current economic policy, with the aim of preserving the now already weakened neoliberal system. Through these concepts the modes of functioning of various types of entrepreneurial enterprises are examined, those involving elements of startups as well as entrepreneurial enterprises launched as part of the business processes of established technological companies. Starting from the assumption that the process of technological innovativeness functions both on the level of thought processes and the level of social interactions, that it involves the activity of the innovative as well as of other aspects of creative intelligence in individual subjects who engage in interaction on the level of the technology companies they work for on the one hand, and on the other, with consumers as a source of unrefined stimuli for the reconstruction of existing frameworks or their surpassing, with the aim of successfully (re)creating a certain product. By looking at the causes of failure in Serbian technological entrepreneurship, the paper points to the importance of the concepts of creativity and innovativeness in the narrative semantic structure of the analyzed stories, as well as to the heuristic potential of those concepts for the anthropological analysis of ideas and practices related to the phenomenon of contemporary Serbian entrepreneurship, which is connected to the characteristics of the process of Serbian transition in the period after 2008, which is referred to in the paper as the “mature phase” of the second transition.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.21301/eap.v17i4.9
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Poetry in Popular Culture: Instagram, Rupi Kaur, Feminism and the
           Utilitarian Value of Poetry

    • Authors: Dubravka Đurić, Aleksandra Izgarjan
      Pages: 1361– - 1361–
      Abstract: In order to explain the popularity of Instagram poetry, and of the Instapoet Rupi Kaur in particular, we have positioned it within the contemporary context of the changing poetic field, the context of popular media culture and the consumer society of late neoliberal capitalism. From a complex language construction requiring in its reception an educated reader, poetry has become simple, communicative and accessible to all. At a time when neoliberal capitalism appropriates, absorbs and alters every marginal practice, adjusting it to its needs, poetry has acquired a utilitarian value. The most interesting example of this utilitarian value can be found in the poems of Rupi Kaur, a Canadian poet with a South Asian background. Her poetry functions as self-help literature. Kaur defines herself as a feminist, which we have positioned within the context of neoliberal feminism, which has features in common with postfeminism and celebrity feminism. Postfeminism is a blend of feminist and antifeminist world views, and has contributed to the construction of new femininity. In the contemporary late neoliberal age it acquires a significant form in hyperfemininity as an unquestionable ideal omnipresent in the media, which all women must aspire to in order to be accepted by society. Kaur’s Instapoetry has appropriated feminist (intersectional) ideas for its (neoliberal) objectives. She provides advice on how to overcome painful relationship breakups, violence, racism, misogyny, the patriarchy and classism. This is realized through the use of formulas offered by New Age alternative spirituality. It is this spirituality that has been absorbed by neoliberal capitalism and incorporated into all aspects of services, in order to make the ruthless exploitation of workers in precarious jobs more bearable. Remediation is characteristic of Instapoetry. Poets use old and new media: drawings, handwriting or typewriting, photography, which is mediated by the digital technology of Instagram. In addition, they perform live in front of an audience, and an analysis of Rupi Kaur’s performances clearly shows that these are mass media events; thus Instapoetry can be understood as a specific form of popular media culture intended for a mass audience.  
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.21301/eap.v17i4.10
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • The Image of the Jews in the Travel Book Orient by Vicente Blasco
           Ibáñez

    • Authors: Mirjana M. Sekulić
      Pages: 1379– - 1379–
      Abstract: In this article we study the image of the Jewish people in Vicente Blasco Ibáñez's travel book Orient. The book describes the author’s journey from France to the Orient, more specifically Istanbul, in 1907. The first descriptions of the Jews already appear in the first text of the book, in which the author depicts the small spa town of Vichy in France. The author describes different nationalities gathered in Vichy, remarking on its cosmopolitan atmosphere. In Vichy, he identifies a few Jewish nationals as paradigmatic characters - stereotyped visions of beautiful cocotte or good Rebecca/Miriam in the company of her husband, who is marked by greed and stinginess as racial characteristics, thus expressing his prejudiced views towards the Jews.  Later on, on his journey to the East, Blasco Ibáñez spends two days in Serbia, leaving a testimony about the Serbian people, but also about an encounter with some Sephardic Jews in Belgrade. A similar meeting will take place in Istanbul, prompting the author to express his wish to continue writing about this nation in the future. In the travel book Orient, Blasko Ibáñez presents the Sephardim and discusses their language and nostalgic need to reconnect with Spain. Through the author’s presentation and selection of Sephardic attributes we can draw some conclusions about his personal attitude that preserves some Judeophobic elements We will start from Ibáñez's contradictory judgments about the Jews, expressed in several articles and literary works, and then, following the principles of imagology, we will examine how the image of the Jews, the Sephardim, is constructed within the cultural spaces of Belgrade and Istanbul. We will try to connect these images with the general panorama of the Jewish question and the frequently cited anti-Semitism in the work of Blas Ibáñez. We will pay special attention to Judeophobia, as well as the economic aspect of this problem.  
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.21301/eap.v17i4.11
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • A Contribution to the Study of the Development of Museum Activities during
           World War II in Occupied Serbia

    • Authors: Vladimir Krivošejev, Rade Ristanović
      Pages: 1403– - 1403–
      Abstract: Common stereotypical attitudes suggest that more extensive organized activities aimed at expanding the network of institutions for the protection of cultural assets began to be undertaken only after the end of World War II, under the auspices of the Communist party, when a new socialist social system was established. It was then, in 1947, that the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of Serbia was founded, followed by other local institutes of this kind. In that same period, local archives (archival centres) began to be established, increasing the capacity of archival activities initiated in 1898 with the founding of the State Archives of Serbia. At the same time, a series of new laws were passed; in addition, a number of museums were founded throughout Serbia, thus developing the museum network, which had previously – since the founding of the Serbian Museum (Muzeum serbski) in 1844 – expanded mainly in Belgrade, with only a small number of museums in other cities and towns in Serbia. New research has shown that even during the German occupation in World War II, under the collaborationist government of general Milan Nedić new institutions were founded, partly actually and partly nominally, with the aim of establishing a functional protection network. With the introduction of appropriate legal acts (the Decree on the protection of cultural heritage), the first institution to be founded was the Institute for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage in May 1942. It was not only the precursor of today’s Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of Serbia but also a central heritage institution, with connections to museums which began to be founded in county centres from the autumn of 1942 onwards. Committees were formed, administrators appointed and guidelines for further activities laid down. In the meantime, starting in April 1942, courses for museum workers were organized in Belgrade, and similar training was planned to take place in other cities in Serbia; also, a special Museum Act was being drafted. It would seem that, although certain activities were recorded, museums founded during World War II did not have “firm foundations” and as of the latter half of 1943 there is no more mention of them, and the Museum Act was not passed. On the other hand, it is indicative that soon after the end of the war, musems were founded in all the towns and cities where initiatives for their founding had been recorded during the years of German occupation.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.21301/eap.v17i4.12
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • A contribution to the Transdisciplinary Terminology of Cultural Heritage

    • Authors: Aleksandra Nikolić
      Pages: 1431– - 1431–
      Abstract: In the last two decades, the changes in the concept of cultural heritage intensified the attempts to create the foundations and standardize the nomenclature of heritage studies and the heritage theory. The standardization attempts mainly come from the professional associations and international organizations dealing with heritage conservation, but, at the same time, they reflect novel theoretical stand points, being continuously built in the conservation practice.  These changes in heritage theory allow for a wider interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary insights in the field. Such a situation opens a question of terminological compatibility of different fields expressing direct or indirect interest in cultural forms and processes, an example of which is covering a range of research programs under the umbrella term of cultural evolution. In this article, an instrumental definition of cultural heritage is generated to support the terminological analysis. The elements of this definitions are further used as a basis for a review of terminology in the fields of cultural evolution and cultural heritage, in order to create clusters of compatible terms in both fields. This article aims at stressing the need for transdisciplinary knowledge synthesis and integrated heritage terminology.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.21301/eap.v17i4.13
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Who is (Not) Afraid of the Climate Apocalypse' On the Planetary
           Perspectives of Anthropocene Political Theology through New Images of the
           Earth

    • Authors: Stefan Janković
      Pages: 1449– - 1449–
      Abstract: The paper comparatively explores the projects of Gaia and the planet as the new images of the Earth, proposed by Bruno Latour and Dipesh Chakrabarty respectively. With critical emphasis placed on the political theology of the apocalypse present in both projects, the paper draws broader implications of such a geospiritual turn in the Anthropocene debates. Whereas the introduction gives a glimpse into the problem of the Anthropocene, the second section explores Latour's reinterpretation of the “Gaia Hypothesis” in the anti-holistic key through the critique of modernity, theory of agency and novel methodology of geotracing, designed to unravel the organic transactions and links of the so-called critical zone. The third section discusses Latour's geophilosophical experiment of building the mythical prototype of the Earthlings, as a special kind of ecological sensitivity, and points out the problem of setting up science as a new earthly religion. Section four focuses on Chakrabarty's concept of the planet, which revolves around the “discovery” of the deep history of the planet, a confrontation with anthropocentrism and the “shallow” history of human formations, but also the insertion of radical climate uncertainty into everyday life and restoration of planetary habitability. In the fifth section we explain in more detail the problem of scale that arises in Chakrabarty's work, that is, the question of how to open sensibility for such a cumbersome set of entities as the planet is. Expressing a relative distrust of science, Chakrabarty prefers to opt for theological awe, which, we claim, is difficult to achieve precisely in a planetary context. In the conclusion we look briefly at the concept of resilience as a potential complement to these views.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.21301/eap.v17i4.14
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • "The theater is everyone's home, and all kinds of vaudeville shows
           are going on every day"

    • Authors: Danijela Velimirović
      Pages: 1483– - 1483–
      Abstract: Ildiko Erdei, Modern Life in Prime Time: Television, Humor and Politics in Socialist Yugoslavia. Beograd: Evoluta, 2021. pp. 264 
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Chronicle on the occasion of the Anthropological Agora

    • Authors: Bogdan Dražeta
      Pages: 1487– - 1487–
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • List of Peer Reviewers for the Year 2022

    • Authors: Editorial Board
      Pages: 1489– - 1489–
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 4 (2022)
       
 
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